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Function Blocks

Reference Vol.1
IM 33K03E22-50E

IM 33K03E22-50E
5th Edition

Introduction
The integrated production control system CENTUM VP is the products of distributed control
system (DCS) for large and medium-small scale process control.
This manual is written for use as a part of reference manual describing the functional details
of CENTUM VP. This manual focuses on the function block details. You can read the required
chapters when you need the details of function blocks.
In this manual, FFCS, FFCS-L and FFCS-V are all referred to as FFCS series. If the individual
types of FCS need to be particularly mentioned, the FCSs may be described respectively with
their particular types.
This manual consists of the following chapters:

Chapter 1 Regulatory Control


This chapter describes the detailed descriptions on all the regulatory control blocks except the FOUNDATION fieldbus faceplate blocks.

Media No. IM 33K03E22-50E (DVD)


5th Edition : Aug. 2014 (YK)
All Rights Reserved Copyright 2011, Yokogawa Electric Corporation

IM 33K03E22-50E

5th Edition : Aug.08,2014-00

ii

CENTUM VP Document Map


Installation
CENTUM VP
Installation
IM 33K01C10-50E

License
Management
IM 33K01C20-50E

CENTUM VP
Security Guide
IM 33K01C30-50E

Field Control Stations


Reference

Function Blocks
Overview

Function Blocks
Reference Vol.1

Function Blocks
Reference Vol.2

IM 33K03E10-50E

IM 33K03E21-50E

IM 33K03E22-50E

IM 33K03E23-50E

Function Blocks
Reference Vol. 3

Human Interface
Stations Reference Vol. 1

Human Interface
Stations Reference Vol. 2

Engineering
Reference Vol. 1

IM 33K03E24-50E

IM 33K03F21-50E

IM 33K03F22-50E

IM 33K03G21-50E

Engineering
Reference Vol. 2

Engineering
Reference Vol. 3

Batch Management
System Reference

IM 33K03G22-50E

IM 33K03G23-50E

Consolidated Alarm
Management Software
Reference
IM 33K03H20-50E

SEBOL
Reference

Communication with
Subsystems Using RIO

Communication with
Subsystems Using FIO

Communication
Devices Reference

IM 33K03K10-50E

IM 33K03L10-50E

IM 33K03L20-50E

IM 33K03M10-50E

Optional Functions
Reference

Communication with
PROFIBUS Systems

Compliance with
FDA: 21CFR Part 11

Generic Subsystem
Gateway Reference

IM 33K03N10-50E

IM 33K03P10-50E

IM 33K03Q10-50E

IM 33K03R10-50E

System Integration
OPC Station Reference

Unified Gateway
Station Reference

Vnet/IP

Engineering Test
Guide

IM 33K03R20-50E

IM 33K03R30-50E

IM 33K10A10-50E

IM 33K10H20-50E

Engineering
Tutorial

APCS

CENTUM
Data Access Library

FOUNDATION fieldbus
Reference

IM 33K02E10-50E

IM 33K15U10-50E

IM 33K15P10-50E

IM 33K20T10-50E

Engineering

IM 33K03J10-50E

FOUNDATION fieldbus
Engineering Guide
IM 33K20T20-50E

Operation and Monitoring


HIS Operation

Operating Messages

IM 33K02D10-50E

IM 33K02D20-50E

Hardware
Peripherals

Field Control Stations

Input & Output Modules

Turbomachinery
I/O Modules

IM 33K50C10-50E

IM 33K50E40-50E

IM 33K50G10-50E

IM 33K10U10-50E

Communication Devices

Migrated-FCS(FIO)

IM 33K50D10-50E

IM 33K55W10-50E

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iii

Safety Precautions for Use


n Safety, Protection, and Modification of the Product

To protect the system controlled by the Product and the Product itself and to ensure safe
operation, please observe the safety precautions described in this Manual. Yokogawa
Electric Corporation ("YOKOGAWA") assumes no liability for safety if users fail to observe
the safety precautions and instructions when operating the Product.

If the Product is used in a manner not specified in the User's Manuals, the protection provided by the Product may be impaired.

If any protection or safety circuit is required for the system controlled by the Product or for
the Product itself, please install it externally.

Use only spare parts that are approved by YOKOGAWA when replacing parts or consumables of the Product.

Do not use the Product and its accessories such as power cords on devices that are not
approved by YOKOGAWA. Do not use the Product and its accessories for any purpose
other than as intended by YOKOGAWA.

Modification of the Product is strictly prohibited.

The following symbols are used in the Product and User's Manuals to indicate the accompanying safety precautions:
Indicates that caution is required for operation. This symbol is labeled on the Product to refer the user to the User's Manuals for necessary actions or behaviors in
order to protect the operator and the equipment against dangers such as electrical
shocks. In the User's Manuals, you will find the precautions necessary to prevent
physical injury or death, which may be caused by accidents, such as electrical
shocks resulting from operational mistakes.
Identifies a protective conductor terminal. Before using the Product, you must
ground the protective conductor terminal to avoid electric shock.
Identifies a functional grounding terminal. A terminal marked "FG" also has the
same function. This terminal is used for grounding other than protective grounding.
Before using the Product, you must ground this terminal.
Indicates an AC supply.
Indicates a DC supply.
Indicates the ON position of a power on/off switch.
Indicates the OFF position of a power on/off switch.

n Notes on Handling User's Manuals

Hand over the User's Manuals to your end users so that they can keep the User's Manuals on hand for convenient reference.

Thoroughly read and understand the information in the User's Manuals before using the
Product.

For the avoidance of doubt, the purpose of the User's Manuals is not to warrant that the
Product is suitable for any particular purpose but to describe the functional details of the
Product.

Contents of the User's Manuals are subject to change without notice.

Every effort has been made in the preparation of the User's Manuals to ensure the accuracy of their contents. However, should you have any questions or find any errors, contact
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iv
us or your local distributor. The User's Manuals with incorrectly ordered pages or missing
pages will be replaced.

n Warning and Disclaimer

Except as specified in the warranty terms, YOKOGAWA shall not provide any warranty for
the Product.

YOKOGAWA shall not be liable for any indirect or consequential loss incurred by either
using or not being able to use the Product.

n Notes on Software

YOKOGAWA makes no warranties, either expressed or implied, with respect to the Software Product's merchantability or suitability for any particular purpose, except as specified in the warranty terms.

Please purchase the appropriate number of licenses of the Software Product according to
the number of computers to be used.

No copy of the Software Product may be made for any purpose other than backup; otherwise, it is deemed as an infringement of YOKOGAWA's Intellectual Property rights.

Keep the software medium of the Software Product in a safe place.

No reverse engineering, reverse compiling, reverse assembling, or converting the Software Product to human-readable format may be performed for the Software Product.

No part of the Software Product may be transferred, converted, or sublet for use by any
third-party, without prior written consent from YOKOGAWA.

IM 33K03E22-50E

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Documentation Conventions
n Symbol Marks
The following symbols are used throughout the User's Manuals.
Identifies instructions that must be observed to avoid physical
injury, electric shock, or death.
Identifies instructions that must be observed to prevent damages to the software or hardware, or system failures of the
Product.
Identifies important information required to understand operations or functions.
Identifies additional information.

Identifies referenced content.


In the online manuals, clicking on the reference link shown in
green displays the referenced content. This action does not apply to the reference link shown in black.

n Typographical Conventions
The following typographical conventions are used throughout the User's Manuals.

Commonly Used Conventions throughout the User's Manuals

Character string to be entered


The characters that must be entered are shown in monospace font as follows:
Example:
FIC100.SV=50.0

Mark
This symbol indicates the description for an item for which you should make a setting in
the product's engineering window.
While operating an engineering window, the help information for the selected item can be
accessed from "Builder Definition Items" in the Help menu. Listing more than one definition item after this symbol implies that the paragraph on the page describes more than
one definition items.
Example:
Tag Name, Station Name

Mark
Indicates that a space must be entered between character strings.
Example:
.ALPIC010-SC

Character string enclosed by braces { }


Indicates character strings that may be omitted.
Example:
.PRTAG{.sheet name}

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vi
Conventions Used to Show Key or Button Operations

Characters enclosed by brackets [ ]


When characters are enclosed by brackets in the description of a key or button operation,
it indicates a key on the keyboard, a key on the operation keyboard, a button name in a
window, or an item in a list box displayed in a window.
Example:
To alter the function, press the [ESC] key.

Conventions Used in Command Syntax or Program Statements

The following conventions are used within a command syntax or program statement format:

Characters enclosed by angle brackets < >


Indicate character strings that user can specify freely according to certain guidelines.
Example:
#define <Identifier> <Character string>

"..." Mark
Indicates previous command or argument that may be repeated.
Example:
Imax (arg1, arg2, ...)

Characters enclosed by brackets [ ]


Indicate character strings that may be omitted.
Example:
sysalarm <format character string> [, <output value>]

Characters enclosed by separators | |


Indicates character strings that can be selected from more than one option.
Example:
opeguide <format character string> [, <output value>...]
OG, <element number>

n Drawing Conventions
Drawings used in the User's Manuals may be partially emphasized or simplified for convenience of description, so that the unnecessary parts are omitted from the drawings.
Drawings of the window may be slightly different from the actual screen shots with different
settings or fonts; the difference is not extended to the range that may hamper the understanding of basic functionalities and operation and monitoring tasks.

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vii

Copyright and Trademark Notices


n All Rights Reserved
The copyright of the programs and online manuals contained in the software medium of the
Software Product shall remain in YOKOGAWA.
You are allowed to print the required pages of the online manuals for the purposes of using or
operating the Product; however, reprinting or reproducing the entire document is strictly prohibited by the Copyright Law.
Except as stated above, no part of the online manuals may be reproduced, transferred, sold,
or distributed to a third party in any manner (either in electronic or written form including, without limitation, in the forms of paper documents, electronic media, and transmission via the
network). Nor it may be registered or recorded in the media such as films without permission.

n Trademark Acknowledgements

CENTUM, ProSafe, Vnet/IP, PRM, Exaopc, and STARDOM are registered trademarks of
YOKOGAWA.

Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista, Windows Server, Visual Basic, Visual C++, and Visual Studio are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the
United States and other countries.

Adobe, Acrobat, and Adobe Reader are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Corporation.

EtherNet/IP is a trademark of the Open DeviceNet Vendor Association (ODVA).

in

fieldbus is a registered trademark of Fieldbus Foundation.

HART is a registered trademark of the HART Communication Foundation.

Java is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation.

MELSEC is a registered trademark of Mitsubishi Electric Corporation.

Memocon-SC is a registered trademark of Yaskawa Electric Corporation.

Modicon and Modbus are registered trademarks of Schneider Electric SA.

PROFIBUS is a registered trademark of the PROFIBUS User Organization.

SIEMENS and SIMATIC are registered trademarks of Siemens Industrial Automation Ltd.

SmartPlant is a registered trademark of Intergraph Corporation.

SYSMAC is a registered trademark of OMRON Corporation.

All other company and product names mentioned in the User's Manuals are trademarks
or registered trademarks of their respective companies.

We do not use TM or mark to indicate those trademarks or registered trademarks in the


User's Manuals.

We do not use logos in the User's Manuals.

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Function Blocks Reference Vol.1


IM 33K03E22-50E 5th Edition

CONTENTS
1.

Regulatory Control............................................................................... 1-1


1.1

Regulatory Control Blocks.......................................................................... 1-2


1.1.1

Types of the Regulatory Control Blocks......................................... 1-4

1.1.2

I/O Data Handled by the Regulatory Control Blocks...................... 1-8

1.1.3

Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing


Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block.................................1-12

1.1.4

Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block................. 1-18

1.2

Input Indicator Block (PVI).........................................................................1-20

1.3

Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV).............................. 1-23

1.4

Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks......... 1-26

1.5

PID Controller Block (PID)......................................................................... 1-49

1.6

Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD).....................................................1-59

1.7

PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW)................................ 1-68

1.8

Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF), Enhanced Two-Position


ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E)........................................................1-76

1.9

Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G), Enhanced ThreePosition ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE)......................................1-83

1.10

Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)..........................1-91

1.11

PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR).................................... 1-99

1.12

Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)...............................................1-106

1.13

Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)...........................................1-116


1.13.1

Control Algorithm of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)......


................................................................................................... 1-122

1.13.2

Self-Tuning Function (STC Function)......................................... 1-123

1.13.3

Self-Tuning Operating Modes and Block Status.........................1-125

1.13.4

Initializer Start.............................................................................1-130

1.13.5

Auto-Startup............................................................................... 1-131

1.13.6

On-Demand Tuning.................................................................... 1-135

1.13.7

Tuning Parameters of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)....


................................................................................................... 1-137

1.13.8

Points of Using Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).....1-146

1.14

Manual Loader Block (MLD).................................................................... 1-154

1.15

Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI)........................... 1-156

1.16

Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW)............................. 1-159

1.17

Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)...................... 1-169


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1.17.1

Input Processing of Motor Control Block (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and


MC-3E)....................................................................................... 1-177

1.17.2

Control Computation Processing of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2,


MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)........................................................ 1-181

1.17.3

Output Processing of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3,


and MC-3E)................................................................................ 1-191

1.17.4

Alarm Processing of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3,


and MC-3E)................................................................................ 1-207

1.18

Ratio Set Block (RATIO)........................................................................... 1-210

1.19

13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13).....................................................1-224

1.20

Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2, BSETU-3).................................1-234


1.20.1

Input Processing of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2,


BSETU-3)................................................................................... 1-235

1.20.2

Control Algorithm of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2,


BSETU-3)................................................................................... 1-236

1.20.3

Output Processing of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2,


BSETU-3)................................................................................... 1-253

1.20.4

Alarm Processing of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2,


BSETU-3)................................................................................... 1-257

1.20.5

Compatibility between Totalizing Batch Set Block and CENTUM V,


CENTUM-XL Totalizing Batch Set Unit...................................... 1-260

1.21

Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)...........................................1-265

1.22

Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)....................................... 1-275


1.22.1

Input Signal Conversion of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block


(BSETU-3)..................................................................................1-281

1.22.2

Alarm Processing of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)...


................................................................................................... 1-284

1.23

Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)..............................................................1-287

1.24

Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)..........................................................1-301

1.25

Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)............................................................ 1-307

1.26

Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL)...............................1-316

1.27

Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)..............................................1-321

1.28

Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM)...................................... 1-327

1.29

Non-Interference Control Output Block (XCPL).....................................1-340

1.30

Control Signal Splitter Block (SPLIT)..................................................... 1-349

1.31

Representative Alarm Block (ALM-R)..................................................... 1-360

1.32

Pulse Count Input Block (PTC)................................................................1-367

1.33

Control Operations of YS Blocks............................................................ 1-373


1.33.1

Applying YS Blocks.................................................................... 1-374

1.33.2

Common Specification of YS Blocks.......................................... 1-375

1.34

YS Controller Block (SLCD).....................................................................1-385

1.35

YS Programmable Controller Block (SLPC)...........................................1-389

1.36

YS Programmable Controller Block with Pulse Width Output (SLMC).........


....................................................................................................................1-393

1.37

YS Manual Station Block with SV Output (SMST-111)...........................1-397

1.38

YS Manual Station Block with MV Output Lever (SMST-121)............... 1-400


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1.39

YS Ratio Set Station Block (SMRT).........................................................1-403

1.40

YS Batch Set Station Block (SBSD)........................................................ 1-408

1.41

YS Batch Controller Block (SLBC).......................................................... 1-411

1.42

YS Blending Controller Block (SLCC).................................................... 1-414

1.43

YS Totalizer Block (STLD)........................................................................1-418

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1-1

<1. Regulatory Control>

1.

Regulatory Control
The regulatory control performs control computation processing using analog process values
for process monitor and process control. The function blocks that provide the regulatory control function are referred as regulatory control blocks.
This chapter presents a detailed description of the function of each of the regulatory control
blocks, excluding the FOUNDATION fieldbus faceplate block.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the FOUNDATION fieldbus faceplate blocks, refer to:
A2, Overview of FF Faceplate Blocks in the FOUNDATION Fieldbus Reference (IM 33K20T10-50E)

n Regulatory Control Positioning


The regulatory control is one of the basic controls in the FCS and performs control computation processing to monitor and control processes. The function blocks that perform the this
regulatory control are referred as regulatory control blocks.
The regulatory control blocks include Input indication blocks, controller blocks, manual loader
blocks, signal set blocks, signal limiter blocks, Signal selector blocks, signal distribution
blocks, pulse-count blocks, alarm blocks and YS blocks.
The figure below shows the position of the regulatory control function in the basic control architecture:
FCS
Basic control

Software I/O

Regulatory control blocks

Internal switch

Calculation blocks

Annunciator message

Sequence control blocks

Sequence message

Faceplate blocks
SFC blocks
Unit instrument blocks

Options

System (*2)

Valve pattern monitoring (*1)

System function blocks

Off-site blocks (*1)

FCS I/O Interfaces


Process I/O

Communication I/O / Expanded Communication I/O (*2)

Fieldbus I/O

*1: The option can be used in FCSs except PFCS.


*2: The system function blocks and the expanded communication I/Os are available only in FFCS-V.

Figure 1-1 Regulatory Control Block in the Basic Control Function Architecture

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>

1.1

Regulatory Control Blocks


The regulatory control blocks are the function blocks that perform control computation processing mainly on the analog input as input signals. The calculated results are used for process monitor and process control.
The regulatory control blocks support the following types of processing: input processing, control computation processing, output processing and alarm processing.
This section describes the structure and processing of regulatory control blocks.
The characteristics and control computation processing of each regulatory control block, as
well as any input processing, output processing, and alarm processing that are inherent to
particular regulatory control blocks are explained in the sections beginning with 1.2 for each
function block.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the input processing that are common to various types of regulatory control
blocks, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about output processing that are common to various types of regulatory control blocks,
refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about alarm processing that are common to various types of regulatory control blocks,
refer to:
5, Alarm Processing - FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Structure of Regulatory Control Blocks


The function blocks that provide the regulatory control function are called regulatory control
blocks.
The regulatory control blocks perform control computation processing mainly on analog signals (analog values) as input values. The results of control computation processing performed
by the regulatory control blocks are output as manipulated output values (MV).
The figure below shows a function block diagram of a general regulatory control block:
SET

BIN

RL1

RL2

TIN

(VN) (RLV1) (RLV2)

CSV
RSV

IN

RAW

Input
processing

(TSW)

SV

RCAS
PV

INT

Alarm
processing

CAS
AUT
MAN

TSI

CAS
AUT

Control
computation
processing

MAN
Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT
(PV, PV, MV, MV)

RMV

SUB

Figure 1.1-1 Function Block Diagram of the Regulatory Control Block

IN: Input terminal


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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>

SET: Setpoint value input terminal

BIN: Compensation input terminal

RLn: Reset signal input terminal

TIN: Tracking signal input terminal

TSI: Tracking switch input terminal

INT: Interlock switch input terminal

SUB: Auxiliary output terminal

OUT: Output terminal

RAW: Raw data input signal

PV: Process variable

SV: Setpoint value

CSV: Cascade setpoint value

RSV: Remote setpoint value

VN: Compensated value Input

RMV: Remote manipulated output value

RLVn: Reset signal

MV: Manipulated output value

TSW: Tracking switch

n Functions of the Regulatory Control Blocks


The regulatory control blocks have the following four processing functions:

Input Processing
Receives a signal from the input terminal and outputs a process variable (PV).

Control Computation Processing


Performs control computation processing by reading the process variable (PV) and outputs a
manipulated output value (MV).

Output Processing
Reads the manipulated output value (MV) and outputs the result of control computation processing to the output terminal as an output signal.

Alarm Processing
Detects an abnormality in the process variable (PV) or manipulated output value (MV) and notifies the operation and monitoring functions.
Control computation processing can be performed independently via data setting or data reference between the function blocks, without involving input processing or output processing.

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>

1.1.1

Types of the Regulatory Control Blocks


The regulatory control blocks vary by the types of data handled and control computation processing functions provided. The blocks are classified into these blocks below.

Input Indicator Blocks

Controller Blocks

Manual Loader Blocks

Signal Setter Blocks

Signal Limiter Blocks

Signal Selector Blocks

Signal Distributor Blocks

Pulse Count Input Block

Alarm Block

YS Blocks

n Input Indicator Blocks


The table below shows a list of input indicator blocks:
Table 1.1.1-1 Input Indicator Blocks
Block type
Input indicators

Code

Name

PVI

Input Indicator Block

PVI-DV

Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm

n Controller Blocks
The table below shows a list of controller blocks:

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>


Table 1.1.1-2 Controller Blocks
Block type

Controllers

*1:

Code

Name

PID

PID Controller Block

PI-HLD

Sampling PI Controller Block

PID-BSW

PID Controller Block with Batch


Switch

ONOFF

2-Position ON/OFF Controller


Block

ONOFF-E

Enhanced 2-Position ON/OFF


Controller Block (*1)

ONOFF-G

3-Position ON/OFF Controller


Block

ONOFF-GE

Enhanced 3-Position ON/OFF


Controller Block (*1)

PID-TP

Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block

PD-MR

PD Controller Block with Manual


Reset

PI-BLEND

Blending PI Controller Block

PID-STC

Self-Tuning PID Controller Block

This type of function blocks can be applied to all field control stations except standard PFCS.

n Manual Loader Blocks


The table below shows a list of manual loader blocks:
Table 1.1.1-3 Manual Loader Blocks
Block type

Manual Loader

*1:

Code

Name

MLD

Manual Loader Block

MLD-PVI

Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator

MLD-SW

Manual Loader Block with


Auto/Man Switch

MC-2

2-Position Motor Control Block

MC-2E

Enhanced 2-Position Motor Control Block (*1)

MC-3

3-Position Motor Control Block

MC-3E

Enhanced 3-Position Motor Control Block (*1)

This type of function blocks can be applied to all field control stations except standard PFCS.

n Signal Setter Blocks


The table below shows a list of signal setter blocks:

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>


Table 1.1.1-4 Signal Setter Blocks
Block type

Signal Setters

Code

Name

RATIO

Ratio Set Block

PG-L13

13-Zone Program Set Block

BSETU-2

Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block

BSETU-3

Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block

n Signal Limiter Block


The table below shows the signal limiter block:
Table 1.1.1-5 Signal Limiter Block
Block type
Signal Limiters

Code
VELLIM

Name
Velocity Limiter Block

n Signal Selector Blocks


The table below shows a list of Signal selector blocks:
Table 1.1.1-6 Signal Selector Blocks
Block type

Signal selectors

Code

Name

AS-H/M/L

Autoselector Block

SS-H/M/L

Signal Selector Block

SS-DUAL

Dual-Redundant Signal Selector


Block

n Signal Distributor Blocks


The table below shows a list of signal distributor blocks:
Table 1.1.1-7 Signal Distributor Blocks
Block type

Code

Name

FOUT

Cascade Signal Distributor Block

FFSUM

Feedforward Signal Summing


Block

XCPL

Non-Interference Control Output


Block

SPLIT

Control Signal Splitter Block

Signal Distributors

n Alarm Block
The table below shows the alarm block:
Table 1.1.1-8 Alarm Block
Block type
Alarm

Code
ALM-R

Name
Representative Alarm Block

n Pulse Count Input Block


The table below shows the pulse count input connection block:

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Table 1.1.1-9 Pulse Count Input Connection Block
Block type
Pulse Count Input Connection
Block

Code
PTC

Name
Pulse Count Input Block

n YS Blocks
The table below shows the YS blocks:
Table 1.1.1-10 YS Blocks
Block type

YS instrument

Code

Name

SLCD

YS Controller Block

SLPC

YS Programmable Controller
Block

SLMC

YS Programmable Controller
Block with Pulse-Width Output

SMST-111

YS Manual Station Block with SV


Output

SMST-121

YS Manual Station Block with MV


Output Lever

SMRT

YS Ratio Set Station Block

SBSD

YS Batch Set Station Block

SLCC

YS Blending Controller Block

SLBC

YS Batch Controller Block

STLD

YS Totalizer Block

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1.1.2

I/O Data Handled by the Regulatory Control Blocks


As a rule, the data transmitted via I/O terminals handled by the regulatory control blocks must
be the engineering unit data. Each data item consists of data value and data status.

n Data Value
The data value is a numeric data that is transmitted in or out of a function block. The data
values handled by the blocks include process variable (PV), cascade setpoint value (CSV)
and manipulated output value (MV).
The data values handled by the regulatory control blocks are numeric data in engineering
unit. However, the data received from the input modules (excluding the input modules for temperature measurement as well as for pulse trains) and the setpoint data sent to analogue output modules are given as percentage values in the range from 0 % to 100 %.
The data value read into a function block via an input terminal is called input data, while the
value written out of a function block via an output terminal is called output data.

n Data Status
The data status is a piece of status information that indicates the value and quality of I/O data.
The data status is conveyed as I/O data from one function block to another via I/O connection
along with a data value.
The data status is used to test the existence of exceptional events, such as process failures
and computation errors occurred in the control computation processing performed by the
function blocks.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the details of data status, refer to:
6.4, Data Status in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Input Data
The input data is numeric data that the function blocks read from input terminals.
The types of input data are shown below:

Process variable (PV)

Setpoint value (SV), cascade setpoint value (CSV), remote setpoint value (RSV)

Input signal values (RV1, RV2, RV3)

Reset limit values (RLV1, RLV2)

Input or Output Compensated value (VN)

Tracking switch (TSW)

Process Variable (PV)

Process Variable Range

The engineering unit and scale range of raw input signals (RAW) input to an IN terminal agree
with the engineering unit and scale range of data at the connected destination of the IN terminal. A raw input signal turns into a process variable (PV) after input processing.
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the engineering unit and scale range. However,
the process variable (PV) of Motor control blocks (MC-2, MC-3) must be an integer value between 0 and 2.

Engineering unit
Consists of six or less standard-width characters or three double-width characters.
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The default is %.

Process variable range


High and low limits.
Numerical values of seven digits or less, where the sign or decimal point takes one digit
each.
The default is 100.0 for the upper limit and 0.0 for the lower limit.

Setpoint Value (SV), Cascade Setpoint Value (CSV), Remote Setpoint Value
(RSV)
The engineering unit and scale range of the setpoint value (SV), cascade setpoint value
(CSV) and remote setpoint value (RSV) agree with the engineering unit and scale range of
the process variable (PV) except in the function blocks shown below:
Table 1.1.2-1 Engineering Unit Symbol and Scale Range of the Setpoint Value (SV), Cascade Setpoint
Value (CSV) and Remote Setpoint Value (RSV)
Function Blocks

Engineering unit symbol and Scale Range

Ratio Set Block (RATIO)


Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)
Control Signal Splitter Block (SPLIT)
Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)
Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM)

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the engineering unit symbol and scale range of SV for the
function blocks shown to the left.
The engineering unit and scale range of CSV and
RSV are same as those of SV. The FOUT and
FFSUM blocks have no RSV.

YS Ratio Set Station Block (SMRT)


Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and
MC-3E)
13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)

The engineering unit symbol and scale range of the


function blocks shown to the left are fixed for each
block.

Representative Alarm Block (ALM-R)

Input Signal Values (RV1, RV2, RV3)


The input signal values (RV1, RV2, RV3) are input data handled by the Signal selector blocks.
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the engineering unit and scale range of input signal values. The input signal values (RV1, RV2, RV3) are regarded as having the same engineering unit and scale range as those of the selected signal value (PV).

Reset Limit Values (RLV1, RLV2)


The reset limit values (RLV1, RLV2) are input data that are handled by a controller block when
the reset limit function is used.
The reset limit values (RLV1, RLV2) are regarded as having the same engineering unit and
scale range as those of the manipulated output value (MV).

Input or Output Compensated Value (VN)


The engineering unit and scale range are not defined for input compensated values (VN) received from the BIN terminal, as the numeric data of input compensated values (VN) taken in
from outside are used directly for input or output compensation computation.

Tracking Switch (TSW)


The data handled by the tracking switch (TSW) for the TSI terminal must be an integer value
of 0 or 1. 1 and 0 indicate ON and OFF, respectively.

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n Output Data
The output data is a numeric data value that is written out of a function block via an output
terminal.
The types of output data are shown below:

Manipulated output value (MV)

Auxiliary output values (PV, PV, MV, MV)

Process variable (PV)

Manipulated Output Value (MV)

MV Display Style

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the display form for the manipulated output value
(MV).

MV Display Style
Select Automatic Determination or User Define.
The default is Automatic Determination.

When Automatic Determination is selected, the engineering unit and scale range of the manipulated output value (MV) change according to the connected destination of the OUT terminal.

If the connection destination is a process I/O, the scale range and engineering unit of the
manipulated output value (MV) is fixed to 0 to 100 and %, respectively. However, this
rule does not apply if the connection destination is a Fieldbus block.

When outputting to a cascade setpoint value (CSV) in a case where the connection destines to a SET terminal of another function block (cascade connection), the engineering
unit and scale range of the manipulated output value (MV) agree with those of the cascade setpoint value (CSV) of the output destination.
When the connection destination is an input terminal of another function block than SET
terminal, self determination must be selected.

When User Define is selected, set the engineering unit and scale range for the manipulated
output value (MV). The engineering unit and the range should be the same as the output destination.

MV Engineering Unit Symbol


Consists of six or less standard-width characters or three double-width characters.
The default is %.

MV Range
High and low limits.
Numerical values of seven digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 100.0 for the upper limit and 0.0 for the lower limit.

For MV displayed on an instrument faceplate, set whether to display the engineering unit data
as is or to convert the data into a percentage-unit value first. Use the Function Block Detail
Builder to set the instrument faceplate display.

MV Display on Faceplate
Select Indicate Actual Quantity or Indicate %.
The default is Indicate real amount.

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>

IMPORTANT
Event when the user wants to display the MV in percentage on HIS faceplate, there is no
need to change the setting for [MV Display Style] - [User-Define] to 0 % - 100 %. The setting
in this field should be kept the same as the output destination; but to change the setting [MV
Display on Faceplate] from [Indicate Actual Quantity] to [Indicate %].

Auxiliary Output Values (PV, PV, MV, MV)

The auxiliary output values include PV, PV, MV and MV, the types vary with the function
block. The engineering unit and scale range of the auxiliary output values change in accordance with the connected destination of the SUB terminal.

If the connected destination is a process I/O, the scale range and engineering unit of the
auxiliary output values are fixed to 0 to 100 and %, respectively. However, this rule
does not apply if the connection destination is a Fieldbus block.

When the connected destination is a function block and auxiliary output is the process
variable (PV) or process variable change (PV), the engineering unit and scale range of
the output value agree with those of the process variable (PV).

When the connected destination is a function block and auxiliary output is the manipulated output value (MV) or manipulated output change (MV), the output value is regarded as having the same engineering unit and scale range as those of the manipulated
output value (MV).

Process Variable (PV)

The process variable (PV) can be output directly from the input indicator blocks.
The engineering unit and scale information of the process variable (PV) vary with the connected destination of the OUT terminal.

If the connected destination is a process I/O, the scale range and engineering unit of the
output value are fixed to 0 to 100 and %, respectively. However, this rule does not apply if the connection destination is a Fieldbus block.

If the connected destination is another function block, the scale range and engineering
unit of the output value agree with those of the process variable.

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>

1.1.3

Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm


Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control
Block
A list of the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing that can be
performed in each regulatory control block is shown below.

n Input Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block


Table 1.1.3-1 Input Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block
Model

Input signal
Digital filter (*1)
conversion (*1)

Totalizer (*1)

PV overshoot
(*1)

CAL (*1)

PVI
PVI-DV
PID
PI-HLD
PID-BSW
ONOFF
ONOFF-E

B/A/R/Pb/Sb/L

B/A/R/Pb/Sb/L

ONOFF-G
ONOFF-GE
PID-TP
PD-MR
PI-BLEND
PID-STC
MLD
MLD-PVI
MLD-SW
MC-2
MC-2E
MC-3

S2/S3/L

MC-3E
RATIO (*2)

B/A/R/Pb/Sb/L

BSETU-2

B/A/R/Pb/Sb/L

BSETU-3

B/A/C/Sb

B/A/Sb/L

PG-L13
x

VELLIM
SS-H/M/L
AS-H/M/L
SS-DUAL (*3)

FOUT
FFSUM
XCPL
SPLIT
PTC

(*4)

(*4)

x
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Input signal
Digital filter (*1)
conversion (*1)

Totalizer (*1)

PV overshoot
(*1)

SLPC

SLMC

SMST-111

SMST-121

SMRT

SBSD

(*5)

SLBC

(*5)

SLCC

(*5)

STLD

(*5)

Model

CAL (*1)

ALM-R
SLCD

*1:

B/R

B: No conversion (function block)


A: No conversion (analog input)
R: Square root conversion (analog input)
Pb: Pulse-train input conversion
S2: Two-position status input (for MC-2/3 and MC-2E/3E only)
S3: Three-position status input (for MC-2/3 and MC-2E/3E only)
C: Code input (for BSETU-3 only)
Sb: Subsystem input
L: PV limit
x: Exists
Blank: Not exist
The input processing will not function when the data setting is performed to the PV by cascade connection.
The input processing is performed against the input signal on the selected side.
Performs a PTC block independent processing
Display the sum of YS Instrument.

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:

n Output Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block


Table 1.1.3-2 Output Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block
Model

Output
limit

Velocity
limit

Clamped
output

PMV

Output
track

Range
track

PVI

P/Pd

PVI-DV
PID
PI-HLD
PID-BSW

Auxiliary
output(*1)

Output
signal
conversion(*1)
B/A/Sb

P/Pd/M/M B/A/Pw/P
d
wf/Sb

P/Pd/M/M B/A/Pwf/S
d
b

ONOFF

ONOFF-E

ONOFF-G

ONOFFGE

(*2)

(*2)

P/Pd

S2

P/Pd

S2

P/Pd

S3

P/Pd

S3

P/Pd/M/M
D
d

PID-TP

x (*3)

PD-MR

P/Pd/M/M B/A/Pwf/S
d
b

P/Pd/M/M B/A/Pw/P
d
wf/Sb

PI-BLEND
PID-STC

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Output
limit

Velocity
limit

MLD

MLD-PVI
MLD-SW

Model

Clamped
output

Range
track

(*2)

M/Md

(*2)

P/Pd/M/M B/A/Pwf/S
d
b

(*2)

M/Md

PMV

Auxiliary
output(*1)

MC-2E

B/A/Pwf/S
b

S2/P2

S3/P3

MC-3
MC-3E

S3/P3

RATIO

PG-L13

(*4)

B/A/S2b/
S3b/
S2s/S3s/S
b

BSETU-3

P/Pd/M/M B/A/Pwf/S
d
b
B/A/Sb

BSETU-2

M/Md

SS-H/M/L
AS-H/M/L

B/A/Pwf/S
b

S2/P2

MC-2

VELLIM

Output
signal
conversion(*1)

Output
track

B/A/Sb
B/A/Sb

B/A/Sb

SS-DUAL

B/A/Sb

FOUT

(*5)

FFSUM

P/Pd/M/M B/A/Pwf/S
d
b

XCPL

M/Md

SPLIT

PTC

B/A/Pwf/S
b
B/A
(*6)

ALM-R
YS Blocks
(*7)
*1:

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:

P: PV
Pd: PV
M: MV
Md: MV
B: Unconverted output (function block)
A: Analog output
D: Time-proportioning ON/OFF output
Pw: Pulse width output (without FB)
Pwf: Pulse width output (with FB)
S2: 2-position status output
S3: 3-position status output
P2: 2-position pulsive output
P3: 3-position pulsive output
S2b: 2-position status output (BSETU-2/3 only)
S3b: 3-position status output (BSETU-2/3 only)
S2s: 2-position status output through switch instrument (BSETU-2/3 only)
S3s: 3-position status output through switch instrument (BSETU-2/3 only)
Sb: Subsystem output
Selectable by builder setting.
The velocity limiter functions when the block is in AUT mode, but not when the block is in MAN mode regardless the setting
for [MAN Mode Velocity Limiter Bypass].
Always restricted by MSH/MSL
Only tracking of the CLP status of the output destination is performed.
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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>


*6:
*7:

Performs processing unique to PTC block.


YS Blocks contain the following models:
SLCD, SLPC, SLMC, SMST-111, SMST-121, SMRT, SBSD, SLBC, SLCC, STLD.

n Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control


Table 1.1.3-3 Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block-1
Model

NR

OOP

IOP

Process alarms (*1)


IOPHH
LL

HI

LO

PVI

PVI-DV

PID

PI-BLEND

PID-STC

MLD

MLD-PVI

MLD-SW

RATIO

PG-L13

VELLIM

SS-H/M/L

AS-H/M/L

SS-DUAL

PI-HLD
PID-BSW
ONOFF
ONOFF-E
ONOFF-G
ONOFF-GE
PID-TP
PD-MR

MC-2
MC-2E
MC-3
MC-3E

BSETU-2
BSETU-3

FOUT (*2)
FFSUM

XCPL

SPLIT

PTC

ALM-R

SLCD

SLPC

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Model

NR

OOP

IOP

SLMC

SMST-111

SMST-121

SMRT

Process alarms (*1)


IOPHH
LL

HI

LO

SBSD

SLBC

SLCC

STLD

*1:
*2:

x: Available
Blank: Not available
FOUT does not have an alarm status. Nevertheless, the output fail check and the bad connection status alarm check are
performed and the results are transmitted to the upstream function block. An output fail of FOUT is generated when output fail
is detected at all FOUT output destinations.

Table 1.1.3-4 Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block-2
Process alarms (*1)
Model

DV+

DV-

PVI
PVI-DV

VEL+

VEL-

x
x

PI-BLEND

PID-STC

PID
PI-HLD

MHI

MLO

CNF

Other
alarms

PID-BSW
ONOFF
ONOFF-E

ONOFF-G
ONOFF-GE
PID-TP
PD-MR

MLD
MLD-PVI

x
x

MLD-SW

x
x

MC-2
MC-2E
MC-3

TRIP
PERR
ANS+
ANSINT

Not available

Not available

MC-3E
RATIO

HDV
LDV

PG-L13

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>


Process alarms (*1)
Model

DV+

DV-

VEL+

VEL-

MHI

MLO

CNF

Other
alarms

NPLS (*2)
BDV+
BDVLEAK
BEND
BPRE

Not available

BSETU-2

BSETU-3

VELLIM

SS-H/M/L

AS-H/M/L
SS-DUAL

x
x

x
x

FOUT (*3)
FFSUM

XCPL

SPLIT

PTC

ALM-R

SLCD

SLPC

SLMC

HALM
MALM
LALM
RALM

SMST-111

SMST-121

SMRT

SBSD

END
PRE
LERK

SLBC

END
PRE
LERK

HDV

SLCC

STLD
*1:
*2:
*3:

x: Available
Blank: Not available
The NPLS alarm is only supported in the BSETU-2 but not in the BSETU-3.
FOUT does not have an alarm status. Nevertheless, the output fail check and the bad connection status alarm check are
performed and the results are transmitted to the upstream function block. An output fail of FOUT is generated when output fail
is detected at all FOUT output destinations.

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>

1.1.4

Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control


Block
A list of valid block modes for each regulatory control block is shown below.

n Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block


Table 1.1.4-1 Valid Basic Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Blocks
Model

Name of function
block

Valid basic block modes (*1)


TRK MAN AUT CAS PRD

O/S

IMAN

RCAS ROUT

PVI

Input indicator block

PVI- DV

Input indicator block


with deviation alarm

PID

PID controller block

PI-HLD

Sampling PI controller
block

PID-BSW

PID controller block


with batch switch

ONOFF

Two-position ON/OFF
controller block

ONOFF-E

Enhanced two-position
ON/OFF controller
block

ONOFF-G

Three-position ON/OFF
controller block

ONOFFGE

Enhanced three-position ON/OFF controller


block

PID-TP

Time-proportioning
ON/OFF controller
block

PD-MR

PD controller block with


manual reset

PI-BLEND

Blending PI controller
block

PID-STC

Self-tuning PID controller block

MLD

Manual loader block

MLD-PVI

Manual loader block


with input indicator

MLD-SW

Manual loader block


with Auto/Man SW

MC-2

Two-position motor
control block

MC-2E

Enhanced two-position
motor control block
Three-position motor
control block

MC-3
MC-3E

Enhanced three-position motor control block

RATIO

Ratio set block

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<1.1 Regulatory Control Blocks>


Model

Name of function
block

Valid basic block modes (*1)


TRK MAN AUT CAS PRD

O/S

IMAN

RCAS ROUT

PG-L13

13-zone program set


block

BSETU -2

Flow-totalizing batch
set block

BSETU -3

Weight-totalizing batch
set block

VELLIM

Velocity limiter block

SS-H/M/L

Signal selector block

AS-H/M/L

Autoselector block

SS-DUAL

Dual-redundant signal
selector block

FOUT

Cascade signal distributor block

FFSUM

Feedforward signal
summing block

XCPL

Non-inteference control
output block

SPLIT

Control signal splitter


block

PTC

Pulse count input block

ALM-R

Representative alarm
block

SLCD

YS controller block

SLPC

YS programmable controller block

SLMC

YS programmable controller block with pulsewidth output

SMST-111

YS manual station
block with SV output

YS manual station
SMST-121 block with MV output
lever

SMRT

YS ratio set station


block

SBCD

YS batch set station


block

SLCC

YS blending controller
block

SLBC

YS batch controller
block

STLD

YS totalizer block

*1:

x: Valid
-: Invalid
: For MLD-SW, CAS mode can be specified instead of AUT mode.

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<1.2 Input Indicator Block (PVI)>

1.2

Input Indicator Block (PVI)


This function block displays an input signal from the I/O modules or from the other blocks as
process variable (PV). It can also output the process variable (PV) from the OUT terminal.
This block may be used only for indicating the process variable.

n Input Indicator Block (PVI)


Connection

The figure below shows a function block diagram of the Input Indicator Block (PVI):
Input
processing

IN

PV

OUT

(PV, PV)
SUB

Figure 1.2-1 Function Block Diagram of Input Indicator Block (PVI)

The table below shows the connection method and connected destination of the I/O terminals
of the Input Indicator Block (PVI):
Table 1.2-1 Connection Method and Connected Destination of I/O Terminals of Input Indicator Block
(PVI)
I/O terminal
IN

Measurement input

OUT

Process
variable
output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

*1:

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Input Indicator Block (PVI)


The PVI block performs input processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the PVI block is a periodic startup. Selections available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the
medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period. Moreover, it is possible to
specify the scan coefficient and the scan phase.
*1:

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

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<1.2 Input Indicator Block (PVI)>

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PVI block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Data Items - PVI


Table 1.2-2 Data Items of Input Indicator Block (PVI)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Default

-----

O/S (AUT)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*1:
*2:

Range

(*2)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL

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SEE
ALSO

1-22

For more information about valid block modes of the PVI block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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<1.3 Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV)>

1.3

Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm


(PVI-DV)
The Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV) displays an input signal as a process
variable (PV), provides the deviation alarm function, and outputs a PV from the OUT terminal.
This block is used for PV display, and deviation alarm indicating the difference between a PV
and a setpoint value (SV).

n Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV)


Connection

The Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV) displays an input signal received
from an I/O module or other function block as a process variable (PV).
In addition to the function to display an input signal as a process variable (PV), Input Indicator
Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV) provides two other functions: deviation alarm check
and setpoint value limiter.
By presetting a deviation alarm setpoint (DL), the deviation (DV) of the setpoint value (SV)
from process variable (PV) can be confirmed.
The figure below shows a function block diagram of Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm
(PVI-DV):
-

SV

DV
+

Input
processing

IN

PV

OUT
(PV, PV)
SUB

Figure 1.3-1 Function Block Diagram of Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV):
Table 1.3-1 Connection Methods and Connected Destinations of I/O Terminals of Input Indicator Block
with Deviation Alarm (PVI)
I/O terminal
IN

Measurement input

OUT

Process
variable
output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

*1:

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV)


The PVI-DV block performs input processing, output processing, and alarm processing.

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<1.3 Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV)>

The only processing timing available for the PVI-DV block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period. Moreover, it is possible to specify the scan coefficient and the scan phase.
*1:

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

This section describes the deviation alarm check function and the setpoint value limiter function, which constitute some of the processing performed by the PVI-DV block.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PVI-DV block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Deviation Alarm Check


The deviation alarm check function generates a deviation alarm when the absolute value of
deviation (DV) between the setpoint value (SV) and process variable (PV) exceeds the absolute value of the preset deviation alarm setpoint (DL).

When the deviation (DV) exceeds the high limit of the deviation alarm setpoint (DL):
A positive deviation alarm (DV+) is generated.

When the deviation (DV) falls below the low limit of the deviation alarm setpoint (DL):
A negative deviation alarm (DV-) is generated.

The deviation (DV) of the process variable (PV) from the setpoint value (SV) is represented by
the following expression:
DV=PV-SV

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the deviation alarm check, refer to:
5.6, Deviation Alarm Check in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Setpoint Value Limiter


The setpoint value limiter function limits the setpoint value (SV) within a range between the
setpoint high limit (SVH) and setpoint low limit (SVL).

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the setpoint value limiter, refer to:

lActions in the Automatic or Manual Mode on page 1-39

lSet Parameters of the Setpoint Value Limiter on page 1-40

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<1.3 Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV)>

n Data Items PVI-DV


Table 1.3-2 Data Items of Input Indicator Block with Deviation Alarm (PVI-DV)
Data Item
MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Range

Default
O/S (AUT)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Deviation

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*2:
ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
-----

*1:

SEE

Data Name

(*2)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL

For more information about valid block modes of the PVI-DV block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.4

Control Computation Processing Common


to Controller Blocks
The various types of controller blocks, represented by PID controller, have some common
computation processing functions. This chapter explains the control computation processing
functions that are common to multiple controller blocks.
The control computation processing functions specific to each controller block are explained
in the section of the corresponding controller block.

n Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks


The table below shows the control computation processing functions that are common to multiple controller blocks:
Table 1.4-1 Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks
Control computation processing

Changes the proportional gain in accordance with the degree of deviation so that the relationship between the deviation and control output
change (MV) becomes non-linear.

Non-linear gain

Non-linear gain

Description

Gap action

Lowers the proportional gain to moderate control effects when the deviation is within the gap width (GW) range.

Squared deviation action

Changes the proportional gain according to the degree of deviation


when the deviation is within the gap width (GW) range.

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The control output actions include positional type and velocity type.

Control action direction

Switches the direction of the output action (reverse action or direct action) in accordance with the increase or decrease in deviation.

Reset limit function

Performs correction computation using values read from the connection


destinations of input terminals RL1 and RL2 during PID control computation. This function prevents reset windup.

Deadband action

Adjusts the manipulated output change (MV) to 0 when the deviation


is within the deadband range, in order to stop the manipulated output
value (MV) from changing.

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the input signal or control output signal of PID computation when the controller block is operating automatically.

I/O compensation

Input compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to the
input signal of the PID control computation.

Output compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the output signal of the PID control computation.

Process variable tracking

Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable (PV).

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits (SVH,
SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to agree with
the remaining one.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it to


change abruptly when the block mode has been changed or when the
manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in a downstream
block in cascade.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control


action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition
becomes satisfied.

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Control computation processing

SEE
ALSO

1-27

Description

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current


block mode. During control hold, the output action is performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action.
This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is operating
in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued using
values set by the operator. This action takes place when the AUT fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer


backup mode when an error has been detected at a supervisory computer while the function block is operating in the RCAS or ROUT mode.
This action takes place when the computer failure condition becomes
satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the
automatic operating mode.

PRD mode action

Outputs the cascade setpoint value (CSV) after converting it to a manipulated output value (MV) when the block mode has been changed to
PRD.

For more information about the control computation processing functions specific to each controller block, refer to:

1.5, PID Controller Block (PID) on page 1-49

1.6, Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD) on page 1-59

1.7, PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW) on page 1-68

1.8, Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF), Enhanced Two-Position ON/OFF Controller
Block (ONOFF-E) on page 1-76

1.9, Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G), Enhanced Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE) on page 1-83

1.10, Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP) on page 1-91

1.11, PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR) on page 1-99

1.12, Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND) on page 1-106

1.13, Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) on page 1-116

n Non-Linear Gain
Non-Linear Gain

The non-linear gain function changes the proportional gain in accordance with the deviation of
the process variable (PV) from the setpoint value (SV) in the control computation. As a result,
a non-linear relationship is formed between the manipulated output change (MV) and the
deviation of the process variable (PV) from setpoint value (SV).
The non-linear gain function is used for pH control, in which the process gain often becomes
too high near the target value, or for buffer tank level control, whose purpose is to stabilize the
discharge volume while maintaining the tank level within the limits.
The actions that realize the non-linear gain function include gap actions and squared deviation actions.

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1-28

Processing Flow of Non-Linear Gain


The non-linear gain function calculates the control output change (MV), using the effective
proportional gain (Kpe) obtained through non-linear correction of proportional gain (Kp).
The figure below shows a flow of the non-linear gain.
PID
computation

MV

Kpe
En

Non-linear
gain computation

GW

MV:
Kpe:
En:
GW:
Kp:

Kp

Manipulated output change


Effective proportional gain
Deviation
Gap width
Proportional gain

Figure 1.4-1 Processing Flow of the Non-Linear Gain

Setting Non-Linear Gain


Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the non-linear gain.
Non-linear gain: Select No, Gap Action or Squared Deviation Action.
The default is No.

n Gap Action
The gap action moderates control effects by lowering the proportional gain when the deviation
is within the preset gap width (GW).

Non-Linear Gain Characteristics of Gap Action


If a non-linear gain coefficient (Knl) has been set, the effective proportional gain (Kpe) is obtained by the following expression when the deviation is within the gap width (GW):
Kpe = Kp Knl
Once the deviation exceeds the limits of the gap width (GW), the effective proportional gain
(Kpe) is obtained by the following expression:
Kpe= 1-(1-Knl)

GW
| En |

Kp

The figure below shows the non-linear gain characteristics of the gap action:

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Equivalent
deviation
(En')

Effective proportional
gain (Kpe)
Kp

Knl=1.0
Knl=0.5

Knl=1.0

Knl=0.25
Knl=0.0

Deviation (En)

Knl=0.5
0.5
Knl=0.25
0.25
Knl=0.0
0

Gap width
(GW)

Deviation (En)

Gap width
(GW)

Gap width
(GW)

Equivalent deviation:
The deviation equivalent to a state
in which no non-linear gain is specified.

Figure 1.4-2 Non-Linear Gain Characteristics of Gap Action

Setting Gap Action


Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the non-linear gain coefficient.
Gap Gain: Select 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 or 0.
The default is 1.0.
Gain coefficient (Knl)

| En | GW

1.0 (linear)

| En |>GW
-

0.5

1 Kp
2

(1-

GW
) Kp
2 | En |

0.25

1 Kp
4

(1-

3GW
) Kp
4 | En |

(1-

GW
) Kp
| En |

Figure 1.4-3 Relationship between the Non-linear Gain Coefficient and Effective Proportional Gain

Set Parameter of Gap Action


The parameter of the gap action:
Gap width (GW): Engineering unit data between 0 and the PV scale span range limit.
The default is 0.

n Squared Deviation Action


The squared deviation action changes the proportional gain in proportion to the degree of deviation when the deviation is within the preset gap width (GW).

Non-Linear Gain Characteristics of Squared Deviation Action


If a gap width (GW) has been set, the effective proportional gain (Kpe) is obtained by the following expression when the deviation is within the gap width (GW):
Kpe=

| En |
GW

Kp

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Once the deviation exceeds the limits of the gap width (GW), the effective proportional gain
(Kpe) is represented by the following expression:
Kpe = Kp
The figure below shows the non-linear characteristics of the squared deviation action:
Effective proportional
gain (Kpe)

Equivalent
deviation
(En')

Kp

Deviation (En)

Gap width
Deviation (En)
(GW)

Gap width
(GW)

Equivalent deviation:
The deviation equivalent to
a statein which no non-linear
gain is specified.

Gap width
(GW)

Figure 1.4-4 Non-Linear Characteristics of the Squared Deviation Action

Set Parameter of Squared Deviation Action


The parameter of the squared deviation action:
Gap width (GW): Engineering unit data between 0 and the PV scale span range limit.
The default is 0.

n Control Output Action


The control output action converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control
period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). There are two types of control output actions: velocity type and positional type.

Velocity Type
Adds the current manipulated output change (MVn) to the value readback from the output
destination (MVrb) and determines the manipulated output value (MVn).
The computational expression of the velocity-type control output action is shown below:
MVn=MVrb+MVn

Positional Type
Adds the current manipulated output change (MVn) to the previous output value (MVn-1) and
determines the manipulated output value (MVn).
The computational expression of the positional-type control output action is shown below:
MVn=MVn-1+MVn

Setting Control Calculation Output Action


Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the control calculation output action.
Control Calculation Output Type: Select Velocity Output Action or Positional Output Action.
The default is Positional Output Action.
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n Control Action Direction


Control Action

The control action direction function switches between direct action and reverse action that
reflect the increase or decrease of manipulated output value.

Direct Action and Reverse Action

The direct action and reverse action indicate the increase and decrease directions of the manipulated output value (MV) corresponding to deviation changes.
When the setpoint value (SV) is fixed, the relationship between the process value (PV) and
the manipulated output value (MV) in direct action and the reversed action is shown as follows.

