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SCIENCE FORM 4

CHAPTER 4: MATTER AND SUBSTANCE

4.7 METHODS OF PURIFYING SUBSTANCES


PROPERTIES OF PURE AND IMPURE SUBSTANCES
PURE SUBSTANCES

MEANING
TYPE OF
PARTICLES
PRESENT
Properties

IMPURE SUBSTANCES

Substances that do not contain any


impurities
Only one type

Substances that are mixed with


impurities
More than one type

At a fixed pressure, pure


substances have:
A specific and fixed freezing
point
A specific and fixed boiling
point

At a fixed pressure, pure


substances have:
A lower freezing point
A higher boiling point

PURIFICATION

A process by which impurities are separated from a particular substance so that it


becomes a pure substances
No chemical change involved. It is carried out using diverse physical techniques.
Purification is carried out through:
o Distillation
o Crystallisation

METHOD OF PURIFICATION: 1-DISTILLATION


Meaning:
The method used to purify
a) liquid containing dissolved material
lb) a liquid mixture

In this method, two process involved:


a) boiling/evaporation: change liquid to water
vapour (steam/gas)
b) condensation: change water vapour to
liquid

Two types of distillation:


SIMPLE DISTILLATION
Purpose: to purify liquid containing
dissolved material
Liquids with dissolved substances are
boiled.
The water vapour formed is the cool
down to produce pure substances
known as distillate.
The purify of the distillate can be
tested by melting and boiling
Pure water melts at 0C and boil at
100C.

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
Purpose: to purify a mixture containing
two or more liquids
The factor that allows this process to
work is that the liquids in the mixture
have different boiling points.
When a mixture of ethanol (an alcohol)
and water is heated, ethanol will boil
faster because it has a lower boiling
point than water.
Ethanol vapour is then condensed into
liquid ethanol using Liebig condenser.

SCIENCE FORM 4
CHAPTER 4: MATTER AND SUBSTANCE

APPARATUS SET UP FOR DISTILLATION

In all simple and fractional distillation, the roles of the apparatus are important.
a) porcelain chips are used to a avoid bumping in water
b) Liebig condenser is used to condense vapour into distillate.
PURIFICATION METHOD: 2-CRYSTALLISATION
Meaning: The method
used to purify solid from
saturated solutions
A saturated solution is a
solution containing large
amount of solutes that can
dissolve in a solution at a
certain temperature.

Procedures:
A saturated solution is prepared by heating
The hot saturated solution is left to evaporate at room
temperature
The cooled saturated solution will form salt crystals
a) slow cooling of a saturated solution will produce
large crystals
b) fast cooling of a saturated solution will produce
small crystals
Salt crystals can be separated by filtration

SCIENCE FORM 4
CHAPTER 4: MATTER AND SUBSTANCE