Direct action
The control action in which the manipulated output value (MV) increases as the process
variable (PV) increases, or decreases as the process variable decreases.

Reverse action
The control action in which the manipulated output value (MV) decreases as the process
variable (PV) increases, or increases as the process variable decreases.

Setting Control Action Direction

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the control action direction:
Control Action: Select Direct or Reverse.
The default is Reverse.

n Reset Limit Function


The reset limit function prevents the occurrence of reset windup (integral saturation) by setting limits to the integral term in PID control computation. The reset limit function is applied
only to the positional-type control output actions.

Reset Windup

In PID control computation, the value obtained via the integral action represents an integrated
value of deviation by time. Therefore, when a batch control stops, if the deviation prolongs,
the integral term in PID control computation becomes saturated due to the integral action.
This condition is called reset windup (integral saturation).
For example, reset windup often occurs in the following situation:

The control computation value exceed the manipulated variable high-limit or low-limit setpoint (MH, ML) and the output is limited by the H/L limiter.

The output to the manipulation terminal is switched off by an Auto-selector blocks, etc.

Manipulated output is used as the additional signal from a PID controller block (PID) for
the purpose of fine-adjust of the base load feedforward control.

When reset windup occurs, the control result tends to overshoot, and as a result the process
becomes unstable. In a control loop that reset windup may happen, you should select positional-type control output action and use the reset limit function.

Reset Limit Function

Reset Limit Coefficient

The reset limit function carries out the correction to the PID control computation with the values read from the connected destinations via the RL1 and RL2 terminals.
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The values read from the connected destinations via RL1 and RL2 terminals are used as reset signals RLV1 and RLV2. The reset signals RLV1, RLV2 are used to perform the following
correction computation to the output value of PID computation (MVn0). Thus, when the output MV is limited by the manipulated variable high-limit and low-limit setpoints (MH, ML), the
reset limit exerts directly on the integral term of the output value (MV'), the value before MV in
computation.
If the RL1 terminal is not connected, the value readback from the output destination is used
as the reset signal value RLV1. If the RL2 terminal is not connected, 0 is used in computation as reset signal RLV2.
MVn=MVn0+

T
TI

x WU x (RLV1-RLV2-MV'n-1)

MVn: Manipulated output change (after correction)


MVn0: PID computed value (manipulated output change before correction)
MV'n-1: Previously computed MV value (value before output limiting)
RLV1:

Reset signal from the RL1 terminal

RLV2:

Reset signal from the RL2 terminal

T:

Control period

TI:

Integral time

WU:

Reset limit coefficient

Reset limit coefficient is a parameter for adjusting the reset limiter calculation. The bigger this
coefficient is, the faster the MV can pullback against the reset windup.
Reset limit coefficient can be defined on Output tab of the Function Block Detail Builder.
Reset Limit Coefficient: Select 1, 2, 5 or 10
Default: 1
The following phenomena occur during velocity-type Control Action:

Reset windup
Normally reset windup do not happen to the velocity-type control output actions, since the
cumulative value of manipulated output changes (MV) of each scan period is limited.
However, if the values readback from the output destination are not limited by the MV H/L
scale setpoints nor by the MV H/L limiter, the manipulated output change (MV) of each
scan period is accumulated, similar to the positional-type actions. Consequently, the reset
windup happens.

Output excess pullback phenomenon


When the manipulated output value (MV) is limited by the manipulated variable high-limit
or low-limit setpoint (MH, ML) as a result of changes caused by pulse-type disturbances,
an output excess pullback phenomenon happens if the control output action is velocity
type.
When the manipulated output value was limited by the manipulated variable high-limit or
low-limit setpoint (MH, ML), a significant change in the process variable (PV) caused by
disturbances can pullback the manipulated output value (MV) excessively from the original value. When the disturbance disappears, the process variable returns to the original
level. This is called the output excess pullback phenomenon. This phenomenon happens because the manipulated output value (MV) are limited by the manipulated variable
high-limit or low-limit setpoint (MH, ML). The current MV limited by the limiter is added
with a delta MV caused by the disturbance negative to the current MV direction.
The output excess pullback phenomenon does not happen if the control output action is
positional type since the proportional term of the manipulated output value (MV) is not
limited by the manipulated variable high-limit or low-limit setpoint (MH, ML).
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Example for Positional-Type Control Output Action


The following section explains the example that how the reset limit acts when the control computation value of the function block with positional-type output action exceed the manipulated
variable high-limit or low-limit setpoint (MH, ML).
With a positional-type control output action, the control computation value in the current control period (MV'n) is the sum of the manipulated output change (MVn) obtained from the current PID computation, and the control computation value in the previous control period
(MV'n-1).
MV'n=MVn+MV'n-1
The control computation value (MV'n) in the current control period limited by the manipulated
variable high-limit and low-limit setpoints (MH, ML) is output as the manipulated output value
(MVn).
The figure below shows an example of the reset limit function for the positional-type control
output action:
Control computation

Output
destination data

DMVn
PID
computation

RLV1

RLV2

RL1

RL2

MV'n

Output limiter

MVn

OUT

Figure 1.4-5 Reset Limit Function for a Positional-Type Control Output Action

When the reset limit function is not used, positive or negative values is continuously added to
the integral term of the manipulated output change (MVn) so long the positive or negative
deviation exists. If the situation sustains, the manipulated output change (MV) is added to
the control computation value (MV') continuously and make it reach the MV scale high limit
(MSH) or the MV scale low limit (MSL) or the manipulated variable high-limit or low-limit setpoint (MH, ML) and continue to windup. As a result, saturation (reset windup) happens to the
integral term of the control computation value (MV'). Because the integral term is saturated,
the manipulated output value (MV) limited by the limiter does not move back even when the
sign of deviation changes to the pullback direction. The MV starts to pullback only when the
control computation value (MV') returns to the range between the manipulated output highlimit and low-limit setpoints (MH, ML).
In the same situation, if the reset limit function is used, the integral term of the manipulated
output value (MV') will be limited to the value RLV1 - RLV2 as a result of correction computation. Even if the deviation sustains, the reset windup does not happens.
Example on the Figure Reset Limit Function for a Positional-Type Control Output Action, neither the RL1 or RL2 terminal is connected. Therefore, the reset signal RLV1 is the readback
value from the output destination, while the value of reset signal RLV2 is 0. For example,
suppose a loop is in cascade (CAS) mode, if the manipulated output (MV) is limited by the
manipulated variable high-limit setpoint (MH), the reset signal RLV1 becomes the manipulated
variable high-limit setpoint (MH). In this situation, the integral term of the control computation
value (MV') is adjusted gradually to the value obtained by subtracting RLV2 from RLV1 (i.e.,
MH), even when the deviation sustains, it does not exceed the manipulated variable high-limit
setpoint (MH).
The manipulated output value (MV) will quickly move away from the limit when the sign of the
manipulated output change (MV) reverses and agrees to the pullback direction of the value

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from output limiting. This is because the control computation value (MV') is limited within the
manipulated variable high-limit and low-limit setpoints (MH, ML).

Example for a Simple Cascade Control loop


The figure below shows an application example of using the reset limit function to a simple
cascade control loop. The RL1 and RL2 terminals are not connected.
Since the RL1 or RL2 terminals are not connected the reset signal RLV1 becomes the readback value from the output destination and the value of the reset signal RLV2 becomes 0.
If use the readback value of the manipulated output value (MV) output destination to compute
the difference of the two reset signals (RLV1 - RLV2), there is no need to have terminal RL1
or RL2 connected.
RLV1
IN

PID

OUT

SET

PID

OUT

Figure 1.4-6 Reset Limit Function for a Simple Cascade Control loop

Application Example to Auto-Selection via Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H)


The figure below shows an example of the reset limit function when automatically selecting
the signals from two function blocks using an Auto-selector blocks (AS-H).
Suppose the two PID Controller Blocks (PID) on the left side of the figure are velocity-type,
even when the deviation is within the switching point, the disturbance of the process variable
may trigger the output excess pullback to the manipulated output value (MV). Thus make the
Auto-selector blocks (AS-H) switch temporarily to the other controller. To define the positionaltype output action using the reset limit function can avoid this happening.
RL1
IN

PID

OUT
IN1
AS-H

IN

PID

OUT

OUT

SET

PID

IN2

OUT

IN

RL1

Figure 1.4-7 Reset Limit Function Used for Auto-Selection via Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H)

Application Example in Feedforward Control


The figure below shows an example of the reset limit function used in feedforward control.
This example assumes base load control that uses the feedforward signals from the OUT terminal of the General-Purpose Calculation Block (CALCU) as the base load values. To prevent
reset windup of the upstream PID Controller Block (PID), the RL2 terminal references the
feedforward signals, while the RL1 terminal references the process variable of the downstream PID Controller Block (PID).

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IN

CALCU
OUT

RL2
IN

SET
OUT

PID

IN

FFSUM

OUT

SET

RL1

PID

OUT

IN

Figure 1.4-8 Reset Limit Function Used in Feedforward Control (Base Load Control)

n Deadband Action
Deadband Action

The deadband action stops the manipulated output value (MV) from changing while the deviation (DV) is within the preset deadband (DB) range, by causing the manipulated output
change (MV) to be 0.

Characteristics of Deadband Action


The deadband action causes the manipulated output change (MVn) to be 0 when the absolute value of the deviation (DV) minus the hysteresis value becomes smaller than the deadband width (DB). When the absolute value of deviation (DV) increases greater than the deadband width (DB), the manipulated output change after the deadband action (MVn) will be
brought back to the manipulated output change before the deadband action (MVn0).
The figure below shows the characteristics of the deadband action:
Output (MVn)
HYS

HYS

MVn0

DB
MVn:
MVn0:
DB:
En :
HYS:

DB

En

Manipulated output change after the deadband action


Manipulated output change before the deadband action
Deadband width
Deviation (data of the same unit as PV)
Hysteresis (data of the same unit as PV)

Figure 1.4-9 Characteristics of Deadband Action

Setting Deadband Action


Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the deadband action.
Deadband action: Select Yes or No.
The default is No.
When the deadband action is set as Yes, the hysteresis (HYS) must be set. Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the hysteresis (HYS).
Hysteresis: Engineering unit data between 0 and the PV scale span range limit.

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The default is the value equivalent to 1.0 % of the PV scale span.

Set Parameter of Deadband Action

The parameter of the deadband action:


Deadband width (DB): Engineering unit data between 0 and the PV scale span range limit.
The default is 0.

n Input or Output Compensation


I/O Compensation

The Input or Output Compensation function adds the compensation value (VN) received from
outside to the input signal or output signal of PID control computation, while the controller
block is operating automatically in the automatic (AUT), cascade (CAS), or remote cascade
(RCAS) mode.
The Control Action of Input or Output Compensation include the following two types:

Input compensation

Output compensation

The compensation value (VN) is reset to 0 automatically at the beginning of each control period. This prevents the previous external compensation value is added to (VN) when the external compensation data not exist.
Normally, the external data is set directly to the compensation value (VN) from other function
block. However, the external data from other function block can be connected to the compensation input terminal (BIN), then set to the compensation value (VN).
For manual operation, the manually set manipulated output value (MV) is not affected by the
Input or Output Compensation.

Define Input or Output Compensation


Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the Input or Output compensation.
I/O Compensation: Select No, Input Compensation or Output Compensation.
The default is No.
For the 2-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF), 3-Position ON/OFF Controller Block
(ONOFF-G), PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR) and Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM), only the input compensation can be defined.
Input Compensation: Select No or Input Compensation.
The default is No.

Set Parameters of I/O Compensation


The parameters of the I/O compensation:
I/O compensation gain (CK): -10.000 to +10.000.
The default is 1.000.
I/O compensation bias (CB): Arbitrary engineering unit data.
The default is 0.0.

n Input Compensation
Input Compensation

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The input compensation is a control action that adds the compensation value (VN) received
from outside to the input signal of PID control computation.

Characteristics of Input Compensation


The computational expression of the input compensation:
CVn=PVn+CK(VN+CB)
CVn : Control variable (PV after input compensation)
PVn : Process variable
CK : I/O compensation gain
CB : I/O compensation bias (internal bias)
VN : I/O compensated value (bias signal)
The figure below shows a processing flow of the input compensation:
VN
+

CB

CK

PV

PVn

CVn

PID control computation

MV

Figure 1.4-10 Processing Flow of the Input Compensation

Example Using Input Compensation


The input compensation is used to improve the controllability of a process with a long dead
time, by subtracting from the input signal the signal from the Dead-Time Compensation Block
(DLAY-C) to perform PID control computation (Smith Dead Time Compensation).
The figure below shows an example of dead time compensation:
IN

PID
VN

OUT

DLAY-C

Figure 1.4-11 Example of Dead Time Compensation

n Output Compensation
The output compensation is a control action that adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to the output signal of PID control computation.

Characteristics of the Output Compensation


The computational expression of the output compensation:
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MVn=MVn0+CK(VN+CB)
MVn : Manipulated output after output compensation
MVno : manipulated output before output compensation
CK

: I/O compensation gain

CB

: I/O compensation bias (internal bias)

VN

: I/O compensated value (bias signal)

The figure below shows a processing flow of the output compensation:


VN
+

CB

CK

PV

PVn

PID control
computation

MVn0

MVn

Figure 1.4-12 Processing Flow of the Output Compensation

Example of Using the Output Compensation


The output compensation is used for feedforward control that adds the feedforward signal to
the control output signal, or for non-interacting control that adds the output signal from the interacting loop to the control output signal.
The figure below shows an example of feedforward control:

IN

IN

CALCU

PID
VN

OUT

OUT

Figure 1.4-13 Example of Feedforward Control

n Process Variable Tracking (Measurement Tracking)


Measurement Tracking

The process variable tracking function prevent the abrupt changes in the manipulated output
value (MV) when change from the manual (MAN) mode to automatic (AUT) mode, by forcing
the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable (PV).

Characteristics of Process Variable Tracking


When switching from the manual (MAN) mode to automatic (AUT) mode, the existence of a
large deviation is harmful, since it makes the manipulated output change (MV) very large.

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If force the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable (PV) in manual mode operation via process variable tracking, abrupt Control Action can be avoided when the mode
switches to automatic (AUT).
Suppose a primary loop is in cascade connection and controls in the automatic (AUT) or cascade (CAS) mode. If the mode of the secondary loop in the cascade connection switches
from cascade (CAS) to automatic (AUT), the cascade connection becomes open and the control action of the primary side loop can stop. In this situation, the setpoint value (SV) of the
primary loop can be forced to agree with the process variable (PV) by the process variable
tracking function.

Define Process Variable Tracking

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the process variable tracking.

Measurement tracking

MAN mode
Select Yes or No. The default is No.

AUT and CND mode


Select Yes or No. The default is No.

CAS and CND mode


Select Yes or No. The default is Yes.

The statuses referred to as MAN, AUT and CAS include remote backup modes such as
AUT (ROUT) and AUT (RCAS).
For a 2-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF), 3-Position ON/OFF Controller Block
(ONOFF-G) or Time - Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP), the definition is allowed for MAN mode only.

n Setpoint Value Limiter


The setpoint value limiter function limits the setpoint value (SV) within a range between the
setpoint high limit (SVH) and setpoint low limit (SVL).
The action of the setpoint value limiter varies with the block mode of the function block.

Actions in the Automatic or Manual Mode

The action of the setpoint value limiter in automatic (AUT) or manual (MAN) mode varies depending on whether the setpoint value (SV) can be set to a value beyond the range between
SVH and SVL or not. This setting can be changed from the option of [Prohibit setting SV to a
value beyond the range of SVL and SVH] on the properties sheet of the project.
When the option of [Prohibit setting SV to a value beyond the range of SVL and SVH] is
checked, the setpoint value limiter performs the following actions:

When try to set a setpoint value (SV) greater than the setpoint high limit (SVH):
An error message will be displayed and the value beyond the setpoint high limit becomes
invalid, the previous setpoint value will be held.

When try to set a setpoint value (SV) smaller than the setpoint low limit (SVL):
An error message will be displayed and the value beyond the setpoint low limit becomes
invalid, the previous setpoint value will be held.

When the option of [Prohibit setting SV to a value beyond the range of SVL and SVH] is not
checked, the setpoint value limiter performs the following actions:

When try to set a setpoint value (SV) greater than the setpoint high limit (SVH):
An acknowledgment dialog box appears to prompt for the operator's confirmation. When
confirms, the operator can set a value greater than the setpoint high limit (SVH) as the
setpoint value.

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When try to set a setpoint value (SV) smaller than the setpoint low limit (SVL):
An acknowledgment dialog box appears to prompt for the operator's confirmation. When
confirms, the operator can set a value smaller than the setpoint low limit (SVL) as the setpoint value.

However, when try to set a setpoint value (SV) to a value beyond the range between the process high alarm setpoint (PH) and the process low alarm setpoint (PL), the setpoint value limiter performs the following actions regardless if the option of [Prohibit setting SV to a value beyond the range of SVL and SVH] is checked or unchecked:

When try to set a setpoint value (SV) greater than the process high alarm setpoint (PH):
An acknowledgment dialog box appears to prompt for the operator's confirmation. When
confirms, the operator can set a value greater than the process high alarm setpoint (PH)
as the setpoint value.

When try to set a setpoint value (SV) smaller than the process low alarm setpoint (PL):
An acknowledgment dialog box appears to prompt for the operator's confirmation. When
confirms, the operator can set a value smaller than the process low alarm setpoint (PL)
as the setpoint value.

Actions in the Remote Cascade Mode

When the function block is in remote cascade (RCAS) mode and the setpoint value (SV) is
defined to automatically follow the remote setpoint value (RSV) received from the supervisory
system computer, the setpoint value limiter performs the following actions:

The value exceeds the setpoint high limit (SVH) is forced to be equal to the setpoint high
limit (SVH).

The value smaller than the setpoint low limit (SVL) is forced to be equal to the setpoint
low limit (SVL).

Set Parameters of the Setpoint Value Limiter


The parameters of the setpoint value limiter:
Setpoint high limit (SVH): Engineering unit data within the PV scale range.
The default is the scale high limit.
Setpoint low limit (SVL):

Engineering unit data within the PV scale range.


The default is the scale low limit.

n Setpoint Value Pushback


The setpoint value pushback function sets the same value for the three types of setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV). The figure below explains the relationship among the setpoint value
(SV), cascade setpoint value (CSV) and remote setpoint value (RSV):

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Set from the supervisory computer

Input from the SET terminal

RSV

CSV

AUT/MAN
RCAS

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CAS

SV
Setpoint value
Control
computation

Figure 1.4-14 Relationship among Setpoint Values (SV, CSV and RSV)

The action of the setpoint value pushback varies in accordance with the block mode of the
function block.

Action in the Automatic (AUT) or Manual (MAN) Mode


Causes the cascade setpoint value (CSV) and remote setpoint value (RSV) to agree with the
setpoint value (SV). Even when a data value is set to the setpoint value (SV) from outside the
function block, the same value is automatically set to the cascade setpoint value (CSV) and
remote setpoint value (RSV).

Action in the Cascade (CAS) Mode


Force the setpoint value (SV) and remote setpoint value (RSV) to be equal to the cascade
setpoint value (CSV).

Action in the Remote Cascade (RCAS) Mode


Force the setpoint value (SV) and cascade setpoint value (CSV) to be equal to the remote
setpoint value (RSV).

n Bumpless Switching
The bumpless switching function switches the block mode of the function block or manipulated output value downstream in cascade without causing the manipulated output value (MV)
to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless change).
The action during bumpless switching varies with the control output action and block mode
status.

Action for Velocity-Type Control Output Action


For a velocity-type control output action, the manipulated output change (MVn) obtained by
control computation is added to the present value readback from the connected destination.
Therefore, the block mode or cascade switch can be changed without causing an abrupt
change in the manipulated output value (MV).

Action for Positional-Type Control Output Action


For a positional-type control action, when the function block mode changes to tracking (TRK)
mode, or when the cascade connection to the downstream is open then close again, or for the
similar reason the cascade control loop regain the control, the manipulated output value (MV)
may change abruptly. To prevent this, the output value is forced to be equal (or to track) to the
value of the output destination while the control action stops. This enables the block mode
switch causes no abrupt change in the manipulated output value (MV).
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Action when a Cascade Connected Downstream Loop Changes from


Automatic (AUT) to Cascade
When a cascade connected downstream loop changes its mode from automatic (AUT) to cascade (CAS), the tracking process described above is performed in the upstream loop if the
downstream is only connected to one loop. Therefore, the block mode switches without causing an abrupt change in the manipulated output value (MV).

Action when Manipulated Output of an Upstream Loop is Connected to


Multiple Downstream Loops as Setpoint Value
When multiple downstream loops are receiving the manipulated output signals of an upstream
loop as setpoint value signals via a Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT), Control Signal
Splitter Block (SPLIT) or switch block (SW-33, SW-91), the setpoint value downstream may
change abruptly. In this case, control computation is not performed in downstream loops in
the first control period following the switching of modes from automatic (AUT) to cascade
(CAS). In other words, the block mode can be changed without causing an abrupt change in
the output as a result of a proportional or derivative action, by resuming the control computation from the next control period in which the change in the setpoint value caused by the block
mode change will not be reflected by the change in the deviation (En).
The figure below shows an example of a multiple downstream loop configuration:
J01
PID

OUT

SET

FOUT

SET

PID

J08
SET

PID

Figure 1.4-15 Example of a Multiple Downstream Loop Configuration (when a Cascade Signal Distributor Block is Used)
SET
PID

OUT

SET

OUT1
SPLIT

OUT2

SET

PID

PID

Figure 1.4-16 Example of a Multiple Downstream Loop Configuration (when a Control Signal Splitter
Block is Used)
SET

PID

S11
DSET

OUT

S10

SW-33

S12

SET

S13
SET

PID

PID

Figure 1.4-17 Example of a Multiple Downstream Loop Configuration (when a Switch Block is Used)

n Initialization Manual
The initialization manual is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN). This action takes place
when the initialization manual condition is established.

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Characteristics of the Initialization Manual

The initialization manual function suspends the control action and control output action temporarily during the automatic (AUT) mode or other automatic control operation mode when the
initialization manual condition is established, and changes the function block to initialization
manual (IMAN) mode.
Since the initialization manual action causes the manipulated output value (MV) to track the
value of the connected destination, even when the mode changes from initialization manual
(IMAN) mode to manual (MAN) mode, the initialization manual (IMAN) mode will precede the
manual (MAN) mode. Therefore, the manual (MAN) mode does not take effect.
The block returns to the original mode as soon as the initialization manual condition vanishes.
However, if the mode change operation is performed in the initialization manual (IMAN) mode,
the block will switch to the mode of this operation after the initialization manual condition vanishes.

Initialization Manual Condition

The initialization manual condition is a block mode transition condition. It suspends the control
action and control output action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN) mode.
The initialization manual (IMAN) block mode becomes active only when the initialization manual condition is established.
The initialization manual condition is depicted as follows:
AUT

Initialization manual condition is established

IMAN (AUT)

Initialization manual condition vanishes

AUT
The initialization manual condition is established in the following situation:

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destinations data status is conditional (CND) (i.e., the cascade loop open).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destinations data status is communication error (NCOM) or output failure (PTPF).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destination is a switch block (SW-33,
SW-91) and the cascade connection is switched off (i.e., the cascade loop open).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destination is a process output, and
a failure or output open alarm has occurred in the process output.

When the data status of the input signal at the TIN or TSI terminals become invalid (BAD)
in the tracking (TRK) mode while the output signal is not a pulse-width type.

n Control Hold
The control hold is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily
while maintaining the current block mode. Unlike initialization manual, the control output action is performed normally during control hold.
The control hold action takes place when the following conditions are established during automatic operation (AUT, CAS, RCAS):

The connected destination of the IN terminal is open (i.e., not selected via a selector
switch, etc.) and,

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The connected destination of the IN terminal or the connected destination of the data at
the first connected destination is a process input, and the process input is temporarily in a
non-response state (momentary power failure).

The control is resumed when the conditions vanish.

n MAN Fallback
The MAN fallback is an error processing function that stops the control forcibly by changing
the block mode to manual (MAN). This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is
established.

Characteristics of the Man Fallback

The MAN fallback stops the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode
regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to manual operation
state.
Once the MAN fallback condition is established, the block mode remain manual (MAN) even
after the condition vanishes.

MAN Fallback Condition

The MAN fallback condition is used to stop the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to
enter manual operation state. When the MAN fallback condition is established, it indicates
that a fatal error has occurred and requests operator interruption.
An example of the MAN fallback condition is shown as follows:
AUTMAN
IMAN (CAS)IMAN (MAN)
The MAN fallback condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status of the process variable (PV) is invalid (BAD) or calibration (CAL).
However, the MAN fallback condition will not be established when the block mode is primary direct (PRD), or remote output (ROUT) excluding any compound mode during computer backup.

When the data status of the manipulated output value (MV) is output failure (PTPF).

When the data status of the setpoint value (SV) is invalid (BAD).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O and the FCS is
having an initial cold start.

When the block mode change interlock condition is established.

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O, and one of the
I/O points connected to the module has been changed via maintenance.

n AUT Fallback
AUT Fallback

The AUT fallback is an error processing function that switches the block mode from cascade
(CAS) or primary direct (PRD) to automatic (AUT) when the AUT fallback condition is established. Thus the set value of the control loop can be set by the operator.

Characteristics of the AUT Fallback


Changes the block mode from cascade (CAS) or primary direct (PRD) to automatic (AUT) to
continue control using values set by the operator.

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Once the AUT fallback condition is established, the block mode remain automatic (AUT) even
after the condition vanishes.

AUT Fallback Condition


The AUT fallback condition is used to change the block mode of the function block from cascade (CAS) or primary direct (PRD) to automatic (AUT) so that control can be continued using
the values set by the operator. When this condition is established, it indicates that abnormality
has been detected in the cascade setpoint value (CSV) for some reason.
An example of when the AUT fallback condition establishment is as follows:
CASAUT
IMAN (CAS)IMAN (AUT)

Setting AUT Fallback Condition


Use the Function Block Detail Builder to enable/disable the AUT fallback function.
AUT Fallback: Select Yes or No.
The default is No.
If the AUT fallback is defined as Yes via the Function Block Detail Builder, the AUT fallback
condition is established when the data status of the cascade setpoint value (CSV) become invalid (BAD) or communication error (NCOM).

n Computer Fail
Computer Backup Mode

When the computer fail is detected, the function block suspends the action in the remote cascade (RCAS) mode or remote output (ROUT) mode temporarily and switches to the computer
backup mode.

Characteristics of Computer Fail


When the function block mode is remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT), the function block receives the setpoint value (SV) or manipulated output value (MV) from a supervisory system computer via Control bus communication.
When the computer fails, the block changes mode to the preset computer backup mode
(MAN, AUT or CAS) which indicates that an abnormality has been detected in the supervisory
computer. When the computer recovers, the block returns to the mode before the change.
The following actions will take place when a block mode change command from MAN, AUT,
CAS or PRD to RCAS or ROUT is sent while the computer fails:
1.

When a block mode change command from MAN, AUT, CAS or PRD to RCAS or PRD is
sent while the computer fails (BSW=ON), the function block does not switch to the computer backup mode directly but switches to the transient state mode first.
The transient state mode is a compound block mode consisting of the block mode before
the execution of the block mode change command (MAN, AUT, CAS, PRD) and a remote
mode (RCAS, ROUT).

2.

Then the function block tests the computer condition in the first scan after the block mode
change command and switches to the computer backup mode.
The computer backup mode is a compound block mode consisting of the backup mode
set via the Function Block Detail Builder (MAN, AUT, CAS) and a remote mode (RCAS,
ROUT).

3.

If the computer recovers while the function block is in the computer backup mode, the
block mode changes to remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT).

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Computer Fail Condition

The computer fail condition is a block-mode transition condition used to suspend actions in
the remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT) mode and switches the mode to the
computer backup mode.
A backup switch (BSW) is provided in function block to define the remote cascade (RCAS) or
remote output (ROUT) mode. The status of this switch determines whether the computer has
failed or recovered. The value of the backup switch (BSW) can be set from a sequence table
or other function blocks.
Switching to a computer backup mode does not take effect if the backup switch (BSW) is on a
block mode other than remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT).

When BSW=ON, computer has failed

When BSW=OFF, computer has recovered

An example when the automatic (AUT) mode has been specified for the computer backup
mode is shown as follows:
RCAS

Computer fails

AUT

(RCAS)

Computer recovers

RCAS
An example when the manual (MAN) mode has been specified for the computer backup
mode is shown as follows:
AUT

ROUT command

AUT (ROUT) Transient state mode

After one scan period

MAN (ROUT) Computer backup mode (When BSW=ON)

Define Computer Backup Mode

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the computer backup mode for each function
block.

Computer Backup Mode


Select MAN, AUT or CAS as the mode to be switched to when the computer becomes down. The default is MAN.
For a Control Signal Splitter Block (SPLIT), select AUT or CAS. The default is AUT.

n Block Mode Change Interlock


When the block mode change interlock condition is established, the block mode change interlock function stops the control computation processing of the function block running in auto
mode, and prohibit the function block changing to automatic operation mode.

Characteristics of the Block Mode Change Interlock

Stops the control computation processing of the function blocks that are operating automatically, and disables the currently stopped function blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. The following actions will take place:

The block mode changes to manual (MAN).


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Any block mode change command to make the function block into automatic operation
state (AUT, CAS, PRD, RCAS or ROUT mode) becomes invalid.

Block Mode Change Interlock Condition

The Block mode change interlock condition is established when the switch at the connected
destination of the interlock switch input terminal (INT) is turned ON. This switch is manipulated in the process control sequence and the switch is turned on when the sequence judge
that the loop can not run in Auto mode, or etc.,.

n Primary Direct (PRD) Mode Action


The primary direct (PRD) mode action enables the downstream block to output the setpoint
value received from the cascade connected upstream block (CSV) after converting it into manipulated output value (MV).
The conversion action from the cascade setpoint value (CSV) to the manipulated output value
(MV) varies with the control action direction, i.e., direct or reverse.
When an error such as process input signal error is detected in the cascade connected downstream block, the block changes to primary direct (PRD) mode, to allow the upstream block
temporarily takes over control.
The output tracking function for the cascade connected upstream block is used so that an
abrupt change in the manipulated output does not occur when the block mode for the cascade connected downstream block is changing to the primary direct (PRD) mode. The cascade connected downstream block returns the manipulated output value (MV) to the setpoint
value (SV, CSV, RSV) in order to make the downstream block manipulated output value (MV)
track the upstream block manipulated output value (MV) when the block mode for the downstream block changes to the primary direct (PRD) mode.

IMPORTANT

SEE
ALSO

Normally, when changing the block mode to primary direct (PRD), the set parameter (P, I,
D) of the upstream block in cascade need to be adjusted.

When change a block to primary direct (PRD) mode, it is necessary to change the upper
stream block in the same cascade loop to manual (MAN) mode.

When change a block from primary direct (PRD) mode to automatic (AUT) mode, it is better to change the block into manual (MAN) mode first. However, it is possible to change
the block from primary direct (PRD) mode to automatic (AUT) mode directly. In this case,
the block runs measurement tracking to force the set point value (SV) to track the process variable value (PV) so as to avoid the radical change to the control output.

For more information about primary direct (PRD) mode, refer to:
6.1.1, Basic Block Mode in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

When the Control is Direct Action


The computational expression of the primary direct (PRD) mode action when the control action is direct:
MV=MSH-

MSH-MSL
SH-SL

(CSV-SL)

RMV=MV

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SH

: PV scale high limit

SL

: PV scale low limit

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MSH : MV scale high limit


MSL : MV scale low limit
When the block mode changes to primary direct (PRD), the downstream block sets its the manipulated output value (MV) to the setpoint value (SV, CSV, RSV), using the computational expression shown below:
SV=SH-

SH-SL
MSH-MSL

(MV-MSL)

CSV=RSV=SV

When the Control is Reverse Action


The following computational expression is used as a basis of the primary direct (PRD) mode
action when the control action is reverse:
MV=

MSH-MSL
SH-SL

(CSV-SL)+MSL

RMV=MV
When the block mode changes to primary direct (PRD), the downstream block sets its the manipulated output value (MV) to the setpoint value (SV, CSV, RSV), using the computational expression shown below:
SV=

SH-SL
MSH-MSL

(MV-MSL)+SL

CSV=RSV=SV

Output Limiter in PRD Mode: FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2

Enable output limiter in PRD mode (XL compatible)

The output limiter can also be applied when the block mode is PRD.
To limit the direct output value of primary loop, check the option of [Enable output limiter in
PRD mode (XL compatible)] on [Constant 3] tab of FCS properties sheet.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the output limiter actions when the function block is in Primary Direct mode, refer
to:
Pulse Width Output in PRD Mode in 4.8.2, Pulse Width Output Conversion in the Function Blocks
Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>

1.5

PID Controller Block (PID)


The PID Controller Block (PID) provides the most general control function to perform proportional-integral-derivative control based on the deviation of the process variable (PV) from the
setpoint value (SV).

n PID Controller Block (PID)


Connection

The figure below shows a function block diagram of PID Controller Block (PID):
SET

CSV
RSV

IN

Input
processing

BIN

RL2

TIN

(VN) (RLV1) (RLV2)

CAS
AUT
MAN

TSI

INT

(TSW)

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

RL1

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT

(PV, PV, MV, MV)

RMV

SUB

Figure 1.5-1 Function Block Diagram of PID Controller Block (PID)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of PID Controller Block (PID):
Table 1.5-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of PID Controller
Block (PID)
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

RL1

Reset signal 1 input

RL2

Reset signal 2 input

BIN

Compensation input

TIN

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

I/O terminal
Interlock
SW input

INT
*1:

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of PID Controller Block (PID)


The PID block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the PID block is a periodic startup. Selections available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the
medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PID block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of the PID Controller Block (PID)


The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the PID Controller
Block (PID):
Table 1.5-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of the PID Controller Block (PID)
Control computation processing

Description

PID control

Calculates the manipulated output value (MV) and manipulated


output change (MV) using the PID control algorithms.

Control action bypass

Performs the PID control actions by bypassing derivative control


actions (D), proportional control actions (P) or both proportional
and derivative control actions (P+D).

Non-linear gain

Changes the proportional gain in accordance with the degree of deviation so that the relationship between the deviation and manipulated output change (MV) becomes nonlinear.

Non-linear gain

Gap action

Lowers the proportional gain to moderate control effects when the


deviation is within the gap width (GW) range.

Squared deviation action

Changes the proportional gain according to the degree of deviation


when the deviation is within the gap width (GW) range.

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The control
output actions include positional type and velocity type.

Control action direction

Switches the direction of the output action (reverse action or direct


action) in accordance with the increase or decrease in deviation.
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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>


Control computation processing

ALSO

Description

Reset limit function

Performs correction computation using values read from the connection destinations of input terminals RL1 and RL2 during PID
control computation. This function prevents reset windup.

Deadband action

Adjusts the manipulated output change (MV) to 0 when the deviation is within the deadband range, in order to stop the manipulated
output value (MV) from changing.

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the
input signal or control output signal of PID computation when the
controller block is operating automatically.

I/O compensation

SEE

1-51

Input compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to
the input signal of the PID control computation.

Output compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the
output signal of the PID control computation.

Process variable tracking

Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable
(PV).

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits
(SVH, SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to agree
with the remaining one.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it to


change abruptly when the block mode has been changed or when
the manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in a downstream block in cascade.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual
condition becomes satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current block mode. During control hold, the output action is performed
normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action.
This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes
satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is operating in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued
using values set by the operator. This action takes place when the
AUT fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer backup mode when an error has been detected at a supervisory computer while the function block is operating in the RCAS or
ROUT mode. This action takes place when the computer failure
condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing
to the automatic operating mode.

PRD mode action

Outputs the cascade setpoint value (CSV) after converting it to a


manipulated output value (MV) when the block mode has been
changed to PRD.

For more information about control computation processing functions applied in the PID Controller Block, refer to:
1.4, Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks on page 1-26

n PID Control Computation


PID Control Algorithm
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The PID control computation is the core of the PID control computation processing, calculating a manipulated output change (MV) by using the PID control algorithms. The PID control
is the most widely used, it combines three types of actions: proportional, integral and derivative.
The figure below shows a block diagram of PID control computation:
P0
I-PD

SV
+

PV
(Note)

Proportional term
computation (P)
PI-D/PID

Integral term
computation (I)
PID

D0

+
+

Range
conversion

MV

Derivative term
computation (D)

I-PD/PI-D

Note: Compensated PV, if input compensation is performed.

Figure 1.5-2 Block Diagram of PID Control Computation

PID Control Computation Expression


The PID control computation expression used in a regulatory control system (analog control
system):
MV(t)=

100
PB

E(t)+

1
TI

E(t)dt+TD

dE(t)
dt

MV(t): Manipulated output


E(t):

Deviation E(t) = PV(t) - SV(t)

PV(t): Process variable


SV(t): Setpoint value
PB:

Proportional band (%)

TI:

Integral time

TD:

Derivative time

If we use the sampling value derived at each interval of the control period for the above expression, the differential expression of the PID control computation is transformed as follows:
MVn=

100
PB

En+

TD
T
En+
(En)
T
TI

MVn: Manipulated output change


En:

Deviation En=PVn-SVn

PVn:

Process variable

SVn:

Setpoint value

En:

Change in deviation En=En-En-1

T:

Control period

The subscripts n and n-1 represent the sample against the control period, it stands for the
nth sample or n-1th sample.
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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>

The above differential expression calculates a change in manipulated output (difference). A


new output value is obtained by adding the current change in manipulated output (MVn) to
the previous manipulated output value (MVn-1).

Types of PID Control Computation

The PID Controller Block uses the following five PID control algorithms to perform PID control
computation. The actions vary with the characteristics of a controlled system and the purpose
of control.

Basic type PID control (PID)

PV proportional and derivative type PID control (I-PD)

PV derivative type PID control (PI-D)

Automatic determination type

Automatic determination type 2

Define PID Control Computation

For PID control computation, the input variables of the proportional, integral and derivative
terms are different for each PID control algorithm.
The table below shows the PID control algorithms and the input variable of each term:
Table 1.5-3 PID Control Algorithms and the Input Variables
Proportional term

Trinomial input variables


Derivative term

Integral term

PID

En

En

En

I-PD

PV

PV

En

PI-D

En

PV

En

PID control algorithm

Automatic determination

Same as I-PD in the AUT mode.


Same as PI-D in the CAS or RCAS mode.

Automatic determination 2

Same as I-PD in the AUT or RCAS mode.


Same as PI-D in the CAS mode.

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the PID control algorithm.

PID Control Algorithm:


Select one of the following algorithms

Basic Type

Proportional PV Derivative Type PID Control (I-PID)

PV Derivative Type PID Control (PI-D)

Automatic Determination

Automatic Determination 2

The default is Automatic Determination 2.


When the block mode of the PID Controller Block is remote cascade (RCAS), the PID control
algorithm Automatic Determination and Automatic Determination 2 act as follows:
Automatic determination type:

Same actions as in the cascade (CAS) mode.

Automatic determination type 2: Same actions as in the automatic (AUT) mode.

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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>

Basic Type PID Control Algorithm (PID)


The basic type PID control algorithm performs proportional, integral and derivative Control Action following the changes in the setpoint value.
This algorithm is used when the process time constant is long and the control is oriented on
the prompt response to the change in the setpoint value. For example, when use a 13-Zone
Program Set Block (PG-L13) to change the setpoint value of a controller block, this algorithm
is used for the PID block.
The computational expression of the basic type PID control algorithm (PID):
MVn=Kp Ks

En+

T
TI

En+

TD
T

(En)

En=PVn-SVn
Kp=

Ks=
T:

100
PB
MSH-MSL
SH-SL
Control period

En: Change in deviation En=En-En-1


Kp:

Proportional gain

PB:

Proportional band (%)

TI:

Integral time

TD:

Derivative time

Ks:

Scale conversion coefficient

PVn: Process variable (engineering unit)


SVn: Setpoint value (engineering unit)
SH:

PV scale high limit

SL:

PV scale low limit

MSH: MV scale high limit


MSL: MV scale low limit
The process variable (PV) and setpoint value (SV) used in the computation are both engineering unit data. The manipulated output change (MV) obtained in an engineering unit by
the range conversion performed via the scale conversion coefficient (Ks).

PV Proportional and Derivative Type PID Control Algorithm (I-PD)


The PV proportional and derivative type PID control algorithm (I-PI) differs from the basic type
that it performs only integral actions when the setpoint value changes.
This algorithm ensures stable control characteristics even when the setpoint value changes
abruptly when the SV is set via numerical value entry. At the same time, the algorithm ensures proper control in response to the characteristic changes occurring in controlled processes, load variations and disturbances by performing proportional, derivative and integral Control Action accordingly.
The computational expression of the PV proportional and derivative type PID control algorithm (I-PD):
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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>

MVn=Kp Ks

PVn+

TI

En+

TD
(PVn)
T

PVn : Process variable change PVn=PVn-PVn-1

PV Derivative Type PID Control Algorithm (PI-D)

Compared to the basic type, the PV derivative type PID control algorithm (PI-D) only performs
proportional and integral Control Action when setpoint value changes, but not derivative Control Action. This algorithm is used in the situations where the better follow up to the setpoint
value change is required, such a downstream control block in a cascade control loop.
The computational expression of the PV derivative type PID control algorithm:
MVn=Kp Ks

En+

T
TI

En+

TD
T

(PVn)

Automatic Determination Type

When a PID Controller Block is in cascade (CAS) or remote cascade (RCAS) mode, it uses
the PV derivative type PID control algorithm (PI-D) to perform computation so that the followup the setpoint value change can be improved.
When the block is in automatic (AUT) mode, it uses the PV proportional and derivative type
PID control algorithm (I-PD) to perform computation so that stable control characteristics can
be ensured in the event that an abrupt change occurs in the setpoint value due to a numeric
value setting.

Automatic Determination Type 2

When a PID Controller Block is in cascade (CAS) mode, it uses the PV derivative type PID
control algorithm (PI-D) to perform computation. When the block is in remote cascade (RCAS)
mode or automatic (AUT) mode, it uses the PV proportional and derivative type PID control
algorithm (I-PD) to perform computation.
In the cascade (CAS) mode, the automatic determination type 2 orients to the follow-up capability to setpoint value (CSV) change. In the remote cascade (RCAS) mode, it orients to prevent the abrupt change in the output due to an abrupt change in the remote setpoint value
(RSV).

Set Parameters of the PID Control Algorithms


The set parameters of the PID control algorithms:

Proportional band (P): 0 to 1000 % (*1)

Integral time (I): 0.1 to 10000 seconds

Derivative time (D): 0 to 10000 seconds (*1)

*1:

The control action bypass function is enabled when 0 is set.

IMPORTANT
If the integral time of control block is set to zero or to a value beyond the range, the control
algorithm stops functioning. No process alarm or system alarm message is initiated for this
trouble. So that when using a general purpose calculation block or sequence table block to
set the value of integral time, it is necessary to enforce the value within the proper range and
to avoid it to be set to zero.

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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>

n Control Action Bypass


The PID Controller Block can perform the following two types of control action by bypassing
proportional and/or derivative actions among the proportional, integral and derivative actions:
Table 1.5-4 Control Action Bypass
Control actions bypassed

Control actions after bypassing

Set parameter setpoint

Derivative (D)

Proportional (P)+integral (I)

P0, D=0

Proportional (P), derivative (D)

Integral (I)

P=0

To set the control action bypass, specify 0 to the set parameter P or D, as shown in the table
above. The proportional gain (Kp) is fixed to 1 when only integral action is required.

n Data Items - PID


Table 1.5-5 Data Items of PID Controller Block (PID) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Control deviation value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

VN

I/O compensation value

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

MV engineering unit value

MSL

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

RLV1

Reset limit value 1

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

RLV2

Reset limit value 2

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>


Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

*1:

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Table 1.5-6 Data Items of PID Controller Block (PID) (2/2)


Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

MH

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

Proportional band

0 to 1000 %

100 %

Integral time

0.1 to 10,000 seconds

20 seconds

Derivative time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

GW

Gap width

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

DB

Deadband

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

CK

Compensation gain

-10.000 to 10.000

1.000

CB

Compensation bias

-----

0.000

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

CSW

Control switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

MSH

MV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

Data Item

Range (*2)

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<1.5 PID Controller Block (PID)>


Data Item
MSL
*1:
*2:

SEE
ALSO

Data Name
MV scale low limit

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the PID block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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<1.6 Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)>

1.6

Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)


Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD) stops after performing each control action and waits for
the result to come out. This block may be used to control processes with a long dead time or
for the control that relies on the data from sampling unit of analyzers.

n Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)


Connection

The figure below shows a function block diagram of Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD):
SET

CSV
RSV

IN

Input
processing

BIN

RL2

TIN

(VN) (RLV1) (RLV2)

CAS
AUT
MAN

TSI

INT

(TSW)

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

RL1

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT

(PV, PV, MV, MV)

RMV

SUB

Figure 1.6-1 Function Block Diagram of Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD):
Table 1.6-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

RL1

Reset signal 1 input

RL2

Reset signal 2 input

BIN

Compensation input

TIN

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

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<1.6 Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)>

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

I/O terminal
INT
*1:

Interlock
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connectio not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)


The PI-HLD block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the PI-HLD block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PI-HLD block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)


The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD):
Table 1.6-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)
Control computation processing

Description

PI control computation with hold

Performs PI control computation for each sampling period only during the specified control time, and holds the manipulated output value (MV) for the remainder of the period.

Non-linear gain

Changes the proportional gain in accordance with the degree of deviation so that the relationship between the deviation and manipulated output change (MV) becomes nonlinear.

Non-linear gain

Gap action

Lowers the proportional gain to moderate control effects when the


deviation is within the gap width (GW) range.

Squared deviation action

Changes the proportional gain according to the degree of deviation


when the deviation is within the gap width (GW) range.

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control


period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The control output actions include positional type and velocity type.

Control action direction

Switches the direction of the output action (reverse action or direct


action) in accordance with the increase or decrease in deviation.

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<1.6 Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD)>


Control computation processing

ALSO

Description

Reset limit function

Performs correction computation using values read from the connection destinations of input terminals RL1 and RL2 during PID control computation. This function prevents reset windup.

Deadband action

Adjusts the manipulated output change (MV) to 0 when the deviation is within the deadband range, in order to stop the manipulated
output value (MV) from changing.

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the
input signal or control output signal of PID computation when the
controller block is operating automatically.

I/O compensation

SEE

1-61

Input compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to
the input signal of the PID control computation.

Output compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the
output signal of the PID control computation.

Process variable tracking

Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable
(PV).

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits
(SVH, SVL) .

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to agree
with the remaining one.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it to


change abruptly when the block mode has been changed or when
the manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in a downstream block in cascade.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual
condition becomes satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current block mode. During control hold, the output action is performed
normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action.
This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes
satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is operating in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued
using values set by the operator. This action takes place when the
AUT fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer backup mode when an error has been detected at a supervisory computer while the function block is operating in the RCAS or
ROUT mode. This action takes place when the computer failure
condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing
to the automatic operating mode.

PRD mode action

Outputs the cascade setpoint value (CSV) after converting it to a


manipulated output value (MV) when the block mode has been
changed to PRD.

For more information about control computation processing functions of Sampling PI Controller Block (PIHLD), refer to:
1.4, Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks on page 1-26

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n PI Control Computation with Hold


The PI control computation with hold is a control algorithm of the Sampling PI Controller
Block. It is a control computation function that performs PI control computation to obtain a manipulated output value (MV) and manipulated output change (MV).

Characteristics of the PI Control Computation with Hold

The PI control computation with hold action performs PI control for each sampling period (TC)
only during the control time (TC) in an automatic operating mode (AUT, CAS or RCAS), and
holds manipulated output for the remainder of the period (TS - TC).
The figure below shows the sampling PI control action:
T (control period)

MV

Output hold

PI computation
output
Time
TC
(control time)
TS (sampling period)

TC
TS

Figure 1.6-2 Sampling PI Control Action

Set the sampling period and control time in advance, in accordance with the following principle:

Sampling period
TS = L+T (2 to 3)
L : Dead time of the process (second)
T : Lag constant of the process (second)

Control time
TC=

TS
10

The value of sampling period represents the time required for the process variable (PV) to be
stabilized after the manipulated output is actually output to the process and its effects are
transmitted throughout the process. When the shortest period of a major disturbance affecting
the process is Tn, if Tn is shorter than the sampling period, the control may become impossible. Therefore, refer the following expression to adjust the sampling period shorter than Tn:
TS

Tn
5

The sampling period and control time are considered as set parameters, and their setting can
be changed during operation.

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Computational Expressions of the PI Control Algorithm with Hold

The computational expressions of the PI control algorithm:


MVn=Kp Ks

PVn+

T
TI

En

En=PVn-SVn
Kp=

Ks=

100
PB
MSH-MSL
SH-SL

MVn : Manipulated output change


Kp

: Proportional gain

Ks

: Scale conversion coefficient

PVn : Process variable change PVn=PVn-PVn-1 (engineering unit)


PVn

: Process variable (engineering unit)

SVn

: Setpoint value (engineering unit)

En

: Deviation

: Control period

PB

: Proportional band (% unit)

TI

: Integral time

SH

PV scale high limit

SL

: PV scale low limit

MSH : MV scale high limit


MSL

: MV scale low limit

The above PI control algorithm is the same as the PV proportional and derivative type PID
control algorithm (I-PD) of the PID Controller Block (PID) except that the former does not have
a derivative term.

Set Parameters of the PI Control Algorithm with Hold

The following are set parameters for control computation processing of the PI control algorithm with hold:

Sampling period (TS)


0 to 10000 seconds.
The default is 1 second.

Control time (TC)


0 to 10000 seconds.
The default is 1 second.

Proportional band (P)


0 to 1000 %.
When P=0, the proportional action does not function but only the integral action is performed.
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The proportional gain Kp is 1 when only the integral action is performed.

Integral time (I)


0.1 to 10000 seconds.

IMPORTANT
If the integral time of control block is set to zero or to a value beyond the range, the control
algorithm stops functioning. No process alarm or system alarm message is initiated for this
trouble. So that when using a general purpose calculation block or sequence table block to
set the value of integral time, it is necessary to enforce the value within the proper range and
to avoid it to be set to zero.

PI-HLD Action after Hold

PI-HLD Action after Hold

When PI-HLD starts the control calculation after its Hold period elapsed, the previous process
variable is used as the PVn-1 in proportional term computation, the following two methods can
be selected:

Use the PV right before the Hold status as the PVn-1

Use the current PV as the PVn-1 (Same as the PI-HLD in CENTUM-XL)

The two calculation methods can be selected on FCS properties sheet. Check the check box
of [CENTUM-XL compatible] in the column of [PI-HLD Control Action after Hold]. When this
option is checked, the PVn-1 in the control algorithm uses the current process variable PVn.
Otherwise, the PVn-1 in the control algorithm uses the process variable right before the Hold
started. By default, [CENTUM-XL compatible] is not checked.

Externally Started Sampling PI Control Action


When 0 is set for the sampling period (TS), the externally started sampling PI control action
will take place, as shown in the figure below.
The externally started sampling PI control action starts control when a switch signal is received from outside the Sampling PI Controller Block.
The externally started sampling PI control action starts PI control when the control switch
(CSW) is turned ON from outside the block during automatic operation. Once started, PI control will continue throughout the control time (TC). When the TC time has elapsed, output is
held and the control switch (CSW) is turned OFF until the next action is started.

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CSW
ON
OFF

set

set

set

T
(control period)

MV
Output hold

PI computation output
Time
TC
(control time)

TC

TC

Figure 1.6-3 Externally Started Sampling PI Control Action

The control switch (CSW) is turned ON by other function block, such as a sequence control
block.
When the control switch (CSW) is turned OFF forcibly from outside the block during the control time, output is held immediately.

n Data Items - PI-HLD


Table 1.6-3 Data Items of Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Control deviation value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

VN

I/O compensation value

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

MV engineering unit value

MSL

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

x
(*6)

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Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

RLV1

Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

Reset limit value 1

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

RLV2

Reset limit value 2

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

*1:

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Table 1.6-4 Data Items of Sampling PI Controller Block (PI-HLD) (2/2)


Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

MH

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

Proportional band

0 to 1000 %

100 %

Integral time

0.1 to 10,000 seconds

20 seconds

TS

Sampling period

0 to 10,000 seconds

1 second

TC

Control time

1 to 10,000 seconds

1 second

GW

Gap width

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

DB

Deadband

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

CK

Compesation gain

-10.000 to 10.000

1.000

CB

Compesation bias

-----

0.000

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

CSW

Control switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

Data Item

Range (*2)

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Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

MSH

MV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

MSL

MV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

RSW

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the PI-HLD block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.7

PID Controller Block with Batch Switch


(PID-BSW)
PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW) outputs a high limit or low limit manipulated output signal unconditionally when control deviation becomes large. This block may be
applied to batch reactor temperature control process.

n PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW)


Connection

The PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW) prevent overshooting so that the process variable (PV) may be brought closer to the target value sooner.
The figure below shows a function block diagram of the PID Controller Block with Batch
Switch (PID-BSW):
SET

CSV
RSV

IN

Input
processing

RL1

TIN

(RLV1) (RLV2)

CAS
AUT
MAN

TSI

INT

(TSW)

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

RL2

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT

(PV, PV, MV, MV)

RMV

SUB

Figure 1.7-1 Function Block Diagram of PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW):
Table 1.7-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of PID Controller
Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW)
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

RL1

Reset signal 1 input

RL2

Reset signal 2 input

TIN

Tracking
signal input

x
x

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I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW)


The PID-BSW block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the PID-BSW block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PID-BSW block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of PID Controller Block with Batch


Switch (PID-BSW)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of PID Controller Block
with Batch Switch (PID-BSW).
Table 1.7-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of PID Controller Block with Batch Switch
(PID-BSW)
Control computation processing

Description

PID with two-level output


switching

Changes the manipulated output computational expression in accordance


with the value of control deviation. PID control computation is performed in a
steady state.

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control period
to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The control output actions include positional type and velocity type.

Control action direction

Switches the direction of the output action (reverse action or direct action) in
accordance with the increase or decrease in deviation.

Reset limit function

Performs correction computation using values read from the connection destinations of input terminals RL1 and RL2 during PID control computation.
This function prevents reset windup.

Process variable tracking

Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable (PV).

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Control computation processing

SEE
ALSO

Description

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits (SVH, SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to agree with the
remaining one.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it to change


abruptly when the block mode has been changed or when the manipulated
output value (MV) has been switched in a downstream block in cascade.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action.
This action takes place when the initialization manual condition becomes
satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current block
mode.
During control hold, the output action is performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is operating in the
CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued using values set
by the operator. This action takes place when the AUT fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer backup mode when an error has been detected at a supervisory computer while
the function block is operating in the RCAS or ROUT mode. This action
takes place when the computer failure condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically,


while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the automatic
operating mode.

PRD mode action

Outputs the cascade setpoint value (CSV) after converting it to a manipulated output value (MV) when the block mode has been changed to PRD.

For more information about control computation processing functions applied in PID Controller Block with
Batch Switch (PID-BSW), refer to:
1.4, Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks on page 1-26

n PID Control Computation with Two-Level Output Switching


In PID control computation with two-level output switching, the computational expression for a
manipulated output value (MV) is switched in accordance with the state of control deviation,
as shown below:

When the control deviation is negative and excessive.

When the control deviation is positive, or negative and extremely small.

The figure below shows an example of control action performed by the PID Controller Block
with Batch Switch (PID-BSW) when the control action direction is reverse:

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DL (deviation alarm setpoint)
LK (lockup setpoint)
SV
PV

BIAS (bias setpoint)


MH
MV
Time
(1)
(1)
(2)

(2)

(1)

(2)

When the control deviation is negative and excessive


When the control deviation is positive, or negative and extremely small

Figure 1.7-2 Example of Control Action (Reverse Action) Performed by PID Controller Block with
Batch Switch (PID-BSW)

Control Algorithms when the Deviation is Negative and Excessive

The following expressions represent the algorithms of calculating the manipulated output value when the process variable (PV) is smaller than the setpoint value minus deviation alarm
setpoint (SV-| DL |) value:

When the control action direction is reverse


Manipulated output value (MV)=Manipulated variable high-limit setpoint (MH)

When the control action direction is direct


Manipulated output value (MV)=Manipulated variable low-limit setpoint (ML)

When the deviation immediately after the start of batch operation exceeds the deviation alarm
setpoint, the PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW) outputs a manipulated output
value (MV) that is the same as the manipulated variable high-limit setpoint (MH) or manipulated variable low-limit setpoint (ML). As a result, the process variable quickly approaches the
setpoint value.

Control Algorithms when the Control Deviation is Positive, or Negative but


Small

The following expressions represent the algorithms of calculating the control output value
when the process variable (PV) is larger than the setpoint value minus deviation alarm setpoint (SV-| DL |) value:

When the control action direction is Reverse


Manipulated output value (MV)=Manipulated variable high-limit setpoint (MH)Bias setpoint (BIAS). PID control computation is performed by using the result obtained from the
above calculation as an initial value.

When the control action direction is Direct


Manipulated output value (MV)=Manipulated variable low-limit setpoint (ML)+Bias setpoint (BIAS)

PID control computation is performed by using the result obtained from the above calculation
as an initial value. When the deviation becomes smaller than the deviation limit range, the
PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW) assumes that the process is stabilized and
switches the control algorithm to PID control. At this time, output resumes to the manipulated
variable high-limit setpoint (MH) or manipulated variable low-limit setpoint (ML) by vanishing
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the bias setpoint (BIAS) value to prevent the manipulated output value (MV) from overshooting.
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the PID control algorithm.

PID Control Algorithm


Select one of the following algorithms:

Basic Type

Proportional PV Derivation Type PID Control (I-PID)

PV Derivative Type PID Control (PI-D)

Automatic Determination

Automatic Determination 2

The default is Automatic Determination 2.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about PID control algorithm, refer to:


nPID Control Computation on page 1-51

Lockup Function

Once the PID control action resumes, even when the deviation exceeds the deviation alarm
setpoint (DL), the manipulated output value (MV) does not immediately ramp to the manipulated variable high-limit setpoint (MH) or manipulated output low-limit setpoint (ML). This is
because of the lockup function.
When the following condition exists, the manipulated output value (MV) does not change to
the manipulated variable high-limit setpoint (MH) if the control action direction is Reverse, nor
to the manipulated variable low-limit setpoint (ML) if the control action direction is Direct:

Condition
PV<SV-| DL |-LK
LK: Lockup setpoint

Set Parameters of the PID Control Computation with Two-Level Output


Switching

The set parameters of the PID control computation with two-level output switching:

Proportional band (P)


0 to 1000 %.
When P = 0, the proportional action does not function but only the integral action is performed.
The proportional gain Kp is 1 when only the integral action is performed.

Integral time (I)


0.1 to 10000 seconds.

Derivative time (D)


0 to 10000 seconds.
When D=0, the derivative action does not function.

Deviation alarm setpoint (DL)


Engineering unit data between 0 and the PV scale span range limit.
The default is the scale span.

Bias setpoint (BIAS)


Engineering unit data within the MV scale span range.
The default is 0.
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Lockup setpoint (LK)


Engineering unit data within the PV scale span range.
The default is 0.

Manipulated variable high-limit setpoint (MH)


Engineering unit data within the MV scale range.
The default is the MV scales high limit.

Manipulated variable low-limit setpoint (ML)


Engineering unit data within the MV scale range.
The default is the MV scales low limit.

IMPORTANT
If the integral time of control block is set to zero or to a value beyond the range, the control
algorithm stops functioning. No process alarm or system alarm message is initiated for this
trouble. So that when using a general purpose calculation block or sequence table block to
set the value of integral time, it is necessary to enforce the value within the proper range and
to avoid it to be set to zero.

n Data Items - PID-BSW


Table 1.7-3 Data Items of PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Control deviation value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

MV engineering unit value

MSL

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

RLV1

Reset limit value 1

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

RLV2

Reset limit value 2

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

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Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

*1:

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Table 1.7-4 Data Items of PID Controller Block with Batch Switch (PID-BSW) (2/2)
Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

MH

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

Proportional band

0 to 1000 %

100 %

Integral time

0.1 to 10,000 seconds

20 seconds

Derivative time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

LK

Lockup setpoint

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

BIAS

Bias setpoint value

0 to (MSH - MSL)

0.0

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

CSW

Control switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

Data Item

Range (*2)

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Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

MSH

MV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

MSL

MV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

SL

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the PI-BSW block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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(ONOFF-E)>

1.8

Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block


(ONOFF), Enhanced Two-Position ON/OFF
Controller Block (ONOFF-E)
The Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF) performs control by ON/OFF action via
a single contact output. The Enhanced Two-Position ONOFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E)
functions the same but have the additional capability to connect to FF faceplate blocks and
fieldbus function blocks.

n Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF), Enhanced TwoPosition ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E)
Connection

The ONOFF and ONOFF-E (*1) blocks turn On or Off the contact output according to the
result in comparing the process variable (PV) and setpoint value (SV).
*1:

ONOFF-E block can be applied to all field control stations except standard PFCS. When using ONOFF-E block, it is necessary to add the option [DIOENH] on the [Constant] tab of the FCS properties sheet.

The figure below shows a function block diagram of the Two-Position ON/OFF Controller
Block (ONOFF or ONOFF-E) :
SET

CSV
RSV

IN

Input
processing

BIN
(VN)

CAS
AUT
MAN

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

INT

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT
RMV

(PV, PV)
SUB

Figure 1.8-1 Function Block Diagram of ONOFF, ONOFF-E Block

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF):
Table 1.8-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Two-Position
ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF):
I/O terminal

Connection method (*1)


Connection destination (*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

IM 33K03E22-50E

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I/O terminal

Connection method (*1)


Connection destination (*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

BIN

Compensation input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Enhanced Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E):
Table 1.8-2 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Enhanced TwoPosition ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E):
I/O terminal

Connection method (*1)


Connection destination (*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

BIN

Compensation input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF) and


Enhanced Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E)
The ONOFF and ONOFF-E blocks perform input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the ONOFF and ONOFF-E blocks are a periodic
startup. Selections available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include
the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

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(ONOFF-E)>

SEE
ALSO

1-78

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the ONOFF, ONOFF-E block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block


(ONOFF) and Enhanced Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of Two-Position ON/OFF
Controller Block (ONOFF or ONOFF-E):
Table 1.8-3 Control Computation Processing Functions of Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF) and Enhanced Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E)
Control computation processing

Description

ON/OFF two-position control

Compares the deviation with ON/OFF hysteresis and obtains a manipulated output value (MV).

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control


period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The available control output actions are of positional type only.

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the input signal or control output signal of PID computation when the controller block is operating automatically. Only input compensation can
be used.

I/O compensation

Input compensa- Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to the
tion
input signal of the PID control computation.

Process variable tracking

Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable
(PV).

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits (SVH,
SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to agree with
the remaining one.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control


action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition
becomes satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current


block mode.
During control hold, the output action is performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action.
This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is operating
in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued using
values set by the operator. This action takes place when the AUT fallback condition becomes satisfied.

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Control computation processing

SEE
ALSO

Description

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer


backup mode when an error has been detected at a supervisory computer while the function block is operating in the RCAS or ROUT
mode. This action takes place when the computer failure condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the
automatic operating mode.

For more information about the control computation processing functions applied in Two-Position ON/OFF
Controller Block (ONOFF and ONOFF-E), refer to:
1.4, Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks on page 1-26

Output Processing Specific to Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block


(ONOFF), Enhanced Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-E)
The ONOFF and ONOFF-E blocks perform two-position status output as output signal conversion.

TIP The output tracking of ONOFF-E block can be set on the function block detail builder in related to the settings
of output processing. The ONOFF block does not have the capability of output tracking.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the output tracking, refer to:


4.5, Output Tracking in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n ON/OFF Two-Position Control Computation


ON/OFF Hysteresis

The ON/OFF two-position control computation is a control algorithm of the Two-Position


ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF and ONOFF-E). This algorithm compares the deviation
(En=PVn-SVn) with positive or negative ON/OFF hysteresis and outputs the manipulated output value (MV) by 0 % or 100 % based on the comparison result.
The action of the control algorithm varies with the control action directions.

Control Algorithm in Direct Action


Performs computation that outputs the manipulated output value (MVn) by 100 % (ON) when
the deviation (En) exceeds the positive ON/OFF hysteresis value, and by 0 % (OFF) when the
deviation falls below the negative ON/OFF hysteresis value.

Control Algorithm in Reverse Action


Performs computation that outputs the manipulated output value (MVn) by 0 % (OFF) when
the deviation (En) exceeds the positive ON/OFF hysteresis value, and by 100 % (ON) when
the deviation falls below the negative ON/OFF hysteresis value.
The figure below shows an example of the two-position ON/OFF control action:

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(ONOFF-E)>
+
Deviation (En)

ON/OFF hysteresis

0
Time

Direct action

Contact output status

OFF

ON

OFF

Manipulated output value

0%

100 %

0%

ON

OFF

ON

100 %

0%

100 %

Reverse action Contact output status


Manipulated output value

Figure 1.8-2 Example of the Two-Position ON/OFF Control Action

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the ON/OFF hysteresis value.
ON/OFF Hysteresis: Engineering unit data within the PV scale span range.
The default is a value equivalent to 1.0 % of the PV scale span.

n Two-Position Status Output


The ONOFF and ONOFF-E blocks perform two-position status output as output signal conversion.
For the 2-position status output, a contact output (1 point) or a internal switch (1 point) designated to the OUT terminal is turned ON and OFF according to the manipulated output value
(MV).
The following table shows the relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) and
contact output status. Note that the manipulated output value (MV) is always expressed in
percentage (%).
Table 1.8-4 Relationship between Manipulated Output Value (MV) and Contact Output
Manipulated output value

0%

0.1 to 49.9 %

50 to 99.9 %

100 %

Contact output status

OFF

OFF

ON

ON

n Data Items - ONOFF, ONOFF-E


Table 1.8-5 Data Items of Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF or ONOFF-E) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM
AFLS

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

Alarm flashing status

-----

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Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range

Default (*2)

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

SV

Set value

CSV

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination


x

Engineering unit value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Control deviation value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

VN

Input compensation value

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

0 to 100 %

0%

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

0 to 100 %

0%

*1:

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SL: PV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Table 1.8-6 Data Items of Two-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF or ONOFF-E) (2/2)
Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

CK

Compensation gain

-10.000 to 10.000

1.000

CB

Compensation bias

-----

0.000

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

0 to 100 %

0%

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, x

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

0
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(ONOFF-E)>
Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

OPMK

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the ONOFF and ONOFF-E blocks, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1-83

(ONOFF-GE)>

1.9

Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block


(ONOFF-G), Enhanced Three-Position
ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE)
The Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G) performs control by ON and OFF
actions via two contact outputs. The Enhanced Three-Position ONOFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE) functions the same but have the additional capability to connect to FF faceplate
blocks and fieldbus function blocks. Moreover, the output terminals for the two contacts can
be defined separately so that the two irrelevant channels can be used.

n Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G), Enhanced


Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE)
Connection

The ONOFF-G and ONOFF-GE (*1) Blocks change the ON/OFF status of two contact outputs depending on whether a process variable (PV) is in the Low/Middle/High position compared to a setpoint value (SV).
*1:

ONOFF-GE block can be applied to all field control stations except standard PFCS. When using ONOFF-GE block, it is necessary to add the option [DIOENH] on the [Constant] tab of the FCS properties sheet.

The figure below shows the ONOFF-G Block diagram.


SET

CSV
RSV

IN

Input
processing

BIN
(VN)

CAS
AUT
MAN

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

INT

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT
RMV

(PV, PV)
SUB

Figure 1.9-1 Function Block Diagram of Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G):
Table 1.9-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Three-Position
ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G):
I/O terminal
IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block
x

x
x

x
x

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(ONOFF-GE)>

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

I/O terminal
SUB

Auxiliary
output

BIN

Compensation input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

The figure below shows the ONOFF-GE Block diagram.


SET

CSV
RSV
Input
processing

IN

BIN
(VN)

CAS
AUT
MAN

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

INT

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT1

ROUT
OUT2

RMV

(PV, PV)
SUB

Figure 1.9-2 Function Block Diagram of Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Enhanced Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE):
Table 1.9-2 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Enhanced ThreePosition ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE):
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT1

Manipulated output

OUT2

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

BIN

Compensation input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

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<1.9 Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G), Enhanced Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block

1-85

(ONOFF-GE)>

IMPORTANT
If the OUT1 terminal and the OUT2 terminal are connected to different output modules or if
OUT1 terminal and the OUT2 terminal are connected to FF faceplate blocks or fieldbus function blocks, the simultaneity of the two outputs are not guaranteed.

n Function of Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G),


Enhanced Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-GE)
The ONOFF-G and ONOFF-GE blocks perform input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the ONOFF-G and ONOFF-GE blocks are a periodic startup. Selections available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include
the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the ONOFF-G and ONOFF-GE blocks, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Three-Position ON/OFF Controller


Block (ONOFF-G), Enhanced Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block
(ONOFF-GE)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Three-Position
ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G, ONOFF-GE):
Table 1.9-3 Control Computation Processing Functions of Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block
(ONOFF-G, ONOFF-GE)
Control computation processing

Description

ON/OFF three-position control

Compares the deviation with ON/OFF hysteresis and obtains a manipulated output value (MV).

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control


period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The available control output actions are of positional type only.

Control action direction

Switches the direction of the output action (reverse action or direct action) in accordance with the increase or decrease in deviation.

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the input signal or control output signal of PID computation when the controller block is operating automatically. Only input compensation can
be used.

I/O compensation

Input compensa- Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to the
tion
input signal of the PID control computation.

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(ONOFF-GE)>
Control computation processing

SEE
ALSO

Description

Process variable tracking

Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable
(PV).

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits (SVH,
SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to agree with
the remaining one.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control


action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition
becomes satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current


block mode. During control hold, the output action is performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action.
This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is operating
in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued using
values set by the operator. This action takes place when the AUT fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer


backup mode when an error has been detected at a supervisory computer while the function block is operating in the RCAS or ROUT
mode. This action takes place when the computer failure condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the
automatic operating mode.

For more information about the control computation processing functions applied in Three-Position ON/OFF
Controller Block (ONOFF, ONOFF-GE) , refer to:
1.4, Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks on page 1-26

Output Processing Specific to Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block


(ONOFF-G), Enhanced Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFFGE)
The ONOFF-G and ONOFF-GE blocks perform three-position status output as output signal
conversion.

TIP The output tracking of ONOFF-GE block can be set on the function block detail builder in related to the settings of output processing. The ONOFF-G block does not have the capability of output tracking.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the output tracking, refer to:


4.5, Output Tracking in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n ON/OFF Three-Position Control Computation


ON/OFF Hysteresis

The ON/OFF three-position control computation is a control algorithm of the 3-Position


ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G, ONOFF-GE). This algorithm compares the deviation
(En=PVn-SVn) with neutral status range (DB) that includes an ON/OFF hysteresis and outputs
the manipulated output value (MV) by 0 %, 50 % or 100 % based on the comparison result.

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(ONOFF-GE)>

The action of the control algorithm varies with the control action directions.
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the ON/OFF hysteresis.
ON/OFF Hysteresis: Engineering unit data within the PV scale span range.
The default is the value equivalent to 2.0 % of the PV scale span.

Control Algorithm in Direct Action


The figure below shows the ON/OFF hysteresis when the control action direction is direct:
ON/OFF hysteresis (HYS)

Neutral status range (DB)


(3)

(4)

(2)

(5)
Time
Deviation (En)

(1)
(6)

Direct action

Contact 1 output status

OFF

Contact 2 output status

ON

Manipulated output value

0%

ON

OFF

OFF
50 %

100 %

ON
50 %

0%

Manipulated output value (MV) when the deviation (En) is increasing


(1) MV=0 %: En<-(| DB |-HYS)
(2) MV=50 %: -(| DB |-HYS)En<| DB |
(3) MV=100 %: | DB |En
Manipulated output value (MV) when the deviation (En) is decreasing
(1) MV=100 %: | DB |-HYS<En
(2) MV=50 %: -| DB |<En| DB |-HYS
(3) MV=0 %: En-| DB |

Figure 1.9-3 ON/OFF Hysteresis in Direct Action

Control Algorithm in Reverse Action


The figure below shows the ON/OFF hysteresis when the control action direction is reverse:

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(ONOFF-GE)>
ON/OFF hysteresis (HYS)

Neutral status range (DB)


(3)

(4)

(2)

(5)
Time
Deviation (En)

(1)
(6)

Reverse action

Contact 1 output status

ON

OFF

ON

Contact 2 output status

OFF

ON

OFF

Manipulated output value 100 %

50 %

0%

50 %

100 %

Manipulated output value (MV) when the deviation (En) is increasing


(1) MV=100 %: En<-(| DB |-HYS)
(2) MV=50 %: -(| DB |-HYS)En<| DB |
(3) MV=0 %: | DB |En
Manipulated output value (MV) when the deviation (En) is decreasing
(1) MV=0 %: | DB |-HYS<En
(2) MV=50 %: -| DB |<En| DB |-HYS
(3) MV=100 %: En-| DB |

Figure 1.9-4 ON/OFF Hysteresis in Reverse Action

Set Parameter of ON/OFF Three-Position Control Computation


The parameter of the Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G, ONOFF-GE):
Neutral status range (DB): Engineering unit data within the PV scale range.
The default is 0.

n Three-Position Status Output


The ONOFF-G and ONOFF-GE blocks perform three-position status output as output signal
conversion.
In the 3-position status output, the contact output (2 points) are turned ON or OFF according
to the manipulated output value (MV).
The following table shows the contact output status in relationship to the manipulated output
value (MV) at 0 %, 50 %, 100 % and other instances. Note that the manipulated output value
(MV) is always expressed in percentage (%).
Table 1.9-4 Relationship of the Manipulated Output Value (MV) and Contact Output Status (At 0 %, 50
% and 100 %)
Manipulated output value

0%

50 %

100 %

Contact 1 output status

OFF

OFF

ON

Contact 2 output status

ON

OFF

OFF

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(ONOFF-GE)>

Table 1.9-5 Relationship of the Manipulated Output Value (MV) and Contact Output Status (Not at the 0
%, 50 % and 100 %)
Manipulated output value

0 to 24.9 %

25 to 74.9 %

75 to 100 %

Contact 1 output status

OFF

OFF

ON

Contact 2 output status

ON

OFF

OFF

When connect process I/O contacts to the three-position output, only one contact number
need to be defined to the OUT terminal of the ONOFF-G block. This number will become the
first contact output of the ONOFF-G block. Its succeeding number contact will be automatically assigned to be the second contact output of the ONOFF-G block. When define the first contact point, make sure that the succeeding contact is not assigned for other contact output
module.
When the ONOFF-GE block is configured for tree-position status outputs, the OUT1 terminal
of the ONOFF-GE block can be designated with a contact channel number as the first output
and the OUT2 terminal can be designated with a different contact channel number as the second output.

n Data Items - ONOFF-G, ONOFF-GE


Table 1.9-6 Data Items of Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G, ONOFF-GE) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Control deviation value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

VN

Input compensation value

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

0 to 100 %

0%

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

0 to 100 %

0%

*1:
*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Range

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SL: PV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT
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1-90

(ONOFF-GE)>
Table 1.9-7 Data Items of Three-Position ON/OFF Controller Block (ONOFF-G, ONOFF-GE) (2/2)
Data Item

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range

Default

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

SVH

Setpoint high-limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low-limit

SL to SH

SL

DB

Neutral status range

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

CK

Compensation gain

-10.000 to 10.000

1.000

CB

Compensation bias

-----

0.000

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

0 to 100 %

0%

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted

For more information about valid block modes of the ONOFF-G, ONOFF-GE blocks, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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<1.10 Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)>

1.10

Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller


Block (PID-TP)

The Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP) changes ON time of contact output proportional to the result of the PID control computation. This block is used for temperature control of an electric furnace.

n Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)


Connection

Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP) changes ON/OFF time ratio in proportion to the manipulated output value (MV) obtained by PID control computation to the overall
ON/OFF period. Only the basic scan-cycle can be applied to PID-TP.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller
Block (PID-TP):
SET

CSV
RSV

IN

Input
processing

BIN

RL2

INT

(VN) (RLV1) (RLV2)

CAS
AUT
MAN

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

RL1

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT

(PV, PV, MV, MV)

RMV

SUB

Figure 1.10-1 Function Block Diagram of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP):
Table 1.10-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP):
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

RL1

Reset signal 1 input

RL2

Reset signal 2 input

x
x

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Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

I/O terminal
BIN

Compensation input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)


The PID-TP block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the PID-TP block is a periodic startup. Moreover, only
the basic scan period can be selected as the scan period to execute the periodic startup.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PID-TP block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller


Block (PID-TP)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP):
Table 1.10-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller
Block (PID-TP)
Control computation processing

Description

Performs integral actions in accordance with changes in the setPV proportional and derivative PID conpoint value (SV). This ensures stable control characteristics even
trol
when the setpoint value changes abruptly. (*1)
Changes the proportional gain in accordance with the degree of
deviation so that the relationship between the deviation and manipulated output change (MV) becomes nonlinear.

Non-linear gain
Gap action
Non-linear gain

Lowers the proportional gain to moderate control effects when the


deviation is within the gap width (GW) range.

Squared deviation Changes the proportional gain according to the degree of deviaaction
tion when the deviation is within the gap width (GW) range.

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The control
output actions are of positional type only. (*2)

Control action direction

Switches the direction of the output action (reverse action or direct


action) in accordance with the increase or decrease in deviation.

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Control computation processing
Reset limit function

Performs correction computation using values read from the connection destinations of input terminals RL1 and RL2 during PID
control computation. This function prevents reset windup.

Deadband action

Adjusts the manipulated output change (MV) to 0 when the deviation is within the deadband range, in order to stop the manipulated output value (MV) from changing.

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the
input signal or control output signal of PID computation when the
controller block is operating automatically.

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to
the input signal of the PID control computation.

Output compensa- Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the
tion
output signal of the PID control computation.
Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable
(PV).

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits
(SVH, SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to agree
with the remaining one.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual
condition is established.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current block mode.
During control hold, the output action is performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is
established.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is operating in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued using values set by the operator. This action takes place when
the AUT fallback condition is established.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer backup mode when an error is detected by supervisory computer while the function block is operating in the RCAS or ROUT
mode. This action takes place when the computer failure condition
is established.

Interlock on block mode change

Stops the automatic control action of function blocks. And prevents


the function blocks currently operating in manual mode from
changing to automatic mode.

*2:

ALSO

Input compensation

Process variable tracking

*1:

SEE

Description

On FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS, the PID control algorithm can be selected on the Function Block Detail
Builder. The default is PV proportional and derivative type PID control (I-PD).
On FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS, the PID output action can be selected as Velocity Type on the Function
Block Detail Builder. However, the default is Positional Type.

For more information about control computation processing functions applied in the Time-Proportioning
ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP), refer to:
1.4, Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks on page 1-26

Output Processing Specific to Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller


Block (PID-TP)
The PID-TP block performs time-proportioning ON/OFF output as output signal conversion.

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<1.10 Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)>

n PV Proportional and Derivative Type PID Control (I-PD)


The PV proportional and derivative type PID control algorithm (I-PI) is a control algorithm of
the Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP).
This algorithm performs only integral actions when the setpoint value changes, and ensures
stable control characteristics even when the setpoint value changes abruptly by a numerical
value entry.
At the same time, the algorithm ensures proper control in response to the characteristic
changes occurring in the controlled process, load variations and disturbances by performing
proportional, derivative and integral Control Action accordingly.

Computational Expression of the PV Proportional and Derivative Type of


PID Control

The computational expression of the PV proportional and derivative type of PID control:
MVn=Kp Ks PVn+

T
TD
En+
(PVn)
TI
T

PVn : Process variable change PVn=PVn-PVn-1

Set Parameters of the PV Proportional and Derivative Type of PID Control

The parameters the PV proportional and derivative type of PID control (I-PID):

Proportional band (P)


0 to 1000 %
When P=0, only the integral action is performed.
When P=0, the proportional gain Kp=1.

Integral time (I)


0.1 to 10000 seconds

Derivative time (D)


0 to 10000 seconds
No derivative action is performed when D=0.

IMPORTANT
If the integral time of control block is set to zero or to a value beyond the range, the control
algorithm stops functioning. No process alarm or system alarm message is initiated for this
trouble. So that when using a general purpose calculation block or sequence table block to
set the value of integral time, it is necessary to enforce the value within the proper range and
to avoid it to be set to zero.

n Control Algorithms Other Than PV Proportional and Derivative (IPD) : FFCS Series/KFCS2/KFCS/LFCS2/LFCS
PID Control Algorithm

For control computation, the PID-TP block holds the same control algorithms as a PID controller block. The algorithms are:

PV proportional and derivative type PID control (I-PD)

PV derivative type PID control (PI-D)

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Basic type PID control (PID)

Automatic determination type 2

Automatic determination type

The control algorithm can be specified on the Function Block Detail Builder:
Choose one from the followings.

PV proportional and derivative type PID control (I-PD)

PV derivative type PID control (PI-D)

Basic type PID control (PID)

Automatic determination type 2

Automatic determination type

The default is "PV proportional and derivative type PID control (I-PD)."
When the block mode of the PID Controller Block is remote cascade (RCAS), the PID control
algorithm [Automatic determination] and [Automatic determination 2] will act as follows:

SEE

ALSO

Automatic determination type: Same actions as in the cascade (CAS) mode.

Automatic determination type 2: Same actions as in the automatic (AUT) mode.

For more information about PV proportional and derivative type PID control (I-PD) algorithm, refer to:
nPV Proportional and Derivative Type PID Control (I-PD) on page 1-94
For more information about the control algorithms other than PV proportional and derivative type PID control
(I-PD), refer to:
nPID Control Computation on page 1-51

n Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Output


Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Period

The PID-TP block performs time-proportioning ON/OFF output as output signal conversion.
In the time-proportioning ON/OFF output, a contact output (1 point) defined to the OUT terminal is turned ON for the period of time proportioning to the manipulated output value (MV)
within the ON/OFF period.
Proportional to manipulated output value (MV)
ON
OFF
Time
ON/OFF period (constant)
On time (sec.) = ON/OFF period (sec.)

Output value (MV value) (%)


100 (%)

Figure 1.10-2 Operation of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Output

The time-proportioning ON/OFF output is always off against 0 % and on against 100 % of the
manipulated output value (MV) respectively. For instance, if the ON/OFF period is 10 seconds
and manipulated output value (MV) is 80 %, the ON time will be 8 seconds.
The time-proportioning ON/OFF period is set through the Function Block Detail Builder.
Time-proportioning ON/OFF Period: 1.00 to 256.00 seconds
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<1.10 Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)>

Default is 1.00 second.


If there are multiple PID-TP blocks, their simultaneous turning on at the beginning of the
ON/OFF period will cause a large fluctuation in the load of power supply for the final control
element (such as heaters). To reduce such load fluctuation, the phases of PID-TP blocks
ON/OFF outputs are automatically shifted.

Phasing the ON/OFF period of the function blocks. The phasing is performed according
to the internal block numbers so as to prevent the multiple blocks ON/OFF in the same
phase (*1).

Phasing the ON/OFF period of the I/O modules. For the time-proportioning ON/OFF
pulse period in the Details Setting dialogue box of IOM Builder, set the same value as
the time-proportioning ON/OFF period specified with Function Block Detail Builder. In
addition, specify Operation start offset in the Details Setting dialogue box of IOM Builder so as to prevent a heavy load caused by multiple outputs ON/OFF in the same period
(*2).

*1:
*2:

The function is supported in SFCS and PFCS


The function is supported in FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS

IMPORTANT
After FCS initial start, the PID-TP MV will be forced to 0 (MSL). The MV saved by [Save tuning parameter] command will be ignored.

n Data Items - PID-TP


Table 1.10-3 Data Items of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Control deviation value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

VN

Input compensation value

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

0 to 100 %

0%

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

0 to 100 %

0%

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

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<1.10 Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)>


Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

RLV1

Reset limit value1

0 to 100 %

0%

RLV2

Reset limit value 2

0 to 100 %

0%

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

*1:

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Table 1.10-4 Data Items of Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP) (2/2)
Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

MH

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

0 to 100 %

100 %

ML

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

0 to 100 %

0%

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

Proportional band

1 to 1000 %

100 %

Integral time

0.1 to 10,000 seconds

20 seconds

Derivative time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

GW

Gap width

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

DB

Deadband

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

CK

Compensation gain

-10.000 to 10.000

1.000

CB

Compensation bias

-----

0.000

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

0 to 100 %

0%

CSW

Control switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

0 to 100 %

100 %

OPLO

Output low-limit index

0 to 100 %

0%

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

Data Item

Range

IM 33K03E22-50E

Default

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<1.10 Time-Proportioning ON/OFF Controller Block (PID-TP)>


Data Item

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range

Default

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted

For more information about valid block modes of the PID-TP block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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<1.11 PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR)>

1.11

PD Controller Block with Manual Reset


(PD-MR)

PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR) performs proportional-derivative (PD) control
function. This block may be applied to programmed temperature control process.

n PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR)


Connection

The PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR) performs proportional (P) and derivative
(D) control, while the integral (I) may be manually set to be applied to the control function.
In programmed temperature control process, operating conditions do not remain the same
throughout the process time. For example, a chemical process is accompanied by momentary
generations of intense heat. In this case, among all PID actions of the controller block the integral (I) actions may be weakened for a specific period of time during operation so that control is performed only by proportional and derivative (PD) actions. In this type of process, it is
necessary to set a wide proportional band, as a long dead time or large process time constant
tends to cause hunting if an integral (I) action is performed.
By performing only proportional-derivative (PD) actions, the proportional band (P) can be narrowed. In addition, overshooting can be inhibited by shift the control phase by derivative (D)
actions to achieve the better control result.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of PD Controller Block with Manual Reset
(PD-MR):
SET

CSV
RSV

IN

Input
processing

BIN
(VN)

CAS
AUT
MAN

TSI

INT

(TSW)

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

TIN

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT

(PV, PV, MV, MV)

RMV

SUB

Figure 1.11-1 Function Block Diagram of PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR):
Table 1.11-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of PD Controller
Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR)
I/O terminal
IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block
x

x
x

x
x

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<1.11 PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR)>

I/O terminal
SUB

Auxiliary
output

BIN

Compensation input

TIN

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR)


The PD-MR block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the PD-MR block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PD-MR block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of PD Controller Block with Manual Reset


(PD-MR)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the PD Controller
Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR):
Table 1.11-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of PD Controller Block with Manual Reset
(PD-MR)
Control computation processing

Description

PD control with manual reset

Performs PD actions. The reset value (MR) is set manually.

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The available control output actions are of positional type only.

Control action direction

Switches the direction of the output action (reverse action or direct


action) in accordance with the increase or decrease in deviation.

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<1.11 PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR)>


Control computation processing

ALSO

Description

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside to the
input signal or control output signal of PID computation when the
controller block is operating automatically. Only input compensation can be used.

I/O compensation

Input compensa- Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to
tion
the input signal of the PID control computation.

Process variable tracking

Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process variable
(PV).

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits
(SVH, SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to agree
with the remaining one.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it to


change abruptly when the block mode has been changed or when
the manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in a downstream block in cascade.

Bumpless switching

SEE

1-101

Balance action

Prevents abrupt changes in the manipulated output value (MV) by


initializing the balance term in the manipulated output computational expression.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual
condition becomes satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current block mode.
During control hold, the output action is performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action.
This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes
satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is operating in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued using values set by the operator. This action takes place when
the AUT fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer backup mode when an error has been detected at a supervisory computer while the function block is operating in the RCAS or
ROUT mode. This action takes place when the computer failure
condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the automatic operating mode.

PRD mode action

Outputs the cascade setpoint value (CSV) after converting it to a


manipulated output value (MV) when the block mode has been
changed to PRD.

For more information about the control computation processing available with the PD Controller Block with
Manual Reset (PD-MR), refer to:
1.4, Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks on page 1-26

n PD Control with Manual Reset


The PD control with manual reset performs proportional and derivative (PD) actions. The reset value (MR) must be set manually.

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Computational Expression of the PD Control with Manual Reset

The computational expression of the PD control with manual reset:


CALCn=Kp Ks

En+

TD
T

PVn +MR+BLn

En=PVn-SVn
Kp=

100

Ks=

PB
MSH-MSL
SH-SL

BLn= 1-

T
Tbl

BLn-1

CALCn: Calculated output value


Kp:

Proportional gain

Ks:

Scale conversion coefficient

En:

Deviation

PVn:

Process variable (engineering unit)

SVn:

Setpoint value (engineering unit)

PVn:

Process variable change PVn=PVn-PVn-1

MR:

Manual reset value

BLn:

Balance term. A correction variable used for bumpless switching from MAN to AUT.

TD:

Derivative time

T:

Control period

PB:

Proportional band (%)

Tbl:

Balance rate time

SH:

PV scale high limit

SL:

PV scale low limit

MSH:

MV scale high limit

MSL:

MV scale low limit

In an automatic mode (AUT, CAS or RCAS), the calculated output value (CALCn) is converted
into a manipulated output value (MV) through output processing.

Set Parameters of the PD Control with Manual Reset

The parameters of the PD control with manual reset:

Proportional band (P)


1 to 1000 %

Derivative (D)
0 to 1000 seconds
When D=0, the proportional action does not function.
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<1.11 PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR)>

Manual reset value (MR)


Engineering unit data within the MV scale range

Balance rate time (I)


0.1 to 10000 seconds
The balance rate time (Tbl) is set to the parameter I on operation and monitoring functions.

IMPORTANT
If the balance rate time of control block is set to zero or to a value beyond the range, the control algorithm stops functioning. No process alarm or system alarm message is initiated for
this trouble. So that when using a general purpose calculation block or sequence table block
to set the value of balance rate time, it is necessary to enforce the value within the proper
range and to avoid it to be set to zero.

n Bumpless Switching
The bumpless switching function switches the function block mode or switches the cascade
connected downstream blocks manipulated output value (MV) without causing its own manipulated output value (MV) to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless switch).
The PD Controller Block with Manual Reset performs bumpless switching based on balance
action.
The PD Controller Block with Manual Reset performs bumpless switching of the block mode
from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT), by using a value obtained by the following expression
as the initial value of the balance term (BLn0):
BLn0=MV-Kp Ks

En+

TD
T

PVn

-MR

MV : Output in the manual mode


The figure below shows the balance action of the PD Controller Block with Manual Reset:
MV

BLn0
MR

Time
MAN

AUT

Figure 1.11-2 Bumpless Switching by PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (Balance Action)

When the block mode is not remote output (ROUT) or out of service (O/S), the remote manipulated output value (RMV) tracks the manipulated output value (MV).

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n Data Items - PD-MR


Table 1.11-3 Data Items of PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Control deviation value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

VN

Input compensation value

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

MV engineering unit value

MSL

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

CALC

Calculated output value

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

*1:
*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Range (*2)

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

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Table 1.11-4 Data Items of PD Controller Block with Manual Reset (PD-MR) (2/2)
Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

MH

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

Proportional band

1 to 1000 %

100 %

Balancing rate time

0.1 to 10,000 seconds

10 seconds

Derivative time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

MR

Manual reset value

MSL to MSH

MSL

CK

Compensation gain

-10.000 to 10.000

1.000

CB

Compensation bias

-----

0.000

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

MSH

MV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

MSL

MV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

Data Item

*1:
*2:

SEE
ALSO

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the PD-MR block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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<1.12 Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)>

1.12

Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)

Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND) may be applied to the multiple elements flow control
(blending control) to maintain the totalized flow value of each blending component at a constant ratio (blending ratio).

n Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)


Connection

The figure below shows a function block diagram of Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND):
SET

CSV
RSV
Input
processing

IN

TIN

INT

(TSW)

CAS
AUT
MAN

SV

RCAS

MAN

Control
computation
processing

PV

TSI

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT

(PV, PV, MV, MV)

RMV

SUB

Figure 1.12-1 Function Block Diagram of Blending PI controller Block (PI-BLEND)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND):
Table 1.12-1 Connection Methods and Connected Destinations of the I/O Terminals of Blending PI
Controller Block (PI-BLEND)
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data referTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ence
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

TIN

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

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n Function of Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)


The PI-BLEND block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the PI-BLEND block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE

ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PI-BLEND block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Blending PI Controller Block (PIBLEND)


The table below shows the control computation processing functions of Blending PI Controller
Block (PI-BLEND):
Table 1.12-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of Blending PI controller Block (PI-BLEND)
Control computation processing

Description

PI control based on cumulative deviation

Performs proportional (P) control and integral (I) actions


based on cumulative deviation, and obtains a manipulated
output value (MV) and manipulated output change (MV).

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each


control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV).
The control output actions include positional type and velocity type.

Control action direction

Switches the direction of the output action (reverse action or


direct action) in accordance with the increase or decrease in
deviation.

Process variable tracking

Causes the setpoint value (SV) to agree with the process


variable (PV).

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low


limits (SVH, SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to


agree with the remaining one.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing


it to change abruptly when the block mode has been
changed or when the manipulated output value (MV) has
been switched in a downstream block in cascade.

Bumpless switching

Balance action

Prevents abrupt changes in the manipulated output value


(MV) by initializing the balance term in the manipulated output computational expression.

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<1.12 Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)>


Control computation processing

SEE
ALSO

Description

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend


the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition becomes satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining


the current block mode.
During control hold, the output action is performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control


action. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is


operating in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action is continued using values set by the operator. This action takes place when the AUT fallback condition becomes
satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the


computer backup mode when an error has been detected at
a supervisory computer while the function block is operating
in the RCAS or ROUT mode. This action takes place when
the computer failure condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks
from changing to the automatic operating mode.

For more information about the control computation processing functions applied in Blending PI Controller
Block (PI-BLEND), refer to:
1.4, Control Computation Processing Common to Controller Blocks on page 1-26

Alarm Processing Specific to Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)


The cumulative deviation alarm check and control error alarm check, which are two of the
alarm checks performed by the PI-BLEND block, are specific to this function block.

n PI Control Based on Cumulative Deviation


The Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND) performs proportional and integral actions
based on cumulative deviation. The cumulative deviation value (DVn) is obtained by totalizing
deviations of the process variable (PVn) from setpoint value (SVn) for each scan period and
performing time scale-conversion on the totalized deviation.

Computational Expression of the PI Control Algorithm Based on


Cumulative Deviation
DVRn=DVRn-1+(PVn-SVn)
DVn=
DVRn

DVRn
TK

TS

: Raw cumulative deviation value

DVRn-1 : Previous raw cumulative deviation value


DVn

: Cumulative deviation value

TS

: Scan period

TK

: Time scale conversion coefficient

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1-109

The time scale conversion is to convert the raw cumulative deviation value that represents a
totalized deviation value, from a value of flowrate unit (e.g., m3/h) to that in a weight or volume unit (e.g., m3). The time scale conversion coefficient (TK) used in the above computational expression is a value in seconds representing the unit time of the flowrate unit. For example, if the unit of the process variable (PV) is m3/h, set 3600 as a time scale conversion
coefficient (TK).
The computational expression of the control algorithm used by the Blending PI Controller
Block.
MVn =

Kp Ks
8

T En +

T
TI

ESn +BLn

En= PVn-SVn
Kp=

Ks=

100
PB
MSH-MSL
SH-SL

Kp

: Proportional gain

Ks

: Scale conversion coefficient

PVn : Process variable (engineering unit)


SVn : Setpoint value (engineering unit)
ESn : Control cumulative deviation (A DV value limited by DL)
BLn

: Balance term. A correction variable used for bumpless switching from MAN to AUT.

: Control period

TI

: Integral time

PB

: Proportional band (%)

SH

: PV scale high limit

SL

: PV scale low limit

MSH : MV scale high limit


MSL : MV scale low limit

Control Cumulative Deviation Value (ESn) Used in the PI Control Algorithm


Based on Cumulative Deviation

The control cumulative deviation value (ESn) used for PI control computation is equivalent to
the cumulative deviation value (DVn) limited by the deviation alarm setpoint (DL).

When DVn| DL |
ESn= +| DL | TK

When-| DL |<DVn<| DL |
ESn=DVRn TS

When DVn-| DL |
ESn=-| DL | TK

The cumulative deviation value (DVn) is reset to 0 in the following cases:

When the cumulative deviation reset switch (RST) is set to 1.


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When Yes is specified for process variable tracking and the block mode changes from
manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT).

When the cumulative deviation reset switch (RST) is set to 1, it returns to 0 automatically
when resetting is complete.

Set Parameters of the PI Control Algorithm Based on Cumulative Deviation

The parameters of the PI control algorithm based on cumulative deviation:

Time scale conversion coefficient (TK)


1 to 100,000

Proportional band (P)


1 to 1000 %
When P = 0, only the integral action is performed.
The proportional gain Kp is 1 when only the integral action is performed.

Integral time (I)


0.1 to 10000 seconds.

Ramp constant (RP)


Set engineering unit data within the scale span range of the manipulated output value
(MV).
The default is the MV scale span.

IMPORTANT
If the integral time of control block is set to zero or to a value beyond the range, the control
algorithm stops functioning. No process alarm or system alarm message is initiated for this
trouble. So that when using a general purpose calculation block or sequence table block to
set the value of integral time, it is necessary to enforce the value within the proper range and
to avoid it to be set to zero.

n Bumpless Switching
The bumpless switching function switches the function block mode or switches the downstream blocks manipulated output value (MV) without causing its own manipulated output value (MV) to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless change).
The Blending PI Controller Block performs bumpless switching based on balance action.
The Blending PI Controller Block performs bumpless switching of the block mode from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT), by using a value obtained by the following expression as the
initial value of the balance term (BLn0):
BLn0=-

Kp Ks
8

T En +

T
TI

ESn

MV : Output in the manual mode


When the mode switches to automatic (AUT), the balance term (BLn) approaches 0 with
each control period for the increment of ramp constant, until it finally reaches 0.
The figure below shows the balance action of Blending PI Controller Block:

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<1.12 Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)>

Control period

BLn
BLn0

Ramp constant (RP)


Time
0
MAN

AUT

Figure 1.12-2 Bumpless Switching by Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND) (Balance Action)

When the block mode is not remote output (ROUT) or out of service (O/S), the remote manipulated output value (RMV) tracks the manipulated output value (MV).

n Cumulative Deviation Alarm Check


Accumulated Deviation Alarm

The cumulative deviation alarm check is a function that determines whether the absolute value of the cumulative deviation (DV) exceeds the absolute value of the cumulative deviation
alarm setpoint value (DL).
When it is determined that the absolute value of the cumulative deviation (DV) exceeds the
absolute value of the cumulative deviation alarm setpoint value (DL) in the positive direction,
a positive direction cumulative deviation alarm (DV+) is activated. Similarly, when it exceeds
the setpoint in the negative direction, a negative direction cumulative deviation alarm (DV-) is
activated.
When an alarm has occurred, if the cumulative deviation (DV) absolute value drops lower
than the cumulative deviation alarm setpoint (DL) absolute value minus the alarm hysteresis
value (HYS), the alarm is returned to normal state.
DV
| DL |

HYS
Time

| DL |

Conditions causing an alarm


DV> | DL |
DV< | DL |
Conditions causing recovery from an alarm
DV | DL | HYS
DV | DL | +HYS

HYS

DV

Figure 1.12-3 Actions of Cumulative Deviation Alarm Check

The cumulative deviation alarm check type, cumulative deviation alarm setpoint (DL), cumulative deviation range (DV) and the alarm hysteresis value can be set.

Cumulative Deviation Alarm Check Types

The cumulative deviation alarm check type is set with the Function Block Detail Builder. The
default is detection of both directions.

Detection of both directions


Monitors the deviation of both the positive and negative directions.

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Detection of single direction


Monitors the deviation of either the positive or negative direction only.

No alarm
Detection is not performed.

When single direction is selected for the cumulative deviation alarm check type, only the deviation in the positive direction is monitored when the cumulative deviation alarm setpoint (DL)
has a plus sign, and only the deviation in the negative direction is monitored when the cumulative deviation alarm setpoint has a minus sign.

Cumulative Deviation Alarm Setpoint (DL)


The cumulative deviation alarm setpoint is set by the operation and monitoring function.
Cumulative deviation alarm setpoint:

Engineering unit data within the DV scale span


range
Default is DV scale span

Cumulative Deviation Range

DV Range

The cumulative deviation range can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Cumulative deviation range: Set engineering unit data (absolute value)
5 significant figures

Alarm Hysteresis Value


The alarm hysteresis value can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Hysteresis:

Engineering unit data within the range of 0 to DV scale span, or percentage data for the DV scale span
When specifying percentage data, add % after the numeric value.
Default is 1.0 %.

n Control Error Alarm Check


Alarm for Control Error

In the control error alarm check it is determined whether or not the absolute value of the cumulative deviation (DV), which may continue to increase even after the activation of the cumulative deviation alarm, exceeds the absolute value of the control error alarm setpoint value
(VL).
If it is determined that the absolute value of the cumulative deviation (DV) exceeds the absolute value of the control error alarm setpoint value (VL), a positive direction control error alarm
(HDV) is activated if the deviation is in the positive direction. And, when the deviation is in the
negative direction, a negative direction control error alarm (LDV) occurs.
When an alarm has occurred, if the cumulative deviation (DV) absolute value drops lower
than the control error alarm setpoint (VL) absolute value minus the hysteresis value, the alarm
is returned to normal state.

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<1.12 Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)>


Cumulative deviation (DV)

Control error alarm setpoint


| VL |
| DL |

SV

Cumulative deviation alarm


setpoint

0
Deviation

PV

| DL |
| VL |

Figure 1.12-4 Actions of Control Error Alarm Check

The control error alarm check type, control error alarm setpoint (VL) and the alarm hysteresis
value can be set.

Control Error Alarm Check Types

The control error alarm check type is set with the Function Block Detail Builder. The default is
detection of both directions.

Detection of both directions


Monitors the deviation of both the positive and negative directions.

Detection of single direction


Monitors the deviation of either the positive or negative direction only.

No alarm
Detection is not performed.

When single direction is selected for the control error alarm check type, only the deviation in
the positive direction is monitored when the control error alarm setpoint (DL) has a plus sign,
and only the deviation in the negative direction is monitored when the control error alarm setpoint has a minus sign.

Control Error Alarm Setpoint (VL)


The control error alarm setpoint is set by the operation and monitoring function.
Control error alarm setpoint: Engineering unit data within the DV scale span range
Default is DV scale span.

Alarm Hysteresis Value


The alarm hysteresis value can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Hysteresis:

Engineering unit data within the range of 0 to DV scale span, or percentage data for the DV scale span.
When specifying percentage data, add % after the numeric value.
Default is 1.0 %.

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n Data Items - PI-BLEND


Table 1.12-3 Data Items of Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Cumulative deviation value

DV engineering unit value

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

MV engineering unit value

MSL

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Control error alarm setpoint

(DSH - DSL)

DSH - DSL

DL

Cumulative deviation alarm


setpoint

(DSH - DSL)

DSH - DSL

*1:

Range (*2)

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
DSH: DV scale high limit
DSL: DV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

*2:

*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Table 1.12-4 Data Items of Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND) (2/2)


Data Item
MH

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

Range (*2)
MSL to MSH

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Default (*2)
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<1.12 Blending PI Controller Block (PI-BLEND)>


Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

Proportional band

1 to 1000 %

100 %

Integral time

0.1 to 10,000 seconds

20 seconds

TK

Time scale conversion coefficient

1 to 100,000

RP

Ramp constant

0 to (MSH - MSL)

MSH to
MSL

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

RST

Cumulative deviation reset


switch

0, 1

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

O/S (MAN)

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

MSH

MV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

MSL

MV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

DSH

DV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as DV

-----

DSL

DV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as DV

-----

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

ML

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the PI-BLEND block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.13

Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)

The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) has both the PID control function and selftuning function (STC function). This function block is used to automatically adjust PID parameters (P, I, D).

n Self-Tuning PID Controller Block - (PID-STC)


Connection

The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) has both the PID control function and selftuning function (STC function). The STC function automatically sets PID parameters (P, I, D).
The STC function provides the following two merits:

Maintains optimum controllability in spite of the static and dynamic process characteristics
variation.

Reduces the work load of tuning operation at process startup.

The figure below shows a function block diagram of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PIDSTC):
SET

CSV
RSV

IN

Input
processing

PV

BIN

RL1

RL2

TIN

(VN) (RLV1) (RLV2)

CAS
AUT
MAN

TSI

INT

(TSW)

SV

RCAS

MAN

Self-tuning control
computation
processing

(PV, PV, MV, MV)

CAS/AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT
RMV

SUB

Figure 1.13-1 Function Block Diagram of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)

The figure below shows a block diagram of the self-tuning control computation processing
area of the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC):

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>

Estimated
process
model
PID
parameter
calculation

Process
characteristic
estimation
Response
monitoring

P I D

SV

PID
controller

MV

PV

Process

Figure 1.13-2 Block Diagram of the Self-Tuning Control Computation Processing Area

The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) estimates process characteristics while monitoring process variables (PV) and manipulated output values (MV) to create an estimated
process model. Optimum PID parameters (P, I, D) are calculated based on the estimated
process model.
The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC):
Table 1.13-1 Connection Methods and Connected Destinations of the I/O Terminals of Self-Tuning PID
Controller Block (PID-STC)
I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

RL1

Reset signal 1 input

RL2

Reset signal 2 input

BIN

Compensation input

TIN

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>

n Function of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)


The PID-STC block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the PID-STC block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the PID-STC block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PIDSTC)


The function of the PID-STC block related to control computation processing includes the
PID control function and the self-tuning function (STC function).

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the PID control function, refer to:
1.13.1, Control Algorithm of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) on page 1-122
For more information about the self-tuning function (STC function), refer to:

1.13.2, Self-Tuning Function (STC Function) on page 1-123

1.13.3, Self-Tuning Operating Modes and Block Status on page 1-125

1.13.4, Initializer Start on page 1-130

1.13.5, Auto-Startup on page 1-131

1.13.6, On-Demand Tuning on page 1-135

1.13.7, Tuning Parameters of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) on page 1-137

1.13.8, Points of Using Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) on page 1-146

n Data Items - PID-STC


Table 1.13-2 Data Items of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) (1/3)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

BSTS

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Block status

-----

RUN, OFF

ALRM

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>


Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range

Default (*2)

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Control deviation value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

VN

I/O compensation value

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

MV engineering unit value

MSL

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

RLV1

Reset limit value 1

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

RLV2

Reset limit value 2

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

*1:

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SL: PV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Table 1.13-3 Data Items of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) (2/3)
Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

MH

Manipulated variable high limit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable low limit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

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Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

Proportional band

0.0 to 1000.0 %

100.0 %

Integral time

1.0 to 10,000.0 seconds

20.0 seconds

Derivative time

0.0 to 10,000.0 seconds

0.0 seconds

GW

Gap width

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

DB

Deadband

0 to (SH - SL)

0.0

CK

Compensation gain

-10.000 to 10.000

1.000

CB

Compensation bias

-----

0.000

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

CSW

Control switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

MSH

MV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

MSL

MV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

*1:

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

*2:

Table 1.13-4 Data Items of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) (3/3)
Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

STC

STC operation mode selection switch

x (*2)

TR

Process 95 % response
time

NB

Data Item

Range

Default

-1, 0, 1, 2, 3

0 (*2)

1 to 10,000 seconds

40 seconds

Noise band

1.0 % to 20.0 % of PV

1.0 % of PV

OS

Control target type

0, 1, 2, 3

MI

MV impulse amplitude

0.0 % to 20.0 % of MV

5.0 % of MV

PMAX

Proportional band high limit

0.0 to 1000.0 %

1000.0 %

PMIN

Proportional band low limit

0.1 to 1000.0 %

0.1 %

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>


Data Item

Range

Default

Integral time high limit

0.1 to 1000.0 seconds

10000.0
seconds

IMIN

Integral time low limit

0.1 to 1000.0 seconds

0.1 seconds

DMAX

Derivative time high limit

0.0 to 1000.0 seconds

2000.0 seconds

PIDC

PID update ratio coefficient

0.00 to 1.00

1.00

CR

Estimation accuracy error

0.000 to 100.000

-----

LM

Estimated equivalent dead


time

0.0 to 10,000.0 seconds

-----

TM

Estimated equivalent firstorder lag constant

0.0 to 10,000.0 seconds

-----

GM

Estimated equivalent process gain

0.000 to 100.000

-----

PA

Proportional band calculation value

0.0 to 1000.0 %

-----

IA

Integral time calculation


value

0.1 to 10000.0 seconds

-----

DA

Derivative time calculation


value

0.0 to 10000.0 seconds

-----

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

IMAX

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
For PFCS, if there are more than 5 PID-STC in one FCS, the default value will be -1 for the blocks from the 6th PID-STC.
For FCSs except PFCS, if there are more than 10 PID-STC in one FCS, the default value will be -1 for the blocks from the
11th PID-STC.

For more information about valid block modes of the PID-STC block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>

1.13.1

Control Algorithm of Self-Tuning PID Controller


Block (PID-STC)

Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) obtains manipulated output value (MV) and manipulated output change (MV) based on PID algorithm.

n PID Control Algorithm


The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) uses the same PID control algorithm as the
PID controller block (PID).

SEE

ALSO

For more information about PID control algorithm, refer to:


nPID Control Computation on page 1-51

n Control Action Bypass


When 0 is set for the PID parameter (P) or (D) of the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PIDSTC), parts of the control action can be bypassed.
The figure below shows the partially bypassed control action and setpoint values of PID parameters (P, I, D):
Table 1.13.1-1 Partially Bypassed Control Action and Setpoint Values of PID Parameters (P, I, D)
Control action

PID parameter setpoint value

Proportional (P) +integral (I)

P0, D=0

Integral (I)

P=0

If you want to run the PID controller in proportional-integral (PI) action, you may set a value
other than 0 to parameter (P) and set to parameter (D). If run the controller in integral (I) actions only, you may set 0 for parameter (P). In this case, even set a value for parameter (D),
the derivative (D) action does not work. When execute integral (I) action only, the proportional
gain (Kp) becomes 1.

IMPORTANT
The Self - Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) is unable to control astatic processes by
using integral (I) actions only. If the process type is set as astatic system (integral system)
and only integral (I) action defined, the block changes to STC function invalid (INVL) status,
and stops the STC function.

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>

1.13.2

Self-Tuning Function (STC Function)

The self-tuning function (STC function) determines a tuning index based on the estimated
process model, PID control algorithm, process type and control target type, to calculate optimum PID parameters (P, I, D) in accordance with the obtained tuning index.

n Self-Tuning Function (STC Function)


The self-tuning function (STC function) estimates process characteristics while monitoring
process variables (PV) and manipulated output values (MV) to create an estimated process
model. It then determines a tuning index based on the estimated process model, PID control
algorithm, process type and control target type, and calculates optimum PID parameters (P, I,
D) in accordance with the obtained tuning index.
The STC function can be started by the following three methods:

SEE
ALSO

Initialize start

Auto-startup

On-demand tuning

For more information about initialize start, refer to:


1.13.4, Initializer Start on page 1-130
For more information about auto-startup, refer to:
1.13.5, Auto-Startup on page 1-131
For more information about on-demand tuning, refer to:
1.13.6, On-Demand Tuning on page 1-135

n Tuning Index
Generally, in a normal PID controller block (PID), optimum PID parameters (P, I, D) vary with
the purpose of control: to follow up the setpoint value or to prevent from disturbances. Therefore, it is difficult to tune parameters in a single set of PID parameters (P, I, D) to obtain the
optimum responses for the prompt follow-up of set point value change as well as to restrain
from external disturbances. The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) changes the index (tuning index) according to the control target and the PID control function algorithm and
block mode, so that optimum responses can be obtained based on each tuning index.
The table below shows the tuning indexes of the Self-tuning function (STC function):
Table 1.13.2-1 Tuning Indexes
Control algorithm

Block mode AUT

Tuning index
Block mode CAS

Block mode RCAS

PID

Setpoint value follow-up


response

Setpoint value follow-up


response

Setpoint value follow-up


response

I-PD

Disturbance suppression
response

Disturbance suppression
response

Disturbance suppression
response

PI-D

Setpoint value follow-up


response

Setpoint value follow-up


response

Setpoint value follow-up


response

Setpoint value follow-up


response

Setpoint value follow-up


response

Automatic determination /
Disturbance suppression
Automatic determination
response
2

The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) calculates PID parameters (P, I, D) of the
setpoint value follow-up type when the PV derivative type (PI-D) control algorithm is used,

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1-124

and calculates those of the disturbance suppression type when the PV proportional and derivative type (I-PD) control algorithm is used.
When the STC function calculates PID parameters based on the result of process estimation,
the following processing are performed:

When the block detects that response is tending to hunt, the tuning stops when such
hunting occurs only for one cycle to ensure safety.

When the gain of the controller block is increased, the change is limited to ensure safety.

When the deviation remains large for a prolonged period of time, the gain of the controller
block increases.

n Number of Simultaneously Executable Blocks


There is no limit to the number of Self-tuning PID controller blocks (PID-STC) that can be
used in one FCS. However, the number of Self-tuning PID controller blocks (PID-STC) executing self-tuning function (STC function) at the same time is limited to 5 (*1) or 10 (*2)
blocks per FCS.
If more than 5(*1) or 10 (*2) Self-tuning PID controller blocks (PID-STC) are defined by the
Function Block Detail Builder, the first 5 blocks (*1) or 10 blocks (*2) with the smaller block
numbers are set in the PID parameter display mode (STC=0), while the remaining Self-tuning PID controller blocks (PID-STC) are set in the STC operation stop mode (STC=-1).
If 5 (*1) or 10 (*2) Self-tuning PID controller blocks (PID-STC) are currently executing the
STC function, the STC function of a new Self-Tuning PID Controller Block cannot be started.
Only after one of the currently executing Self-Tuning PID Controller Blocks (PID-STC) stops
the STC function i.e., changes its STC operation mode (STC=-1), the new Self-Tuning PID
Controller Block can start the STC function.
*1:
*2:

For PFCS.
For FCSs except PFCS.

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>

1.13.3

Self-Tuning Operating Modes and Block Status

The self-tuning operating mode (STC operating mode) determines the action of the Self-tuning function (STC function). The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) uses five types
of STC operating modes.
The block status of PID-STC indicates the running function of the STC block.

n Self-Tuning Operating Mode (STC Operating Mode)


Switching between the STC operating modes is done via an STC operating mode selection
switch (STC).

STC Stop Mode (STC=-1)


The STC function is not executed in this mode.
Neither process characteristic estimation nor PID parameter (P, I, D) calculation are performed.
The block acts in the same way as a PID Controller Block (PID).

PID Parameter Display Mode (STC=0)


In this mode, process characteristic estimation and PID parameter (P, I, D) calculation are
performed, but the calculated PID parameters (P, I, D) are only displayed and not used for
control.
In the PID parameter display mode, process characteristic estimation is performed when the
process variable (PV) moves out of the noise band (NB), and PID parameter (P, I, D) calculation is performed if the estimation accuracy is high. The calculated PID parameters (P, I, D)
are only displayed and not used for control.

PID Parameter Automatic Updating Mode (STC=1)


In this mode, process characteristic estimation and PID parameter (P, I, D) calculation are
performed, and the calculated PID parameters (P, I, D) are used for control. In the PID parameter automatic updating mode, process characteristic estimation is performed when the process variable (PV) moves out of the noise band (NB), and PID parameter (P, I, D) calculation is
performed if the estimation accuracy is high. The calculated PID parameters (P, I, D) are used
for control.

Auto-Startup Mode (STC=2)


Auto-startup is executed in this mode.
The process 95 % response time, noise band and PID parameters (P, I, D) are calculated automatically. This mode is used when initial setpoint values are not known, such as during plant
startup.

On-Demand Mode (STC=3)


On-demand tuning is executed in this mode.
Step test signals are added to the manipulated output value (MV), and PID parameters (P, I,
D) are calculated based on the response waveform of the corresponding process variable
(PV).

SEE
ALSO

For more information about auto-startup, refer to:


1.13.5, Auto-Startup on page 1-131
For more information about on-demand tuning, refer to:
1.13.6, On-Demand Tuning on page 1-135

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>

n Flow of Self-Tuning Actions


During each control period, the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) performs actions
in accordance with the Self-tuning operating mode (STC operating mode).
STC function

STC=-1

STC operating
mode

STC=2

STC=3

STC=0, 1
PV and MV data
Manual mode

Block mode
(*1)

Manual mode
Block mode

Automatic mode
No

Automatic
mode

Manual mode
Block mode
Automatic
mode

Change in PV
Yes
Estimation of
process
characteristics

No

Auto-startup
processing

On-demand
processing

High estimation
accuracy
Yes
Calculation of
PID parameters

STC=0

Operating mode
recovery

Operating mode
STC=1
Setting of PID
parameters

Return

(*1) Go to the step below if disable is set for the STC


function bypass specification during the MAN mode.

Figure 1.13.3-1 Flow of Self-Tuning Actions

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<1.13 Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)>

n Actions in Self-Tuning Operating Modes (STC Operating Modes)


Table 1.13.3-1 Table of Actions in Self-Tuning Operating Modes (STC Operating Modes)
STC operating
mode selection
switch
Previous Current

Remains in the initialization processing state (*2).

AUT

Starts normal processing after initialization processing (*2).

MAN

Remains in the initialization processing state (*2).

AUT

Starts normal processing after initialization processing (*2).

MAN

Remains in the initialization processing state.


Startup mode waiting state (*2).

AUT

Operation disabled. Returns to STC=-1.

All

Operation disabled. Returns to STC=-1.

-1

All

Stops STC actions. The block mode remains the same.

All

No special processing. The block mode remains the same.

1
-1
2

*1:

*2:

Remains in the startup mode waiting state.

AUT

Operation disabled. Returns to STC=0.

MAN

Operation disabled. Returns to STC=0.

AUT

On-demand mode. Returns to STC=0 after applying signals to


MV.

All

Stops STC actions. The block mode remains the same.

All

No special processing. The block mode remains the same.

-1

MAN

-1

Action

MAN

Block mode (*1)

MAN

Remains in the startup mode waiting state.

AUT

Operation disabled. Returns to STC=1.

MAN

Operation disabled. Returns to STC=1.

AUT

On-demand mode. Returns to STC=1 after applying signals to


MV.

MAN

Stops STC actions. The block mode remains the same.

AUT

Suspends the startup action. Stops STC actions. The block mode
changes to MAN.

All

Stops the startup action. The block mode and block status
change to MAN and PVER, respectively.

All

Stops the startup action and returns to STC=0. The block mode
and block status change to MAN and PVER, respectively.

All

Operation disabled. Returns to STC=2.

All

The operating mode of STC=3 returns to the original operating


mode in the next control period. In the previous operating mode
transition, actions will continue assuming that the STC=3 mode
has never existed.

All

All normal modes (MAN, PRD, ROUT, AUT, CAS, RCAS)


MAN:All manual modes (MAN, PRD, ROUT)
AUT:All automatic modes (AUT, CAS, RCAS)
All normal modes, if No is selected for the STC bypass specification during the MAN mode.
For PFCS, only up to 5 PID-STC blocks are allowed to run self-tuning at the same time per one FCS. The STC setting will be
forced to -1 for the blocks from the 6th PID-STC.
For FCSs except PFCS, only up to 10 PID-STC blocks are allowed to run self-tuning at the same time per one FCS. The STC
setting will be forced to -1 for the blocks from the 11th PID-STC.

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SEE
ALSO

1-128

For more information about self-tuning operating mode selection switch (STC), refer to:
nSTC Operating Mode Selection Switch (STC) on page 1-139

n Block Statuses
The block status of the PID-STC block shows the current operating status of the STC functions. PID-STC has 7 block statuses, the basic statuses and the combined statuses (combination of multiple statuses) are all indicating the STC running functions.

Basic Block Status


The following shows basic STC Block Status.
Table 1.13.3-2 Basic STC Block Status
Symbol
RUN

RUN

OFF

OFF

Shows that STC functions are stopped (*1).


This means that STC operation mode is set to 1.

WMUP

WarM UP

Performing initialization - gathering necessary I/O data to start STC functions. While this is occurring, the
STC functions are disabled (*1).

PLMT

PID Parameters LiMiTed

Optimum PID parameters calculated by the STC


functions cant be set because they are outside
builder-set limits.

STUP

Auto STart UP

Shows that auto startup processing is being performed.

PVER

PV ERror Auto start up aborted

Shows that because PV is abnormal, new PID parameters couldnt be computed, and auto startup
processing was aborted.

INVaLid

Shows that because some setting is invalid, STC


functions cant be executed. Either some tuning parameter is invalid, or an attempt was made to simultaneously execute a larger number of STC control
blocks than the limit.

*1:
ALSO

Explanation
The block is periodically acquiring inputs and outputting outputs.
Self-tuning operation; STC operation mode setting is
zero or positive.

INVL

SEE

Name

Self tuning functions are stopped, but the equivalent PID block functions are operating normally.

For more information about WMUP (Warm up), refer to:


lSTC Warmup (Initialization) on page 1-129

Composite Block Status


The following describes valid STC block status combinations, and shows the corresponding
status codes displayed on the HIS.
Table 1.13.3-3 Composite Block Statuses
Status
OFF

Code shown on
HIS
OFF

Explanation
Shows that STC functions are stopped. This means that STC
operation mode is set to 1. However the PID block functions
are operating normally.

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Status

Code shown on
HIS

Explanation

INVL(OFF)

INVL

STC operation mode was set to STC execution status (STC0),


but the maximum permitted number of PID-STC blocks that can
operate simultaneously are already operating, so shows that no
more STC functions can be operated.

RUN

RUN

STC functions are running.

WMUP(RUN)

WMUP

Performing initialization - gathering necessary I/O data to start


STC functions. While this is occurring, the STC functions are
disabled, However the PID block functions are operating normally.

PLMT(RUN)

PLMT

Optimum PID parameters calculated by the STC functions cant


be set because they are outside builder-set limits.

STUP(RUN)

STUP

Shows that auto startup processing is being performed.

PVER(RUN)

PVER

Shows that because PV is abnormal, new PID constants


couldnt be computed, and auto startup processing was aborted.

INVL

Shows that STC operation mode is set to STC function execution status (STC0), but because some parameter is invalid,
STC functions cannot be executed. However, the PID block
functions are operating normally.
If you correct the problem, STC functions will operate again.

INVL(WMUP(RUN)) INVL

Shows that although an attempt was made to acquire I/O data,


some data is missing.

INVL(STUP(RUN))

Shows that because some parameter is invalid, STC auto startup functions cant be run. However, the PID block functions are
operating normally.
If you correct the problem, STC functions will start to operate.

INVL(RUN)

INVL

STC Warmup (Initialization)

Except when block status of the STC functions is OFF, I/O data is continuously sampled. The
process model depends not only on current data but also on data over a preset period into the
past.
While the STC functions are acquiring necessary data for estimating the process model, the
STC functions operate in standby - in WMUP status. STC initialization is performed in the following cases:

When STC mode is switched from STC= 1 to STC=0 or from STC= 1 to STC=1.

When the 95 % process response time value TR changes.

When the scan period is changed.

When the block mode recovers from O/S or IMAN.

When on-line maintenance is performed on the current block.

When an alarm such as IOP, which indicates that I/O data is affected, occurs.

When the corresponding control area is started up.

The length of the initialization period is related to the PID-STC controller block mode at the
time that initialization is started, as follows:
For auto mode (AUT, CAS, RCAS) : 4 TR
Otherwise:

2 TR

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1.13.4

Initializer Start

Initializer start can be executed in the situation that allows to use the estimated initial values
of PID parameters (P, I, D).
The initializer start function uses estimated PID parameters (P, I, D) to start control.

n Execution of Initializer Start


The methods used to start initialization are shown below. To execute initializer start, the following conditions must be satisfied:

The self-tuning operating mode (STC operating mode) is STC stop.

The block mode is manual (MAN).

The following parameters are set:

PID parameters (P, I, D)

Process 95 % response time (TR)

Noise band (NB)

Control target type (OS)

PID data set high/low limits (PMAX, PMIN, IMAX, IMIN, DMAX)

PID update ratio coefficient (PIDC)

IMPORTANT
Before changing the block mode to any of the automatic modes (AUT/CAS/RCAS), confirm
that measured signals are within the safety range where step changes (MI) can be added to
manipulated output signals, and the measured process signals are sufficiently stable.
When the following operations are performed with the above parameters set, initializer start
will be executed after the time set as the process 95 % response time (TR) has elapsed:
1.

Change the STC operating mode to the PID parameter display or PID automatic updating
mode.

2.

Change the block mode to any of the automatic modes (AUT/CAS/RCAS).

Upon executing initializer start, PID control and self-tuning starts using the values set for PID
parameters (P, I, D) as initial values.

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1.13.5

Auto-Startup

In the process where step response can be obtained, use auto-startup if initial setpoint values
of PID parameters (P, I, D) cannot be estimated, such as when the plant is first started.
The auto-startup function starts control by automatically calculating the process 95 % response time (TR), noise band (NB) and PID parameters (P, I, D) based on data obtained via
step responses.

n Execution of Auto-Startup
The methods of auto-startup are shown below. To execute auto-startup, the following conditions must be satisfied:

The self-tuning operating mode (STC operating mode) is STC stop.

The block mode is manual (MAN).

The following parameters are set:

Control target type (OS)

MV Impulse amplitude (MI)

PID parameter (P)

PID parameter (D)

When the following operations are performed after the above conditions established, autostartup can be executed.
1.

Change the STC operating mode to auto-startup.

2.

Change the block mode to any of the automatic modes (AUT/CAS/RCAS).

Upon auto-startup, the following actions take place:


1.

The block status changes to STUP (during auto-startup), and the current manipulated
output value (MV) is held for 30 seconds.

2.

Step signal set as the MV Impulse amplitude (MI) is added to the manipulated output value (MV) in the direction of increasing deviation.

3.

Observation of the response waveform of measured signals relative to the step change is
started.
If, during the observation, the measured signal change (PV) becomes equivalent to or
larger than 1.5 times of the MV Impulse amplitude (MI), the manipulated output value
(MV) returns to the original value to ensure safety.

4.

If the target process is a static system (IP=0), the manipulated output value (MV) returns
to the original value after the response waveform is observed for a specified period of
time. If the process is an astatic system (IP=1), the step changes equivalent to the MV
Impulse amplitude (MI) is added to the manipulated variable in the reverse direction, then
the manipulated output (MV) returns to the original value.

5.

Process characteristics is estimated based on the data obtained by the step response observation.

6.

The process 95 % response time (TR) and PID parameters (P, I, D) are calculated based
on the estimated model.

7.

The following computations on the PID parameters (P, I, D) of the estimated model are
performed, and the computed results are set as PID parameters high/low limits (PMAX,
PMIN, IMAX, IMIN, DMAX).

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PMAX=4 PB
PMIN= PB
4
IMAX=4 TI
IMIN= TI
4
DMAX=4 TD
Figure 1.13.5-1 Computational expressions

Some of these values may be fixed to 0 depending upon the control method.

8.

Measured noise is observed for a specified period of time (2xTR; minimum 2 minutes,
maximum 5 minutes), and the noise band (NB) is calculated based on the peak value.

9.

The STC operating mode automatically changes to the PID parameter automatic updating mode (STC=1), then PID control and self-tuning start to run.

Example of the Auto-Startup Action in Static Process


Auto-startup begin
(STC=2,MANAUT)

Auto-startup end

MI signal
application

MV

Tuning end

MI

PV
Waiting for settling
(30 seconds)

Waveform
observation
Block status "STUP"

Noise
observation

Time
Operation after switching to
the PID automatic
updating mode (STC=1)

Figure 1.13.5-2 Example of the Auto-Startup Action in Static (Non-Integral) System

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Example of the Auto-Startup Action in Astatic Process

Auto-startup begin
(STC=2,MANAUT)

Auto-startup end

MI signal
application

MV

Tuning end

MI
MI

PV
Waiting for settling
(30 seconds)

Waveform
observation

Noise
observation

Block status STUP

Time
Operation after switching to
the PID automatic
updating mode (STC=1)

Figure 1.13.5-3 Example of the Auto-Startup Action in Astatic (Integral) System

n Abnormal Termination of Auto-Startup


The following section explains the abnormal termination of auto-startup.

Causes of the Abnormal Termination of Auto-Startup

The auto-startup action is terminated abnormally if the following events occur:

Power failure

Change in the self-tuning operating mode (STC operating mode)

Change to a block mode other than automatic modes (AUT, CAS, RCAS).

Failure to create an estimated process model

The measured signal change (PV) remains under 0.5 % of the MV Impulse amplitude
(MI) after the maximum observation time (90 minutes) elapsed.

Insufficient information from step response.

The data status of the manipulated output value (MV) changes to CLP or CND.

The alarm status changes to IOP+, IOP-, OOP or CNF.

Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) upon Abnormal Termination of


Auto-Startup

When the auto-startup action is stopped, the following changes take place inside the Self-tuning PID controller block (PID-STC):

The block changes to automatic (AUT) mode.

The STC operating mode changes to PID parameter display (STC=0).

The block status changes to auto-startup abnormal termination (PVER).

The block status changes or set the STC operating mode operation stop (STC=-1) cancels
the auto-startup abnormal termination status.

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IMPORTANT
Do not use auto-startup for systems whose process dead-time is short. This is because an
abnormal termination processing of the auto-startup may not be carried out if the process
dead-time is 4 seconds or less. If an abnormal termination processing could not be carried
out, the block status remains as STUP.
If an auto-startup has been used by mistake, change the block mode to MAN mode and interrupt the auto-startup.

n Setup Items for Auto-Startup


The following items must be set in the auto-startup mode:

Control target type (OS)


Specify the type of response waveform to be targeted by the self-tuning function (STC
function)
Select a target suitable for the controlled plant

MV Impulse amplitude (MI)


Set a value that may trigger the process variable (PV)s impulse response around 5 %.

Control method (P, I, D)


Specify a desired control method
Specify one of the following three types of control methods:
I control

: P=0

PI control

: P0, D=0

PID control : P0, D0


Within the range allowed by the process, the bigger the impulse response from the process
variable (PV) the more accurate estimation can be provided by the model.
When a control algorithm that uses derivative (D) action is selected, it may change to the control method that does not use derivative (D) action if it is judged appropriate by the STC function.

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1.13.6

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On-Demand Tuning

On-demand tuning is applied to tune PID parameters (P, I, D) when tuning request is given
from the operator. On-demand tuning may be applied to the loops where the change of setpoint values need to be avoided.

n Execution of On-Demand Tuning


For on-demand tuning, when a tuning demand is given from the operator, a step test signal is
added to the manipulated output value (MV) in a closed loop. Then the self-tuning is performed based on the response waveform of the corresponding process variable (PV).
The method of on-demand tuning is shown below. To execute on-demand tuning, the following conditions must be satisfied:

The self-tuning operating mode (STC operating mode) is the PID parameter display or
PID automatic updating mode

The block mode is one of the automatic modes

IMPORTANT
Before changing to the on-demand tuning mode, confirm that the value of the MV Impulse
amplitude (MI) is well within the safe range.
When the STC operating mode is changed to on-demand tuning in the above state, on-demand tuning may be executed.
During on-demand tuning, the following actions take place:
1.

Step signal equivalent to the MV Impulse amplitude (MI) is added to the manipulated output (MV) in the direction of decreasing deviation.
If the process type is astatic system (IP=1), the pulse of TR/5 in time span will be added.

2.

After the step signals is added, the STC operating mode returns to 0 or 1 in the next
control period.

3.

The response waveform of a measured signal that corresponds to the step change is
monitored.

4.

PID control and self-tuning are started.

MV
PV

Time

Tuning
Set as STC=3
(on-demand command)

Figure 1.13.6-1 Responses in the On-Demand Mode

If responses from the process are extremely monotonous, an estimated model may not be
created. In this case, increase the MV Impulse amplitude (MI) and retry the self-tuning.

n Setup Item for On-Demand Tuning


The following item must be set in order to execute on-demand tuning:

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MV Impulse amplitude (MI):

1-136

Set a value that may trigger the process variable (PV)s impulse response around 5 %.

Within the range allowed by the process, the bigger the impulse response from the process
variable (PV) the more accurate estimation can be provided by the model.

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1.13.7

Tuning Parameters of Self-Tuning PID Controller


Block (PID-STC)

This tuning parameters of PID-STC block consist of three types; Setting parameters that may
be set on the tuning view; Parameters for indication and the parameters defined on the Function Block Detail Builder.

n Tuning Parameters
The tuning parameters of the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) include the following types:

Parameters may be set on tuning view


These tuning parameters can be set on the tuning view during operation.

Parameters for indication


These parameters are displayed in the tuning view to indicate the operating status of the
STC function. The values of the parameters are calculated automatically by the Self-tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).

Parameters defined on the Function Block Detail Builder


These parameters are defined on the Function Block Detail Builder.

Parameters Set from the Tuning View

The table below shows the parameters that are set from the tuning view:
Table 1.13.7-1 Parameters Set from the Tuning View
Symbol

Name

Entry enable/
disable(*1)

Range

Default

Setup items in each operating


mode(*2)
-1

STC

STC operating
mode selection
switch

-1, 0, 1, 2, 3

0 (*3)

TR

Process 95 %
response time

1 to 10000 seconds

40 seconds

xx

NB

Noise band

1.0 to 20.0 % of
the PV value (*5)

1.0 %
(*5)

xx

OS

Control target
type

0, 1, 2, 3

MI

MV Impulse
amplitude

0.0 to 20.0 % of
the MV value (*6)

5.0 %
(*6)

Proportional
band

0.0 to 1000.0 %

100.0 %

xx

xx

xx

Integral time

0.1 to 10000.0
seconds

20.0 seconds

xx

xx

xx

Derivative time

0.0 to 10000.0
seconds

0.0 second

xx

xx

xx

PMAX

Proportional
band high limit

0.0 to 1000.0 %

1000.0
%

xx

PMIN

Proportional
band low limit

0.1 to 1000.0 %

0.1 %

xx

IMAX

Integral time
high limit

0.1 to 10000.0
seconds

10000.0
seconds

xx

IMIN

Integral time
low limit

0.1 to 10000.0
seconds

0.1 seconds

xx

(*4)

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Symbol

Entry enable/
disable(*1)

Name

Range

Setup items in each operating


mode(*2)

Default

-1

DMAX

Derivative time
high limit

0.0 to 10000.0
seconds

2000.0
seconds

xx

PIDC

PID update ratio coefficient

0.00 to 1.00

1.00

*1:
*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:

x: Can be entered from the tuning view at any time.


: Setting required.
-: Setting not required.
xx: Setting is done automatically, but can be entered from the tuning view, as well.
The default values of the 11th and subsequent PID-STC controller blocks within the same control station will be -1.
A determining factor of the operating mode.
A percentage value converted from the PV engineering unit data.
A percentage value converted from the MV engineering unit data.

Display Parameters

The table below shows display parameters. These parameters are displayed in the tuning
view to indicate the operating status of the STC function.
Table 1.13.7-2 Display Parameters
Symbol

Name

Entry
enable/
disable
(*1)

Range

Setup items in each operating mode


(*1)
-1

CR

Estimation accuracy error

0.000 to 100.000

LM

Estimated equivalent dead


time

0.0 to 10000.00
seconds

TM

Estimated equivalent first-order lag constant

0.1 to 10000.0
seconds

GM

Estimated equivalent process gain

0.000 to 100.000

PA

Proportional band calculation value

0.0 to 1000.0 %

IA

Integral time calculation value

1.0 to 10000.0
seconds

DA

Derivative time calculation


value

0.0 to 10000.0
seconds

*1:

x: Cannot be entered from the tuning view.


: Items for automatic calculation and display only.

Items Defined in the Function Block Detail Builder

The table below shows the tuning parameters of the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PIDSTC) defined in the Function Block Detail Builder:
Table 1.13.7-3 Items defined in the Function Block Detail Builder
Symbol

Name

Entry
enable/
disable(*1)

Range

Setup items in each operating


mode(*1)

Default
-1

IP

Process type

0, 1

0 (non-integral)

Manual mode STC


function bypass

ON, OFF

ON

*1:

: Item defined in the Function Block Detail Builder.

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n STC Operating Mode Selection Switch (STC)


Set the operating mode of the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) to the STC operating mode selection switch.

STC: Specify the operating mode using a numeric value.


The following operating modes can be selected:
-1 : STC operation stop mode
0 : STC parameter display mode
1 : STC parameter automatic updating mode
2 : Auto-startup mode
3: : On-demand mode

n Process 95 % Response Time (TR)


Set the rise time for 95 % of process step response in an open-loop.

Process 95 % Response Time Setting Methods

The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) calculates the time for measured signal
waveform observation as well as sampling time for process characteristic estimation, based
on the process 95 % response time (TR). To operate the STC function in a good condition, an
optimum value for the process 95 % response time (TR) is required.

Process 95 % response time


Set the rising time for 95 % of process step response in an open-loop.

The procedure to set an optimum TR value is shown below:

When step responses from the process are known


Set the time required for the process variable change (PV) to reach 95 % of the settling
value.

When the process can be approximated based on the first-order lag system
Obtain TR that satisfied TR=L+3T, from the dead time (L) and first-order lag constant (T)
of the process, and set the obtained value as the process 95 % response time (TR).

When the process is an astatic system (integral system)


The time required for the process variable change (PV) reach 95 % peak can be set as
the response rising time (TR) after an impulse is applied to the process.

When the past operating process behavior is known


Obtain the specific oscillation cycle (Tp) of the process from the past operation data, and
set this value as the process 95 % response time.

When the response time is expected to change


Set a value in accordance with the particular response waveform to be controlled. As in
the case of furnace temperature, if the response rising time of the process variable (PV)
is different from the falling time, use the longer response time. In this way, estimated
process characteristic values will have less error than that the shorter response time is
used.

Examples of Process 95 % Response Time (TR) Estimation


The figures below are examples of process response estimation when step responses from
the process are known (estimated from the step response waveform) and when the past operation conditions are known (estimated from damped oscillatory waveform):

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Estimation from the step response waveform


MV
PV
settling value
PV

95 %

Time

TR
Estimation from the damped oscillatory waveform

TR=TP
PV
TP
Specific
oscillation cycle
Time

Figure 1.13.7-1 TR Estimation Methods

n Noise Band (NB)


Set the noise band (NB) to prevent process characteristic estimation from being disturbed by
noise. For the noise band, set a value that is twice of the peak value of random noise being
superimposed over measured signals (maximum width of noise).
When a noise band (NB) is set, process characteristic estimation will be started when the
process variable (PV) changes beyond the limits of noise band (NB) during a single sampling
period.
NB

Time

Figure 1.13.7-2 Noise Band

Noise Band (NB):

Set a value that is twice of the peak value of random noise being superimposed over measured signals (maximum width of noise).

n Control Target Type (OS)


The desirable control target response waveform varies depending upon the process type and
operating method. Set a control target type (OS) from the tuning view according to the controlled system.
Control target type (OS):

Select a control target type and specify a numeric value indicating the type.

The table below shows the control target types (OS) that can be set for the Self-Tuning PID
Controller Block (PID-STC):

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OS

Target overshoot

0%

Overshoot:

5%

Overshoot: small
Settling time: short

10 %

15 %

Characteristics

Evaluation expression

zero

Overshoot:
Rise time:

medium
slightly quick

Overshoot:
Rise time:

large
quick

Overshoot zero
Minimum time-load control area
Min

| e | tdt

Minimum control area


Min

| e | dt

Minimum squared control area


Min

e 2 tdt

Figure 1.13.7-3 Control Target Types

0
No overshoot exists.

1
Minimizes the product of the evaluation expression that multiplies the deviation area by
elapsed time. The overshoot is smaller and setting time is shorter.

2
Minimizes the control area (deviation). This is the default setting.

3
Minimizes the squared area of deviation. The overshoot is larger and rise time is quicker.
Control area

SV

PV response

Time

Figure 1.13.7-4 Control Areas and PV Responses

n MV Impulse Amplitude (MI)


The MV Impulse amplitude (MI) is the size of the test signal that is applied to the manipulated
output value (MV) during the auto-startup or on-demand mode. The value is set from the tuning view.
MV Impulse amplitude (MI):

Set a value that may trigger the process variable (PV)s impulse response around 5 %.

As the auto-startup mode is a MAN state, the current control deviation is assumed to be on
the safe side and the test signal is added in the direction of increasing control deviation. In the
on-demand mode, which is an AUT state, the test signal is added in the direction of decreasing control deviation.
The table below shows the directions of MV step changes:

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Table 1.13.7-4 Directions of MV Step Changes
Operating mode

Deviation

Auto-startup
On-demand

Action mode
Direct action
Reverse action

SVPV

+MI %

-MI %

SV<PV

-MI %

+MI %

SVPV

-MI %

+MI %

SV<PV

+MI %

-MI %

n PID Parameters (P, I, D)


The PID parameters (P, I, D) are used in control computation.
The values of respective parameters are shown below:

P: Proportional band

I: Integral time

D: Derivative time

During operation in the PID parameter automatic updating mode, the values set for PID parameters (P, I, D) are used as initial values and updated automatically when the self-tuning
function (STC function) is activated.
Set initial values for PID parameters (P, I, D) using the following methods:

New Process

When estimation or calculation is possible based on the statistical data of other processes
Use values estimated or calculated based on the statistical data of other processes.

When using estimated or calculated values is difficult


Use auto-startup. If auto-startup cannot be used, perform self-tuning in the PID parameter
display mode, and use the values displayed as new calculated values of PID parameter
(PA, IA, DA).

Existing Control System Replacement

Use the PID values before the replacement.

n PID Data Set High/Low Limits (PMAX, PMIN, IMAX, IMIN, DMAX)
If the process is likely to receive negative impacts when PID parameters (P, I, D) exceed their
specified limit, set PID data set high/low limits in advance.
The PID data set high/low limits indicate control ranges that are used to limit PID parameters
(P, I, D) when they are changed by the STC function.

PMAX: Proportional band high limit

PMIN: Proportional band low limit

IMAX: Integral time high limit

IMIN: Integral time low limit

DMAX: Derivative time high limit

The PID parameters (P, I, D) are limited within the range of the corresponding high/low limits:
PMIN P PMAX (Same for PA when the STC value is 1)
IMIN I IMAX (Same for IA when the STC value is 1)

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D PMAX (Same for DA when the STC value is 1)

If the set high limit is smaller than low limit, the corresponding PID parameter (P, I or D) will be
fixed to the high limit value. If the DMAX value is 0, the value of the PID parameter (D) becomes 0. If the PMAX value is 0, the value of the PID parameter (P or D) becomes 0.
If, due to the STC function any PID parameter (P, I, or D) exceeds the control range during
operation in the PID parameter automatic updating mode, the block status changes to PID parameter limiting (PLMT) and the PID parameter (P, I or D) obtained by the STC function will be
limited within the range of the corresponding PID data set high/low limits (PMAX, PMIN, IMAX, IMIN or DMAX).
The PID parameter limiting (PLMT) status is canceled when the applicable PID parameter (P,
I or D) has changed to a value inside the control range or when the STC actions have stopped (STC=-1).

n PID Update Ratio Coefficient (PIDC)


The PID update ratio coefficient (PIDC) represents a ratio at which the current PID parameters (P, I, D) are updated by the corresponding PID parameter values calculated by the STC
function (PA, IA, DA).
PID update ratio coefficient (PIDC): A value between 0.00 and 1.00.
The parameters are not updated if PIDC is 0.00. If PIDC is 1.00, the PID parameter values
calculated by the STC function (PA, IA, DA) will be set directly as PID parameters (P, I, D).
If the estimated model remains unstable due to disturbances and the PID parameters (P, I, D)
tend to change although slightly with every tuning, set a smaller PIDC value to stabilize the
PID parameters (P, I, D).
This coefficient is effective only in the PID parameter automatic updating mode.
PBnew = (1.0-PIDC) PB +PIDC PA
TInew = (1.0-PIDC) TI +PIDC IA
TDnew = (1.0-PIDC) TD +PIDC DA
PBnew : New effective proportional band value
PB

: Current effective proportional band value

PA

: PB calculated value

TInew : New effective integral time value


TI

: Current effective integral time value

IA

: TI calculated value

TDnew : New effective derivative time value


TD

: Current effective derivative time value

DA

: TD calculated value

PIDC : Update ratio coefficient (0.00 to 1.00)

IMPORTANT
When exceptional tuning is performed at slow response or hunting response processing, the
PID update ratio coefficient (PIDC) is ignored and the PID parameter values (PA, IA, DA) calculated by the STC function will be set directly as PID parameters (P, I, D).

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n Estimation Error (CR)


Whenever an estimated process model is created, the STC function simulates the output of
the model and calculates a squared error based on the actual process response. The estimation error is a value obtained from the best parameter set which has the smallest estimation
error.
If the estimated model matches perfectly with the actual process, the estimation error (CR)
becomes 0.000. However, as the actual process is affected by measurement noise and various disturbances, deviations exist between the estimated model and actual process and the
value of the estimation error (CR) varies accordingly.
When the value of the estimation error (CR) exceeds 5.000, the Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) assumes that the current estimated model is not effective and starts creating
a new estimated model using new data without updating the PID parameters (P, I, D).

n Estimated Models (LM, TM, GM)


The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) creates estimated models by approximating
the target process based on the dead time and first-order lag system. The estimated models,
LM, TM and GM, represent the equivalent dead time, equivalent first-order lag constant and
equivalent process gain, respectively.
The estimated models (LM, TM, GM) hold the latest values as long as the estimation error
(CR) is under 5.000.
The estimation error (CR) is updated every time a process characteristic estimation is performed, but the estimated models (LM, TM, GM) are updated if the estimation error (CR) is
5.000 or greater.

n New Calculated Values of PID Parameters (PA, IA, DA)


The new calculated values of PID parameters obtained by the self-tuning function (STC function). If the value of the Self-tuning operating mode (STC) is 1, the new calculated values of
PID parameters (PA, IA, DA) are set as the corresponding PID parameters (P, I, D) after receiving computation processing based on the PID update ratio coefficient (PIDC).

n Process Type (IP)


Process Type

The process type indicates whether the target process is a static system (non-integral system)
or astatic system (integral system). The process type is specified in the Function Block Detail
Builder.
Process Type: Select Static system or Astatic.
The default is Static system.
The static system is a process whose process variable (PV) changes gradually toward a settling value when step change is added to the manipulated output value (MV), until an equilibrium state is finally reached. The astatic system is a process whose process variable (PV) rises
or falls infinitely with time when step change is added to the manipulated output value (MV).
An example of astatic system is a constant-flow pump whose flowrate is maintained at constant levels via level control.
The figures below show examples of step responses from static system and astatic system
processes:

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Static system (non-integral system) process


MV
PV settling value
PV

Time

Astatic system (integral system) process


MV

PV

Time

Figure 1.13.7-5 Examples of Step Responses from Static System and Astatic System Processes

n MAN Mode STC Function Bypass


STC Function Bypass Designation for MAN Mode

Specify whether to use or bypass the self-tuning function (STC function) when the block is in
a manual operating mode (MAN, PRD or ROUT).
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the MAN mode STC function bypass specification.
STC function bypass designation for MAN mode: Select Yes or No.
The default is Yes.
In general, it is not desirable that PID parameters (P, I, D) change when PID computation is
not performed. Therefore, set Yes as the default bypass specification.
In the bypass mode, the STC function does become active. However, as I/O data is constantly observed, the STC function becomes active as soon as the block changes to an automatic
operating mode (AUT, CAS or RCAS).
If No is set as the bypass specification, the STC function becomes active even in a manual
operating mode (MAN, PRD or ROUT). Setting No as the bypass specification is effective in
the PID parameter display mode or PID parameter automatic updating mode.

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Points of Using Self-Tuning PID Controller Block


(PID-STC)

This section explains the points to be noted when using the self-tuning function (STC function) in various controlled systems and loops as well as applicability of the function.

n Applicable Conditions of Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC)


The self-tuning function can be used only when the process satisfies the following conditions:

PID control is allowed.

The cycle of factors that can cause changes in the control deviation (changes in process
characteristics and setpoint values, etc.) is longer than the specific oscillation cycle of the
control loop.

Responses between the manipulated variable (MV) and process variable (PV) can be approximated by the dead time and first-order lag system or integral system.

In general, many processes can be approximated with a combination of higher-order lag element, dead time, and process gain, by the following expression:
Gp(s)=

Ke-LS
(1+T1S) (1+T2S) ....... (1+TnS)

In estimated models created by the STC function, even the higher-order system used in the
above expression is approximated by the dead time and first-order lag system. The Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) performs appropriate tuning after changes have occurred
in the process variable (PV) as a result of changes in the setpoint value or manipulated variable. Appropriate control is ensured if the ratio of dead time to lag time (L/T) is 3 or smaller.

n Stable Control Loops (Regulatory Control)


When using a Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) in a stable control loop in which the
setpoint value does not change frequently and process characteristics undergo little fluctuation, it is recommended that the control be performed with the self-tuning function (STC function) turned OFF once optimum PID parameters (P, I, D) are calculated. The procedure is
shown below:
1.

First, obtain optimum PID parameters (P, I, D) using the STC function.

2.

Change the PID data set high/low limits to reduce the range of PID parameters (P, I, D) or
turn the STC function OFF (STC=-1).

n Controlling a Process with a Longer Dead Time


The following section shows the points to be noted when using a Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) in a process with a longer dead time:
When a Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) is used to control a process in which the
dead time element is dominant, determine whether or not appropriate control is feasible using
the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC), based on the value of the dead time/lag time
ratio (L/T).

When the dead time/lag time ratio (L/T) of the process is smaller than 3
Appropriate actions can be obtained by combining basic PID functions and the STC function.

When the dead time/lag time ratio (L/T) of the process is larger than 3
It is difficult to perform control by combining basic PID functions and the STC function. In
this case, consider using the Smiths Dead Time Compensation Control or sampled value

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PI control. Note that the STC function cannot be used with either of these control methods.

n Cascade Control with Quicker Downstream Responses


The following section shows the points to be noted when using Self-Tuning PID Controller
Blocks (PID-STC) in a process with quick responses coming from downstream, by using an
example of a cascade loop consisting of temperature control and flowrate control as the upstream and downstream processes, respectively.
Distillation
column

Temperature

TIC

FIC
Flowrate

Steam

Figure 1.13.8-1 Cascade Control loop with Quicker Downstream Responses

Unless frequent changes occur in the process of the downstream Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC), it is recommended to use the Self-tuning function (STC function) of the upstream Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) only. The procedure is shown below:
1.

Change the downstream block to AUT mode to open the cascade connection.

2.

Set an optimal PID value using the STC function of the downstream Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).

3.

Turn off the STC function of the downstream Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).

4.

Establish the cascade connection.

5.

Turn on the STC function of the upstream Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).

n Cascade Control with Slower Downstream Responses


The following section shows the points to be noted when using Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) in a process with slower responses coming from downstream, by using an
example of a cascade loop consisting of two temperature control processes in upstream and
downstream.

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TC 1

Raw material

TC 2

Cooling
jacket

Water

Reactor

Steam
Split range control valve

Figure 1.13.8-2 Cascade Control with Slower Downstream Responses

The procedure to control this cascade loop is shown below:


1.

Change the downstream block to AUT mode to open the cascade connection.

2.

Set an optimal PID value using the STC function of the downstream Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).

3.

Turn off the STC function of the downstream Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).

4.

Establish the cascade connection.

5.

Turn on the STC function of the upstream Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).

In this type of cascade loop, it is generally recommended that the Self-tuning function (STC
function) be executed only in the upstream controller, which is the main target of control, in
order to avoid interaction between the two STC functions in upstream and downstream.

n Controlling a Process with Changing Target Control Characteristics


The following section shows the points to be noted when using a Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) in a process where target control characteristics, such as gain, lag time and
dead time, fluctuate.

Pump

Inflow volume
F1

Intermediate
outflow volume
F0

LIC
Tank

Outflow volume
F

FIC

Level
Re-circulated

Figure 1.13.8-3 Process with Changing Gain

The above example shows a process where the flowrate F is control target. Since the flowrate
F1, inflow of the tank, fluctuate periodically, the level control is activated to change the intermediate outflow volume F0. The changes in F0 correspond to those in gain that occur in the
target control process of FIC.
If the change cycle of the target control characteristic is longer than the specific oscillation cycle of the control loop, the self-tuning function (STC function) is activated to follow up the
change. If changes in the process variable response are detected as a result of the changes
in the target control characteristic, the STC function will be activated.
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n Neutralization Control
The following section shows the points to be noted when using a Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) for neutralization control.
14

Neutralizing
agent

12
pHC

Controlled fluid

10
pH 8
7
6

pH transmitter

4
2
0

MV (neutralizing agent)

Figure 1.13.8-4 Neutralization Control

In the neutralization control shown above, the pH process shows non-linear characteristics;
i.e., the gain increases significantly near the neutralizing point (pH=7) and becomes small on
both sides.
The pH controller is controlled by calculating optimum PID parameter values (P, I, D) near the
neutralizing point. Therefore, the proportional band converges by several hundred percent,
making it impossible to obtain appropriate control away from the neutralizing point. In this
case, specify non-linear gain processing for the controller and use the STC function after obtaining linear characteristics.

n Tank Level Control with Integral Characteristics


The following section shows the points to be noted when using a Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) in a process with integral characteristics, by using a level control process as
an example:
LIC

Q1
Q1 inflow volume
H
Level
gauge

Fluid level H
Constant flowrate
Constant-flow pump

Figure 1.13.8-5 Control with Integral Characteristics

The level control shown above is a process that maintains a constant outflow volume via a
constant-flow pump, regardless of the fluid level. In this process, the fluid level (H) continues
to rise linearly as the inflow volume (Q1) increases. In other words, this is an integral process
that does not have a self-regulation function. When controlling an integral process, use pro-

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portional and derivative (PD) control by setting a longer integral time, as the process becomes
unstable if the integral time is short.
In this type of integral process, use the self-tuning function (STC function) by setting 1 for
the process type (IP). When the process type (IP) is 1, proportional and derivative (PD) control is executed by setting a longer integral time.

n Controlling a Process with Phases of Varying Response Speeds


The following section shows the points to be noted when using a Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) in a process where the response speed varies depending on the phase, by
using an example of temperature control.
MV

Step input

Time

PV
Temperature
Time
Heating phase

Cooling
phase

Figure 1.13.8-6 Example of Step Responses in a Process with Phases of Varying Response Speeds

In a heating furnace or heat exchanger process that requires temperature control, the process
response time may vary with the heating phase and cooling phase. When using a Self-Tuning
PID Controller Block (PID-STC) to control these processes, set the process 95 % response
time (TR) based on the phase with a longer response time.
PID parameters changes between the optimum PID parameters (P, I, D) of the two phases in
accordance with the direction of process variable response actions.

n Controlling a Process with Slower Actions at the Final Control


Element
The following section shows the points to be noted when using a Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) in a process whose final control element exhibits slower actions, by using an
example of flowrate control with a motor-operated valve.

Flow gauge

FIC

Motor-operated
valve

Figure 1.13.8-7 Motor-Operated Valve Flowrate Control

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SV

PID
-

PV

MV

+
-

aTds
1+Tds

a: First-order lead computation gain


Td: First-order lead constant

Figure 1.13.8-8 Controlling a Process with Slower Actions at the Final Control Element

When performing flowrate control using a motor-operated valve, the speed of response time
control for the motor-operated valve may be affected, as the response time of the motor-operated value is slower than that of the flow gauge. As the self-tuning function (STC function) estimates process characteristics by taking into account delays at the final control element, set a
larger proportional band than when there is no delay at the final control element.
If controllability needs to be further improved, consider using phase compensation by first-order lead computation, in order to compensate for the derivative actions.

n Program Pattern Control


The following shows points to be noted when applying a Self-Tuning PID Controller Block
(PID-STC) to program control, by using an example of a program controlling process where
the setpoint value of the temperature controller is changed in accordance with a specific temperature rise and fall pattern:
Temperature
Temperature pattern

Time
TPG

Temperature pattern generator

TIC

Heat treatment
furnace

Fuel

Figure 1.13.8-9 Program Control

When applying a Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) to a program controlling process where the setpoint value of the temperature controller is changed in accordance with a
specific temperature rise and fall pattern, note the following points:

Select the PI-D type (PV derivative type) control algorithm. The I-PD type (PV proportional and derivative type) algorithm provides poor follow-up capability relative to changes in
SV.

If it requires that overshoot of the rising temperature must be minimized, set 0 for the
control target type (OS) of the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC).

In general, when the setpoint value changes along a ramp pattern, as in the case of rising or
falling temperature, the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) generates an offset. If ondemand tuning is executed at this time, the MV Impulse amplitude (MI) is applied to the manipulated output value (MV) in the direction of decreasing control deviation, then PID parameIM 33K03E22-50E

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ters (P, I, D) are calculated and set automatically based on the response obtained. As a result,
the offset is reduced.

n Batch Control Combining a Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PIDSTC)


The following section shows the points to be noted when using a Self-Tuning PID Controller
Block (PID-STC) for batch control:
Temperature

Additional
raw material
input

Batch end

SV
PV

STC stop

STC stop

Time

Figure 1.13.8-10 Batch Control

During PID control, simple batch processes are subject to large disturbances beyond the correctable range through feedback control, as a result of additional charging of raw materials or
discharging of products in large quantities. In such cases, use the STC start and stop functions to build a sequence control process where STC actions stop temporarily when disturbances occur.
If the process is left unattended after batch end, with the setpoint value (SV) maintained at a
constant level in the automatic (AUT) mode, stop the STC function to prevent any unnecessary action of the self-tuning function (STC function).

n Controlling Interacting Loops Whose Interaction cannot be


Eliminated
The following section shows the points to be noted when using Self-tuning PID controller
blocks (PID-STC) to control interacting loops whose interaction cannot be eliminated, by using an example of pressure control and flowrate control interacting with each other:
PC

FC
Pressure

Flowrate

Figure 1.13.8-11 Controlling Interacting Loops Whose Interaction cannot be Eliminated

If interaction exists between pressure control and flowrate control, as shown in the figure
above, using the self-tuning function (STC function) in both control loops causes interacting
oscillation when their PID parameters (P, I, D) approach optimum values. In this case, turn off
the STC function of one Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) whose process variable
(PV) is allowed to change, and set larger values for the current effective proportional band
(PB) and current effective integral time (TI). (e.g.: PB=100 to 200 %, TI=30 to 80 seconds)
After this, use the STC function of the other Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) only.

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n Controlling Interacting Loops whose Interaction can be Eliminated


The following section shows the points to be noted when using Self-Tuning PID Controller
Blocks (PID-STC) to control interacting loops whose interaction can be eliminated, by using
an example of temperature control in a distillation column:

Distillation
column

T1

TC
1

TC
2

m1

LL - 1
-

g21
g22

g12
g11
LL - 2

m2
+

T2
TC 1
PID controller
TC 2

Figure 1.13.8-12 Controlling Interacting Loops whose Interaction Can Be Eliminated

If interaction exists between the column top temperature and column bottom temperature control segments of a distillation column process, first execute non-interacting control.
The method of non-interacting control is shown below:
In the figure, when the transmission function between the output mi and temperature Tj of the
controller TCi is gij. T1 and T2 will be represented as follows after non-interacting elements
LL-1 and LL-2 are applied:
T1 = (g11-g12 g21/g22) m1
T2 = (g22-g12 g21/g11) m2
As a result, the process is divided into two control loops that are regulated based on T1 and
T2, respectively.
Configure STC after confirming the result of this non-interacting control.

n Controlling a Loop Subject to Impulse Noise


When a Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) is used to control a loop subject to impulse noise, the Self-Tuning PID Controller Block (PID-STC) estimates process characteristics after removing the impulse noise. When noise generates frequently, set a noise band
(NB).
If impulse noise is generated frequently at intervals of TR/10 or shorter, consider using filters
to remove the noise.

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1.14

Manual Loader Block (MLD)

Manual Loader Block (MLD) may be applied to output manipulated output value (MV) to manually operate final control elements, such as control valves.

n Manual Loader Block (MLD)


Connection

Manual Loader Block (MLD) outputs manipulated output value (MV) set from operation and
monitoring function. When in tracking (TRK) mode, the tracking input signal received from the
TIN terminal is output as manipulated output value (MV).
The figure below shows a function block diagram of the Manual Loader Block (MLD):
TIN

TSI
(TSW)

Output
processing

MV

OUT

(MV, MV)
SUB

Figure 1.14-1 Function Block Diagram of Manual Loader Block (MLD)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Manual Loader Block (MLD):
Table 1.14-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Manual Loader
Block (MLD)
I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

TIN

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Manual Loader Block (MLD)


The MLD block performs output processing and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the MLD block is a periodic startup. Selections available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the
medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

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SEE
ALSO

For more information about the types of output processing and alarm processing possible for the MLD block,
refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Data Items - MLD


Table 1.14-2 Data Items of Manual Loader Block (MLD)
Data Item
MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Default (*2)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

(*3)

MV engineering unit value

MSL

MH

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

*3:

Range (*2)

O/S (MAN)

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
-----

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN

For more information about valid block modes of the MLD block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.15

Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator


(MLD-PVI)

Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI) may output manipulated output value
while displaying the process variable (PV). It may be applied to manually operate final control
elements and observing the process variable (PV) at the same time.

n Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI)


Connection

Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI) displays the value input from the IN terminal as process variable (PV). It also outputs the value set from operation and monitoring
function as manipulated output value (MV). In tracking (TRK) mode, the block outputs the
tracking input signal received from the TIN terminal as manipulated output value (MV).
The figure below shows a function block diagram of the Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI):
TSI

TIN

(TSW)

Input
processing

IN

Output
processing

PV

MV

OUT

(PV, PV, MV, MV)


SUB

Figure 1.15-1 Function Block Diagram of Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI):
Table 1.15-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Manual Loader
Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI)
I/O terminal

*1:

IN

Measurement input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

TIN

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

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n Function of Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI)


The MLD-PVI block performs input processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the MLD-PVI block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the MLD-PVI block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Data Items - MLD-PVI


Table 1.15-2 Data Items of Manual Loader Block with Input Indicator (MLD-PVI)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S(MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

MV

Manipulated output value

(*4)

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

LL

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination


x

Engineering unit value

MV engineering unit value

MSL

SL to SH

SH

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

MH

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

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Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*2:
*3:
*4:
ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

ML

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN

For more information about valid block modes of the MLD block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.16

Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW


(MLD-SW)

Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW) may be applied as the lowest downstream block in the control loops that consist of multiple function blocks.

n Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW)


MLD-SW AUT/CAS, Connection

The Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW) selects the manipulated output signals to be sent to final control elements, by switching between the output signal received from
a controller and its own manually manipulated output signal.
In the manual (MAN) mode, the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW) outputs
the value set from operation and monitoring function as manipulated output value (MV) to operate the final control element. In the automatic (AUT) mode or cascade (CAS) mode, it performs control computation processing to the value input from other function block (CSV), and
outputs the result as a manipulated output value (MV) while in the manual mode (MAN) it outputs the MV set from the operation and monitoring function.
Whether to set the cascade (CAS) mode or automatic (AUT) block mode for outputting the
result obtained by control computation processing of the value input from other function block,
may be selected for each control station on the property sheet of the FCS:
MLD-SW AUT/CAS: Check CAS or AUT.
The default is AUT.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man
SW (MLD-SW)
SET

TIN

TSI

INT

(TSW)

CSV

GAI CSV+BIAS
SV
Range
adjustment
Control computation
processing

AUT (CAS)

Output
processing

MV

OUT

MAN
(MV, MV)
SUB

Figure 1.16-1 Function Block Diagram of Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW):
Table 1.16-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Manual Loader
Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW)
I/O terminal
SET

Setting input

Connection method (*1)


Connection destination (*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block
x

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I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method (*1)


Connection destination (*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

TIN

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW)


The MLD-SW block performs control computation processing, output processing, and alarm
processing.
The only processing timing available for the MLD-SW block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of output processing and alarm processing possible for the MLD-SW
block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man


SW (MLD-SW)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Manual Loader
Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW):
Table 1.16-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW
(MLD-SW)
Control computation processing

Description

Automatic control output computation

Performs computation processing to the cascade setpoint


value (CSV) and obtains a setpoint value (SV). Then, performs range conversion to this SV and obtains a manipulated output value.

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during


each control period to an actual manipulated output value
(MV). The control output actions available with this function
block are of positional type only.

Setpoint value pushback

Set the setpoint value (SV) which was converted to the


cascade setpoint value (CSV) to the CSU.
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Control computation processing

Description
Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it to change abruptly when the block mode has been
changed or when the manipulated output value (MV) has
been switched in a downstream block in cascade.

Bumpless switching

Bumpless switching

1-161

Output pushback

Performs inverse operation on the manipulated output value to obtain SV and CSV and uses them as a setpoint value (SV) and cascade setpoint value (CSV), respectively.
Combining this function with output tracking prevents the
manipulated output value (MV) from changing abruptly
when the mode is changed to automatic.

Bias tracking

Obtains a BIAS value to balance the manipulated output


value and cascade setpoint value, and resets the bias
term. Combining this function with output tracking prevents
the manipulated output value (MV) from changing abruptly
when the mode is changed to automatic.

Setpoint value ramp


action

Causes the current manipulated output value (MV) to gradually approach the MV value converted from the setpoint
value. This prevents the manipulated output value (MV)
from changing abruptly when the mode is changed to automatic.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend


the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition becomes satisfied.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action. This action takes place when the MAN fallback
condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function
blocks from changing to the automatic operating mode.

n Automatic Control Output Computation


The automatic control output computation function converts the value set from other function
blocks as a cascade setpoint value (CSV) to a manipulated output value (MV).

Characteristics of Automatic Control Output Computation


The following computational expression is used in automatic control output:
The computation processing shown below is performed to the cascade setpoint value (CSV)
to obtain a setpoint value (SV):
SV=GAIN CSV+BIAS
When the block mode is automatic (AUT) or cascade (CAS), a manipulated output value (MV)
is obtained by performing range conversion to the setpoint value (SV).
The following computational expression is used in range conversion:
MV=

MSH-MSL
SSH-SSL

(SV-SSL)+MSL

MSH : MV scale high limit


MSL : MV scale low limit
SSH : SV scale high limit
SSL : SV scale low limit

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Set Parameters of Automatic Control Output Computation

The parameters of automatic control output computation:

Gain (GAIN)
Arbitrary data.
The default is 1.000.

Bias value (BIAS)


Engineering unit data within the SV scale span range.
The default is 0.0.

Setpoint range (SV)

SV Range

Referencing the output range of the connected function block, set the setpoint value (SV)
range:

SV range high limit


Numerical values of seven digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 100.0.

SV range low limit


Specify a numeric value of 7 digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 0.0.

n Control Output Action


The control output action converts the manipulated output change (MV) of each control period
to an actual manipulated output value (MV).
The control output actions applied in Manual loader with Aut/Man SW (MLD-SW) is positional
type. The manipulated output value (MV) is the value obtained from automatic control output
computation.

n Setpoint Value Pushback


When output is clamped, the setpoint value (SV) is converted to and set as a cascade setpoint value (CSV), using the following computational expression:
CSV=

SV-BIAS
GAIN

The setpoint value pushback action does not take place if GAIN is 0.

n Bumpless Switching
The bumpless switching function switches the block mode of the function block or manipulated output value downstream in cascade without causing the manipulated output value (MV)
to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless change).
The action during bumpless switching varies with the control output action and block mode
status.
The bumpless switching performed by the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLDSW) include the following types:

Output pushback
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Bias tracking

Setpoint value ramp action

Output Pushback

The output pushback function calculates a setpoint value (SV) and cascade setpoint value
(CSV) from the manipulated output value (MV) when the block is in the manual (MAN) or initialization manual (IMAN) mode, and put it to the setpoint value (SV) and cascade setpoint value (CSV), respectively. Output pushback is used when an upstream block is cascade connected to the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW), and the upstream block is
tracking to the MLD-SW. With the combination of the output pushback and the output tracking
function of the cascade connected upstream control block, the manipulated output value (MV)
of the cascade connected upstream block changes in accordance with the manipulated output
value (MV) of the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW) when the cascade connection is open. This action allows to change the block mode for the Manual Loader Block
with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW) from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT) bumplessly and without
balancing.
The computational expressions of output pushback:
SV=

SSH-SSL

(MV-MSL)+SSL

MSH-MSL

CSV=

SV-BIAS
GAIN

The output pushback action takes place when the following settings are performed:

No is set for bias tracking.

A value other than 0 is set for GAIN.

The following figure shows an action example of output pushback:


A Manual Loader Block with output switch is cascade connected in the middle of this loop,
when the cascade connection is open the manipulated output value (MV) of the upstream
block is forced to be equal to the setpoint value (SV) of the downstream block in the same
cascade loop:

PV

MV
PID

Output value tracking

CAS
(AUT)

MAN

Output pushback

SV
MV
MLD-SW

CAS

AUT/MAN

Output value tracking


SV
PV

MV
PID

Figure 1.16-2 Output Pushback and Output Value Tracking when Cascade is Open

In the above action example, bumpless switching is realized by the following three functions:

Output value tracked by the upstream block in the cascade loop

Output pushback by the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW)


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Output value tracks the downstream by the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW
(MLD-SW)

Bias Tracking

Bias Tracking

The bias tracking function calculates a bias value (BIAS) that allows the manipulated output
value (MV) to agree with the MV value converted from the cascade setpoint value (CSV), and
replaces the current bias value (BIAS) with the calculated value. Bias tracking is used when
an upstream block cascade connected to the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLDSW) performances the output value tracking function. By using the bias tracking function,
switching of the block mode from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT) can be performed bumplessly. When cascade connection is open, the upstream blocks MV does not only follow the
changes of MV of the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW) but also adds the
bias of the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW), so that the bump can be avoided when connection switches back to cascade.
The computational expressions of bias tracking:
SV=

SSH-SSL
MSH-MSL

(MV-MSL)+SSL

BIAS=SV-GAIN CSV
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define bias tracking.
Bias Tracking: Select Yes or No.
The default is No.
If Yes is defined for bias tracking, the output pushback and setpoint value ramp actions will
not be performed. If No is defined for bias tracking, these two actions will take place. However, the setpoint value ramp action is not performed if the ramp constant (RP) set parameter
remains at its default value.
When the upstream function block in cascade connection is a Cascade Signal Distributor
Block (FOUT), define Yes for bias tracking. This activates the bias tracking action even
when the Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) has multiple output connected destinations and the Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW) in cascade is closed when
connected to the second output destination or thereafter.

Setpoint Value Ramp Action

The setpoint value ramp action causes the current manipulated output value (MV) to gradually
approach the manipulated output value (MV) converted from the setpoint value (SV). This
function is used when a upstream block cascade connected to the Manual Loader Block with
Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW) is not defined the output tracking function.
The setpoint value ramp action takes place when the following two block mode changes are
performed:

The block mode changes from manual (MAN) to an automatic (AUT or CAS) mode.

The initialization manual (IMAN) mode is canceled while the block is still in an automatic
(AUT or CAS) mode.

The setpoint value ramp action causes the current manipulated output value (MV) to approach the manipulated output value (MV) converted from the setpoint value (SV), by limiting
the change per-scan period in the setpoint value (SV) that is used to calculate a manipulated
output value (MV) (effective setpoint value) to equivalent to or less than the ramp constant
(RP), when the setpoint value (SV) changes as a result of the above two block mode
changes.
The following example shows the action of the setpoint value ramp:

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Ramp constant (RP)

SV

Effective setpoint value


Scan period
Time

Figure 1.16-3 Action Example of the Setpoint Value Ramp

The setpoint value ramp action takes place only when No is defined for the bias tracking.
The parameter of the setpoint value ramp action:
Ramp constant (RP): Engineering unit data between 0 and the SV scale span range limit.
The default is the SV scale span.
The setpoint value ramp action enables bumpless switching of the cascade status from open
to close, even when the upstream block in cascade connection does not have the output
tracking function and the bias tracking action of the Manual Loader Block with output switch is
disabled.

n Initialization Manual
The initialization manual is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN). This action takes place
when the initialization manual condition is established.

Characteristics of the Initialization Manual

The initialization manual function suspends the control action and control output action temporarily during the automatic (AUT) mode or other automatic control operation mode when the
initialization manual condition is established, and changes the block mode of the function
block to initialization manual (IMAN).
When output value tracking is set to Yes with the Function Block Detail Builder, the manipulated output value (MV) is tracked to the value of the connection destination when initialization
manual goes into effect. Because of this, even if the mode is changed to the manual (MAN)
mode during initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the initialization manual (IMAN) mode takes
priority and the operation to change to the manual (MAN) mode becomes invalid.
The block returns to the original mode when the initialization manual condition vanishes. However, if try to change block mode in the initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the block only
change to that mode when the initialization condition vanishes.

Initialization Manual Condition

The initialization manual condition is a block mode transition condition that suspends the control action and control output action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization
manual (IMAN). The initialization manual (IMAN) block mode becomes active only when the
initialization manual condition is established.
The following example shows when the initialization manual condition establishes and vanishes:
AUT

Initialization manual condition established

IMAN (AUT)

Initialization manual condition vanishes


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AUT
The initialization manual condition is established in the following situation:

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destinations data status is conditional (CND) (i.e., the cascade loop open).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destinations data status is communication error (NCOM) or output failure (PTPF).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destination is a switch block (SW-33,
SW-91) and the cascade connection is switched off (i.e., the cascade loop open).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destination is a process output, and
a failure or output open alarm has occurred in the module.

When the data status of the input signal at the TIN or TSI terminals becomes invalid
(BAD) in the tracking (TRK) mode while the output signal is not a pulse-width type.

n MAN Fallback
The MAN fallback is an error processing function that stops the control and forces the function
block to enter manual operation state. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is established.

Characteristics of the MAN Fallback

The MAN fallback stops the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode
regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to enter manual operation state.
Once the MAN fallback condition is established, the block mode remains manual (MAN) even
when the condition later vanishes.

MAN Fallback Condition

The MAN fallback condition is used to stop the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to
enter manual operation state. When the MAN fallback condition is established, it indicates
that a fatal error has occurred and requests operator interruption.
The following example shows when the MAN fallback condition is established:
AUTMAN
IMAN (AUT) IMAN (MAN)
The MAN fallback condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status of the manipulated output value (MV) is output failure (PTPF).

When the data status of the setpoint value (SV) is invalid (BAD).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O module and the
FCS is having an initial cold start.

When the block mode change interlock condition is established.

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O module, and one
of the I/O points connected to the module is undergoing maintenance load.

n Block Mode Change Interlock


When the block mode change interlock condition is established, the block mode change interlock function stops the control computation processing of the function block running in auto
mode, and prohibit the function block changing to automatic operation mode.
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Characteristics of the Block Mode Change Interlock

Stops the control computation processing of the function blocks that are operating automatically, and disables the currently stopped function blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. The following actions will take place:

The block mode changes to manual (MAN).

Any block mode change command to make the function block into automatic operation
state (AUT or CAS mode) become invalid.

Block Mode Change Interlock Condition


The Block mode change interlock condition is established when the switch at the connected
destination of the interlock switch input terminal (INT) is turned ON. This switch is manipulated in the process control sequence and the switch is turned on when the sequence judge
that the loop can not run in Auto mode, or etc.,.

n Data Items - MLD-SW


Table 1.16-3 Data Items of Manual Loader Block with Auto/Man SW (MLD-SW)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S(MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specificaton

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

SV

Setpoint value

SV engineering unit value

SSL

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as SV

SSL

MV

Manipulated output value

MV engineering unit value

MSL

MH

Manipulated variable high limit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Mnipulated variable low limit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

GAIN

Gain

-----

1.000

BIAS

Bias

(SSH - SSL)

0.0

RP

Ramp consistant

0 to (SSH - SSL)

SSH to SSL

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV swich

0, 1, 2, 3

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

*1:

Range (*2)

x
(*3)

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted

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*2:

*3:

SEE
ALSO

1-168

: Entry is permitted conditionally


SSH: SV scale high limit
SSL: SV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN

For more information about valid block modes of the MLD-SW block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.17

Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3,


and MC-3E)

The Motor Control Blocks MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E are applied to operate motor-driven pumps and motor-operated valves. These blocks may be used to start or stop motors from
operation and monitoring functions or to control them automatically.
There are four models of Motor Control Block (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E), which behaves in different output manner.

Two-Position Motor Control Block (MC-2)

Enhanced Two-Position Motor Control Block (MC-2E)

Three-Position Motor Control Block (MC-3)

Enhanced Three-Position Motor Control Block (MC-3E)

n Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)


Connection

The motor control blocks are provided with function to operate motor-driven pumps and motor-operated valves.
The motor control blocks enable starting and stopping of motors from operation and monitoring functions. Also, combining the motor control blocks with the sequence control function to
realize the automatic control on motors.
The MC-2E (*1) and MC-3E (*1) blocks function the same as MC-2 and MC-3 blocks but
have the additional capability to connect to FF faceplate blocks and fieldbus function blocks.
Moreover, the input terminals for the two contacts and the output terminals for the two or
three contacts can be defined separately so that the two or three irrelevant channels can be
used.
*1:

MC-2E and MC-3E blocks can be applied to all field control stations except standard PFCS. When using MC-2E or MC-3E
block, it is necessary to add the option [DIOENH] on the [Constant] tab of the FCS properties sheet.

The figure below shows the function block diagram of the motor control blocks (MC-2, MC-3):

IN

FB

SV

FV

TT

Input
processing

Answerback
check function

PV

CSV

RMV

Output
processing

MV

OUT

(BPSW)
SWI

INT

IL

TSI

Figure 1.17-1 Function Block Diagram of the Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-3)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-3):

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Table 1.17-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Motor Control
Blocks (MC-2, MC-3)
Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

I/O terminal
IN

Answerback input

OUT

Manipulated output

FB

Feedback
signal input

TT

Thermal trip
signal input

IL

Operation
interlock input

SWI

Bypass
command
SW input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

*1:

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

The figure below shows the function block diagram of the motor control blocks (MC-2E):
SV

FV

TT

Input
processing

IN1

Answerback
check function

PV

CSV

RMV

Output
processing

MV

OUT1
OUT2

IN2
FB

(BPSW)
SWI

INT

IL

TSI

Figure 1.17-2 Function Block Diagram of the Enhanced Two-position Motor Control Blocks (MC-2E)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Motor Control Blocks (MC-2E):
Table 1.17-2 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Enhanced Twoposition Motor Control Blocks (MC-2E)
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN1

Answerback input1

IN2

Answerback input2

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Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

I/O terminal

OUT1

Manipulated output1

OUT2

Manipulated output2

*1:

FB

Feedback
signal input

TT

Thermal trip
signal input

IL

Operation
interlock input

SWI

Bypass
command
SW input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

The figure below shows the function block diagram of the motor control blocks (MC-3E):
SV

FV

TT

Input
processing

IN1

Answerback
check function

PV

CSV

RMV

Output
processing

MV

OUT1

IN2

OUT2

FB

OUT3

(BPSW)
SWI

INT

IL

TSI

Figure 1.17-3 Function Block Diagram of the Enhanced Three-position Motor Control Blocks (MC-3E)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Motor Control Blocks (MC-3E):
Table 1.17-3 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Enhanced
Three-position Motor Control Blocks (MC-3E)
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN1

Answerback input1

IN2

Answerback input2

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I/O terminal

*1:

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Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

OUT1

Manipulated output1

OUT2

Manipulated output2

OUT3

Manipulated output3

FB

Feedback
signal input

TT

Thermal trip
signal input

IL

Operation
interlock input

SWI

Bypass
command
SW input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

IMPORTANT
If the OUTn terminals of MC-2E or MC-3E are connected to different output modules or if the
terminals are connected to FF faceplate blocks or fieldbus function blocks, the simultaneity of
the two or three outputs are not guaranteed. The same phenomenon happens to IN1 and IN2
terminals under the same circumstances.

n Functions of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)


The motor control blocks perform input processing, control computation processing, output
processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the motor control blocks is a periodic startup. Moreover, only the basic scan period can be selected as the scan period to execute the periodic
startup.

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SEE
ALSO

For more information about the types of output processing and alarm processing possible for the motor control blocks, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Input Processing Specific to Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3,


and MC-3E)
The motor control blocks perform special input signal conversions.

Control Computation Processing of the Motor Control Blocks (MC-2,


MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Motor Control
Blocks:
Table 1.17-4 Control Computation Processing Functions of the Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E,
MC-3, and MC-3E)
Control computation processing

Description

Answerback check

Compares the answerback input value (PV) with manipulated output value (MV) and checks if the final control element is operating in accordance with the output signals from the motor control block.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition becomes satisfied.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action. This
action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the computer


backup mode when an error has been detected at a supervisory computer while the function block is operating in the ROUT mode. This action
takes place when the computer failure condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the automatic operating mode.

Serial start

Starts sequentially and at specific intervals the multiple motor control


blocks belonging to the same group within the same control station ,
when start requests are issued to these blocks simultaneously.

Start count

Counts the number of times the manipulated output value (MV) has
changed from 0 to 2 or from 1 to 2, and uses the obtained value as
the number of starts (OCNT).

Operating time

Totalizes the periods of time during which the manipulated output value
(MV) remains at 1 or 2, and uses the obtained value as the operating
time (ONTM).

Status change message

Outputs a status change message when block mode is changed or when


a specific block status is changed.

Simulation function

Simulates the internal processing actions of the motor control blocks.

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Control computation processing

Description
Bypasses actions in accordance with the condition specified by the bypass command switch.

Bypass command switch

Output Processing Specific to Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3,


and MC-3E)

The motor control blocks perform output processing that is different from the output processing performed by other function blocks. The following lists the output processing items specific
to the motor control blocks.

Setting method of manipulated output value (MV)

Output signal conversion

Inching output

Remote/local input function

Answerback tracking function

Interlock check function

Off-service function

Alarm Processing Specific to Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3,


and MC-3E)

The following lists the alarm checks performed by the motor control blocks.

Feedback input high and low limit alarm check

Thermal trip alarm check

Interlock alarm check

Answerback unset alarm check

Answerback error alarm check

n Data Items - MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E


Table 1.17-5 Data Items of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

BSTS

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range

Default (*2)

-----

O/S(MAN)

Block status

-----

NR

ALRM

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Answerback input value

0 to 2

FV

Feedback input value

FV engineering unit value

SL

SV

Inching output setpoint value

0 to 100 %

0%

CSV

Sequence setpoint value

0, 1, 2

MV

Manipulated output value

(*4)

0, 1, 2

(*3)

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Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*5)

RAW

Answerback raw signal

ONCT

Number of starts

ONTM

Operating time count

ONTH
ONTS

Data Item

*1:
*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:

Range

Default (*2)

0, 1, 2

0, 1, 2

0 to 99999999

0 to 99999999 seconds

0 second

Operating time hour unit

0 to 99999999 hours

0 hour

Operating time second unit

0 to 3599 seconds

0 second

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SL: PV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

Table 1.17-6 Data Items of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E) (2/2)
Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

Feedback input high - limit


alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Feedback input low - limit


alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

ANSP

Answerback setpoint

SL to SH

SL

MTM

Answerback check masking time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 seconds

SVH

Setpoint high limit

0 to 100 %

100 %

SVL

Setpoint low limit

0 to 100 %

0%

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

BPSW

Bypass command switch

0, 1, 2, 3, 4

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

SIMM

Simulation switch

0, 1

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

FV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as FV

-----

SL

FV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as FV

-----

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

PH

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
FV: Feedback input value
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the motor control blocks, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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n Block Status of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and


MC-3E)
Table 1.17-7 Block Status of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)
Level
3
2

Symbol

Block Status
Name

Description

ANCK

Answer - Back Check Inhibition

Answer - Back Check is inhibited

OFF

Off Service

Output is stopped

LOCK

Interlock

Forced to output a preset value.

SIM

Simulation

Stops output but simulates the output


actions.

NR

Normal

Normal status

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1.17.1

Input Processing of Motor Control Block (MC-2,


MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)

Input signals specific to the Motor Control Blocks include feedback input signal and answerback input signal. Input Signal Conversion of Feedback Input, Input Signal Conversion of
Answerback Input and Input Signal Conversion of Feedback Input Value into Answerback Input Value are provided for conversion of these signals. FV Overshoot is an input processing
of motor control blocks.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the FV overshoot, refer to:


3.4, PV/FV/CPV Overshoot in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Input Signal of Motor Control Block (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and


MC-3E)
Input signals specific to the Motor Control Blocks are shown as follows.

Feedback Input Signal

Feedback input signal is used when the feedback terminal (FB) in the motor control block is
connected to analog input modules or other function blocks. The feedback signal often indicates the connected filed equipment status such as the openness of a motor-operated valve.

Answerback Input Signal

Answerback input signal is used when the IN terminal in the motor control block is connected
to a contact input or other internal status switch. For M2-CE and M3-CE blocks, the answerback signals are the signals from the FF faceplate blocks, fieldbus function blocks, internal
switches or contact Inputs that connected to IN1 and IN2 terminals. The answerback signal
often indicate the state of onsite equipment such as the open/close status of motor-operated
valve or the start/stop status of pump operation.

Input Signal Conversion Specific to Motor Control Block (MC-2, MC-3)

The motor control block uses a special input signal conversion corresponding to the feedback
input signal and answerback input signal.

Input Signal Conversion of Feedback Input

Input Signal Conversion of Answerback Input

Input Signal Conversion of Feedback Input Value into Answerback Input Value

n Input Signal Conversion of Feedback Input


Feedback Low-Input Cutoff

Feedback value (FV) is the signal that the feedback terminal FB received from its connection
destination without conversion. However, if the value from FB is equal to or less than the lowinput cutoff value, the feedback value (FV) is set to 0.
Input signal conversion setting parameters for the feedback input signal are given below.
FV scale high limit (SH) : Set FV engineering unit data.
FV scale low limit (SL) :

Set FV engineering unit data.

Also, the setup for feedback low-input cutoff can be executed on the Function Block Detail
Builder.
Feedback Low-input Cutoff: Set FV engineering unit data.

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The default setting is 0.0.

n Input Signal Conversion of Answerback Input


Input Signal Conversion

The answerback input value (PV) is the answerback input signal read from IN or IN1 and IN2
terminals connection destinations, such as connected contact inputs or other internal status
switches then converted into the code values.

Number of Answerback Input Points

There are two kinds of answerback input signal conversion methods. The number of answerback input points is determined depending on the type of conversion.

2-Status Input (answerback=1 point)

3-Status Input (answerback=2 points)

The selection of input signal conversion type may be performed on the Function Block Detail
Builder.
Input signal conversion type: Set 2-Status Input or 3-Status Input.
The default setting is 2-Status Input.

Direction of Answerback

Direction of answerback specify the meaning of ON/OFF, status of answerback input signal,
which reflect the final control element status if it operates properly according to the manipulated output value (MV) from the motor control block.
The setup for direction of answerback may be performed on the Function Block Detail Builder.

Direction of Answerback
For MC-2, MC-3 blocks: Select Direct, Reverse, Inverted connect direct action or Inverted connect reverse action.
For MC-2E, MC-3E blocks: Select Direct or Reverse.
The default setting is Direct.

Conversion of Answerback Input Signal into Answerback Input Value (PV)


Either 0, 1 or 2 is set for the answerback input value in the function block depending on the
direction and contact status of answerback input signal. Connect the input n to the answerback input signal indicating open and the input n+1 to the answerback input signal indicating close, and vice versa for inverted connection. (*1)
*1:

Inverted connection is not available for MC-2E and MC-3E blocks.

The table below shows the correlation between the answerback input value (PV) and contact
status.
Table 1.17.1-1 Determination of Answerback Input Signal
Number of answerback
points

Action of answerback
Direct

1
Reverse

Contact status

PV

Alarm

OFF

ON

OFF

n (*1)

n+1 (*2)

ON

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Number of answerback
points

Action of answerback

Direct

Reverse

2
Inverted connection direct
action (*4)

Inverted connection reversed


action (*4)

*1:
*2:

*3:
*4:

Contact status

1-179

PV

Alarm

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

ON

ON

ON

Hold previous
value (*3)

PERR

ON

OFF

OFF

OFF

Hold previous
value (*3)

PERR

OFF

ON

ON

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

ON

Hold previous
value (*3)

PERR

OFF

ON

OFF

OFF

Hold previous
value (*3)

PERR

ON

OFF

ON

ON

n (*1)

n+1 (*2)

ON

n in the table indicates the element number specified to connect to IN terminal of MC-2 and MC-3 blocks, or the IN1 terminal
of MC-2E and MC-3E blocks. The answerback input signal read from the element n represents the status of open; vise versa, when the connection is inverted, the answerback input signal read from the element n represents the status of close.
n+1 in the table indicates the element number succeeding the element number n that is specified to connect to IN terminal
of MC-2 and MC-3 blocks, or the element number specified to connect to IN2 terminal of MC-2E and MC-3E blocks. The
answerback input signal read from the element n+1 represents the status of close; vise versa, when the connection is inverted, the answerback input signal read from the element n+1 represents the status of open.
When both open and close answerback signals are true, an error will be initiated.
Inverted connection direct action and Inverted connection reversed action are not available for MC-2E and MC-3E blocks.

The data status of answerback input value (PV) becomes invalid (BAD) if both open and
close answerback input signals are true at the same time, or one of the connection destinations to read answerback input signal is abnormal.
The input open alarm is activated if the status of answerback input value (PV) is invalid (BAD)
due to abnormal status at the connection destination. If the data value is invalid (BAD) because both open and close answerback input signals are true at the same time, the answerback inconsistency alarm (PERR) is activated.

n Input Signal Conversion of Feedback Input Value into Answerback


Input Value
If the answerback input terminal has no connection while the feedback input terminal is in
connection, the answerback input value (PV) is set to one of the following values after comparing the feedback input value (FV) with the answerback setpoint (ANSP).

If FVANSP, PV=2

If FV<ANSP, PV=0

The answerback setpoint (ANSP) is a data in the engineering unit that indicates the scale
range between feedback input value (FV), and can be updated as a setting parameter while
the system is running.

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If the data status of feedback input value (FV) is invalid (BAD), the status of answerback input
value (PV) is set invalid (BAD) with the previous answerback input value (PV) latched.
If both the answerback input terminal and the feedback input terminal are in connection, the
answerback input precedes. The answerback input is converted into the answerback input
value (PV) through input signal conversion.
If neither the answerback input terminal nor the feedback input terminal are in connection, the
previous answerback input value (PV) is latched.

IMPORTANT
The answerback input signal conversion is not executed in the following states:

When the block status is simulation (SIM).

When the data status of answerback input value (PV) is calibration (CAL).

When the answerback check bypass is activated.


(answerback check bypass command switch BPSW=1 or 3)

Even if the answerback input signal at the IN terminal connection destination is not properly
converted due to one of the above conditions, the data converted through the same answerback input signal conversion (2- or 3-status conversion) as the answerback input value (PV)
are stored in the answerback raw signal input value.

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1.17.2

1-181

Control Computation Processing of Motor Control


Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)

This section describes the control computation processing functions of the motor control
blocks, which are listed below.

Answerback check

Initialization manual

MAN fallback

Computer fail

Block mode change interlock

Serial start

Start count

Operating time

Status change message

Simulation function

Bypass command switch (BPSW)

n Answerback Check
The answerback check function checks if the final control elements are operating normally in
accordance with the output signals from the Motor control blocks. Unless the manipulated output value (MV) is changed, the answerback input value (PV) and manipulated output values
(MV) are constantly compared. If the two do not agree with each other, an alarm is generated.
The following types of alarms are generated:

Positive answerback error alarm (ANS+)


Generated when the manipulated output value (MV) is 2 and the answerback input value (PV) is not 2.

Negative answerback error alarm (ANS-)


Generated when the manipulated output value (MV) is 0 and the answerback input value (PV) is not 0.

While the answerback error alarm exists, if the answerback input value (PV) and manipulated
output value (MV) becomes equal or the manipulated output value (MV) changes back, the
answerback error alarm (ANS+ or ANS-) vanishes.
After the manipulated output value (MV) changes, it takes some time for the final control elements to complete action. Therefore, the answerback check masking time (MTM) is introduced after the manipulated output value (MV) changes. During this mask time, even when
the answerback input value (PV) and manipulated output value (MV) do not agree, the answerback check does not initiate alarm.
When the manipulated output value (MV) changes, the block status changes to ANCK status,
indicating that the answerback check is in progress. The answerback check masking (ANCK)
status will be canceled when the answerback input value (PV) comes to meet the manipulated output value (MV). When the answerback masking time is elapsed, the answerback
check masking (ANCK) status is also canceled even the answerback input value (PV) does
not meet the manipulated output value (MV).
The answerback check function stops in the following conditions:

When the block status is simulation (SIM).

When the block mode is tracking (TRK).

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When answerback bypass is specified (BPSW=1 or 3).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is 1.

When the data status of the answerback input value (PV) is calibration (CAL).

When out of service (BPSW=4) is specified.

In the initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the answerback check masking timer behaves as if
the masking time has already elapsed, and the Motor control blocks maintain their alarm status.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about answerback check masking status, conformity between answerback input value
(PV) manipulate output value (MV), refer to:
lConditions to Release Answerback Check Mask on page 1-182

Define the Answerback Check

Answerback Check

Select the answerback check monitoring action from the following three types:

Positive monitoring
Starts the answerback check masking timer at the start of output (OFFON). If the answerback input value (PV) still disagrees with manipulated output value (MV) after the answerback check masking time has elapsed, an alarm is generated. If output is OFF, no
alarm will be generated even when the answerback input value (PV) does not agree with
manipulated output value (MV).

Negative monitoring
Starts the answerback check masking timer at the end of output (ONOFF). If the answerback input value (PV) still disagrees with manipulated output value (MV) after the answerback check masking time has elapsed, an alarm is generated. If output is ON, no
alarm will be generated even when the answerback input value (PV) does not agree with
manipulated output value (MV).

Both-side monitoring
Starts the answerback check masking timer at the start and end of output. If the answerback input value (PV) still disagrees with manipulated output value (MV) after the answerback check masking time elapsed, an alarm is generated.

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the answerback check.
Answerback Check: Choose [No], [Both Sides], [Open] or [Close].
The default is [No].

Conditions to Release Answerback Check Mask

Release Answerback Check Mask

When the block is in the status that the answerback check is masked (ANCK), if the answerback input value (PV) changes to meet the manipulate output (MV), the answerback check
mask (ANCK) will be released. However, user can change the condition for releasing the answerback check mask; thus, the answerback check mask will not be released until the answerback check masking time elapsed.
Moreover, when the block is in the status that the answerback check is masked (ANCK), the
input high-limit alarm (HI) and input low-limit alarm (LO) are also masked. However, if checking input open (IOP) is specified, the input open alarm (IOP) will not be masked.
Conditions to release answerback check mask can be set on the Function Block Detail Builder.

Release Answerback Check Mask


Choose [PV=MV or MTM Timeout] or [MTM Timeout Only].
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The default is [PV=MV or MTM Timeout].


The Release Answerback Check Mask option can be set to the following motor control
blocks:

MC-2 and MC-3 blocks in FFCS series, KFCS2, and LFCS2.

MC-2E and MC-3E blocks in FCSs except PFCS.

If [PV=MV or MTM Timeout] is chosen as the condition to release the answerback check
mask, when answerback input value (PV) changes to agree the manipulated output value
(MV), the answerback check mask (ANCK) will be released.
If [MTM Timeout Only] is chosen as the condition to release the answerback check mask,
when answerback input value (PV) changes to agree the manipulated output value (MV), the
answerback check mask (ANCK) will not be released until the answerback check masking
timer (MTM) becomes timeout. When the answerback input value (PV) changed to agree the
manipulated output value (MV) but the block is still in answerback check masking (ANCK) status, if the manipulated output value (MV) is changed again, the answerback check masking
timer (MTM) will be re-initiated.

Answerback Bypass

The answerback bypass function forces the answerback input value (PV) to be equal to the
manipulated output value (MV) and stops the answerback check. The answerback bypass
function is activated when the bypass command switch (BPSW) is 1 or 3.

Set Parameters of the Answerback Check

The parameters of the answerback check:

Answerback checks masking time (MTM)


0 to 10000 seconds.
The default is 4 seconds.

Bypass command switch (BPSW)


Select 0, 1, 3 or 4.
The default is 0.

TIP Even when the serial start is specified, changing the manipulated output value (MV) triggers a transition to the
answerback check inhibition (ANCK) status.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the bypass command switch (BPSW), refer to:
nBypass Command Switch (BPSW) on page 1-189

n Initialization Manual
The initialization manual is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN). This action takes place
when the initialization manual condition is established.

Characteristics of the Initialization Manual


The initialization manual function suspends the control output action temporarily during operation when the initialization manual condition is established, and changes the block mode of
the function block to initialization manual (IMAN).
The block returns to the original mode when the initialization manual condition vanishes. However, if try to change block mode in the initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the block only
change to that mode when the initialization condition vanishes.

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Initialization Manual Condition

The initialization manual condition is a block mode transition condition that suspends the control action and control output action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization
manual (IMAN).
The initialization manual (IMAN) block mode becomes active only when the initialization manual condition is established.
The following example shows when the initialization manual condition establishes or vanishes:
AUT

Initialization manual condition established

IMAN (AUT)

Initialization manual condition vanishes

AUT
The initialization manual condition establishes in the following situation:

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destinations data status is communication error (NCOM) or output failure (PTPF).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destination is a switch block (SW-33,
SW-91) and the connection is switched off.

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destination is a process output module, and a failure or output open alarm has occurred in the module.

When the data status of the input signal at the TIN or TSI terminals becomes invalid
(BAD) in the tracking (TRK) mode while the output signal is not a pulse-width type.

n MAN Fallback
The MAN fallback is an error processing function that stops the control and forces the function
block to enter manual operation state. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is established.

Characteristics of the Man Fallback

The MAN fallback stops the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode
regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to enter manual operation state.
Once the MAN fallback condition is established, the block mode remains manual (MAN) even
when the condition later vanishes.

MAN Fallback Condition

The MAN fallback condition is used to stop the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to
enter manual operation state. When the MAN fallback condition is established, it indicates
that a fatal error has occurred and requests operator interruption.
The following example shows when the MAN fallback condition is established:
AUTMAN
IMAN (CAS) IMAN (MAN)
The MAN fallback condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status of the answerback input value (PV) is calibration (CAL).

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When the answerback abnormality designated on the builder item [Fallback operation on
the abnormal answerback] occurs.

When the manipulated output data status becomes PTPF.

When the switch connected to INT terminal is turned ON (i.e., the interlock condition is
established for changing the block into interlock mode).

When the data status of the setpoint value (SV) is invalid (BAD).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O and the FCS is
having an initial cold start.

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O, and one of the
I/O points connected to the module has been changed via maintenance.

n Computer Fail
When the computer fail is detected, the function block suspends the action in the remote output (ROUT) mode temporarily and switches to the computer backup mode.

Characteristics of Computer Fail

When the function block mode is remote output (ROUT), the function block receives the manipulated output value (MV) from a supervisory system computer via control bus communication.
When the computer fails, the block changes mode to the preset computer backup mode
(MAN, AUT or CAS) which indicates that an abnormality has been detected in the supervisory
computer. When the computer recovers, the block returns to the mode before the change.
The following section is an action flow of the function block from the time the computer fail
condition establishes till it vanishes.
1.

When a block mode change command from MAN, AUT or CAS to ROUT is sent while the
computer fails (BSW=ON), the function block does not switch to the computer backup
mode directly but switches to the transient state mode first.
The transient state mode is a compound block mode consisting of the block mode before
the execution of the block mode change command (MAN, AUT, CAS) and a remote mode
(ROUT).

2.

Then the function block tests the computer condition in the first scan after the block mode
change command and switches to the computer backup mode.
The computer backup mode is a compound block mode consisting of the backup mode
set via the Function Block Detail Builder (MAN, AUT, CAS) and a remote mode (ROUT).

3.

If the computer recovers while the function block is in the computer backup mode, the
block mode changes to remote output (ROUT).

Computer Fail Condition

The computer fail condition is a block-mode transition condition used to suspend actions in
the remote output (ROUT) mode and switches the mode to the computer backup mode.
A backup switch (BSW) is provided in function block to define the remote output (ROUT)
mode. The status of this switch determines whether the computer has failed or recovered.
The value of the backup switch (BSW) can be set from a sequence table or other function
blocks.
Switching to a computer backup mode does not take effect if the backup switch (BSW) is on a
block mode other than remote output (ROUT).

When the backup switch BSW=ON, computer has failed

When the backup switch BSW=OFF, computer has recovered

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An example when the automatic (AUT) mode has been specified for the computer backup
mode is shown as follows:
ROUT

Computer fails

AUT

(ROUT)

Computer recovers

ROUT
An example when the manual (MAN) mode has been specified for the computer backup
mode is shown as follows:
AUT

ROUT command

AUT (ROUT) Transient state mode

After one scan period

MAN (ROUT) Computer backup mode (When BSW=ON)

Define Computer Backup Mode

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the computer backup mode for each function
block.

Computer Backup Mode


Select MAN, AUT or CAS as the mode to be switched to when the computer becomes down.
The default is MAN.

n Block Mode Change Interlock


When the block mode change interlock condition is established, the block mode change interlock function stops the control computation processing of the function block running in auto
mode, and prohibit the function block changing to automatic operation mode.

Characteristics of the Block Mode Change Interlock

Stops the control computation processing of the function blocks that are operating automatically, and disables the currently stopped function blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. The following actions will take place:

The block mode changes to manual (MAN).

Any block mode change command to obtain an automatic operation state (AUT, CAS, or
ROUT mode) becomes invalid.

Block Mode Change Interlock Condition


The block mode change interlock condition is established when the switch at the connected
destination of the interlock switch input terminal (INT) is turned ON as a result of continued
automatic operation becoming impossible due to an abnormality in the plant, etc.

n Serial Start
Serial Startup Group, MC Block Serial Startup Interval

The serial start function put the Motor control blocks in the same control station into groups
and starts multiple Motor control blocks in the same group sequentially at a specified interval
when start requests are issued to these blocks simultaneously.
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Serial start is executed when the manipulated output value (MV) changes to execute the positive action. For example, serial start takes place if the manipulated output value (MV) changes
from 0 to 2 but not when it changes from 2 to 0.
After start requests have been issued, the Motor control blocks that are waiting for serial start
will remain in the state of not performing output although the manipulated output value is
changing. When this occurs, the answerback check masking time is extended by the time for
which the blocks waiting for serial start.
Define serial start on Function Block Detail Builder and System View.
Serial Startup Group: Specify a value between 0 and 7.
The default is 0.
Set the value in the Function Block Detail Builder.
Serial start is not executed to the group whose group number is 0.
Serial start interval:

Specify a value between 0 and 9999 seconds.


The default is 0.
Specification defined in System View valid for whole control station.

n Start Count
Counts the number of times the manipulated output value (MV) has changed from 0 or 1 to 2,
and uses the obtained value as the number of starts (ONCT).
The ONCT count increases from 0 to 99999999 and upon reaching 99999999, returns to 0
with the next count. The number of starts (ONCT) will not be initialized automatically, even
during initial cold start. However, the number of starts (ONCT) is initialized when an arbitrary
ONCT value is set. The number of starts (ONCT) can be initialized at any time as necessary.
The number of starts (ONCT) is not counted in the simulation mode (SIM) or during inching
output operation.

n Operating Time
Totalizes the periods of time during which the manipulated output value remained at 1 or 2,
and stores the obtained value in the operating time (ONTM). The operating time (ONTM) is
indicated in seconds.
The operating time (ONTM) value is totalized from 0 to 99999999, and upon reaching
99999999, returns to 0 with the next count.
The values representing the hour and second digits of the operating time are stored in the operating time hour unit (ONTH) and operating time second unit (ONTS), respectively. The operating time hour unit (ONTH) and operating time second unit (ONTS) are constantly updated in
accordance with changes in the operating time (ONTM).
The operating time (ONTM) will not be initialized automatically, even during initial cold start.
However, if an arbitrary value is set for the operating time (ONTM), the operating time
(ONTM) is initialized by that value. The operating time (ONTM) can be initialized at any time
as necessary.
The operating time (ONTM) is not updated in the simulation mode (SIM) or during inching output operation.

n Status Change Message


The Motor control blocks issue a status change message when changes occur in the block
mode or status. The statuses for which a status change message is issued are OFF and
LOCK.
When the block status changes from OFF or LOCK, a status change message is issued.
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n Simulation Function
The simulation function simulates the internal processing actions of the Motor control blocks.
This function is used when testing the operation of devices using Motor control blocks.

Setting and Canceling the Simulation Mode

The following section explains how to set and cancel the simulation mode:

Setting the simulation mode


When the simulation switch (SIMM) is set to ON (=1), the simulation mode becomes active. The simulation mode is indicated by the block status, SIM.

Canceling the simulation mode


When the simulation switch (SIMM) is set to OFF (=0), the simulation mode is canceled
and the block returns to a normal state.

The table below shows actions of the motor control blocks in the simulation mode:
Table 1.17.2-1 Actions of Motor Control Block (MC-2, MC-3) Functions in the Simulation Mode
Function

Action

Block mode

Same as in a normal state, except IMAN.

Block status

SIM

Alarm status

No alarm is generated.

Answerback input

Only takes in values for RAW.

Feedback input

Only takes in values.

Thermal trip check

No action.

Answerback check

The check and alarm actions do not stop.


When the answerback check specification is set to
enable, the MV value is set as the PV value after
the answerback check masking time elapses (*1).
When the answerback check specification is disabled, the MV value is set as the PV value immediately.

Calibration function
Remote/local input
Answerback tracking
Interlock check

Same as in a normal state.


No action.

Output signal conversion

The output action stops, but the MV action continues as normal.


In the status type output, the current status of the
output destinations is retained.
In the pulsive type output, the status of all output
destinations changes to OFF.

Inching output

The output action stops, but the MV and SV actions


continue as normal.

Serial start
Start count

No action.

Operating time
Status change message
*1:

Same as in a normal state.

If turns ON the simulation mode when the answerback alarm is present, the manipulated output value (MV) is set to be equal
to the answerback input value (PV) immediately.

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SEE
ALSO

For more information about the thermal trip check, refer to:
nThermal Trip Alarm Check on page 1-208

Actions after Cancellation of the Simulation Mode

The following actions take place in the first scan period after the simulation mode is canceled:

Status output type


The contact status of the output destination is read back and set as the manipulated output value (MV).

Pulsive output type


When Yes is set for the answerback tracking function, the answerback input value (PV)
is set as the manipulated output value (MV). This processing is not performed while the
answerback bypass function is active.

The above actions take place commonly when the output status changes from stop to start,
regardless the cancellation of simulation mode.

n Bypass Command Switch (BPSW)


The bypass command switch is used to stop the answerback check function, interlock check
functions, or output actions.
The table below shows the commands and actions of the bypass command switch (BPSW)
corresponding to different switch positions (0 to 4):
Table 1.17.2-2 Commands and Actions of the Bypass Command Switch (BPSW) Corresponding to Different Switch Positions (0 to 4)
BPSW

Command

Action

No bypass

Normal actions.

Answerback bypass

The answerback bypass action is executed.

Interlock bypass

The interlock action is stopped.

Answerback + interlock bypasses

The answerback bypass action is executed.


The interlock action is stopped.

Out of service

Block mode=MAN
Block status=OFF
The answerback tracking action is executed.

The out of service corresponding the switch position 4 instructs the Motor control block to
stop the output action.
The value of the bypass command switch (BPSW) is set by the input signal from the bypass
command switch input terminal (SWI). If the SWI terminal is not connected, the value is set
directly from operation and monitoring functions or other function block.
The table below summarizes various types of bypasses that are explained in the sections of
corresponding functions:
Table 1.17.2-3 Table of Function Bypasses
Function(*1)

TRK

Mode
IMAN

OFF

Block status
LOCK
SIM

Feedback input

Answerback input

Thermal trip check

Answerback check

BPSW =1.3

PV.CAL

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Function(*1)

TRK

Answerback bypass action


(MVPV)
Answerback tracking action
(*2)
(PVMV)

Interlock check
Signal output (*4)
*1:
*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:

(*5)

Mode
IMAN

OFF

Block status
LOCK
SIM

BPSW =1.3

PV.CAL

x (*3)

x: Bypass unless other condition denoted by x exist


Blank: Not Bypass
-: Irrelevant
The answerback tracking is not active when the answerback tracking specification is No.
If BPSW=3, the interlock check is not active.
If the signal output status changes from enable to disable while pulsive output is in progress, the output action will not stop
after specified pulse-width signals are outputted. If the change occurs during inching processing, the output action does not
continue to finish the inching processing. However, no further inching operation request is accepted.
Same as x during status output while the answerback tracking action is active.

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1.17.3

Output Processing of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2,


MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)

The Motor Control Blocks, execute special output processing different from other function
blocks.
This section describes the output processing specific to Motor Control Blocks.

Set manipulated output value MV

Output Signal Conversion

Inching Output

MV Action on Setting CSV (*1)

Remote/Local Input

Answerback Tracking

Interlock Check

Off-service

Output Tracking

*1:

This MV action can be set only in the FFCS series, KFCS2, and LFCS2.

n Set the Manipulated Output Value (MV) of Motor Control Blocks


(MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)
The setting method of the manipulated output value (MV), which is the target of the output
processing, varies depending on the block mode in the Motor Control Blocks.

In the Manual Mode (CRT Manual)

When the block mode is manual (MAN) mode (CRT manual), the manipulated output value
(MV) is set by the following method.

The manipulated output value (MV) is set by the operators operation on the operation
and monitoring function.

For the inching output, the manipulated output value (MV) is automatically set based on
the setpoint value (SV) set by the operator on the operation and monitoring function.

In the Automatic Mode (Sequence Automatic 1) or Cascade Mode


(Sequence Automatic 2)
When the block mode is in the automatic (AUT) mode (sequence automatic 1) or cascade
(CAS) mode (sequence automatic 2), the sequence setpoint value (CSV) set by another function block such as a Sequence Control Block or Calculation Block is set as the manipulated
output value (MV).

In the Remote Output Mode (Computer Remote)


When the block mode is in the remote output (ROUT) mode (computer remote), a remote manipulated output value (RSV) set by an upper-level computer is set as the manipulated output
value (MV).
When the block mode is neither remote output (ROUT) or out of service (O/S) , a tracking is
executed so that the remote setpoint value (RSV) becomes the manipulated output value
(MV).

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In the Tracking Mode (On-Site Manual)

When the block mode is in the tracking (TRK) mode (on-site manual), the manipulated output
value (MV) is set by the following method:

When the answer back tracking is set to YES


The answer back input value (PV) is set as the manipulated output value (MV).

When the answer back tracking is NO


If the output signal conversion is 2-position status output or 3-position status output,
the status of the output destination (contact output or internal switch) is read back and the
value after the reverse-conversion of the output signal is set as the manipulated output
value (MV).
If the output signal conversion is 2-position pulsive output or 3-position pulsive output,
the previous value is retained as the manipulated output value (MV).

n Output Signal Conversion of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2, MC-2E,


MC-3, and MC-3E)
The motor control blocks execute the following output processing.
Table 1.17.3-1 Output Processing of the Motor Control Block (MC-2, MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)
Output signal conversion specification

Number of output contacts

Output action direction specification

2-position status output

Yes

3-position status output

Yes

2-position pulsive output

No

3-position pulsive output

No

The output signal conversion types and output action directions are described.

Output Signal Conversion Types

Output Signal Conversion

The type of output signal conversion can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.

Output Signal Conversion


For a two-position motor control block (MC-2) and an enhanced two-position motor control block (MC-2E), select from 2-position Status Output and 2-position Pulsive Output.
Default is 2-position Status Output.
For a three-position motor control block (MC-3) and an enhanced three-position motor
control block (MC-3E), select from 3-position Status Output and 3-position Pulsive Output.
Default is 3-position Status Output.

Output Action Direction

When 2-position Status Output or 3-position Status Output is specified, the Output Action
Direction can be defined too.
The output action direction can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.

Output Action Direction


For a MC-2 block and a MC-3 block, select from Direct, Reverse Inverted connect direct action and Inverted connect reversed action.
For a MC-2E block and a MC-3E block, select from Direct, Reverse.

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Default is Direct.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the output action direction for the motor control blocks, refer to:

nOutput Signal Conversion of 2-Position Status Output on page 1-193

nOutput Signal Conversion of 3-Position Status Output on page 1-194

Pulse Width Time

MC Block - Pulse Width

The time of ON for contact output for the converted signal of 2-position Pulsive Output or 3position Pulsive Output may be defined in each FCS.
Pulse width may be defined on the property sheet of the FCS.
Pulse Width: 1 to 100 Sec.
Default is 1 Sec.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about pulsive width of motor control blocks, refer to:

nOutput Signal Conversion of the 2-Position Pulsive Output on page 1-195

nOutput Signal Conversion of the 3-Position Pulsive Output on page 1-195

n Output Signal Conversion of 2-Position Status Output


The relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) and the ON/OFF status in the 2position status output is as follows:
Table 1.17.3-2 The Manipulated Output Value and the Contact Output Status of the 2-Position Status
Output
Output signal
conversion
specification

Output action
direction
Direct action

2-position status
output
Reverse action
*1:

MV

Contact output status


n (*1)

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

n+1 (*1)

n+2 (*1)

n in the table indicates the element number specified to connect to OUT terminal of MC-2 and MC-3 blocks, or the OUT1
terminal of MC-2E and MC-3E blocks. n+1 and n+2 indicates the element number succeeding the element number n that
is specified to connect to OUT terminal or the element number specified to connect to OUT2 and OUT3 terminal of MC-2E
and MC-3E blocks.

The action of 2-position status output is shown as follows:


MV
Direct action Contact output status
(n)

ON
OFF

OFF

ON

Reverse action Contact output status


(n)

ON
OFF

Figure 1.17.3-1 Action of the 2-Position Status Output

In the 2-position status output, the state of MV=1 is the same as the state of MV=2.

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n Output Signal Conversion of 3-Position Status Output


The relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) and the ON/OFF status in the 3position status output is as follows:
Table 1.17.3-3 The Manipulated Output Value and the Contact Output Status of the 3-Position Status
Output
Output signal
conversion
specification

Output action

Direct action

Reverse action
3-position status
output

Inverted connection Direct


action (*2)
Inverted connection Reversed action
(*2)

*1:

*2:

Contact output status

MV

n (*1)

n+1 (*1)

n+2 (*1)

ON

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

ON

ON

ON

OFF

OFF

ON

OFF

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

ON

OFF

ON

n in the table indicates the element number specified to connect to OUT terminal of MC-2 and MC-3 blocks, or the OUT1
terminal of MC-2E and MC-3E blocks. n+1 and n+2 indicates the element number succeeding the element number n that
is specified to connect to OUT terminal or the element number specified to connect to OUT2 and OUT3 terminal of MC-2E
and MC-3E blocks.
Inverted connection is not available for MC-2E and MC-3E blocks.

The action of 3-position status output is shown as follows:


MV

Direct
action

Reversed
action

Inverted
connection
Direct Action

Inverted

connection
Reversed Action

Output status of contact 1


(n)
Output status of contact 2
(n+1)

2
ON

OFF
ON
OFF
ON

Output status of contact 1


(n)
Output status of contact 2
(n+1)

OFF
ON
OFF
ON

Output status of contact 1


(n)

OFF
ON

Output status of contact 2


(n+1)

OFF

Output status of contact 1


(n)

OFF

ON
ON

Output status of contact 2


(n+1)

OFF

Figure 1.17.3-2 Action of the 3-Position Status Output

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n Output Signal Conversion of the 2-Position Pulsive Output


The relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) and the ON/OFF status in the 2position pulsive output is as follows:
Table 1.17.3-4 The Manipulated Output Value and the Contact Output Status of the 2-Position Pulsive
Output
Output signal
conversion
specification

Output action
direction

2-position pulsive output


*1:

MV

------

Contact output status


n (*1)

n+1 (*1)

ON

OFF

OFF

ON

n+2 (*1)

n in the table indicates the element number specified to connect to OUT terminal of MC-2 and MC-3 blocks, or the OUT1
terminal of MC-2E and MC-3E blocks. n+1 and n+2 indicates the element number succeeding the element number n that
is specified to connect to OUT terminal or the element number specified to connect to OUT2 and OUT3 terminal of MC-2E
and MC-3E blocks.

The action of an 2-position pulsive output is shown as follows:


0

MV

2
ON

Output status of contact 1


(n)

OFF

OFF

ON

Output status of contact 2


(n+1)

OFF

Figure 1.17.3-3 Action of the 2-Position Pulsive Output

For pulsive output signal, the time of ON is set in the column of MC block pulse width on
FCS folder. The default is 1 sec.

n Output Signal Conversion of the 3-Position Pulsive Output


The relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) and the ON/OFF status in the 3position pulsive output is as follows:
Table 1.17.3-5 The Manipulated Output Value and the Contact Output Status of the 3-Position Pulsive
Output
Output signal
conversion
specification
3-position pulsive output
*1:

Output action
direction

------

MV

Contact output status


n (*1)

n+1 (*1)

n+2 (*1)

ON

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

n in the table indicates the element number specified to connect to OUT terminal of MC-2 and MC-3 blocks, or the OUT1
terminal of MC-2E and MC-3E blocks. n+1 and n+2 indicates the element number succeeding the element number n that
is specified to connect to OUT terminal or the element number specified to connect to OUT2 and OUT3 terminal of MC-2E
and MC-3E blocks.

The action of an 3-position pulsive output is shown as follows:

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0

MV
Output status of contact 1
(n)

2
ON

OFF

OFF

ON

Output status of contact 2


(n+1)
Output status of contact 3
(n+2)

OFF
ON
OFF

OFF

Figure 1.17.3-4 Action of the 3-Position Pulsive Output

For pulsive output signal, the time of ON is set in the column of MC block pulse width on
FCS folder. The default is 1 sec.

n Inching Output
Inching/Full-Stroke Time Width

Inching output is a function which drives or stops the motor for a specified duration according
to the manual operation of the operator using the operation and monitoring function.
The inching output is initiated when change the inching output setpoint value (SV). The final
control element is manipulated for a duration (Tout) proportional to the change in SV (SV)
from 0, 50 or 100 % shown below.
After Tout has elapsed, the inching output setpoint value (SV) follows the manipulated output
value (MV) prior to the modification. The inching operation is available only in manual (MAN)
mode.
When the inching operation is not executed, the inching output setpoint value (SV) follows the
manipulated output value (MV).
Table 1.17.3-6 The Relationship Between the Manipulated Output Value (MV) and the Inching Output
Setpoint Value (SV)
MV

SV

0%

50 %

100 %

Tout can be obtained by the following expression:


Tout=Tf

| SV |
100

Tout : Inching output action time (second)


Tf

: Inching full stroke time width (second)

SV : Change in SV (%) = SV value after change - SV value before change


The Inching/Full-stroke Time Width indicates the time span for the operation of the final control element when the inching output setpoint value (SV) is changed by 100 %.
The inching/full-stroke time width is set by the Function Block Detail Builder.

Inching/Full-stroke Time Width


0 to 10000.0 seconds. For the pulsive output, however, the output within one second is
invalid.
Default is 0 second.

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n Action of the Inching Output


The action of the inching output is explained for each type of the output signal conversion. In
the explanation, the full stroke time width is assumed to be 100 seconds.
In each output signal conversion, the inching operation is aborted when the setting of the manipulated output value (MV) is modified during the operation.

Inching Output of a 2-Position Status Output

The output reverses from ON to OFF, or from OFF to ON only during Tout time.
The inching output only reverses the contact output to the OUT terminal connection destination; the manipulated output value (MV) remains unchanged.
0

MV
SV

Contact 1 (direct action)

ON
OFF

Contact 1 (reverse action)

ON
OFF

2
10

100

Tout
10 seconds

90

100

10 seconds

Tout

Figure 1.17.3-5 Inching Output of a 2-Position Status Output (When the Full Stroke Time Width is 100
Seconds)

Inching Output of a 3-Position Status Output

When MV=2, the output of the contact 1 is reversed for duration of Tout.

When MV=0, the output of the contact 2 is reversed for duration of Tout.

When MV=1, the output of the contact 1 is reversed for duration of Tout if the change in
inching output setpoint value (SV) is positive. The output of the contact 2 is reversed for
duration of Tout if the inching output setpoint value (SV) is negative.

The inching output only reverses the contact output, the manipulated output value (MV) remains unchanged.

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0

MV
SV

10

1
0

50

40

50

60

50

100

90

100

ON
Contact 1
Direct
action

Contact 2

Contact 1
Reverse
action

Contact 2

OFF

10 seconds
(Tout)

ON
OFF

10 seconds
(Tout)

10 seconds
(Tout)

10 seconds
(Tout)

ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON

Reversed
Connection
Direct action

Reversed?
Connection
Reversed action

Contact 1

Contact 2

Contact 1

Contact 2

OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF

Figure 1.17.3-6 Inching Output of a 3-Position Status Output (When the Full Stroke Time Width is 100
Seconds)

Inching Output of a 2-Position Pulsive Output

When MV=2, performs pulsive output from the contact 2, then performs again from contact 1 after Tout has elapsed.

When MV=0, performs pulsive output from the contact 1, then performs again from contact 2 after Tout has elapsed.

The inching output only executes the pulsive output from the contact and the manipulated output value (MV) is not changed.
0

MV
SV
Contact 1
Contact 2

%
ON
OFF
ON

10

10 seconds
(Tout)

100

90

100

10 seconds
(Tout)

OFF

Figure 1.17.3-7 Inching Output of a 2-Position Pulsive Output (When the Full Stroke Time Width is 100
Seconds)

Inching Output of a 3-Position Pulsive Output

When MV=2, performs pulsive output from the contact 3, then performs again from contact 1 after Tout has elapsed.

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When MV=0, performs pulsive output from the contact 3, then performs again from contact 2 after Tout has elapsed.

When MV=1, if the sign for the change in inching output setpoint (SV) is positive, pulsive
output is performed from contact 1, then again from contact 3 after Tout has elapsed. If
the sign for the change in inching output setpoint (SV) is negative, pulsive output is performed from contact 2, then again from contact 3 after Tout has elapsed.

The inching output only executes the pulsive output from the contact and the manipulated output value (MV) is not changed.
0

MV
SV

10

1
0

50

40

50

2
60

50

100

90

100

Contact 1
10
seconds
Contact 2
10
seconds

10
seconds

10
seconds

Contact 3

Figure 1.17.3-8 Inching Output of a 3-Position Pulsive Output (When the Full Stroke Time Width is 100
Seconds)

n MV Action on Setting CSV: FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2


MV of Switch Instrument/MC Instrument follows its CSV change

When CSV is changed by a sequence table or by a function block, whether the MV of motor
controller block to instantaneously follow the CSV change or to follow the change at the next
execution time can be specified.
On the Constant tab of FCS Properties sheet, if the option of [MV of Switch Instrument/MC
Instrument follows its CSV change] is checked, the MV will follow the CSV right after the CSV
is changed. Otherwise, the MV will follow the CSV at the next execution time of the motor
controller block. By default, this option is not checked.
Moreover, the option is valid not only for changing the CSV by sequence table blocks, but also valid for changing the CSV by the logic chart blocks, calculation blocks as well as manipulating the CSV on an HIS.

When the Option is Checked


When the CSV is set from a sequence table, the MV of the motor controller block will instantaneously follow the CSV change.
For example, if the CSV of an MC-2 motor controller block with two-position status outputs is set to CSV=2, the direct MV action may be illustrated as follows:

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Control period of motor
controller block
Sequence Set Value

Manipulated Output Value

Actual Output

CSV=2
CSV=0
MV=2
MV=0
ON
OFF
CSV=2 is set in the
sequence table.

When other block access


the MV, the MV=CSV and
MV=2.

Motor controller block


sends output MV=2.

Figure 1.17.3-9 CSV, MV and Actual Output when the Option is Checked: FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2

When the Option is Unchecked


When the CSV is set from a sequence table, the MV of the motor controller block will follow the CSV change at the next execution time of the motor controller block.
For example, if the CSV of an MC-2 motor controller block with two-position status outputs is set to CSV=2, the direct MV action may be illustrated as follows:
Control period of motor
controller block

Sequence Set Value

Manipulated Output Value

Actual Output

CSV=2
CSV=0
MV=2
MV=0
ON
OFF
CSV=2 is set in the
sequence table.

When other block access


the MV, the MV=0.

The MV=CSV and MV=2.


Motor controller block
sends output MV=2.

Figure 1.17.3-10 CSV, MV and Actual Output when the Option is Unchecked: FFCS Series/KFCS2/
LFCS2

n Remote/Local Input
The remote/local input function reads the status of on-site push button switches installed near
the equipment such as valves and pumps, and to prevent the output from the motor control
block since the on-site operation is given higher priority when the system is in the local mode.
The remote/local input signal is fed through the TSI terminal of the motor control block. In addition to the contact input, internal switches can be used as signal input too. The remote/local
input signal is stored in the tracking switch (TSW).
Table 1.17.3-7 Relationship Between the Remote/Local Input Signal and the Tracking Switch
Input signal (*1)

Remote/Local

TSW

Mode

OFF (0)

Remote

Mode except for TRK

ON (1)

Local

TRK

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*1:

Input signal in () indicates the signal from an internal switch.

When the TSI terminal is not connected, the data can be set directly to the tracking switch
(TSW) from other function blocks. When TSW is 1, the block mode is set to the on-site manual mode (TRK). When TSW becomes 0, the mode returns to the normal mode (MAN, AUT,
CAS or ROUT) from the on-site manual (TRK) mode.

Remote/Local Input Function in On-Site Manual (TRK) Mode

The action of the remote/local input function in the on-site manual (TRK) mode is as follows:

The output action (output signal conversion) is not executed. But the output action is carried out when the answer back tracking is defined in the status output.

The interlock check is not performed.

The answer back check is not performed because the answer back error alarm (ANS+,
ANS-) is reset.

n Answerback Tracking
Answerback Tracking

The answerback tracking is to force the manipulated output value (MV) to match the answerback input value (PV), when the block is in Filed-Manual (TRK) mode or when the bypass
command switch (BPSW) is 4 (out-of-service command).
The answerback tracking is defined in the Function Block Detail Builder.
Answerback Tracking: Select either Yes or No.
Default is Yes.

n Answerback Error Triggered Fallback


Fallback Operation on the Abnormal Answerback

Answerback Error Triggered Fallback is a function that forces the block into MAN mode and
forces the blocks manipulated output (MV) into a designated value whenever answerback
signals indicate an error.
Triggers of Fallback may be selected from one of the three errors shown as below.

Answerback error occurred due to abnormality of ON (ANS+) signal

Answerback error occurred due to abnormality of OFF (ANS-) signal

Answerback error occurred due to abnormality of either ON (ANS+) or OFF (ANS-) signal.

When fallback is activated, the manipulated output (MV) will be forced to the output position
designated in the builder item [Output when interlock status is true]. At the same time, the interlock alarm (INT) will be initiated right after the output (MV) changed to the designated position.
Once the manipulated output (MV) is manually changed, the interlock alarm (INT) will be deactivated.
If answerback check is not activated, the fallback will not be triggered by answerback error.
The interlock alarm (INT) subsequent to the fallback can be dissolved when any of the following conditions establishes.

When block mode changes to Tracking (TRK) mode.

When answerback bypass is activated (BPSW=1 or 3).

When the answerback input signal (PV) is switched to calibration (CAL) mode.

When off service is activated (BPSW=4).


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If the block is in simulation (SIM) status, the fallback will not be triggered by answerback error.
The interlock alarm (INT) subsequent to the fallback will be dissolved right after the block
changes simulation (SIM) status.
When a 2-position status output encounters the answerback error triggered fallback, its behavior is shown in the following illustrate.
MAN fallback starts according to the setting for fallback
triggered by the answerback error.
MV is forced to the designated value for interlock and
the interlock alarm (INT) occurs.

ANS+ initiated when


answerback detects
an error.
MV

PV

When MV is manipulated,
the INT alarm will be dissolved.

2
0
2
0

Block
mode

AUT

Block
status

NR

Alarm
status

MAN

ANCK

NR

NR

INT

A
N
C
K

NR
NR

When PV answers the corresponding MV,


the ANS+ alarm will be dissolved.

ANS+

Figure 1.17.3-11 Answerback Error Triggered Fallback (2-Position Status Output)

When a 3-position status output encounters the answerback error triggered fallback, its behavior is shown in the following illustrate.
MAN fallback starts according to the setting for fallback
triggered by the answerback error.
MV is forced to the designated value for interlock and
the interlock alarm (INT) occurs.

ANS+ initiated when


answerback detects
an error.

MV

2
1
0

PV

2
1
0

MV=0, answerback becomes


normal, INT alarm continues.

Block
mode
Block
status
Alarm
status

When MV is manipulated,
the INT alarm will be dissolved.

AUT
N
R

ANCK

MAN
N
R

A
N
C
K

NR

A
N
C
K

NR

INT

ANS+

Since MV is manipulated,
the ANS+ alarm will be dissolved.

NR

NR

Figure 1.17.3-12 Answerback Error Triggered Fallback (3-Position Status Output)

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SEE
ALSO

For more information about interlock check functions, refer to:


nInterlock Check on page 1-203
For more information about interlock alarm (INT), refer to:
nInterlock Alarm Check on page 1-208

Settings Answerback Triggers for Fallback

Setting the answerback triggers for fallback may be performed on the Function Block Detail
Builder.

Fallback operation on the abnormal answerback:


Select from NONE, ANS+, ANS- and BOTH.
The default setting is NONE.

n Interlock Check
The interlock check is used to place the motor control blocks in the interlock state according
to the operation interlock input signal that is input to the IL terminal of the motor control
blocks.

IMPORTANT
The interlock check function does not operate under the following conditions:

Simulation status (SIM)

On-site manual mode (TRK)

When the interlock check bypass command is issued (when BPSW=2 or 3)

When the off-service command is issued. (when BPSW=4)

Interlock Input Signal

Interlock Input Signal Direction

The Interlock Input Signal Direction determines whether the interlock state is activated by
ON or OFF of the operation interlock input signal. An internal switch or contact output can be
used as the operation interlock input signal in addition to the contact input.
The Interlock Input Signal Direction may be defined on the Function Block Detail Builder.
Interlock Input Signal Direction: Choose [Direct] or [Reverse]
The default is [Direct].
If [Direct] is selected, the interlock status is activated when the interlock signal is ON.
If [Reverse] is selected, the interlock status is activated when the interlock signal is OFF.

IMPORTANT
When the signal connected to IL terminal becomes abnormal (i.e., data status becomes
BAD), the block will be released from interlocked status regardless if the action is Direct or
Reverse.

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Output when Interlock Status is True

Output when interlock status is true, Modify pulsive output when interlock status true, Hold output
when interlocked

In the interlock state, the predefined output action can be executed.


The Output when Interlock Status is True may be defined on the Function Block Detail Builder.
For a two-position motor control block (MC-2) and an enhanced twoposition motor control
block (MC-2E):
Output when Interlock Status is True: Choose [Open] or [Close]
The default is [Open].
For a three-position motor control block (MC-3) and an enhanced three-position motor control
block (MC-3E):
Output when Interlock Status is True: Choose [Open], [Close] or [Stop]
The default is [Close].
When the interlock state is activated, the change of the output is monitored and the interlock
alarm (INT) will be activated at the occurrence of output change by the output action of predefined interlock state. When the interlock is released, the interlock alarm is deactivated at the
same time.
The action and interlock alarm (INT) initiated by establishment of interlock conditions will be
activated when answerback error triggered fallback takes place.
In the interlock state, the output is switched to the status output even if it is pulsive output.
However, when Direct Output is specified in Modify Pulsive Output when Interlock Status
True in the Function Block Detail Builder, the pulsive output is retained. This option can be
set on the Function Block Detail Builder.
Modify Pulsive Output when Interlock Status True:

Choose [Direct Output] or [Status


Output]
The default is [Status Output].

When the motor control block is interlocked, the previous manipulated output value (MV) can
be held. This option can be set on the Function Block Detail Builder.
Hold Output when Interlocked : Choose [Valid] or [Invalid]
The default is [Invalid].
If [Valid] is selected, the block will hold the previous output when interlocked.
If [Invalid] is selected, the block will change the output according to the failsafe output specified in the setting of [Output when interlock status is true].
The Hold Output When Interlocked option can be set to the following motor control blocks:

MC-2 and MC-3 blocks in FFCS series, KFCS2, and LFCS2.

MC-2E and MC-3E blocks in FCSs except PFCS.

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IMPORTANT
If the Hold Output When Interlocked option is selected, note the followings:

SEE
ALSO

When the motor control block falls back due to answerback error or thermo-trip alarm occurrence, the block cannot hold the previous output changes to the failsafe output specified in the setting item of [Output when interlock status is true].

When the block is interlocked, inching action will result in an error and triggers an error
message.

When the block is holding the previous manipulated output value (MV), if the operator
changes the MV, the MV will revert to the held value at the next scan.

When the block is holding the previous manipulated output value (MV), if the block is
changed to local mode, the held MV will no longer valid since the local operation takes
higher preference.

When the block is interlocked and holds the previous manipulated output value (MV), the
occurred alarm for indicating the interlocked (INT) status will be kept alive.

For more information about the behavior of the fallback triggered by answerback errors, refer to:
nAnswerback Error Triggered Fallback on page 1-201

n Off-Service Function
The off-service is used to stop the output from the MC-2 or MC-3 block via a command from
the bypass command switch (BPSW).
Off-service supports the following processes.

The off-service is activated by putting the bypass command switch (BPSW) to 4. When
the off-service command is issued, the block mode is changed to the manual (MAN)
mode and the block status becomes OFF.

No output action (output signal conversion) is executed in the off-service state.

The answerback tracking operates in the off-service state.

n Output Tracking MC-2E, MC-3E


Output tracking is an output processing of MC-2E and MC-3E blocks.
The output tracking forces the manipulated output value (MV) to match value of the connected destination.
If a MC-2E or MC-3E block is connected in a cascade loop with FF faceplate block or fieldbus
function block, the MC-2E or MC-3E block starts output tracking when the cascade loop is disconnected and its block changes to IMAN mode.
Output tracking starts under the following circumstances:

When the block becomes IMAN mode.

When the block changes from service off (O/S) mode to MAN, AUT or CAS mode.

When the I/O module connected to the output terminals recovered from failure.

When the cascade loop is disconnected.

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TIP The output tracking of MC-2 or MC-3 block starts under the following circumstances:

When the block becomes IMAN mode.

When the block changes from service off (O/S) mode to MAN, AUT or CAS mode.

When the I/O module connected to the output terminals recovers from failure.

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1.17.4

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Alarm Processing of Motor Control Blocks (MC-2,


MC-2E, MC-3, and MC-3E)

The following lists the alarm checks performed by the motor control blocks which are specific
to these four function blocks.

Feedback input high and low limit alarm check

Thermal trip alarm check

Interlock alarm check

Answerback unset alarm check

Answerback error alarm check

n Feedback Input High Limit/Low Limit Alarm Check


High/Low Limit Alarm

The input high limit and low limit alarm check in the motor control blocks is used for checking
the feedback input.
By means of this feedback input high limit and low limit alarm check, when the feedback input
value (FV) exceeds the feedback input high limit alarm setpoint (PH), a feedback input high
limit alarm (HI) is generated. Also, when the feedback input value (FV) drops below the feedback input low limit alarm setpoint (PL), a feedback input low limit alarm (LO) is generated.
When an alarm has occurred, if the feedback input value (FV) drops lower than the value of
the feedback input high limit alarm setpoint (PH) minus the input high and low limit alarm hysteresis (HYS), the feedback input high limit alarm (HI) is returned to normal state. Also, if the
feedback input value (FV) exceeds the feedback input low limit alarm setpoint (PL) plus the
input high and low limit alarm hysteresis (HYS), the feedback input low limit alarm (LO) is returned to normal state.
FV
PH

HYS

Conditions generating an alarm


FV>PH
FV<PL
Conditions for recovery from alarm
FVPHHYS
FVPL+HYS

PL

HYS

Time
HI
LO

Figure 1.17.4-1 Actions of the Feedback Input High and Low Limit Alarm Check

Moreover, when the block is in the status that the answerback check is masked (ANCK), the
feedback input high-limit alarm (HI) and the feedback input low-limit alarm (LO) are also
masked.

Feedback Input High Limit/Low Limit Alarm Settings


Setting of the feedback input high limit/low limit alarm setpoint (PH, PL) is done using the following setting parameters:

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Feedback input high limit alarm setpoint (PH)


Engineering unit data within the FV scale range
The default is the FV scale high limit value.

Feedback input low limit alarm setpoint (PL)


Engineering unit data within the FV scale range
The default is the FV scale low limit value.

The hysteresis is set with the Function Block Detail Builder.


Hysteresis :

Engineering unit data within the range of 0 to FV scale span, or percentage data for the FV scale span
When specifying percentage data, add % after the numeric value.
The default is 2.0 %.

n Thermal Trip Alarm Check


The thermal trip alarm check is a function that determines whether a thermal trip signal indicating a motor overload condition was input to the motor control block.
If it is determined that when the signal for the thermal trip signal input terminal (TT) turns on in
the motor control block, a thermal trip alarm is generated. If the signal from the thermal trip
signal input terminal (TT) turns off while the alarm is being generated, the alarm is returned to
normal state.
The output action of the motor control blocks when there is a thermal trip alarm is the same
as when the block is showing an interlock (LOCK) state.

IMPORTANT
When the signal connected to TT terminal becomes abnormal (i.e., data status becomes
BAD), if the block is in alarm status, the alarm status of the block will be released.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the interlock status of the motor control blocks, refer to:
nInterlock Check on page 1-203

n Interlock Alarm Check


For MC-2 or MC-3 Motor Controller blocks, when the Interlock Alarm Check function detects
the establishment of interlock condition, or fallback action is activated by answerback errors,
the manipulated output (MV) will be forced to the designated value predefined in the builder
item [Output when interlock status is true]. At the same time the Interlock Alarm (INT) will be
initiated.
The interlock check triggered interlock alarm (INT) will be deactivated whenever the interlock
condition is dissolved.
The interlock alarm (INT) initiated by Answerback Error Triggered Fallback will become deactivated once the manipulated output value (MV) is manually changed.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the answerback error triggered fallback, refer to:
nAnswerback Error Triggered Fallback on page 1-201

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n Answer-Back Inconsistency Alarm Check


The answerback inconsistency alarm check is a function that determines whether two answerback input signals indicate full-open and full-close simultaneously.
If it is determined that two answerback input signals indicated full-open and full-close simultaneously, an answerback inconsistency alarm (PERR) occurs.
If the two answer-back input signals stop indicating full-open and full-close simultaneously
while the alarm is being generated, the alarm is returned to normal state.

Answer-Back Inconsistency Alarm Mask MC-2E, MC-3E

Inhibit Answerback Error Alarm

When IN1 terminal and the IN2 terminal of M2-CE or M3-CE block are connected to FF faceplate blocks or fieldbus function blocks, the simultaneity of the two inputs is not guaranteed. If
the both the ON and OFF answerbacks exist at the same time even for a very short time, the
Answer-Back Inconsistency Alarm (PERR) may occur. To prevent the alarm occurring under
this circumstance, the alarm can be masked by stop the alarm check for a certain time period
(Mask Time) after the manipulated output (MV) changes. The data item MTM can be used for
setting this answer-back inconsistency alarm mask time.
For MC-2E and MC-3E block, the answer-back inconsistency alarm mask can be set on the
function block detail builder.
Inhibit Answerback Error Alarm: Choose [No] or [Yes].
The default setting is [Yes].

TIP Regarding to answer-backs of MC-2 and MC-3 blocks, since the simultaneity of the two inputs are guaranteed, the Answer-Back Inconsistency Alarm Mask becomes unnecessary.

n Answer Back Error Alarm Check


The answerback error alarm check is a function that determines if the manipulated output value and the answerback input value do not match.
If it is determined that the manipulated output value and the answerback input value do not
match when the manipulated output value (MV) is 2, the ON side answerback error alarm
(ANS+) occurs. If the manipulated output value and the answerback input value do not match
when the manipulated output value (MV) is 0, the OFF side answerback error alarm (ANS-)
occurs.
If the manipulated output value and the answer-back input value match while the alarm is being generated, the alarm is returned to normal state.

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<1.18 Ratio Set Block (RATIO)>

1.18

Ratio Set Block (RATIO)

The Ratio Set Block (RATIO) outputs its manipulated output value (MV) follows the change of
process variable (PV) times the ratio set value. This block is used to set a specific ratio at
which two controlled variables are maintained.

n Ratio Set Block (RATIO)


Connection

The RATIO Block defines a ratio for control of two control amounts. The figure below shows
the RATIO Block diagram.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of Ratio Set Block (RATIO):
SET

CSV

TIN

IN

Input
processing

AUT
MAN

PV

INT

(TSW)

CAS

RSV

TSI

SV

RCAS
CAS/AUT

Control computation
(ratio computation)

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT
(PV, PV, MV, MV)

RMV

SUB

Figure 1.18-1 Function Block Diagram of Ratio Set Block (RATIO)

The figure below shows the internal control computation processing of the Ratio Set Block
(RATIO):
Control computation
CSV

Setpoint value
pushback

Setpoint
value limiter

SV

Ratio
tracking

RSV

Setpoint value
ramp action
MAN
PV

Ratio computation
KR SVe PV+BIAS

CALC

AUT
CAS
RCAS

Output
processing

MV

ROUT

Figure 1.18-2 Control Computation Processing of Ratio Set Block (RATIO)

The figure below shows an example of using the Ratio Set Block (RATIO):

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IN

RATIO

OUT

rF1
SET

F1

IN

PID

OUT

F2

Figure 1.18-3 Example of Using Ratio Set Block (RATIO)

In this control loop, the flowrates F1 and F2 are maintained in a specific ratio r, by setting the
value of F1 multiplied by r, or rF1, as the setpoint value of F2.
The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Ratio Set Block (RATIO):
Table 1.18-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Ratio Set Block
(RATIO)
I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Measurement input

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

TIN

Tracking
signal input

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Ratio Set Block (RATIO)


The RATIO block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the RATIO block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

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SEE
ALSO

1-212

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the RATIO block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Ratio Set Block (RATIO)


The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Ratio Set Block
(RATIO):
Table 1.18-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of Ratio Set Block (RATIO)
Control computation processing

Description

Ratio computation

Obtains a calculated output value (CALCn) by multiplying


the process variable (PV) by the effective ratio setpoint
value (SVe).

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during


each control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The available control output actions are of positional type only.

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low


limits (SVH, SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV)


to agree with the remaining one.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without


causing it to change abruptly when the block mode has
been changed or when the manipulated output value
(MV) has been switched in a downstream block in cascade.

Ratio tracking

Constantly updates the ratio setpoint value (SV) with a


value calculated backwards from the current manipulated
output value (MV), when ratio computation is stopped.
This prevents the manipulated output value from changing abruptly.

Ratio setpoint value


ramp action

Causes the change in the effective ratio setpoint value


(SVe) to gradually approach the newratio setpoint value,
when the ratio setpoint value (SV) has changed abruptly.
This prevents the manipulated output value from changing abruptly.

Bumpless switching

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the
initialization manual condition becomes satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the current block mode. During control hold, the output action is performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

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Control computation processing

Description

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block


is operating in the CAS mode, so that the control action
is continued using values set by the operator. This action
takes place when the AUT fallback condition becomes
satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends actions in the RCAS or ROUT


mode and switches to the computer backup mode.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function
blocks from changing to the automatic operating mode.

n Ratio Computation
In ratio computation, the following computation processing is performed to obtain a calculated
output value (CALC) by multiplying the process variable (PV) by the effective ratio setpoint
value (SVe):
CALCn=KR SVe PVn+BIAS (1)
CALCn : Current calculated output value
PVn

: Current process variable

SVe

: Effective ratio setpoint value

KR

: Ratio gain

BIAS

: Bias value

The effective ratio setpoint value (SVe) is a ratio setpoint value (SV) that has been processed
via the setpoint value ramp action to be used for bumpless switching of block modes.
In any automatic operating mode (AUT, CAS or RCAS), the calculated output value (CALC)
receives output signal processing and is set as the manipulated output value (MV).

Setpoint Value (SV) Range

SV Range

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the ratio setpoint value (SV) range:

SV range high limit


Specify a numeric value of 7 digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 4.0.

SV range low limit


Specify a numeric value of 7 digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 0.0.

Ratio Gain

Ratio Gain

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the ratio gain:
Ratio Gain: Specify a numeric value of 7 digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one digit each.
The default is 1.0.
The expressions to obtain the ratio gain are shown below:

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Example 1
The figure below shows an example of operating a flow ratio control system where the
flowrates F1 and F2 range from 0 to 100 m3/h and from 0 to 30 m3/h, respectively, by
maintaining the ratio r between 0.0 and 0.3:
r=0 to 0.3
F1=0 to 100 m3/h

RATIO

F2=0 to 30 m3/h

PID

Figure 1.18-4 Example of Flow Ratio Control

When the above conditions are applied to the computational expression (1), the flowrate
F1, target flowrate value of F2, and ratio r are represented by the process variable (PV),
calculated output value (CALC) and ratio setpoint value (SV), respectively.
When F1 is 0, the target of F2 is also 0. Thus, set the bias setpoint value (BIAS) of the
computational expression to 0. As a result, the following computational expressions are
satisfied:
CALCn= KRSVePV
KR=

CALCn
SVe PV

(2)
(3)

When r is 0.1 and F1 is 100 m3/h, the target value of F2 is the product of 100 and 0.1, or
10 m3/h. If this condition is applied to the computational expression (3), the following
computational expression is obtained:
CALCn=10, PV=100, SVe=0.1 (SVe=SV)
KR=

10
0.1 100

=1.0
As values of the process variable (PV), calculated output value (CALCn) and effective ratio setpoint value (SVe) are all engineering unit data, this computational expression indicates that the ratio gain (KR) becomes 1.0, if the process variable (PV) and calculated
output value (CALCn) are in the same unit and the effective ratio setpoint value (SVe) has
no unit.

Example 2
In the figure Example of Flow Ratio Control, assume that the flow ratio control system
provides the flowrates F1 and F2 that range from 0 to 300 m3/h and from 0 to 100 /min.,
respectively, and is operated at the ratio r of between 0.0 and 2.0 %.
When F1 is 0, the target value of F2 is 0. Thus, set the bias setpoint value (BIAS) to 0
and apply the expression (3) in Example 1.

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When the assumed setting of r is 1.0 % and F1 is 300 m3/h, the target value of F2 is the
product of 300 and 1.0/100, or 3 m3/h, which is then converted to 50 /min. When this is
applied to the expression (3), the following computational expression is obtained:
CALCn=50, PV=300, SVe=1.0 (SVe=SV)
KR=

50
1.0 300

=0.1667
As values of the process variable (PV) and calculated output value (CALCn) are engineering
unit data, the ratio gain (KR) does change even when the scale high/low limits of the process
variable (PV) and calculated output value (CALCn) are changed. However, the ratio gain (KR)
must be changed when the engineering unit of the process variable (PV) and calculated output value (CALCn) or that of ratio setpoint value (SV) is changed, as the ratio gain (KR) is calculated based on the unit conversion coefficients of these values. The engineering unit of the
calculated output value (CALCn) is the same as that of the manipulated output value (MV).

Bias Value
Set the bias value.
Set a data value in the same engineering unit as the manipulated output value (MV) and within the range of - (MSH - MSL) to (MSH - MSL). The bias value can be set or changed from
operation and monitoring functions during operation. The default is the MV scale low limit
(MSL).
MSH : MV scale high limit
MSL : MV scale low limit

n Control Output Action


The control output action converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control
period to an actual manipulated output value (MV).
The control output actions available with the Ratio Set Block (RATIO) are of positional type
only.
The calculated output value (CAL) is set as the manipulated output value (MV).

n Setpoint Value Limiter


The setpoint value limiter function limits the setpoint value (SV) within the range between the
setpoint high limit (SVH) and setpoint low limit (SVL), recognizing values only inside this
range as valid.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the setpoint value limiter, refer to:
nSetpoint Value Limiter on page 1-39

n Setpoint Value Pushback


The setpoint value pushback function sets the same value for the three types of setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV). The figure below explains the relationships among the setpoint value
(SV), cascade setpoint value (CSV) and remote setpoint value (RSV):

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Set from the supervisory computer

Input from the SET terminal

RSV

CSV

AUT/MAN
RCAS

1-216

CAS

SV
Setpoint value
Control
computation

Figure 1.18-5 Relationship among Setpoint Values (SV, CSV and RSV)

The action of the setpoint value pushback varies in accordance with the block mode of the
function block.

Action in the Automatic (AUT) or Manual (MAN) Mode

Causes the cascade setpoint value (CSV) and remote setpoint value (RSV) to agree with the
setpoint value (SV). Even when a data value is set to the setpoint value (SV) from outside the
function block, the same value is automatically set to the cascade setpoint value (CSV) and
remote setpoint value (RSV).

Action in the Cascade (CAS) Mode

Causes the setpoint value (SV) and remote setpoint value (RSV) to agree with the cascade
setpoint value (CSV).

Action in the Remote Cascade (RCAS) Mode

Causes the setpoint value (SV) and cascade setpoint value (CSV) to agree with the remote
setpoint value (RSV).

n Bumpless Switching
The bumpless switching function switches the block mode of the function block or manipulated output value (MV) downstream in cascade without causing the manipulated output value
(MV) to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless change).
The action during bumpless switching varies with the control output action and block mode
status.
The functions of bumpless switching available with the Ratio Set Block (RATIO) include the
following:

Ratio tracking

Ratio setpoint value ramp action

Ratio Tracking

Ratio Tracking

The ratio tracking function sets as a ratio setpoint value (SV) the value calculated backwards
from the manipulated output value (MV), when ratio computation is stopped.
Ratio tracking enables bumpless switching of block modes from manual (MAN) to automatic
(AUT).

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SV=(MV-BIAS)

1
PV KR

Ratio tracking is executed in the following conditions:

In the manual (MAN) mode

In the initialization manual (IMAN) mode (e.g., when cascade connection to a downstream loop becomes open)

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set ratio tracking.

Ratio tracking:
Set Yes or No for each condition of MAN, AUT plus CND or CAS plus CND.

The table below shows the default settings of ratio tracking:


Table 1.18-3 Default Settings of Ratio Tracking
Specification condition (status) (*1)

Default

MAN

Ratio tracking disable.

AUT plus CND

Ratio tracking disable.

CAS plus CND

Ratio tracking disable.

*1:

The statuses of MAN, AUT and CAS include remote backup modes, such as AUT (ROUT) and AUT (RCAS).

When the block mode is not remote output (ROUT) or out of service (O/S), the remote manipulated output value (RMV) tracks the manipulated output value (MV).

Ratio Setpoint Value Ramp Action


The ratio setpoint value tracking action executes bumpless switching in place of ratio tracking,
when No is specified for ratio tracking.
The ratio setpoint value ramp action limits the change in the effective ratio setpoint value
(SVe) during each scan period to be equal to or less than the ramp constant (RP), when
changes occur in the ratio setpoint value (SV).
When the block mode changes from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT), an effective ratio setpoint value (SVe) is calculated backwards from the manipulated output value (MV), and the
obtained value is set as the initial effective ratio setpoint value (SVe). Therefore, the same actions take place when the ratio setpoint value (SV) changes, thus prevent the manipulated
output value (MV) from changing abruptly when the block mode changes.
The figure below shows an example of the ratio setpoint value ramp action.
SV
Ramp constant (RP)
Effective ratio setpoint value

Scan period

Figure 1.18-6 Example of the Ratio Setpoint Value Ramp Action

Set the ramp constant from operation and monitoring functions as a set parameter.
Ramp constant (RP): Engineering unit data within the SV scale span range.
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The default is the SV scale span.


When Yes is specified for ratio tracking, the ratio setpoint value ramp action will not be executed even when the block mode is changed from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT).

n Initialization Manual
The initialization manual is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN). This action takes place
when the initialization manual condition is established.

Characteristics of the Initialization Manual

The initialization manual function suspends the control action and control output action temporarily during the automatic (AUT) mode or other automatic control operation mode when the
initialization manual condition is established, and changes the block mode of the function
block to initialization manual (IMAN).
Because the initialization manual action causes the manipulated output value (MV) to track
the value at the connected destination, even when the initialization manual (IMAN) mode
changes to manual (MAN), the initialization manual (IMAN) mode will override the manual
(MAN) mode. Therefore, no actions in the manual (MAN) mode will take place.
The block returns to the original mode when the initialization manual condition vanishes. However, if try to change block mode in the initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the block changes
to that mode only when the initialization condition vanishes.

Initialization Manual Condition

The initialization manual condition is a block mode transition condition that suspends the control action and control output action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization
manual (IMAN). The initialization manual (IMAN) block mode becomes active only when the
initialization manual condition is established.
The following example shows when the initialization manual condition establishes and vanishes:
AUT

Initialization manual condition establishes

IMAN (AUT)

Initialization manual condition vanishes

AUT
The initialization manual condition establishes in the following situation:

When the data status at the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV)
is conditional (CND) (i.e., the cascade connection is open).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destinations data status is communication error (NCOM) or output failure (PTPF).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destination is a switch block (SW-33,
SW-91) and the connection is switched off. (i.e., the cascade connection is open).

When the manipulated output value (MV) connected destination is a process output, and
a failure or output open alarm has occurred in the module.

When the data status of the input signal at the TIN or TSI terminals becomes invalid
(BAD) in the tracking (TRK) mode while the output signal is not a pulse-width type.

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n Control Hold
The control hold is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily
while maintaining the current block mode. Unlike initialization manual, the control output action is performed normally during control hold.
The control hold action takes place when the following conditions are established during automatic operation (AUT, CAS, RCAS or ROUT):

The connected destination of the IN terminal is open (i.e., not selected via a selector
switch, etc.).

The connected destination of the IN terminal or the connected destination of the data at
the first connected destination is a process input, and the process input is temporarily in a
non-response state (momentary power failure).

The control is resumed when the conditions vanish.

n MAN Fallback
The MAN fallback is an error processing function that stops the control and forces the function
block to enter manual operation state. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is established.

Characteristics of the Man Fallback

The MAN fallback stops the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode
regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to enter manual operation state.
Once the MAN fallback condition is established, the block mode remains manual (MAN) even
when the condition later vanishes.

MAN Fallback Condition

The MAN fallback condition is used to stop the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to
enter manual operation state. When the MAN fallback condition is established, it indicates
that a fatal error has occurred and requests operator interruption.
The following example shows when the MAN fallback condition is established:
AUTMAN
IMAN (CAS) IMAN (MAN)
The MAN fallback condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status of the process variable (PV) is invalid (BAD) or calibration (CAL).
However, the MAN fallback condition will not be established when the block mode is remote output (ROUT) excluding any of the compound modes during computer backup.

When the data status of the manipulated output value (MV) is output failure (PTPF).

When the data status of the setpoint value (SV) is invalid (BAD).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O and the FCS is
having an initial cold start.

When the block mode change interlock condition is established.

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O, and one of the
I/O points connected to the module has been changed via maintenance.

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n AUT Fallback
The AUT fallback is an error processing function that switches the block mode from cascade
(CAS) to automatic (AUT) when the AUT fallback condition is established, and switches the
control action to the one that uses values set by the operator.

Characteristics of the AUT Fallback


Changes the block mode from cascade (CAS) to automatic (AUT) to continue control using
values set by the operator.
Once the AUT fallback condition establishes, the block mode remains automatic (AUT) even
when the condition vanishes.

AUT Fallback Condition


The AUT fallback condition is used to change the function block mode from cascade (CAS) to
automatic (AUT) so that control can be continued using values set by the operator. When this
condition is established, it indicates that abnormality has been detected in the cascade setpoint value (CSV) for some reason.
The following example shows when the AUT fallback condition establishes:
CASAUT
IMAN (CAS) IMAN (AUT)
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to enable or disable the AUT fallback function.
AUT Fallback: Select Yes or No.
The default is No.
The AUT fallback condition establishes when the AUT fallback is defined as Yes via the
Function Block Detail Builder and the data status of the cascade setpoint value (CSV) becomes invalid (BAD) or communication error (NCOM).

n Computer Fail
When the computer fail is detected, the function block suspends the action in the remote cascade (RCAS) mode or remote output (ROUT) mode temporarily and switches to the computer
backup mode.

Characteristics of Computer Fail


When the function block mode is remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT), the function block receives the setpoint value (SV) or manipulated output value (MV) from a supervisory system computer via control bus communication.
When the computer fails, the block changes mode to the preset computer backup mode
(MAN, AUT or CAS) which indicates that an abnormality has been detected in the supervisory
computer. When the computer recovers, the block returns to the mode before the change.
The following actions take place while the computer fail condition exists, the block mode
change command from MAN, AUT or CAS to remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output
(ROUT) is sent:
1.

When a block mode change command from MAN, AUT or CAS to RCAS or ROUT is sent
while the computer fails (BSW=ON), the function block does not switch to the computer
backup mode directly but switches to the transient state mode first.
The transient state mode is a compound block mode consisting of the block mode before
the execution of the block mode change command (MAN, AUT, CAS and a remote mode
(RCAS, ROUT).

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2.

Then the function block tests the computer condition in the first scan after the block mode
change command and switches to the computer backup mode.
The computer backup mode is a compound block mode consisting of the backup mode
set via the Function Block Detail Builder (MAN, AUT, CAS) and a remote mode (RCAS,
ROUT).

3.

If the computer recovers while the function block is in the computer backup mode, the
block mode changes to remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT).

Computer Fail Condition

The computer fail condition is a block-mode transition condition used to suspend actions in
the remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT) mode and switches the mode to the
computer backup mode.
A backup switch (BSW) is provided in function blocks to define the remote cascade (RCAS) or
remote output (ROUT) mode. The status of this switch determines whether the computer has
failed or recovered. The value of the backup switch (BSW) can be set from a sequence table
or other function blocks.
Switching to a computer backup mode does not take effect if the backup switch (BSW) is on a
block mode other than remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT).

When the backup switch BSW=ON, computer has failed

When the backup switch BSW=OFF, computer has recovered

The following example shows when the automatic (AUT) mode has been specified for the
computer backup mode:
RCAS

Computer fails

AUT

(RCAS)

Computer recovers

RCAS
An example when the manual (MAN) mode has been specified for the computer backup
mode is shown as follows:
AUT

ROUT command

AUT (ROUT) Transient state mode

After one scan period

MAN (ROUT) Computer backup mode (When BSW=ON)

Setting Computer Backup Mode

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the computer backup mode for each function
block.

Computer Backup Mode


Select MAN, AUT or CAS as the mode to be switched to when the computer becomes down.
The default is MAN.

n Block Mode Change Interlock


When the block mode change interlock condition is established, the block mode change interlock function stops the control computation processing of the function block running in auto
mode, and prohibit the function block changing to automatic operation mode.
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Characteristics of the Block Mode Change Interlock

Stops the control computation processing of the function blocks that are operating automatically, and disables the currently stopped function blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. The following actions will take place:

The block mode changes to manual (MAN).

Any block mode change command to obtain an automatic operation state (AUT, CAS,
RCAS or ROUT mode) becomes invalid.

Block Mode Change Interlock Condition


The block mode change interlock condition is established when the switch at the connected
destination of the interlock switch input terminal (INT) is turned ON as a result of continued
automatic operation becoming impossible due to an abnormality in the plant, etc.

n Data Items - RATIO


Table 1.18-4 Data Items of Ratio Set Block (RATIO) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

SV

Ratio setpoint value

CSV

Cascade ratio setpoint value

RSV

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination


Engineering unit value

SV engineering unit value

SSL

Value in the same engineering unit as SV

SSL

Remote ratio setpoint value

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as SV

SSL

MV

Manipulated output value

(*6)

MV engineering unit value

MSL

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*7)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

CALC

Calculated output value

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

VL

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

PVP

Velocity-Reference Sample

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*1:

x
(*4)

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


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Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
SSL: SV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the data mode is CAS or RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

*2:

*3:
*4:
*5:
*6:
*7:

Table 1.18-5 Data Items of Ratio Set Block (RATIO) (2/2)


Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

MH

Manipulated variable highlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable lowlimit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SL to SH

SH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SL to SH

SL

BIAS

Bias value

MSL to MSH

MSL

RP

Ramp constant

0 to (SSH - SSL)

SSH - SSL

KR

Ratio gain

-----

1.000

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

TSW

Tracking switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

RSW

Pulse width reset switch

0, 1

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

Data Item

*1:
*2:

SEE
ALSO

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SSH: SV scale high limit
SSL: SV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the RATIO block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.19

13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)

The 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13) outputs the time function signals according to the
specified line segment graph against time-axis. Using the 13-Zone Program Set Block (PGL13) in combination with controller blocks enables program control of processes.

n 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)


Connection

Specify the time function signal output of the 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13) indicated
in a line-segment pattern. A program pattern of up to 166 hours or 166 minutes long can be
set when the time-axis setting unit is minute or second, respectively.
The figure below shows a function block diagram of 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13):
INT
SV

Control computation
(program setting)

CAS
AUT

CALC

Output
processing

MV

OUT

MAN
(Annunciator output)
SUB

Figure 1.19-1 Function Block Diagram of 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13):
Table 1.19-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)
I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Annunciator
output

INT

Interlock
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)


The PG-L13 block performs control computation processing, output processing, and alarm
processing.
The only processing timing available for the PG-L13 block is a periodic startup. Moreover, only the basic scan period can be selected as the scan period to execute the periodic startup.

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SEE
ALSO

1-225

For more information about the types of output processing and alarm processing possible for the PG-L13
block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)


The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the 13-Zone Program
Set Block (PG-L13):
Table 1.19-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of the 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)
Control computation processing

Description

Expresses a line-segment pattern of the program with line segments conLine-segment pattern signal gennecting up to 14 coordinates on a plane of time (X axis) and output (Y axeration
is) including starting and end points.
Program set action

Calculates output values during each base period in accordance with the
program set pattern, to obtain a calculated output value (CALC).

Program end action

Saves or changes the calculated output value (CALC) and elapsed time
(SV) at the end of the program.

Movement along the time axis

Moves along the time axis in accordance with the setting of set parameters (SV, ZONE).

Annunciator output

Turns the annunciator message ON at the end of the program set action.

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The available control output actions are of positional type only.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it to change


abruptly when the block mode has been changed or when the manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in a downstream block in cascade. The types of bumpless switching include bumpless start action.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition becomes satisfied.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action. This
action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the automatic operating mode.

n Line-Segment Pattern Signal Generation


Total Elapsed Time, Time Unit

The 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13) performs control computation based on line-segment pattern signal generation. The line-segment pattern used to set programs is expressed
by line segments that connect coordinate points of time and output including the starting and
end points.

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Line-Segment Pattern
The line-segment pattern used to set programs is expressed by line segments that connect
up to 14 coordinate points on a plane of time (X axis) and output (Y axis) including the starting
and end points (maximum 13 line segments). The specifications of program-setting line-segment patterns are shown below:

Number of Line-Segments: 1 to 13
Arbitrary line segments can be set on a coordinate plane of time (X axis) and output (Y axis).
If 0 is set to a segment on time axis (X02 to X14), the segment before this axis will be the end
of the time axis and the end of the line segments.

Zone Number (ZONE): 1 to 13


The space between the time-axis coordinates Xn and Xn+1 is called Zone n.

Setting Ranges
Line-segment patterns are set from operation and monitoring functions.
Time-axis breakpoint coordinate (X01 to X14):

0 to 9999 minutes, or 0 to 9999 seconds.

Output-axis breakpoint coordinate (Y01 to Y14): Engineering unit MV data.


Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the time unit of time-axis breakpoint coordinates
or total running time of the program.
Time Unit:

Select seconds or minutes


The default is second.

Total Elapsed Time: 0 to 10000


The default is 10000.

n Program Set Action


In the automatic (AUT) or cascade (CAS) mode, the program set action calculates output values set by the program set pattern during each basic scan period (1 second), and uses the
obtained result as a calculated output value (CALC). In the cascade (CAS) mode, the current
position returns to the start of the program set pattern when its end is reached, and output is
repeated along the program set pattern.

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CALC
PH
PL
2

Present value

MH
ML

SV

Figure 1.19-2 Program Set Pattern

Elapsed time (SV)


Calculated output value (CALC)
Intra-zone time high limit (PH)

: End time of the zone number corresponding to the


current elapsed time

Intra-zone time low limit (PL)

: Start time of the zone number corresponding to the


current elapsed time

Remaining intra-zone output high


limit (MH)

: Maximum output value between the current elapsed


time and intra-zone time high limit (PH)

Remaining intra-zone output low limit : Minimum output value between the current elapsed
(ML)
time and intra-zone time low limit (PL)
In the automatic (AUT) or cascade (CAS) mode, output processing is performed to the calculated output value (CALC) and the result is output as a manipulated output value (MV).
When the automatic (AUT) or cascade (CAS) mode is changed to manual (MAN) or initialization manual (IMAN), the set action will stop. However, computation data, such as time and
calculated output values, will be stored.
If the block mode is changed back to automatic (AUT) or cascade (CAS), the program set action resumes from the stored time.
If breakpoints are partially set in a reverse direction on the time axis (e.g., X01 > X02), the
reversed portion will be ignored. The figure below shows an example of the reversed portion
on the time axis being ignored:

Figure 1.19-3 An Instance of the Reversed Portion on the Time Axis

In this example, the original line-segment pattern is represented by a dotted line. However,
the 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13) only recognizes the pattern represented by the solid line.

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n Program End Action


When Program Exits

The actions performed in the automatic (AUT) mode at the end of the program include the following two types:
In each action, the manipulated output value (MV) is caused to agree with the calculated output value (CALC). Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the program end action.
When program exits: Select Holding PV or Quick Return.
The default is Holding PV.

Final Value Holding Type


The calculated output value (CALC) and elapsed time (SV) at the end of the program are held
and the operating mode is switched to manual.

Quick Return Type


The current position returns to the beginning of the program pattern (time value=0), and the
operating mode is switched to manual after the calculated output value (CALC) and elapsed
time (SV) are changed to the values at the starting point.

n Movement Precedence Along the Time Axis


The 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13) moves along the time axis not only as time elapses
but also when data is set from operation and monitoring functions to the SV or ZONE set parameter or when bumpless start is executed.
The three methods to force the block to move along the time axis have the following movement precedence:
Movement precedence
1: Bumpless start action
2: Setting the zone number (ZONE)
3: Setting the elapsed time (SV)

Setting the Zone Number


When a value between 1 and 13 is set for the zone number (ZONE), actions will be continued
from the beginning of the zone that has been set. The zone number (ZONE) can be set in any
block mode.

Setting the Elapsed Time (SV)


When any of the time data between the starting point and end point is set for the elapsed time
(SV), actions will continue from the point on time axis that has been set. The elapsed time
(SV) can be set in any block mode.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the bumpless start action, refer to:
nBumpless Switching on page 1-229

n Annunciator Output
When the software annunciator message (%AN) is specified for the output destination of the
annunciator output terminal (SUB), the annunciator message function will be turned ON at the

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end of the program set action. However, the program set block only turns the function ON but
does not reset it. Use a sequence control block, or etc. to reset the alarm.

n Control Output Action


The control output action converts the manipulated output change (MV) of each control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV).
The control output action applied in the 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13) is of positional
type only.
The calculated output value (CALC) is set as the manipulated output value (MV).

n Bumpless Switching
Bumpless Start

The bumpless switching function switches the block mode of the function block or manipulated output value of the downstream block in the cascade loop without causing the manipulated output value (MV) to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless change).
The type of bumpless switching action varies with the control output action and block mode
status.
The type of bumpless switching performed by the 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13) is
bumpless start action.
The bumpless start action prevents the value of the output destination from changing abruptly
when the program set action is started from zero elapsed time (SV) by changing the block
mode from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT) or cascade (CAS).
When the program set action is started from zero elapsed time (SV), the position on time axis
is fast-forwarded until the calculated output value (CALC) agrees with the setpoint value of
the output destination. The range of program pattern in which this agreement point is
searched is specified by the bumpless start zone (ZSTR) and bumpless end zone (ZEND).
If no matching pattern is found in the search range, the program set action is started from the
end point of the last zone that exists inside the search range.
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the bumpless start action.
Bumpless Start: Select Yes or No.
The default is Yes.
The bumpless start zone (ZSTR) and bumpless end zone (ZEND) are set from operation and
monitoring functions as set parameters.
Bumpless start zone (ZSTR): Select a value between 1 and 13.
The default is 1.
Bumpless end zone (ZEND): Select a value between 1 and 13.
The default is 1.

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Bumpless start zone

Present value of
output destination

ZEND

ZSTR

Fast-forwarding
along the time axis

SV

Figure 1.19-4 Bumpless Start Action

If two successive mode change commands, one to the manual (MAN) mode and the other to
the automatic (AUT) or cascade (CAS) mode, are issued from a sequence control block, etc.
within a single scan period, bumpless start is not executed. Instead, the program set action is
started from the starting point of the program pattern.
If a mode change command to the automatic (AUT) mode is issued by itself, bumpless start is
executed.

n Initialization Manual
The initialization manual is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN). This action takes place
when the initialization manual condition is established.

Characteristics of the Initialization Manual

The initialization manual function suspends the control action and control output action temporarily during the automatic (AUT) mode or other automatic control operation mode when the
initialization manual condition is established, and changes the block mode of the function
block to initialization manual (IMAN).
The block returns to the original mode when the initialization manual condition vanishes. However, if try to change the block mode in the initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the block will
switch to that mode only when the initialization condition vanishes.

Initialization Manual Condition

The initialization manual condition is a block mode transition condition that suspends the control action and control output action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization
manual (IMAN).
The initialization manual (IMAN) block mode becomes active only when the initialization manual condition is established.
The following example shows when the initialization manual condition establishes and vanishes:
AUT

Initialization manual condition establishes

IMAN (AUT)

Initialization manual condition vanishes

AUT
The initialization manual condition is established in the following situation:

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When the data status at the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV)
is conditional (CND) (i.e., the cascade connection is open).

When the data status at the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV)
is a communication error (NCOM) or output failure (PTPF).

When the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV) is a switch block
(SW-33, SW-91) and the switch off the cascade connection (i.e., the cascade connection
is open).

When the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV) is a process output
and a failure or output open alarm is detected in module.

n MAN Fallback
The MAN fallback is an error processing function that stops the control and forces the function
block to enter manual operation state. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is established.

Characteristics of the MAN Fallback

The MAN fallback stops the control by changing the block to manual (MAN) mode regardless
of the current operation status, and forces the function block to enter manual operation state.
Once the MAN fallback condition is established, the block mode remains manual (MAN) even
when the condition later vanishes.

MAN Fallback Condition

The MAN fallback condition is used to stop the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to
enter manual operation state. When the MAN fallback condition is established, it indicates
that a fatal error has occurred and requests operator interruption.
The following example shows when the MAN fallback condition is established:
Example)
AUTMAN
MAN (CAS) IMAN (MAN)
The MAN fallback condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status of the manipulated output value (MV) is output failure (PTPF).

When the data status of the setpoint value (SV) is invalid (BAD).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O and the FCS is
having an initial cold start.

When the block mode change interlock condition is established.

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O, and one of the
I/O points connected to the I/O module has been changed via maintenance.

n Block Mode Change Interlock


When the block mode change interlock condition is established, the block mode change interlock function stops the control computation processing of the function block running in auto
mode, and prohibit the function block changing to automatic operation mode.

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Characteristics of the Block Mode Change Interlock

Stops the control computation processing of the function blocks that are operating automatically, and disables the currently stopped function blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. The following actions take place:

The block mode changes to manual (MAN).

Any block mode change command to obtain an automatic operation state (AUT or CAS
mode) becomes invalid.

Block Mode Change Interlock Condition


The Block mode change interlock condition is established when the switch at the connected
destination of the interlock switch input terminal (INT) is turned ON. This switch is manipulated in the process control sequence and the switch is turned on when the sequence judge
that the loop can not run in Auto mode, or etc.

n Data Items - PG-L13


Table 1.19-3 Data Items of 13-Zone Program Set Block (PG-L13)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range

Default

-----

O/S(MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

SV

Elapsed time

Value in seconds or minutes

MV

Manipulated output value

MV engineering unit value

MSL

CALC

Calculated output value

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

MSL

PH

Intra - zone time high limit

Value in seconds or minutes

PL

Intra - zone time low limit

Value in seconds or minutes

MH

Output high-limit for remainder of zone

MSL to MSH

MSL

ML

Output low-limit for remainder of zone

MSL to MSH

MSL

ZONE

Zone number

(*3)

1 to 13

ZSTR

Bumpless start zone

1 to 13

ZEND

Bumpless end zone

1 to 13

X01 to X14

Time - axis breakpoint coordinate

Value in seconds or minutes

Y01 to Y14

Output - axis breakpoint coordinate

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

x
(*2)

x (*4)

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Data Item
UAID

User application ID

SH

Default

Time-axis scale high limit

Value in seconds or minutes

-----

SL

Time-axis scale low limit

Value in seconds or minutes

-----

MSH

MV scale high limit

MV engineering unit value

-----

MSL

MV scale low limit

MV engineering unit value

-----

*4:

Range
0

*2:
*3:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
-----

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Data for ZONE can be set through an I/O connection with another function block, such as a calculation block, but not externally as from the operation and monitoring functions.
X01 cannot be set because it is a time-axis origin and fixed at 0.

For more information about a list of valid block modes of the PG-L13 block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.20

Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2,


BSETU-3)

The term totalizing batch set block is a generic name for the flow-totalizing batch set block
(BSETU-2) and the weight-totalizing batch set block (BSETU-3).
This section describes the functions common to these two function blocks.

n Common Functions of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks


The following explains the functions common to the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the functions specific to the BSETU-2 block, refer to:
1.21, Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) on page 1-265
For more information about the functions specific to the BSETU-3 block, refer to:
1.22, Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3) on page 1-275

Input Processing Common to Totalizing Batch Set Blocks

The BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks perform a special integration.

Control Computation Processing Common to Totalizing Batch Set Blocks

The control computation processing functions of the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks are the
same. The control computation processing functions possessed by these two function blocks
are as follows:

Batch operation

Initialization manual

MAN fallback

Block mode change interlock

Output Processing Common to Totalizing Batch Set Blocks

The BSET-2 and BSETU-3 blocks perform a special output signal conversion.

Alarm Processing Common to Totalizing Batch Set Blocks

The alarm checks commonly performed by and specific to the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks
are as follows:

Pre-batch alarm check

Batch end alarm check

Cumulative deviation high and low limit check

Leak alarm check

Compatibility between Totalizing Batch Set Block and CENTUM V,


CENTUM-XL Totalizing Batch Set Unit: FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2
The Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2 and BSETU-3) are provided with optional compatibilities with the Totalizing Batch Set Units of CENTUM V and CENTUM-XL.

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1.20.1

Input Processing of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks


(BSETU-2, BSETU-3)

The BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks perform a special integration.

n Integration in the Totalizing Batch Set Blocks


In the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks, the following two types of integration are available:

Integrator value (SUM):


The integration specification is the same as for other Regulatory Control Blocks, but when
batch begins the integrator value is cleared to 0.

Total integrator value (SUM1):


The total integrator value (SUM1) accumulates the integrator value (SUM) for each batch
completion.
Total integrator value (SUM1)=(Total integrator value up to the previous batch)+Integrator
value (SUM)

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the integration, refer to:


3.3, Integration in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

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1.20.2

Control Algorithm of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks


(BSETU-2, BSETU-3)

The following functions are common to the control computation processing performed by the
BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks.

Batch operation

Initialization manual

MAN fallback

Block mode change interlock

n Batch Operation (Analog Output)


The batch operation performed by the Totalizing Batch Set Blocks varies depending upon the
type of output (analog output, 2-position ON/OFF output or 3-position ON/OFF output). The
figure below shows an example of batch operation in the case of analog output or data setting
output to other function block:
TU

MV
MH

TD

TU

TD

Pre-batch
flowratesetpoint

TW

PRE
ML
0
NCNT

STRT

Block status
ZONE
Totalized
value
Block mode

RSTR

IBCH STUP
0 10 1
0 <
ILST

STDY
3

ERLY

EMST EEMS
8

11

STDY

PBCH END NCNT


4

BSET - PLST BSET - LPV

ILST

MAN

STUP

AUT

MAN

Pre-batch
batch end
alarm

BPRE
BEND
MH:
ML:
PRE:
TU:
TD:
TW:

High flowrate setpoint


BSET:
Low flowrate setpoint
ILST:
Pre-batch flowrate setpoint PLST:
Rise time
LPV:
Fall time
BPRE:
Batch end wait time
BEND:

Batch setpoint
Initial forecast value
Pre-batch setpoint
Leakage predictive value
Pre-batch alarm (early notification)
Batch end alarm (end notification)

Figure 1.20.2-1 Batch Operation (Analog Output)

The operating status is indicated by the block status and control step. The operating status is
switched via the command switch (SW), emergency stop switch (EMSW) or control step
(ZONE). The commands issued by the command switch (SW) and emergency stop switch
(EMSW) are shown below:

Command switch (SW)


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1: Start
2: Restart
3: Abort
4: Emergency stop
0: Changes to 0 automatically when the command (1 to 4) is acknowledged.

Emergency stop switch (EMSW)


1: Emergency stop
0: After the executes command (1), it changes to 0 automatically.

Basic Batch Operation

Accept Batch-End during EMST

The following section explains the basic operation of the Totalizing Batch Set Blocks at each
control step (ZONE):
1.

ZONE10: Batch start (Block status: STRT)


Sets data to the set parameters including batch setpoint (BSET) prior to batch start. If the
command switch is set to start (SW=1) while in the automatic (AUT) block mode, the current control step moves to ZONE10 and the block starts batch operation after resetting
the totalized value (SUM) to 0.
Once batch starts, the control step moves to ZONE1.

2.

ZONE1: Initial batch (Block status: IBCH)


After batch start, outputs the low flowrate setpoint (ML) as the manipulated output value
(MV) until the totalized value (SUM) reaches the initial forecast value (ILST). The output
velocity limiter does not operate. When the totalized value (SUM) exceeds ILST, the control step moves to ZONE2.
The low flowrate setpoint (ML) and initial forecast value (ILST) are set from the operation and monitoring functions as set parameters.

Low flowrate setpoint (ML)


Set engineering unit data within the manipulated output value (MV) scale range.
The default is the manipulated output value (MV) scales low limit.

Initial forecast value (ILST)


Set data in the same unit as the totalized value (SUM).
The default is 0.
The set value consist of 8 digits or less.

3.

ZONE2: Setup (Block status: STUP)


Changes the manipulated output value (MV) to the high flowrate setpoint (MH) value during the Ramp Up time (TU). The high flowrate setpoint (MH) is an output value in a steady
state.
When the set TU time elapses in the setup mode, the control step moves to ZONE3.
The high flowrate setpoint (MH) and Ramp Up time (TU) are set from the operation
and monitoring functions as set parameters.

High flowrate setpoint (MH)


Set engineering unit data within the manipulated output value (MV) scale range.
The default is the manipulated output value (MV) scales low limit.

Ramp Up time (TU)


Set a value between 0 and 10000 seconds.
The default is 0 second.

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4.

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ZONE3: Steady (Block status: STDY)


Outputs the high flowrate setpoint (MH) as the manipulated output value (MV). When the
totalized value (SUM) reaches the value of batch setpoint (BSET) less pre-batch setpoint
(PLST), the control step moves to ZONE4.
The batch setpoint (BSET) and pre-batch setpoint (PLST) are set from the operation
and monitoring functions as set parameters.

Batch setpoint (BSET)


Set data in the same unit as the totalized value (SUM).
The default is 0.
Specify a numeric value consisting of 8 digits or less.

Pre-batch setpoint (PLST)


Set data in the same unit as the totalized value (SUM).
The default is 0.
Specify a numeric value consisting of 8 digits or less.

5.

ZONE4: Early (Block status: ERLY)


In the course of Ramp Down time (TD), the manipulated output value (MV) is changed to
PRE (pre-batch flowrate setpoint) on the gradient that leads to the low-flowrate setpoint
(ML). When the manipulated output value (MV) becomes the same value as the prebatch flowrate setpoint (PRE), the control step moves to ZONE5.
The pre-batch flowrate setpoint (PRE) and Ramp Down time (TD) are set from the operation and monitoring functions as set parameters.

Pre-batch flowrate setpoint (PRE)


Set engineering unit data within the MV scale range.
The default is the manipulated output value (MV) scales low limit.

Ramp Down time (TD)


Set a value between 0 and 10000 seconds.
The default is 0 second.

6.

ZONE5: Pre-batch (Block status: PBCH)


Outputs the pre-batch flowrate setpoint (PRE) as the manipulated output value (MV).
When the totalized value (SUM) reaches the value of batch setpoint (BSET) less leakage
predictive value (LPV), the control step moves to ZONE7.
The leakage predictive value (LPV) is set from the operation and monitoring functions
as a set parameter.

Leakage predictive value (LPV)


Set data in the same unit as the totalized value (SUM).
The default is 0.
Specify a numeric value of 4 digits or less.

7.

ZONE7: Batch end (Block status: END)


Batch operation ends after the manipulated output value (MV) is reset to 0. When the
batch end wait time (TW) elapses in the batch end mode, the block mode changes to
manual (MAN) and the control step moves to ZONE0. At this time, the totalized value
(SUM) is added to the cumulative totalized value (SUM1). However, this addition will not
take place in the manual (MAN) mode.
The batch end wait time (TW) is set from the operation and monitoring functions as a
set parameter.

Batch end wait time (TW)


Set a value between 0 and 10000 seconds.
The default is 0 second.

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8.

ZONE0: Batch operation stop (Block status: NCNT)


In this mode, batch Control Action stops and a manually manipulated variable can be output.

9.

ZONE6: Reset (Block status: RSET)


When the command switch is set to Abort (SW=3) during batch operation, the control
step moves to ZONE6 and the manipulated output value (MV) is brought down to 0 % at
a speed of changing it from the high flowrate setpoint (MH) to low flowrate setpoint (ML)
over the Ramp Down time (TD).
When the manipulated output value reaches 0 %, the control step moves to ZONE7.
When the totalized value exceeds the value of batch setpoint (BSET) less leakage predictive value (LPV), the status changes to batch end and generates an alarm (BEND). The
batch ends other than this way does not generate batch end alarm (BEND).

10. ZONE8: Emergency stop (Block status: EMST)


When the emergency command switch is set to emergency stop (EMSW=1), or when the
command switch is set to emergency stop (SW=4), the control step moves to ZONE8,
and the manipulated output value (MV) is brought down to 0 % at a speed of changing it
from the high flowrate setpoint (MH) to low flowrate setpoint (ML) over TD (Ramp Down
time). When the manipulated output value (MV) reaches 0 %, the control step moves to
ZONE9.
Even when the block is in Emergency Stop (EMST) status, if the totalized value (SUM)
reaches the batch setpoint (BSET) value minus the leakage predictive value (LPV), the
control step may shift to ZONE7. However, this behavior is alternative by changing the
setting of [Accept Batch-End during EMST] on the FCS properties sheet. By default, this
check box is checked.
11. ZONE9: Emergency stop complete (Block status: EEMS)
When the totalized value (SUM) reaches the value of batch setpoint (BSET) less leakage
predictive value (LPV) during emergency stop, the control step moves to ZONE7. However, if the option of [Accept Batch-End during EMST] on the FCS properties sheet is not
checked, it will not move to ZONE7 but stays in ZONE9.
12. ZONE11: Restart (Block status: RSTR)
When the command switch is set to restart (SW=2) during the emergency stop complete
mode (ZONE9), the control stop moves to ZONE2 via ZONE11.

n Actions Triggered by Command Switch


The figure below shows the actions of batch operation triggered by the command switch
(SW):

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Command switch (SW)

Action

Start

EM-ST

Restart

Reset

Block mode

AUT

AUT

AUT

AUT

MV
MH

TW
ML
0
NCNT

STRT

Block status
ZONE

IBCH STUP
0

10

RSET

STDY

EMST

EEMS

0 <
ILST

Totalized
value
Block mode

RSTR

MAN

STUP

STDY

11

END NCNT
6

ILST
AUT

MAN

Figure 1.20.2-2 Actions of Batch Operation Triggered by Command Switch

Other than by the emergency stop command (SW=4), emergency stop can also be triggered
via the emergency stop switch (EMSW=1).

n Transition of Control Step Status


The figure below shows a status transition diagram of control steps in normal operation:

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(M)
(F)

(D)

6
RSET

(B)

IBCH

(C)

STUP

(D)

STDY

(E)

ERLY

(N)
7

(F)

PBCH

END

(H)

(J)
11

(L)

RSTR

(I)

EEMS

(F)

EMST
(M)

(A)

10
STRT

(K)

(G)

NCNT
Legend
ZONE

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(F)
(G)
(H)
(I)
(J)
(K)
(L)
(M)
(N)

Batch start complete


End of initial batch
End of setup
Early point detection (SUM>BET-PLST)
End of pre-batch processing (MV=PRE)
Batch end detection (SUM>BSET-LPV)
End of batch end processing
Emergency stop command (EMSW=1 or SW=4)
Emergency stop complete
Restart complete
Start command (SW=1)
Restart command (SW=2)
Abort (SW=3)
Abort completed (MV=0 %)

Block status

Figure 1.20.2-3 Transition of Control Step Status

Status transition can also be induced by changing the control step. The control step (ZONE)
can be changed from a sequence table or calculation block, but not from the operation and
monitoring functions. Note that change commands issued by the command switch (SW) precede any operation to change the control step (ZONE).
The totalized value (SUM) is added to the cumulative totalized value (SUM1) when batch end
processing is completed.

n Manual Operation
When the block mode changes to manual (MAN), automatic control processing is suspended
and manual operation is enabled. The control step changes even during the manual (MAN)
mode. When the block mode is changed from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT) during manual operation, automatic control is started.

n Automatic Prediction
When batch end is detected during each scan period, a flowrate error equivalent to a maximum of one scan period may generate. The Totalizing Batch Set Blocks automatically predicts batch end in order to minimize this error.

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When the alarm status changes to pre-batch alarm (BPRE), the totalized value during the
next scan is predicted based on the totalized value increase during the current scan period
(totalized value during the current scan-totalized value during the previous scan). If the predicted value exceeds the batch setpoint (BSET), a duration of time to keep the valve fully
open is calculated in 25 msec. units, based on the totalized value (SUM). The valve is fully
opened when the time calculated using this formula elapses.
The automatic prediction function is executed only in ZONE5. This function is also activated
for outputs via a switch instrument block.

n Beginning Point of Ramp-Up When Restart


Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart

When a Restart command is applied while the block is in the status of emergency stop (Block
Status: EEMS), the block will move to the control step ZONE11 (Block Status: RSTR) first,
and then move to the setup step ZONE2 (Block Status: STUP). At this step, the output will
ramp up. However, the ramp-up begins from the low flow rate setpoint (ML) or from 0 %
needs to be defined.
This option can be defined on the Function Block Detail Builder.
Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart: Choose [Yes] or [No]
The default is [No].
If [Yes] is selected, upon the restart command, the ramp-up of the manipulated output value
(MV) will begin from the low flowrate setpoint (ML). The setup step (Block Status: STUP) will
be the same as before but the ramp-up time (TU) will be the time of the manipulated output
value (MV) ramps from the low flowrate setpoint (ML) to the high flowrate setpoint (MH).
The batch operation will act as follows if Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart is applied.
TU

MV

TD

TU

MH

Pre-Batch
Flowrate
Setpoint

Ramp Up
from ML

PRE
ML
0
NCNT

STRT

Block status
ZONE

RSTR

IBCH STUP
0

10

STDY

EMST

EEMS

STUP
STDY
11

Figure 1.20.2-4 Ramp Up from ML Upon Restart

If [No] is selected, upon the restart command, the ramp-up of the manipulated output value
(MV) will begin from the 0 % of flowrate. The manipulated output value (MV) ramps from the 0
% flowrate to the high flowrate setpoint (MH) at the same ramp rate specified by ramp-up time
(TU).

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The batch operation will act as follows if Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart is not applied.
TU

MV

TD

TU

MH

Pre-Batch
Flowrate
Setpoint

Ramp Up
from 0 %

PRE
ML
0
NCNT

STRT

Block status
ZONE

RSTR

IBCH STUP
0

10

STDY

STUP

EMST EEMS

STDY
11

Figure 1.20.2-5 Ramp Up from 0 % Upon Restart

n Start Action when Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2, BSETU-3)


and Controller Blocks (such as PID) in Cascade Loop
Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart

If the initial forecast value (ILST) is 0, the ramp-up beginning point can be specified upon the
timing of the start command and the timing that the connected function block becomes a cascade loop. The ramp-up begins from the low flow rate setpoint (ML) or from 0 % needs to be
defined.
This option can be defined on the Function Block Detail Builder. The setting of Ramp Up from
ML Upon Start/Restart also functions for this purpose.
Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart: Choose [Yes] or [No]
The default is [No].
If [Yes] is selected, upon the start command, the block will not move to initial batch status
(Block Status: IBCH) but directly to go to setup step (Block Status: STUP). The ramp-up of the
manipulated output value (MV) will begin from the low flowrate setpoint (ML). The ramp-up
time (TU) will be the time of the manipulated output value (MV) ramps from the low flowrate
setpoint (ML) to the high flowrate setpoint (MH).
The batch operation will act as follows if Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart is applied.

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TU

MV
MH

Pre-Batch
Flowrate
Setpoint

Ramp Up
from ML

PRE
ML
0
STRT
Block status

NCNT

ZONE

IBCH
STUP
10

STDY

Figure 1.20.2-6 Ramp Up from ML Upon Start

If [No] is selected, upon the start command, the block will not move to initial batch status
(Block Status: IBCH) but directly to go to setup step (Block Status: STUP). The ramp-up of the
manipulated output value (MV) will begin from the 0 % flowrate. The manipulated output value
(MV) ramps from the 0 % flowrate to the high flowrate setpoint (MH) at the same ramp rate
specified by ramp-up time (TU).
The batch operation will act as follows if Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart is not applied.
TU

MV
MH

Pre-Batch
Flowrate
Setpoint

Ramp Up
from 0 %

PRE
ML
0
STRT
Block status

NCNT

ZONE

IBCH
STUP
10

STDY
3

Figure 1.20.2-7 Ramp Up from 0 % Upon Start

However, if the initial forecast value (ILST) is greater than 0 and the block moves to initial
batch status (Block Status: IBCH) before ramp-up, the manipulated output value (MV) ramps

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from the low flowrate setpoint (ML) to the high flowrate setpoint (MH) regardless what is
specified for Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart.

n Batch Operation (2-Position ON/OFF Output)


Simple batch control based on the two-position ON/OFF output method can be performed by
connecting the output terminal (OUT) of the Totalizing Batch Set Blocks to a contact output or
switch instrument block. Valve closure processing can also be performed via automatic prediction when the block is connected to a switch instrument.
The table below shows the relationship between the manipulated output values (MV) during
manual operation and those of a contact output or switch instrument block.
Table 1.20.2-1 Relationship between Manipulated Output Values (MV) during Manual Operation and
Those of a Contact Output or Switch Instrument Block
MV value

0 % to 49.9 %

50 % to 100 %

Contact output

OFF

ON

Switch instrument

MV=0

MV=2

IMPORTANT
When a BSETU-2 or BSETU-3 function block is applied with two-position ON/OFF output, the
parameters of the ramp up time (TU) and the ramp down time (TD) should be set to zero.
If the ramp down time (TD) is not zero, when the function block runs emergency shutdown to
force MV to 0 %, but the control calculation will ramp down the MV slowly based on the setting value of TD. Since the ON/OFF output only acts in accordance with 100 % MV or 0 %
MV, thus, the output cannot become OFF if the MV is not ramping down to zero but hooked at
100 %. Consequently, the valve cannot be closed by the emergency shutdown (EMST) action.
The same phenomenon occurs when the ramp up time (TU) is not zero. In setup mode of the
function block, the MV may be hooked at 0 % and the valve cannot be opened.

Actions when Switch Instrument is in Cascade (CAS) Mode

When the connected switch instrument is in the cascade (CAS) mode, the BSETU-2 and
BSETU-3 blocks output the manipulated output value (MV) to the sequence setpoint value
(CSV) of the switch instrument, and the switch instrument outputs the received sequence setpoint value (CSV) as its own manipulated output value (MV). In the case of emergency stop,
the manipulated output value (MV) drops to 0 % immediately.
The figure below shows an example of simple batch operation based on the 2-position
ON/OFF output method, when the switch instrument is in the cascade (CAS) mode.
In this example, the parameters are set as follows:

Output velocity limiter: 100%

Ramp Up time (TU): 0 second

Ramp Down (TD): 0 second

High flowrate setpoint (MH): 100%

Low flowrate setpoint (ML): 100%

Pre-batch flowrate setpoint (PRE): 100%

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MV
100

2-position
ON/OFF

TW

Block
status
ZONE

NCNT STRT
0

10
0

Totalized
value
Block
mode

IBCH

STDY

<ILST

EEMS RSTR
9

STDY

11

END NCNT

BSET - LPV
BSET - PLST

ILST

MAN

PBCH

AUT

MAN

Pre-batch
batch end
alarm

BPRE
BEND

Figure 1.20.2-8 Example of Simple Batch Operation Using 2-Position ON/OFF Output Method when the
Both Switch Instruments are in Cascade (CAS) Mode

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the switch instrument block, refer to:
2.4, Switch Instrument Block and Enhanced Switch Instrument Block in the Function Blocks Reference
Vol.2 (IM 33K03E23-50E)

Actions when Switch Instrument is not in Cascade (CAS) Mode


When the connected switch instrument is not in the cascade (CAS) mode, the Flow/WeightTotalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) changes to the initialization manual (IMAN)
mode. In this mode, the MV value of the switch instrument is set as the MV of the Flow/
Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) after having been converted via the
output value tracking function.

n Batch Operation (3-Position ON/OFF Output)


Simple batch control using the 3-position ON/OFF output method can be performed by connecting the output terminals (OUT, OUT2) of the Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)
to contact outputs or switch instruments.
When connecting to contact outputs, use two contact outputs with successive terminal numbers. Register the contact output with the smaller terminal number as I/O connection information of the OUT terminal. The contact output with the smaller terminal number becomes output contact 1. When connecting to switch instruments, the switch instrument connected to the
OUT terminal becomes switch instrument 1, and the one connected to the OUT2 terminal becomes switch instrument 2.
The table below shows the relationship between the manipulated output values (MV) during
manual operation and those of contact outputs or switch instruments:
Table 1.20.2-2 Relationship between Manipulated Output Values (MV) during Manual Operation and
Contact Outputs or Switch Instrument Blocks
MV value

0 % to 24.9 %

25 % to 74.9 %

75 % to 100 %

Contact output 1

OFF

OFF

ON

Contact output 2

OFF

ON

ON

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MV value

0 % to 24.9 %

25 % to 74.9 %

75 % to 100 %

Switch instrument 1

MV=0

MV=0

MV=2

Switch instrument 2

MV=0

MV=2

MV=2

IMPORTANT
When a BSETU-2 or BSETU-3 function block is applied with three-position ON/OFF output,
the parameters of the ramp up time (TU) and the ramp down time (TD) should be set to zero.
If the ramp down time (TD) is not zero, when the function block runs emergency shutdown to
force MV to 0 %, but the control calculation will ramp down the MV slowly based on the setting value of TD. Since the ON/OFF output only acts in accordance with 100 % MV, 50 % MV
or 0 % MV, thus, the output cannot become OFF if the MV is not ramping down to zero but
hooked at 100 %. (or 50 %.) Consequently, the valve cannot be closed by the emergency
shutdown (EMST) action.
The same phenomenon occurs when the ramp up time (TU) is not zero. In setup mode of the
function block, the MV may be hooked at 0 % and the valve cannot be opened.

Actions when Both Switch Instruments are in Cascade (CAS) Mode

When both of the connected switch instruments are in the cascade (CAS) mode, the BSETU-2 or BSETU-3 blocks output two manipulated output values (MV) to the corresponding sequence setpoint values (CSV) of switch instruments 1 and 2, and each switch instrument outputs the received sequence setpoint value (CSV) as its own manipulated output value (MV).
In the case of emergency stop, the manipulated output value (MV) drops to 0 % immediately.
The figure below shows an example of simple batch operation based on the three-position
ON/OFF output method, when the switch instruments are in the cascade (CAS) mode. In this
example, the parameters are set as follows:

Output velocity limiter: 100 %

Ramp Up time (TU): 0 second

Ramp Down time (TD): 0 second

High flowrate setpoint (MH): 100 %

Low flowrate setpoint (ML): 50 %

Pre-batch flowrate setpoint (PRE): 50 %

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MV
100

3-position
ON/OFF

TW

Block
status
ZONE

NCNT STRT
0

10
0

Totalized
value
Block
mode

IBCH

STDY

EEMS RSTR
9

<ILST

STDY

11

PBCH

BSET-PLST

ILST

MAN

END NCNT
0

BSET-LPV

AUT

MAN

Pre-batch
batch end
alarm

BPRE
BEND

Figure 1.20.2-9 Example of Simple Batch Operation Based on 3-Position ON/OFF Output Method when
Both Switch Instruments are in the Cascade (CAS) Mode

Actions when Only Switch Instrument 2 is in Cascade (CAS) Mode


When only switch instrument 2 is in the cascade mode, the Flow/Weight-Totalizing Batch Set
Block (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) outputs only to switch instrument 2.
The figure below shows an example of simple batch operation based on the three-position
ON/OFF output method, when only switch instrument 2 is in the cascade (CAS) mode:
MV
100 %

50 %

0 %
BSETU-2/
BSETU-3

ZONE

Switch instrument MODE


1
MV
Switch instrument MODE
2
MV

CAS

Other than CAS

0/2 (No output from the BSETU-2/BSETU-3)

CAS
0

Switch instrument 1 changes to a non-CAS mode

Figure 1.20.2-10 Example of Batch Operation when Only Switch Instrument 2 is in Cascade (CAS)
Mode

Actions when Only Switch Instrument 1 is in Cascade Mode


In batch operation where only switch instrument 1 is in the cascade (CAS) mode, the manipulated output value (MV) of switch instrument 1 becomes 0 in the initial batch (ZONE1) and

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pre-batch (ZONE5) modes. Therefore, if the manipulated output value (MV) of switch instrument 2 is 0, the emergency stop mode (ZONE9) becomes active.
To perform output in this state, set either of the following:

ILST (initial forecast value)=0

PLST (pre-batch setpoint)=0

This eliminates the mode of ZONE1 or 5 and sets the command switch (SW) to 2 (restart
specification). As a result, the control step changes to ZONE3 and batch operation resumes.
The figure below shows an example of simple batch operation based on the three-position
ON/OFF output method, when only switch instrument 1 is in the cascade (CAS) mode:
MV
100 %

50 %

0%
BSETU-2/
BSETU-3

ZONE

Switch instrument MODE


1
MV
Switch instrument MODE
2
MV

CAS
0
CAS
0

Other than CAS


2

0/2 (No output from the BSETU-2/BSETU-3)


LIST=PLST=0. Set SW=2.
Switch instrument 2 changes to a non-CAS mode

Figure 1.20.2-11 Example of Batch Operation when Only Switch Instrument 1 is in Cascade (CAS)
Mode

Actions when Neither Switch Instrument is in Cascade (CAS) Mode


When neither switch instrument is in the cascade (CAS) mode, the Flow/Weight-Totalizing
Batch Set Block (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) enters the initialization manual (IMAN) mode. In this
mode, the MV value of the switch instrument is set as the MV of the Flow/Weight-Totalizing
Batch Set Block (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) after having been converted via the output value tracking function.

n Emergency Stop when an Alarm Occurs


Emergency Stop when Input Open, Emergency Stop when Low-Low Alarm, Emergency Stop when
High Alarm, Emergency Stop when Low Alarm, Emergency Stop when Missing Pulse

The batch operation can be set to the emergency stop state when an alarm occurs. Emergency stop execution can be specified for the alarms indicated below:

Input open alarm (IOP, IOP-)

Input low-low limit alarm (LL)

Input high limit alarm (HI)

Input low limit alarm (LO)

Missing pulse alarm (NPLS) (*1)


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The setting for whether the batch operation comes to an emergency stop or continues when
an alarm occurs is performed for each alarm using the Function Block Detail Builder. The
setting selections are Yes or No. When Yes is selected, the operation performs an emergency stop when an alarm occurs. When No is selected, there is no emergency stop and
the batch operation continues. Default settings are given below:

SEE

ALSO

Emergency Stop When Input Open: The default is Yes

Emergency Stop When Low-Low Alarm: The default is No.

Emergency Stop When High Alarm: The default is No.

Emergency Stop When Low Alarm: The default is No.

Emergency Stop When Missing Pulse: The default is Yes. (*2)

*1:
*2:

The missing pulse alarm (NPLS) is available only for BSETU-2, but not for BSETU-3.
Emergency Stop When Missing Pulse is available only for BSETU-2, but not for BSETU-3.

For more information about the input open, input low-low limit, input high limit and input low limit alarms, refer
to:

5.1, Input Open Alarm Check in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

5.3, Input High-High and Low-Low Limit Alarm Check in the Function Blocks Overview (IM
33K03E21-50E)

5.4, Input High and Low Limit Alarm Check in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

For more information about the missing pulse alarm, refer to:
nMissing Pulse Alarm Check on page 1-268

n Initialization Manual
The initialization manual is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN). This action takes place
when the initialization manual condition is established.

Characteristics of the Initialization Manual

The initialization manual function suspends the control action and control output action temporarily during the automatic (AUT) mode or other automatic control operation mode when the
initialization manual condition is established, and changes the block mode of the function
block to initialization manual (IMAN).
Because the initialization manual action causes the manipulated output value (MV) to track
the value at the connected destination, even when the initialization manual (IMAN) mode is
changed to manual (MAN), the initialization manual (IMAN) mode will precede the manual
(MAN) mode and any operation to change to the manual (MAN) mode will become invalid.
The block returns to the original mode when the initialization manual condition vanishes. However, if try to change a block mode in the initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the block will
switch to that mode only when the initialization condition vanishes.

Initialization Manual Condition

The initialization manual condition is a block mode transition condition that suspends the control action and control output action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization
manual (IMAN). The initialization manual (IMAN) block mode becomes active only when the
initialization manual condition is established.
The following example shows when the initialization manual condition establishes and vanishes:
AUT

Initialization manual condition establishes


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IMAN (AUT)

Initialization manual condition vanishes

AUT
The initialization manual condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status at the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV)
is conditional (CND) (i.e., the cascade connection is open).

When the data status at the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV)
is a communication error (NCOM) or output failure (PTPF).

When the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV) is a switch block
(SW-33, SW-91) and the switches off the cascade connection.

When the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV) is a process output
and a failure or output open alarm is detected in the process output.

n MAN Fallback
The MAN fallback is an error processing function that stops the control and forces the function
block to enter manual operation state. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is established. In the Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2), the emergency stop action triggered by an input open alarm will override the MAN fallback action only when input
open emergency stop is defined Yes in the function block builder. When an input open alarm
occurs, the emergency stop (EMST) mode becomes active and the manipulated output value
(MV) drops to the manipulated output scale low limit (MSL).
Once the emergency stop action is completed, the MAN fallback action is executed and the
block mode changes to manual (MAN) mode.

Characteristics of MAN Fallback

The MAN fallback stops the control by changing the block to manual (MAN) mode regardless
of the current operation status, and forces the function block to enter manual operation state.
Once the MAN fallback condition is established, the block mode remains manual (MAN) even
when the condition later vanishes.

MAN Fallback Condition

The MAN fallback condition is used to stop the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to
enter manual operation state. When the MAN fallback condition is established, it indicates
that a fatal error has occurred and requests operator interruption.
The following example shows when the MAN fallback condition is established:
AUTMAN
IMAN (CAS) IMAN (MAN)
The MAN fallback condition is established in the following situations:

When the data status of the process variable (PV) is invalid (BAD) or calibration (CAL).

When the data status of the manipulated output value (MV) is output failure (PTPF).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O and the FCS is
having an initial cold start.

When the block mode change interlock condition is established.

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O, and one of the
I/O points connected to the I/O module has been changed via maintenance.

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n Block Mode Change Interlock


The block mode change interlock function stops the control computation processing of function blocks that are operating automatically, while disabling the currently stopped function
blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. This action takes place when the block
mode change interlock condition is established.

Characteristics of the Block Mode Change Interlock

Stops the control computation processing of the function blocks that are operating automatically, and disables the currently stopped function blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. The following actions will take place:

The block mode changes to manual (MAN).

Any block mode change command to obtain an automatic operation state (AUT mode)
becomes invalid.

Block Mode Change Interlock Condition


The Block mode change interlock condition is established when the switch at the connected
destination of the interlock switch input terminal (INT) is turned ON. This switch is manipulated in the process control sequence and the switch is turned on when the sequence judge
that the loop can not run in Auto mode, or etc.,.

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1.20.3

Output Processing of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks


(BSETU-2, BSETU-3)

The BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks perform a special output signal conversion.
This section describes the output signal conversion, using the BSETU-2 block as an example.

n Output Signal Conversion of the Flow/Weight-Totalizing Batch Set


Block (BSETU-2 and BSETU-3)
Output Signal Conversion

The types of output signal processing available in the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks are analog output, data set output for other function block, subsystem output, and 2-position/3-position ON/OFF output. Pulse width output is not available.
Not only the process I/O contact output but also Switch Instrument blocks can be used as the
destination of 2-position/3-position ON/OFF output.
The following list shows the Switch Instrument block that may be connected to BSETU-2 and
BSETU-3. Switch Instrument block with two status output can not be connected.

SIO-11, SIO-11E

SIO-21, SIO-21E

SO-1, SO-1E

IMPORTANT
When a BSETU-2 or BSETU-3 function block is applied with two-position ON/OFF output or
three-position ON/OFF output, the parameters of the ramp up time (TU) and the ramp down
time (TD) should be set to zero.
If the ramp down time (TD) is not zero, when the function block runs emergency shutdown to
force MV to 0 %, but the control calculation will ramp down the MV slowly based on the setting value of TD. Since the ON/OFF output only acts in accordance with 100 % MV, 50 % MV
or 0 % MV, thus, the output cannot become OFF if the MV is not ramping down to zero but
hooked at 100 %. (or 50 %.) Consequently, the valve cannot be closed by the emergency
shutdown (EMST) action.
The same phenomenon occurs when the ramp up time (TU) is not zero. In setup mode of the
function block, the MV may be hooked at 0 % and the valve cannot be opened.

Connecting a 2-Position ON/OFF Output to a Contact Output


The following figure illustrates the connection of an I/O contact output to the output terminal
(OUT) of the BSETU-2 block:
IN

BSETU-2

OUT

Figure 1.20.3-1 An Example of 2-Position ON/OFF Output

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The following table shows the relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) in the
manual operating mode and the contact output status:
Table 1.20.3-1 Relationship between the MV and the Contact Output Status in Manual Mode
MV value

0 to 49.9 %

50 to 100 %

Contact output

OFF

ON

MV
100
2-position
ON/OFF
0

Figure 1.20.3-2 Simplified Batch Operation of the 2-Position ON/OFF Output System

Connecting a 3-Position ON/OFF Output to Contact Outputs


The following figure illustrates the connection of the I/O contact outputs to the output terminals (OUT and OUT2) of the BSETU-2 block:
BSETU-2

IN

OUT
OUT2

Figure 1.20.3-3 An Example of 3-Position ON/OFF Output

The following table shows the relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) in the
manual operating mode and the contact outputs status:
Table 1.20.3-2 Relationship between the MV and the Contact Output Status in Manual Mode
MV value

0 to 24.9 %

25 to 74.9 %

75 to 100 %

Contact output 1

OFF

OFF

ON

Contact output 2

OFF

ON

ON

MV
100
3-position
ON/OFF
0

Figure 1.20.3-4 3-Position ON/OFF Output

2-Position ON/OFF Output Connected to a Switch Instrument in Cascade


The following figure illustrates the connection of a 2-position ON/OFF output to a switch instrument in cascade. In this example, the switch instrument CSV is connected to the output
terminal (OUT) of the Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) in cascade.
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IN

BSETU-2

OUT
IN

CSV

OUT

SIO-11

Figure 1.20.3-5 An Example of 2-Position ON/OFF Output

The following table shows the relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) in the
manual operating mode and the switch instrument status:
Table 1.20.3-3 Relationship between the MV of 2-Position ON/OFF Block and the MV of the Switch Instrument Block
MV value

0 to 49.9 %

50 to 100 %

Switching instrument

MV=0

MV=2

When the connected switch instrument is in the cascade (CAS) mode, the BSETU-2 block
outputs a manipulated output value (MV) to the sequence setpoint value (CSV) of the switch
instrument, and the instrument will output the sequence setpoint value (CSV) as its own manipulated output value (MV). If the switch instrument is not in the cascade (CAS) mode, the
BSETU-2 block will be in the initialization manual mode (IMAN). Then, the switch instrument
manipulated output value (MV) converted to the manipulated output value (MV) data of the
BSETU-2 block will be set as the manipulated output value (MV) of the BSETU-2 by the output tracking function. Even when connected to a switch instrument block, the automatic prediction is still functioning to close the valve.

3-Position ON/OFF Output Connected to a Switch instrument in Cascade


The following figure illustrates the connection of the 3-position ON/OFF output to a switch instrument in cascade. In this example, the switch instrument CSV is connected to the output
terminals (OUT or OUT2) of the Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) in cascade. In the
case of 3-position ON/OFF output, Switch Instrument Block with 1 Output (SO-1) and Switch
Instrument Block with 1 Output (SO-1) are connected to the OUT and OUT2 terminals, respectively.
IN

OUT
BSETU-2

OUT2
CSV

SO-1

OUT

CSV

OUT

SO-1

Figure 1.20.3-6 An Example of 3-Position ON/OFF Output

The following table shows the relationship between the manipulated output value (MV) in the
manual operating mode and the switch instrument status:

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Table 1.20.3-4 Relationship between the MV of 3-Position ON/OFF Block and the MV of the Switch Instrument Block
MV value

0 to 24.9 %

25 to 74.9 %

75 to 100 %

Switching instrument 1

MV=0

MV=0

MV=2

Switching instrument 2

MV=0

MV=2

MV=2

When both of the connected switch instruments are in the cascade (CAS) mode, the BSETU-2 block outputs two manipulated output values (MV) to the sequence setpoint values
(CSV) of the switch instrument 1 and 2, respectively, and the individual instruments will output
their sequence setpoint value (CSV)s as their own manipulated output value (MV)s, respectively. If neither of the switch instruments is in the cascade (CAS) mode, the BSETU-2 block
will be in the initialization manual mode (IMAN). Then, the switch instrument manipulated output value (MV) converted to the manipulated output value (MV) data of the BSETU-2 block
will be set as the manipulated output value (MV) of the BSETU-2 by the output tracking function.

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1.20.4

1-257

Alarm Processing of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks


(BSETU-2, BSETU-3)

The alarm checks commonly performed by and specific to the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks
are as follows:

Pre-batch alarm check

Batch end alarm check

Cumulative deviation high and low limit check

Leak alarm check

IMPORTANT
The pre-batch alarm and the batch end alarm will be initiated only under the conditions described later in this section.
When checking the BSETU-2 or BSETU-3 running state with sequence table or other blocks,
it is recommended not using the alarm status but using the block status or the zone number.

n Pre-Batch Alarm Check


Pre-Batch Alarm

The pre-batch alarm check is a function that determines if the integral value (SUM) has
reached a value (BSET-PLST) obtained by subtracting the pre-batch setpoint value (PLST)
from the batch setpoint value (BSET).
If it is determined that the integral value (SUM) has reached a value (BSET-PLST) obtained
by subtracting the pre-batch setpoint value (PLST) from the batch setpoint value (BSET), a
pre-batch alarm (BPRE) is activated.
To enable the pre-batch alarm function, set the alarm detect as enabled in the Function
Block Detail Builder.
The pre-batch alarm can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Pre-batch alarm: Choose [Yes] or [No].
Default is [No].

n Batch End Alarm Check


Batch End Alarm

The batch end alarm check is a function that determines if the integral value (SUM) has
reached a value (BSET-LPV) obtained by subtracting the leakage predictive value (LPV) from
the batch setpoint value (BSET).
If it is determined that the integral value (SUM) has reached a value (BSET-LPV) obtained by
subtracting the leakage predictive value (LPV) from the batch setpoint value (BSET), a batch
end alarm (BEND) is generated.
To enable the batch end alarm check, set the alarm detect as enabled in the Function Block
Detail Builder.
The batch end alarm can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Batch End Alarm: Choose [Yes] or [No].
Default is [No].

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n Cumulative Deviation High and Low Limit Check


Accumulated Deviation High/Low Limit Alarm

The cumulative deviation high and low limit check is a function that determines whether the
deviation (SUM-BSET) between the integral value (SUM) and batch setpoint value (BSET)
falls outside the range of the absolute value of the cumulative deviation alarm setpoint value
(DL).
If it is determined that the deviation exceeds the cumulative deviation alarm setpoint value
(DL) in the positive direction, a cumulative deviation high limit alarm (BDV+) occurs. Similarly,
if it exceeds the DL in the negative direction, a cumulative deviation low limit alarm (BDV-) occurs. These alarms are checked upon batch completion (transits from ZONE7 to ZONE0) and
are maintained as long as the control step is ZONE0 (batch stopped status). However, when
a reset (SW=3) is done, the alarm check is not performed.
To activate the cumulative deviation high and low limit alarm check, set the type of cumulative
deviation high and low limit alarm check and the cumulative deviation high and low limit alarm
check setpoint value (DL).

Cumulative Deviation High and Low Limit Alarm Check Type

The type of cumulative deviation high and low limit alarm is set by the cumulative deviation
high and low limit alarm item in the Function Block Detail Builder. The types of cumulative
deviation high and low limit alarms are given below. The default is high and low limit alarm.

High and low limit alarm


Monitors the deviation for both the high and low limits

High limit only


Monitors the deviation for the high limit only

Low limit only


Monitors the deviation for the low limit only

No alarm
No detection is performed

When single direction is specified for the cumulative deviation high and low limit alarm type,
only the cumulative deviation high limit alarm is monitored when the cumulative deviation
alarm setpoint (DL) has a plus sign, and only the low limit alarm is monitored when the setpoint has a minus sign.

Cumulative Deviation Alarm Setpoint (DL)

The cumulative deviation alarm setpoint (DL) is set by the operation and monitoring function.
The cumulative deviation alarm setpoint (DL) can changed as setting parameters.

Cumulative deviation alarm setpoint (DL): Same unit data as SUM

Number of digits for the setting: Maximum 4 digits


Default is 1000.

n Leak Alarm Check


Leak Check

The leak alarm check is a function that compares the integral value and the previous integral
value at the time of batch completion (saved when batch is completed) and determines
whether the difference exceeds the leak setpoint value (LK).
If it is determined that the difference exceeds the leak setpoint value (LK), a leak alarm
(LEAK) occurs. Flowrate accumulation is being performed from the time the batch is completed until the next batch starts.

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Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)


For the BSETU-2 block, the leak alarm check is performed only for an increase (the difference is a positive number).

Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)


For the BSETU-3 block, the leak alarm check is performed for both an increase (the difference is a positive number) and decrease (the difference is a minus number). However,
the alarm status will be leak alarm (LEAK) whether the leak is an increase or a decrease.

To activate the leak alarm check, set whether the leak alarm check is enabled or disabled and
the leak setpoint value (LEAK).

Leak Alarm Enabled/Disabled


The leak alarm can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Leak alarm: Select from enabled and disabled
Default is disabled.

Leak Setpoint (LK)


The leak setpoint is set by the operation and monitoring function.
Leak setpoint (LK): Same unit data as SUM
Maximum 4 digits
Default is 100.

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1.20.5

Compatibility between Totalizing Batch Set Block


and CENTUM V, CENTUM-XL Totalizing Batch Set
Unit

The Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2 and BSETU-3) are provided with optional compatibilities with the Totalizing Batch Set Units of CENTUM V and CENTUM-XL. The optional compatibilities are as follows:

Start/Restart upon ACT.ON command

Accept restart command when emergently stopped

Inhibit Pre-Batch alarm when emergently stopped

Initiate Batch-End alarm when batch ended

Release Pre-Batch alarm when batch ended

Actions of manipulated output value (MV) when changing from MAN to AUT mode

These features are available only for FFCS series, KFCS2, and LFCS2.

n Start/Restart upon ACT.ON Command: FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2


When this optional compatibility is selected, the ACT.ON action command in a sequence table
can also initiate the BSETU-2 or BSETU-3 blocks Batch Start action according to the block
status, and the Batch Restart action during emergency stop status.
Upon the ACT.ON, the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 block will behave as follows:

When the batch operation is stopped (Block Status: NCNT) and the block is manual
(MAN) mode, upon the ACT.ON command, as if starting batch operation using the Command Switch to start (SW=1) while the block is in automatic (AUT) mode.

When the batch is running emergency stop (Block Status: EMST) or when the batch is
emergently stopped (Block Status: EEMS), upon the ACT.ON command, as if restarting
batch operation using the Command Switch to restart (SW=2) while the block is in automatic (AUT) mode.

When the batch is running emergency stop (Block Status: EMST) or when the batch is
emergently stopped (Block Status: EEMS), upon the ACT.ON and ZONE.0 commands,
the block will start the batch operation from the beginning instead of restart. However, in
the sequence table, the ACT.ON and ZONE.0 must be scripted in the same scan time.

When the batch is at a status other than the above described status such as batch stop
(NCNT), emergency stop (EMST) or emergency stop complete (EEMS) and the block is
at automatic (AUT) mode, upon the ACT.ON command, no action will be initiated. However, if the block is at manual (MAN) mode, upon the ACT.ON command, the block will shift
to automatic (AUT) mode.

Table 1.20.5-1 Scripts in Sequence Table When Migrating CENTUM V 7BS or CENTUM-XL BSETU
Action

7BS/BSETU

BSETU-2

Remarks

Start

LOOP=AUT, SV=0

ACT.ON (*1); ZONE.0

Emergency Stop

LOOP=CAS

SW.4 or EMSW.1

Restart

LOOP=AUT

ACT.ON (*1)

Same as starting batch


using Command Switch
to start (SW=1) while the
block is in automatic
(AUT) mode.
Same as restarting batch
using Command Switch
to restart (SW=2) while
the block is in automatic
(AUT) mode.

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Action
Reset
*1:

7BS/BSETU
LOOP=MAN

BSETU-2
SW.3

1-261
Remarks

The output (MV) may


vary upon SW.3 and
MODE.MAN.

For Start, use ACT.ON instead of LOOP=AUT and ZONE.0 instead of SV=0. For Restart, use ACT.ON instead of LOOP=AUT.
Moreover, the control step (ZONE) cannot be changed from HIS, but can be changed from sequence table.

Moreover, from HIS, ACT.ON command cannot be entered. To start a batch from HIS, the operator can change the block into automatic (AUT) mode and use the Command Switch
(SW=1). However, if the optional compatibility is not enabled, the ACT.ON command in the
sequence table cannot change the block and ZONE.

n Accept Restart Command when Emergently Stopped: FFCS Series/


KFCS2/LFCS2
Normally, when the BSETU-2 or BSETU-3 block is undergoing the ramp-down (ZONE8) triggered by emergency stop (Block Status: EMST), the restart command SW=2 will not be accepted.
However, if the optional compatibility is enabled, the restart command SW=2 and ACT.ON
from the sequence table will be accepted.

n Inhibit Pre-Batch when Emergently Stopped: FFCS Series/KFCS2/


LFCS2
Normally, when the BSETU-2 or BSETU-3 block is undergoing an emergency stop (Block Status: EMST) while the totalized flow (SUM) becomes equal to Batch Setpoint (BSET) minus
Pre-Batch Setpoint (PLST), the pre-batch alarm (BPRE) will be initiated.
If the optional compatibility is enabled, the pre-batch alarm (BPRE) will be inhibited when
emergently stopped.

n Initiate Batch-End Alarm when Batch Ended: FFCS Series/KFCS2/


LFCS2
Normally, when automatic prediction is applied while the totalized flow (SUM) becomes equal
to Batch Setpoint (BSET) minus Leakage Predictive Value (LPV) i.e., SUM = BSET - LPV, the
block shifts to batch end (Block Status: END) but the Batch-End alarm will not be initiated.
If the optional compatibility is enabled, the batch-end alarm (BEND) will be initiated when the
block shifts to batch end status. The actions are as follows:

The batch-end (BEND) alarm will be definitely imitated when the block shifts to batch end
status.

If the batch end wait time (TW) is set to 0, the control step will be shifted from ZONE7 of
batch-end (Block Status: END) to ZONE0 of batch-stop (Block Status: NCNT) immediately and the batch-end (BEND) alarm will be initiated.

However, this option is valid only when the setting of [Batch End Alarm] is set to [Yes] on the
Function Block Detail Builder.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about automatic prediction, refer to:


nAutomatic Prediction on page 1-241
For more information about checking the batch-end alarm, refer to:
nBatch End Alarm Check on page 1-257

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n Release Pre-Batch Alarm When Batch Ended: FFCS Series/KFCS2/


LFCS2
Normally, the pre-batch alarm (BPRE) is released together with the batch-end alarm (BEND)
at the time that the next batch is started. The pre-batch alarm (BPRE) cannot be released at
batch end status (Block Status: END).
If the optional compatibility is enabled, the pre-batch alarm (BPRE) will be released when the
block shifts to batch end status (Block Status: END).
However, this option is valid only when the setting of [Batch End Alarm] is set to [Yes] on the
Function Block Detail Builder.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about checking the pre-batch alarm, refer to:
nPre-Batch Alarm Check on page 1-257

n Actions of Manipulated Output Value (MV) when Changing from


MAN to AUT Mode: FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2
If the optional compatibility is enabled, the actions of manipulated output value (MV) when
changing from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT) mode are as follows:

When batch is stopped (Block Status: NCNT), if the block is changed to automatic (AUT)
mode, the manipulated output value (MV) will become 0.
However, if the optional compatibility is not enabled, the manipulated output value (MV)
will hold the current value.

When batch is running and in a status other than batch stopped (Block Status: NCNT), if
the block is changed from automatic (AUT) to manual (MAN) mode, and then changed to
automatic (AUT) mode again, the manipulated output value (MV) will ramp up to high
flowrate setpoint (MH) with the specified ramp-up rate for setup step (Block Status:
STUP). When the batch reaches Early status (Block Status: ERLY), the manipulated output value (MV) will ramp down to pre-batch flowrate setpoint (PRE) with the specified
ramp-down rate.
However, if the optional compatibility is not enabled, the manipulated output value (MV)
will change to a value according to its control step (ZONE) while the block is changed
from automatic (AUT) to manual (MAN) mode.

When the block is changed from automatic (AUT) to manual (MAN) mode, the manipulated
output value (MV) will act as follows:
Table 1.20.5-2 Actions of Manipulated Output Value (MV) when Changed from AUT to MAN Mode:
FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2
ZONE

Block Status

Optional Compatibility
Disabled (*1)

Optional Compatibility Enabled (*1)

NCNT

MV: Holds (or tracks the


connected value)

MV=0

IBCH

MV=ML

MV=ML

STUP

MV: Ramps Up

MV: Ramps Up

STDY

MV=MH

If MV < MH, MV ramps up with the rate


for STUP(*2).

ERLY

MV: Ramps Down

MV: Ramps Down

PBCH

MV=PRE

If MV > PRE, MV ramps down with the


rate for ERLY.

END

MV=0 (*3)

MV=0 (*3)

EMST

MV: Ramps Down

MV: Ramps Down

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ZONE
9
*1:
*2:
*3:

Block Status
EEMS

Optional Compatibility
Disabled (*1)
MV=0

Optional Compatibility Enabled (*1)


MV=0

MH: Manipulated variable high-limit setpoint


ML: Manipulated variable low-limit setpoint
PRE: Pre-batch flowrate set point
In manual (MAN) mode, if MV is manipulated to a value smaller than MH, the block will not shift to ZONE2 when changed to
automatic (AUT) mode. When MV ramps up to MH, the low alarm (LO) and the low-low alarm (LL) will be masked so as to
prevent them to trigger the emergency stop.
The batch end wait time (TW) also elapses in manual (MAN) mode. When the batch end wait time (TW) is elapsed after batch
end, the control step (ZONE) will shift to ZONE0.

n Enable/Disable Optional Compatibilities: FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2


CENTUM V/CENTUM-XL Compatible

The table below shows the settings for compatibilities of totalizing batch set block.
Table 1.20.5-3 Settings for Compatibilities of Totalizing Batch Set Block: FFCS Series/KFCS2/LFCS2
Totalizing Batch Set Block

Setting

Compatibilities between 7BS of CENTUM V, BSETU


of CENTUM-XL and BSETU-2 /BSETU-3

[Compatible with 7BS, BSETU].

Compatibilities between BSETU-2 of CENTUM-XL


and BSETU-2
Compatibilities between BSETU-3 of CENTUM-XL
and BSETU-3

[CENTUM-XL Compatible].

The settings can be performed on the FCS Properties sheet.

CENTUM V/CENTUM-XL Compatible


Choose from [No], [Compatible with 7BS, BSETU] and [CENTUM-XL Compatible].
The default is [No].

When [Compatible with 7BS, BSETU] is selected, the following compatibilities will be applied:

Start/Restart upon ACT.ON command

Accept restart command when emergently stopped

Initiate Batch-End alarm when batch ended

Release Pre-Batch alarm when batch ended

Actions of manipulated output value (MV) when changing from MAN to AUT mode

Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart (*1)

When [CENTUM-XL Compatible] is selected, the following compatibilities will be applied:

Accept restart command when emergently stopped

Inhibit Pre-Batch alarm when emergently stopped

Initiate Batch-End alarm when batch ended

Actions of manipulated output value (MV) when changing from MAN to AUT mode

Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart (*1)

*1:

When the option of [Compatible with 7BS, BSETU] or [CENTUM-XL Compatible] is checked, the compatibility is also applied
to the function block when the option of [Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart] is checked on the Function Block Detail builder.

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SEE
ALSO

1-264

For more information about [Ramp Up from ML Upon Start/Restart] option, refer to:

nBeginning Point of Ramp-Up When Restart on page 1-242

nStart Action when Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) and Controller Blocks (such
as PID) in Cascade Loop on page 1-243

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1.21

Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)

The Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) totalizes flowrate signals and outputs the manipulated output value in accordance with the totalized value. This block is used for batch
control, such as batch shipment control of products and batch charge control of raw materials.

n Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)


Connection

The Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) totalizes flowrate signals and outputs the manipulated output value (MV) in accordance with the totalized value.
The Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) changes the output to 0 % when the totalized
value reaches the batch setpoint.
The Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) enables batch control, such as batch shipment control of products and batch charge control of raw materials.
The figure below shows a function block diagram of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2):
ZONE

Input
processing

IN

PV

SW

EMSW

Batch
set pattern

AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT
OUT2

MAN
SUM
INT

Figure 1.21-1 Function Block Diagram of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)

The figure below shows an example of simple batch shipment control:


IN

BSETU-2

OUT

Figure 1.21-2 Example of Simple Batch Shipment Control

The figure below shows an example of batch shipment control where flow velocity is PID controlled in combination with other function blocks:

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BSETU-2

IN

1-266

OUT
SET
PID

IN

OUT

Figure 1.21-3 Example of Batch Shipment Control

The figure below shows an example of batch blend control:


J01
J02

FOUT

RATIO

IN

OUT

RATIO

IN

IN

OUT

SET
IN

BSETU-2

OUT

SET

SET

PI-BLEND OUT

IN

PI-BLEND OUT

Figure 1.21-4 Example of Batch Blend Control

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2):
Table 1.21-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Flow-Totalizing
Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)
I/O terminal

*1:
*2:

IN

Measurement input

OUT

Manipulated output

OUT2

Manipulated output
(*2)

INT

Interlock
SW output

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block
x

x
x

x
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).
The OUT2 terminal is used when connecting a 3-position ON/OFF output to switch instruments 1 and 2, for connection to
switch instrument 2.

OUT Terminal Manipulated Output

The OUT terminal outputs the manipulated output signals indicated below:

Analog output

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Output to other function blocks

Contact outputs for 2-position ON/OFF output and 3-position ON/OFF output

Data setting to the 2-position ON/OFF output switch instrument

Data setting to switch instrument 1 when the 3-position ON/OFF output is connected to
switch instruments 1 and 2.

OUT2 Terminal Manipulated Output


The OUT2 terminal outputs the data set to switch instrument 2 when the 3-position ON/OFF
output is connected to switch instruments 1 and 2.

n Function of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)


The BSETU-2 block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the BSETU-2 block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the functions common to the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks, refer to:
1.20, Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) on page 1-234
For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the BSETU-2 block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block


(BSETU-2)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Flow-Totalizing
Batch Set Block (BSETU-2).
Table 1.21-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)
Control computation processing

Description

Batch operation

Performs batch operation in accordance with the type of output (analog


output, twoposition ON/OFF output or three-position ON/OFF output).

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition becomes satisfied.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action. This
action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.
However, the emergency stop action precedes when an input open alarm
has occurred.

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Control computation processing
Block mode change interlock

SEE
ALSO

Description
Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the automatic operating mode.

For more information about the control computation processing of the BSETU-2 block, refer to:
1.20.2, Control Algorithm of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) on page 1-236

Alarm Processing Specific to Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)


The missing pulse alarm check and flowrate alarm check, which are two of the alarm
checks performed by the BSETU-2 block, are specific to this function block.
In addition, the BSETU-2 block uses a unique alarm display priority order, which is different
from that of other function blocks.

n Missing Pulse Alarm Check


Missing Pulse

The missing pulse alarm check is a function that determines whether a pulse input for a set
duration is detected during pulse input detection.
If it is determined that when a pulse input is not detected for the set duration during pulse input detection, a missing pulse alarm (NPLS) is generated. This check is performed during
each missing pulse check time (t3) after the missing pulse check mask interval (t2) has
elapsed and only when the control step is 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5.
The figure below illustrates the timing of the BSETU-2 block alarm check.

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<1.21 Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)>


MV
MH

PRE
ML
0
Block
status

NCNT

IBCH

STUP

STDY

EMST

EEMS

STUP

STDY

ZONE

LO
HI/LL
NPLS

t1

ERLY PBCH
4

END
7

t1

t1

t1
t2

t2
t3

t1
t2
t3

: Alarm check period


: Flowrate check mask interval
: Missing pulse check mask interval
: Missing pulse check time
: Missing pulse check timing

LO
: Low limit alarm
HI
: High limit alarm
LL
: Low-low limit alarm
NPLS : Missing pulse warning

Figure 1.21-5 Alarm Check Timing

To activate the missing pulse alarm, set whether the missing pulse alarm check is enabled or
disabled, the missing pulse check mask interval, and the missing pulse check time.

Missing Pulse Alarm Check Enabled/Disabled


The missing pulse alarm can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Missing pulse alarm: Select from enabled and disabled.
Default is enabled.

Missing Pulse Check Mask Interval


The missing pulse check mask interval can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Missing pulse check mask interval: 0 to 10000
Unit is the scan period.
Default is 5.

Missing Pulse Check Time


The missing pulse check time can be set with the Function Block Detail Builder.

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Missing pulse check time: 0 to 10000


Unit is the scan period.
Default is 1.

IMPORTANT
For FFCS/FFCS-L/KFCS2/KFCS, if a pulse input signal is sent from an ER bus node, missing
pulse alarm may occur due to the delay of data refresh. Thus, when setting the missing pulse
check time, the data refresh delay from ER bus node should be put into consideration.
Moreover, if the ER bus interface master modules (EB401) of FFCS/FFCS-L/KFCS2/KFCS, or
RIO bus interface modules (RB301) of LFCS2/LFCS are dual-redundantly configured, when
switching from one module to another, the data refresh of pulse input may halt for a few seconds. The missing pulse check time can be set with the following consideration:

SEE
ALSO

For RB301 (half time: 1 or 2 seconds)


Missing pulse check time should be greater than 2 divided by scan period. (i.e., Missing
pulse check time > 2 if scan period is 1 second; Missing pulse check time > 4 if scan period is 500 ms; Missing pulse check time > 10 if scan period is 200 ms)

For EB401 (half time: 2 or 3 seconds)


Missing pulse check time should be greater than 4 divided by scan period. (i.e., Missing
pulse check time > 4 if scan period is 1 second; Missing pulse check time > 8 if scan period is 500 ms; Missing pulse check time > 20 if scan period is 200 ms)

For more information about the data refresh cycle between the remote node of FFCS/FFCS-L/KFCS2/KFCS
and EB401, refer to:
Data Flow in Process I/O in 7.1.3, Timing of Process I/O in the Function Blocks Overview (IM
33K03E21-50E)

n Flowrate Alarm Check


Flow Check Mask Interval, Input Low-Low Limit Alarm, PV High/Low Limit Alarm

The flowrate checks take place upon expiration of the flowrate check masking interval (t1), as
shown in Figure below. Specify the masking interval with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Flowrate check masking interval: 0 to 10000
Unit is the scan period.
The default is 10.
The flowrate alarm check processing timing of BSETU-2 block is shown below.

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<1.21 Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)>


MV
MH

PRE
ML
0
Block
status

NCNT

IBCH

STUP

STDY

EMST

EEMS

STUP

STDY

ZONE

LO
HI/LL

t1
t1

ERLY PBCH
4

END

t1
t1

t1

: Alarm check period


: Flowrate check masking interval

LO
HI
LL

: Low-limit alarm
: High-limit alarm
: Low-low limit alarm

Figure 1.21-6 Flowrate Check Processing Timing

The flowrate alarm check in the BSETU-2 block consists of the low-low limit check and the
high-low limit check.

Low-Low Limit Alarm


A low-low limit alarm (LL) is generated if the flowrate (PV) falls below the low-low limit alarm
setpoint (LL). This check operates in control steps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

Low-Limit Alarm
A low-limit alarm (LO) is generated if the flowrate (PV) falls below the low-limit alarm setpoint
(PL). This check operates only in control step 3.

High-Limit Alarm
A high-limit alarm (HI) is generated if the flowrate (PV) exceeds the high-limit alarm setpoint
(PH). This check operates in control steps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

n Alarm Display Priority of the Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block


(BSETU-2)
The following is the order for the alarm display priority specific to the BSETU-2 block:
OOP>IOP>IOP->NPLS>LL>HI>LO>LEAK>BDV+>BDV->BEND>BPRE>CNF
When there are absolutely no alarms generated, the alarm status is NR.

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Table 1.21-3 Alarm Check for the Control Steps (ZONE) of the Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block
0

ZONE(*1)
5
6

10

11

IOP

IOP-

OOP

CNF

LL

HI

LO

BDV +

BDV-

LEAK

NPLS

BPRE

BEND

Alarm

*1:

SEE
ALSO

x:Alarm check is executed for the ZONE.


:Alarm check is executed only once when ZONE=7 changes to ZONE=0.
-:Alarm check is not executed for the ZONE.
The alarm is set to normal state (NR).
:Alarm check is not executed and the status prior to ZONE=0 is retained.

For more information about operation of the control steps for the BSETU-2 block, refer to:
nBatch Operation (Analog Output) on page 1-236

n Data Items - BSETU-2


Table 1.21-4 Data Items of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

BSTS

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Block status

-----

NCNT

ALRM

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Flowrate process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

SUM

Totalizer value

SUM engineering unit value 0

SUM1

Cumulative totalized value

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

SW

Command switch

0, 1, 2, 3, 4

MV

Manipulated output value

(*4)

MV engineering unit value

MSL

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

(*3)

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

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Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

DL

Cumulative deviation alarm


setpoint

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

1000

*1:

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN

*2:
*3:
*4:

Table 1.21-5 Data Items of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2) (2/2)
Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

High flowrate setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Low flowrate setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

PRE

Pre-batch flowrate setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

LPV

Leakage predictive value

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

ILST

Initial forecast value

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

PLST

Pre-batch setpoint

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

BSET

Batch setpoint

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

LK

Leak setpoint

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

100

TU

Up time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

TD

Down time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

TW

Batch end wait time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

ZONE

Control step

0 to 11

EMSW

Emergency stop switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

MH

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SUM: Totalizer value
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the BSETU-2 block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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n Block Status of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)


Table 1.21-6 Block Status of Flow-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-2)
Block Status

Level

Symbol

Name

STRT

Batch Start

IBCH

Batch Initialization

STUP

Batch Setup

STDY

Ready

ERLY

Early

PBCH

Pre-Batch

END

Batch End

NCNT

Batch Stopped

RSET

Reset

EMST

Emergency Shutdown

EEMS

Emergency Shutdown Completed

RSTR

Restart

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<1.22 Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)>

1.22

Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block


(BSETU-3)

The Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3) calculates a totalized value of changes in
weight signals sent from a scale, and outputs the manipulated output value in accordance
with the totalized value. This block is used for batch control, such as batch shipment control of
products and batch charge control of raw materials.

n Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)


Connection

The Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3) calculates a totalized value of changes in
weight signals sent from the scale, and outputs the specified manipulated output value in accordance with the totalized value.
The Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3) changes the output to 0 % when the totalized value reaches the batch setpoint.
The Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3) enables batch control, such as batch shipment control of products and batch charge control of raw materials.
The figure below shows a function block diagram of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3):
ZONE

SW

EMSW

IN
IN2

Input
processing

IN3

PV

AUT

Batch
set pattern

Output
processing

MV

OUT2

MAN

IN4
SUM0

OUT

SUM
INT

Figure 1.22-1 Function Block Diagram of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3):
Table 1.22-1 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

Analog input

IN2

Digital input

IN3

Sign bit input

IN4

Ready bit
input

OUT

Manipulated output

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Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

I/O terminal

OUT2
INT
*1:
*2:

Manipulated output
(*2)
Interlock
SW input

x
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).
The OUT2 terminal is used when connecting a 3-position ON/OFF output to switch instruments 1 and 2, for connection to
switch instrument 2.

IN Terminal Analog Input


If the weight signal from a scale is a analog signal, connect the weight signal to the IN terminal via an analog process I/O module of process I/O. When reading weight data from other
function blocks, also connect the weight signal to the IN terminal.

IN2 Terminal Digital Input


If the weight signal from the scale is a digital datum that satisfy the following conditions, connect it to the IN2 terminal via a contact module of process I/O.
Also use the IN2 terminal when inputting digital data of weight signals that satisfy the above
condition, from a software I/O.
Number of bits: 32 bits or less
Code:

Binary or BCD

IN3 Terminal Sign Bit Input


Connect the sign bit of weight signal digital data to the IN3 terminal.
The sign bit indicates the sign of data. The length of this bit is 1 bit. 0 and 1 indicate positive and negative, respectively.

IN4 Terminal Ready Bit Input


The ready bit transmits the timing of when the weight signals sent as digital data can be read.
The length of this bit is 1 bit.
Connect the ready bit to the IN4 terminal.
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the control action direction of the ready bit.
Ready-bit Action Direction: Select Direct or Reverse.
The default is Direct.
The table below shows actions of the IN4 terminal ready bit input:
Table 1.22-2 IN4 Terminal Ready Bit Input
Action specification
Direct action
Reverse action

Ready bit

Status

Preparing data

Read ready

Read ready

Preparing data

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OUT Terminal Manipulated Output

The OUT terminal outputs the following manipulated output signals:

Analog output

Output to other function blocks

Contact output of a 2-position or 3-position ON/OFF output

Data setting of a 2-position ON/OFF output to the switch instrument

Data setting to switch instrument 1, when a 3-position ON/OFF output is connected to


switch instruments 1 and 2.

OUT2 Terminal Manipulated Output


The OUT2 terminal transmits data setting output to switch instrument 2, when a 3-position
ON/OFF output is connected to switch instruments 1 and 2.

n Function of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)


The BSETU-3 block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the BSETU-3 block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the functions common to the BSETU-2 and BSETU-3 blocks, refer to:
1.20, Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) on page 1-234
For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the BSETU-3 block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Input Processing Specific to Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)


The BSETU-3 block performs special input signal conversions.

Control Computation Processing of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block


(BSETU-3)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Weight-Totalizing
Batch Set Block (BSETU-3).

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Table 1.22-3 Control Computation Processing of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)
Control computation processing

SEE
ALSO

Description

Batch operation

Performs batch operation in accordance with the type of output (analog


output, twoposition ON/OFF output or three-position ON/OFF output).

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the control action. This action takes place when the initialization manual condition becomes satisfied.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control action. This
action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.
However, the emergency stop action precedes when an input open alarm
has occurred.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from changing to the automatic operating mode.

For more information about the control computation processing of the weight-totalizing batch set block (BSETU-3), refer to:
1.20.2, Control Algorithm of Totalizing Batch Set Blocks (BSETU-2, BSETU-3) on page 1-236

Alarm Processing Specific to Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)


The flowrate alarm check, which is one of the alarm checks performed by the BSETU-3
block, is specific to this function block.
In addition, the BSETU-3 block uses a unique alarm display priority order, which is different
from that of other function blocks.

n Data Items - BSETU-3


Table 1.22-4 Data Items of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3) (1/2)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

BSTS

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S (MAN)

Block status

-----

NCNT

ALRM

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specificaton

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Flowrate process variable

PV engineering unit value

SL

RAW

Raw input data

Value in the unit at the con----nection destination

SUM

Totalizer value

SUM engineering unit value 0

SUM0

Absolute totalized value

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

SUM1

Cumulative totalized value

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

SW

Command switch

0, 1, 2, 3, 4

MV

Manipulated output value

MV engineering unit value

MSL

(*3)

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Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

DL

Cumulative deviation alarm


setpoint

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

1000

*1:

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN

*2:
*3:

Table 1.22-5 Data Items of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3) (2/2)
Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

High flowrate setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Low flowrate setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

PRE

Pre-batch flowrate setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

LPV

Leakage predictive value

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

ILST

Initial forecast value

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

PLST

Pre-batch setpoint

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

BSET

Batch setpoint

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

LK

Leak setpoint

Value in the same engineering unit as SUM

100

TU

Up time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

TD

Down time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

TW

Batch end wait time

0 to 10,000 seconds

0 second

ZONE

Control step

0 to 11

EMSW

Emergency stop switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*2:

ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

MH

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SUM: Totalizer value
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit

For more information about valid block modes of the BSETU-3 block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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n Block Status of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)


Table 1.22-6 Block Status of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)
Block Status

Level

Symbol

Name

STRT

Batch Start

IBCH

Batch Initialization

STUP

Batch Setup

STDY

Ready

ERLY

Early

PBCH

Pre-Batch

END

Batch End

NCNT

Batch Stopped

RSET

Reset

EMST

Emergency Shutdown

EEMS

Emergency Shutdown Completed

RSTR

Restart

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1.22.1

Input Signal Conversion of Weight-Totalizing Batch


Set Block (BSETU-3)

Input Signal Conversion

The input signal conversion specific to the Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3) includes three types of methods: Weight Measurement Conversion, SUM Conversion and
SUM Conversion.

n Input Signal Conversion of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block


(BSETU-3)
Shown below is the block chart for the input signal conversion of the Weight-Totalizing Batch
Set Block (BSETU-3).
IN
CAL
IN2
IN3
IN4

Weight
measurement
conversion

CAL
SUM0

SUM0=
volume unit
conversion factor

SUM conversion
Measurement in the
incremental direction
SUM =
SUM0 - (zero point)

SUM
conversion

SUM

x input data

Measurement in the
decremental direction
SUM =
(zero point) - SUM0

SUM0: absolute integrator value

SUM: integrator value

SUM
calculation

Digital
filter

PV

SUM1
SUM1: cumulative integrator value

Figure 1.22.1-1 Block Chart for Input Signal Conversion of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block (BSETU-3)

As shown in above figure, the combination of input signal conversion includes the following
three types:

Weight Measurement Conversion

SUM Conversion

SUM Conversion

n Weight-Totalizing Conversion
Weight-Totalizing Conversion refers to the processing in which the weight input data read
from a weighing machine are converted into the data in the same unit as the integrator value
(SUM) to obtain the absolute integrator value (SUM0).
The following is the computational expression for the absolute integrator value (SUM0):
SUM0 = quantity unit scale factor input data

Quantity Unit Scale Factor


The quantity unit scale factor is the factor used to convert the input data into the data in the
same unit as integrator value (SUM). For example, if the unit of input data is g and that of
integrator value (SUM) is kg, the quantity unit scale factor is 0.001.
The setup for quantity unit scale factor can be executed with the Function Block Detail Builder.
Quantity unit scale factor: Within the range between 0.001 to 100000
The default setting is 1.
In the weight measurement conversion, the input data differs by the type of weight signal.

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If the weight signal is an analog signal, the input data is the 0 to 100 % data read from the
connection destination.

If the weight signal is data read from the communication input, the input data is the data
after communication input conversion.

If the weight signal is a digital signal, the input data can be obtained as follows:
When the ready bit is Ready to Read, the digital data and its sign bit are read for each
scan period and converted into the same format (double-precision floating-point) as the
absolute integrator value (SUM0) to obtain the input data.
If the ready bit is Not Ready to Read, the data setting for absolute integrator value
(SUM0) is bypassed while the previous value is latched.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about communication input conversion of the weight-totalizing signals, refer to:
Communication Input Conversion in 3.1.1, Input Signal Conversions Common to Regulatory Control
Blocks and Calculation Blocks in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Code Conversion

Code conversion is a function that converts the weight signal digital data read from IN terminal 2 to binary code data. The weight signal digital data that can be read by the BSETU-3
block includes binary codes and binary coded decimal (BCD) codes. Specify No when the
weight signal is a binary code and BCD in the case of BCD code using the Function Block
Detail Builder, together with the number of code contacts.

Number of Code Contacts


Set by the unit of one bit within the range between 1 to 32 bits.
The default setting is 16 bits.

Code Conversion
Set BCD if the input signal is a binary-coded decimal code (BCD) or No if it is a binary.
The default setting is No conversion.

Weight-Totalizing Conversion Bypass

Under the following circumstances, the weight-totalizing conversion is bypassed.

The input signal is digital type and the ready bit is in the status of Not Ready to Read.

The data status of the absolute integrator value (SUM0) is not good (BAD or IOP).

When the weight-totalizing conversion is bypassed, the absolute integrator value (SUM0) is
not to be updated, the previous good value is kept.

n SUM Conversion
Input Change Protrusion Bypass

SUM conversion refers to the processing in which the integrator value (SUM) is obtained by
totalizing the increment or decrement of the absolute integrator value (SUM0) from the batch
start.
The following is the totalization formula for measurement in the incremental or decremental
direction:

Measurement in the incremental direction: SUM=SUM0-zero point

Measurement in the decremental direction: SUM=zero point-SUM0

The zero point refers to the absolute integrator value (SUM0) when the control step is 10 (initialization processing at batch start).

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If the input change exceeds the input velocity limit setting value, it is considered as an abnormal input signal so that the integrator value data setting is not executed and the previous value is held. The data status, however, is not invalid in this case. The input velocity alarm bypass setting is a value indicated by the process variable change in one scan period. The basic scan period is 1 scan per 1 second.
The weight measurement direction specification, input velocity alarm bypass specification,
and the setting value for input velocity limit can be defined on the Function Block Detail Builder.

Weighing Direction
Select Increase or Decrease.
The default setting is Increase.

Input Velocity Alarm Bypass


Select Yes or No.
The default setting is No.

Setting value
Set the value between 0 and 1000 in the same unit as SUM.
The default setting is 1000.

The cumulative integrator value (SUM1) is the accumulation of integrator values at the end of
batch. The cumulative integrator value (SUM1) is obtained at the end of each batch as follows:
SUM1=SUM1 (cumulative integrator value kept at the end of the previous batch) +SUM
Under the following circumstances, the SUM conversion is bypassed.

The input signal is digital type and the ready bit is in the status of Not Ready to Read.

The data status of the absolute integrator value (SUM0) is not good (BAD or IOP).

When the SUM conversion is bypassed, the integrator value (SUM) is not to be updated, the
previous good value is kept.

n SUM Conversion
Flow Time Unit

SUM conversion refers to the function in which the integrator value variation in the specified
time unit is passed to the digital filter. The value variation after digital filter processing is the
flow rate (PV). The following is the computational expression for the SUM.
SUM = (process variable change of SUM in one scan period)

(PV time unit)


(scan period)

The PV time unit and scan period in the above formula are in the unit of second.
The flow measurement time unit can be defined on the Function Block Detail Builder.
Flow Time Unit: Select Second, Minute, Hour or Day.
The default setting is Second.
e.g. Select Hour for ton/h and Minute for kg/min.
Under the following circumstances, the input signal processing is bypassed.

The input signal is digital type and the ready bit is in the status of Not Ready to Read.

The data status of the absolute integrator value (SUM0) is not good (BAD or IOP).

In these cases, the flow rate value (PV) is not to be updated, the previous good value is kept.

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1.22.2

Alarm Processing of Weight-Totalizing Batch Set


Block (BSETU-3)

This section describes the flowrate alarm check, which is one of the alarm checks performed
by the BSETU-3 block and is specific to this function block.
In addition, the BSETU-3 block uses a unique alarm display priority order, which is different
from that of other function blocks.

n Flowrate Alarm Check


Flow Check Mask Interval, Flow Check Time Interval, Input Low-Low Limit Alarm, PV High/Low Limit
Alarm

Low-low limit and high and low-limit checks are made upon expiration of a specified period of
time, as shown in Figure below. The specified period of time is called the flowrate check
masking interval. The checks are made by comparing the SUM change (SUM) for the flowrate check time interval with an alarm setpoint.
Specify the flowrate check masking interval and the flowrate check time interval with the
Function Block Detail Builder.

Flowrate check masking interval


0 to 10000
Unit is the scan period.
10 is assumed by default.

Flowrate check time interval


0 to 10000
Unit is the scan period.
1 is assumed by default.

The flowrate alarm check processing timing of BSETU-3 block is shown below.

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MV
MH

PRE
ML
0
Block
status

NCNT

IBCH

STUP

STDY

EMST

EEMS

STUP

STDY

ZONE

LO
HI/LL

t1

ERLY PBCH
4

END
7

t1

t1

t1
t2

t1
t2

: Alarm check period


: Flowrate check masking interval
: Flowrate check time interval
: Check timing

LO
HI
LL

: Low-limit alarm
: High-limit alarm
: Low-low limit alarm

Figure 1.22.2-1 Flowrate Check Processing Timing

The flowrate alarm check in the BSETU-3 block consists of the low-low limit check and the
high-low limit check.

Low-Low Limit Check


A low-low limit check (LL) is generated if the value of SUM in the flow check masking interval converted to a flow measurement falls below the low-low limit alarm setpoint (LL). This
check is operable in control steps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
SUM x (PV time unit)
(Flowrate check time interval) x (Scan period)

< LL LL alarm

Low-Limit Check
A low-limit alarm (LO) is generated if the value of SUM in the flow check masking interval
converted to a flow measurement falls below the low-limit alarm setpoint (PL). This check is
operable only in control step 3.
SUM x (PV time unit)
(Flowrate check time interval) x (Scan period)

< PL LO alarm

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High-Limit Check
A high-limit alarm (HI) is generated if the value of SUM in the flow check masking interval
converted to a flow measurement exceeds the high-limit alarm setpoint (PH). This check is
operable in control steps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
SUM x (PV time unit)
(Flowrate check time interval) x (Scan period)

> PH HI alarm

n Alarm Display Priority Specific to Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block


(BSETU-3)
The following is the order for the alarm display priority specific to the BSETU-3 block:
OOP>IOP>IOP-> LL>HI>LO>LEAK>BDV+>BDV->BEND>BPRE>CNF
When there are absolutely no alarms generated, the alarm status is NR.
Table 1.22.2-1 Alarm Check for the Control Steps (ZONE) of the Weight-Totalizing Batch Set Block
0

ZONE(*1)
5
6

10

11

IOP

IOP-

OOP

CNF

LL

HI

LO

BDV +

BDV-

LEAK

BPRE

BEND

Alarm

*1:

SEE
ALSO

x :Alarm check is executed for the ZONE.


:Alarm check is executed only once when ZONE=7 changes to ZONE=0.
-:Alarm check is not executed for the ZONE.
The alarm is set to normal state (NR).
:Alarm check is not executed and the status prior to ZONE=0 is retained.

For more information about the operation of each control step in the BSETU-3 block, refer to:
nBatch Operation (Analog Output) on page 1-236

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<1.23 Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)>

1.23

Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)

The Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM) outputs a change per unit time by limiting it within the velocity limits. The Velocity Limiter Block may be applied to the control process that the abrupt
change need to be avoided.

n Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)


Connection

The Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM) performs control computation processing to the setpoint
signals from other function blocks or setpoint values set by the operator, and outputs a
change per unit time by limiting it within the velocity limits. The velocity limiting processing is
executed in the cascade (CAS) or automatic (AUT) mode.
The Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM) reads the abruptly changing manipulated output value
(MV) of other function blocks as a cascade setpoint signal, and outputs its change per scan
period as a manipulated output value (MV) by limiting it within the velocity limits. In the automatic (AUT) mode, the block outputs a change per scan period in the setpoint value (SV) received from outside, such as operation and monitoring functions, as a manipulated output value (MV) by limiting it within the velocity limits. Separate velocity limits may be set for upward
and downward directions.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM):
SET

CSV
RSV

BPSW

INT
CAS
AUT
MAN

SV

RCAS

MAN

Velocity limiting
computation

AUT/CAS

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT
RMV

(MV, MV)
SUB

Figure 1.23-1 Function Block Diagram of Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM):
Table 1.23-1 Connection Methods and Connected Destinations of I/O Terminals of Velocity Limiter
Block (VELLIM):
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

SET

Setting input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

INT

Interlock
SW input

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*1:

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)


The VELLIM block performs control computation processing, output processing, and alarm
processing.
The only processing timing available for the VELLIM block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of output processing and alarm processing possible for the VELLIM
block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)


The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Velocity Limiter
Block (VELLIM):
Table 1.23-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)
Control computation processing

Description

Velocity limiting computation

Performs velocity limiting to the setpoint value (SV) and obtains a manipulated output value (MV).

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each


control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The
control output actions available with this function block are of
positional type only.

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits (SVH, SVL).

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to


agree with the remaining one.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it


to change abruptly when the block mode has been changed or
when the manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in
a downstream block in cascade.

Bumpless switching

Output pushback

Performs range conversion to the manipulated output value


(MV) based on the setpoint value range, and obtains a new
setpoint value. This prevents the manipulated output value
from changing abruptly.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the


control action. This action takes place when the initialization
manual condition becomes satisfied.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control


action. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

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Control computation processing

Description

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is


operating in the CAS or PRD mode, so that the control action
is continued using values set by the operator. This action
takes place when the AUT fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Computer failure

Temporarily suspends the control action and switches to the


computer backup mode when an error has been detected at a
supervisory computer while the function block is operating in
the RCAS or ROUT mode. This action takes place when the
computer failure condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating


automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from
changing to the automatic operating mode.

Alarm Processing Specific to Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)

The deviation alarm check, which is one of the alarm checks performed by the VELLIM
block, is specific to this function block.

n Velocity Limiting Computation


This function executes velocity limiting computation to the setpoint value when the block
mode is automatic (AUT), cascade (CAS) or remote cascade (RCAS), and uses the computed
result as a manipulated output value (MV).
The velocity limiting computation action varies depending upon whether the rate of SV
change is below or on/over the velocity limits.
The figure below shows an action example of velocity limiting computation:
SV

SV

MV

Converted upward velocity limit value (Dmp)

Converted downward velocity limit value (Dmm)

MV

Scan period

Scan period

Time

Figure 1.23-2 Action Example of Velocity Limiting Computation

Setpoint Value (SV) Range

SV Range

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the setpoint value (SV) range:

SV Range High Limit Value


Specify a numeric value of 7 digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 100.0.

SV Range Low Limit Value


Specify a numeric value of 7 digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 0.0.

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When the Rate of Setpoint Value Change Is BELOW the Velocity Limits

If the rate of SV change is below the velocity limits, the SV value receives velocity limiting processing and is converted to an MV-range value to be used as an MV.
The computational expression of this velocity limiting computation is shown below:
MVc=

MSH-MSL
SSH-SSL

(SV-SSL)+MSL

MVn = MVc
MVc : Manipulated output computed value
MVn : Manipulated output current value
SSH : SV scale high limit
SSL : SV scale low limit
MSH : MV scale high limit
MSL : MV scale low limit

When the Rate of Setpoint Value Change Is ON or OVER the Velocity Limits

If the rate of SV change is on or over the velocity limits, the SV value receives velocity limiting
processing and is converted to an MV-range value to be used as a manipulated output value.
The computational expressions of this velocity limiting computation are shown below:
MVn = MVn-1 + Dmp (When MVDmp)
MVn = MVn-1 - Dmm (When MV-Dmm)
MV = MVc - MVn-1

Dmp
A per-scan rate-of-change value in the MV range, converted from the upward velocity limit value (DMVP).

Dmm
A per-scan rate-of-change value in the MV range, converted from the downward velocity
limit value (DMVM).

Set Parameters of Velocity Limiting Computation

The parameters of velocity limiting computation:


When 1 is set for the velocity limiting bypass switch (BPSW), the velocity limiting bypass function is enabled. If 0 is set for the BPSW, the velocity limiting bypass function is disabled.

Upward velocity limit value (DMVP)


Set engineering unit data between 0 and the SV scale span range limit.
The default is the SV scale span.

Downward velocity limit value (DMVM)


Set engineering unit data between 0 and the SV scale span range limit.
The default is the SV scale span.

Velocity limiting time unit (TU)


Select 0 (1 second) or 1 (1 minute).

Bypass switch (BPSW)


Select 0 (limited) or 1 (not limited).
The default is 0.
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n Control Output Action


The control output action converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each control
period to an actual manipulated output value (MV).
The control output action of Velocity limiter block is positional type. The result of velocity limiting computation is output as the current manipulated output value (MV).

n Setpoint Value Limiter


The setpoint value limiter function limits the setpoint value (SV) within the range between the
setpoint high limit (SVH) and setpoint low limit (SVL), and recognizes setpoint values (SV)
within this range as a valid one.

SEE
ALSO

For more information about the setpoint value limiter, refer to:
nSetpoint Value Limiter on page 1-39

n Setpoint Value Pushback


The setpoint value pushback function sets the same value for the three types of setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV). The figure below explains the relationship among the setpoint value
(SV), cascade setpoint value (CSV) and remote setpoint value (RSV):
Set from the supervisory computer

Input from the SET terminal

RSV

CSV

AUT/MAN
RCAS

CAS

SV
Setpoint value
Control
computation

Figure 1.23-3 Relationship Among Setpoint Values (SV, CSV and RSV)

The action of the setpoint value pushback varies in accordance with the block mode of the
function block.

Action in the Automatic (AUT) or Manual (MAN) Mode


Causes the cascade setpoint value (CSV) and remote setpoint value (RSV) to agree with the
setpoint value (SV). Even when a data value is set to the setpoint value (SV) from outside the
function block, the same value is automatically set to the cascade setpoint value (CSV) and
remote setpoint value (RSV).

Action in the Cascade (CAS) Mode


Causes the setpoint value (SV) and remote setpoint value (RSV) to agree with the cascade
setpoint value (CSV).

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Action in the Remote Cascade (RCAS) Mode


Causes the setpoint value (SV) and cascade setpoint value (CSV) to agree with the remote
setpoint value (RSV).

n Bumpless Switching
Output Pushback

The bumpless switching function switches the function block mode or switches the cascade
connected downstream blocks manipulated output value (MV) without causing its own manipulated output value (MV) to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless switch).
The action during bumpless switching varies with the control output action and block mode
status.
The type of bumpless switching performed by the Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM) is output
pushback.
In the manual (MAN) or initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the output pushback function sets
as a setpoint value (SV), a SV-range value converted from the manipulated output value
(MV). Also, when the block mode is not remote output (ROUT) or off-service (O/S), the remote manipulated output value (RMV) is caused to track the manipulated output value (MV).
The figure below shows the action of output pushback:
Output pushback

CSV
RSV

BPSW

CAS
AUT
MAN

SV

RCAS

MAN
Velocity
limiting

AUT/CAS

Output
processing

MV

OUT

ROUT
RMV

Figure 1.23-4 Output Pushback

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the output pushback.
Output pushback: Select Yes or No.
The default is Yes.
Using the output pushback function enables a balanceless bumpless switching of block
modes from manual (MAN) to automatic (AUT).
The following figure shows an example of bumpless cascade closing in a control loop:

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PV

1-293

MV
PID

MAN

Output pushback

Output tracking
SV
MV
VELLIM

CAS

AUT/MAN

Output tracking
SV
PV

MV
PID

Figure 1.23-5 Output Pushback and Output Tracking When Cascade Is Open

1.

When cascade connection is open, the output tracking function causes the manipulated
output value (MV) to track data of the output destination.

2.

When cascade connection is closed, the output pushback function performs range conversion to the manipulated output value (MV) and sets the result as the setpoint value
(SV).

3.

The output value tracking function of the upstream block causes the output value of the
upstream function block to track the setpoint value (SV).

In this control loop, when cascade is closed the input value from the upstream function block
will agree with the data value at the output destination of the Velocity limiter block. Therefore,
output will not bump when cascade connection is closed.

n Initialization Manual
The initialization manual is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN). This action takes place
when the initialization manual condition is established.

Characteristics of the Initialization Manual


The initialization manual function suspends the control action and control output action temporarily during the automatic (AUT) mode or other automatic control operation mode when the
initialization manual condition is established, and changes the block mode of the function
block to initialization manual (IMAN).
Because the initialization manual action causes the manipulated output value (MV) to track
the value at the connected destination, even when the initialization manual (IMAN) mode is
changed to manual (MAN), the initialization manual (IMAN) mode will override the manual
(MAN) mode. In other words, any operation to change to the manual (MAN) mode becomes
invalid.
The block returns to the original mode as soon as the initialization manual condition vanishes.
However, if try to change block mode in the initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the block only
change to that mode when the initialization condition vanishes.

Initialization Manual Condition


The initialization manual condition is a block mode transition condition that suspends the control action and control output action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization
manual (IMAN). The initialization manual (IMAN) block mode becomes active only when the
initialization manual condition is established.

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The following example shows when the initialization manual condition establishes and vanishes:
AUT

Initialization manual condition establishes

IMAN (AUT)

Initialization manual condition vanishes

AUT
The initialization manual condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status at the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV)
is conditional (CND) (i.e., the cascade connection is open).

When the data status at the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV)
is a communication error (NCOM) or output failure (PTPF).

When the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV) is a switch block
(SW-33, SW-91) and cascade connection is switched is off (i.e., the cascade connection
is open).

When the connected destination of the manipulated output value (MV) is a process output
and a failure or output open alarm is detected in the process output.

n MAN Fallback
The MAN fallback is an error processing function that stops the control and forces the function
block to enter manual operation state. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is established.

Characteristics of the MAN Fallback

The MAN fallback stops the control by changing the block to manual (MAN) mode regardless
of the current operation status, and forces the function block to enter manual operation state.
Once the MAN fallback condition is established, the block mode remains manual (MAN) even
when the condition later vanishes.

MAN Fallback Condition

The MAN fallback condition is used to stop the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to
enter manual operation state. When the MAN fallback condition is established, it indicates
that a fatal error has occurred and requests operator interruption.
The following example shows when the MAN fallback condition is established and vanished:
AUTMAN
IMAN (CAS) IMAN (MAN)
The MAN fallback condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status of the manipulated output value (MV) is output failure (PTPF).

When the data status of the setpoint value (SV) is invalid (BAD).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O and the FCS is
having an initial cold start.

When the block mode change interlock condition is established.

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O, and one of the
I/O points connected to the I/O module has been changed via maintenance.

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n AUT Fallback
The AUT fallback is an error processing function that switches the block mode from cascade
(CAS) to automatic (AUT) when the AUT fallback condition is established, and switches the
control action to the one that uses values set by the operator.

Characteristics of the AUT Fallback


Changes the block mode from cascade (CAS) to automatic (AUT) to continue control using
values set by the operator.
Once the AUT fallback condition establishes, the block mode remains automatic (AUT) even
when the condition vanishes.

AUT Fallback Condition


The AUT fallback condition is used to change the block mode of the function block from cascade (CAS) to automatic (AUT) so that control can be continued using values set by the operator. When this condition is established, it indicates that abnormality has been detected in the
cascade setpoint value for some reason.
The following example shows when the initialization manual condition establishes and vanishes:
CASAUT
IMAN (CAS) IMAN (AUT)
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set whether or not to use the AUT fallback.
AUT Fallback: Select Yes or No.
The default is No.
The AUT fallback condition is established when the AUT fallback is set as Yes via the Function Block Detail Builder and the data status of the cascade setpoint value (CSV) has become
invalid (BAD) or communication error (NCOM).

n Computer Fail
When the computer fail is detected, the function block suspends the action in the remote cascade (RCAS) mode or remote output (ROUT) mode temporarily and switches to the computer
backup mode.

Characteristics of Computer Fail


When the function block mode is remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT), the function block receives the setpoint value (SV) or manipulated output value (MV) from a supervisory system computer via control bus communication.
When the computer fails, the block changes mode to the preset computer backup mode
(MAN, AUT or CAS) which indicates that an abnormality has been detected in the supervisory
computer. When the computer recovers, the block returns to the mode before the change.
The following actions take place while the computer fail condition exists, the block mode
change command from MAN, AUT or CAS to RCAS or ROUT is sent:
1.

When a block mode change command from MAN, AUT or PRD to RCAS or ROUT is sent
while the computer fails (BSW=ON), the function block does not switch to the computer
backup mode directly but switches to the transient state mode first.
The transient state mode is a compound block mode consisting of the block mode before
the execution of the block mode change command (MAN, AUT, CAS) and a remote mode
(RCAS, ROUT).

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2.

Then the function block tests the computer condition in the first scan after the block mode
change command and switches to the computer backup mode.
The computer backup mode is a compound block mode consisting of the backup mode
set via the Function Block Detail Builder (MAN, AUT, CAS) and a remote mode (RCAS,
ROUT).

3.

If the computer recovers while the function block is in the computer backup mode, the
block mode changes to remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT).

Computer Fail Condition

The computer fail condition is a block-mode transition condition used to suspend actions in
the remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT) mode and switches the mode to the
computer backup mode.
A backup switch (BSW) is provided in function blocks to define the remote cascade (RCAS) or
remote output (ROUT) mode. The status of this switch determines whether the computer has
failed or recovered. The value of the backup switch (BSW) can be set from a sequence table
or other function blocks.
Switching to a computer backup mode does not take effect if the backup switch (BSW) is on a
block mode other than remote cascade (RCAS) or remote output (ROUT).

When the backup switch BSW=ON, computer has failed

When the backup switch BSW=OFF, computer has recovered

The following example shows when the automatic (AUT) mode has been specified for the
computer backup mode:
RCAS

Computer fails

AUT

(RCAS)

Computer recovers

RCAS
An example when the manual (MAN) mode has been specified for the computer backup
mode is shown as follows:
AUT

ROUT command

AUT (ROUT) Transient state mode

After one scan period

MAN (ROUT) Computer backup mode (When BSW=ON)

Setting Computer Backup Mode

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define the computer backup mode for each function
block.

Computer Backup Mode


Select MAN, AUT or CAS as the mode to be switched to when the computer becomes down.
The default is MAN.

n Block Mode Change Interlock


The block mode change interlock function stops the control computation processing of function blocks that are operating automatically, while disabling the currently stopped function

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blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. This action takes place when the block
mode change interlock condition is established.

Characteristics of the Block Mode Change Interlock

Stops the control computation processing of the function blocks that are operating automatically, and disables the currently stopped function blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. The following actions will take place:

The block mode changes to manual (MAN).

Any block mode change command to obtain an automatic operation state (AUT, CAS,
RCAS or ROUT mode) becomes invalid.

Block Mode Change Interlock Condition


The Block mode change interlock condition is established when the switch at the connected
destination of the interlock switch input terminal (INT) is turned ON. This switch is manipulated in the process control sequence and the switch is turned on when the sequence judge
that the loop can not run in Auto mode, or etc.,.

n Deviation Alarm Check


Deviation Alarm

The deviation alarm check in the VELLIM block is applicable to the deviation (DV) between
the manipulated output value (MV) converted to a value in the setpoint (SV) range and the
setpoint value (SV).
When the absolute value of the deviation (DV) exceeds the absolute value of the deviation
alarm setpoint (DL), either a positive direction deviation alarm (DV+) or a negative direction
deviation alarm (DV-) is generated. When an alarm has occurred, if the deviation (DV) absolute value drops lower than the absolute value of the deviation alarm setpoint (DL) minus the
hysteresis value (HYS), the alarm is returned to normal state.
There is no deviation check filter function in the VELLIM block deviation alarm check.
The deviation (DV) that is subject to the deviation alarm check of the VELLIM block is expressed in the following format.
DV=MVs-SV
MVS =

SSHSSL
MSHMSL

(MVMSL)+SSL

MVs : Manipulated output value (MV) after conversion to the SV range


SSH : SV scale high limit
SSL : SV scale low limit
MSH : MV scale high limit
MSL : MV scale low limit
When the deviation (DV) absolute value exceeds the absolute value of the deviation alarm
setpoint (DL) and the deviation is for the positive direction, a positive direction deviation alarm
(DV+) occurs. If the deviation is for the minus direction, a negative direction deviation alarm
(DV-) occurs. When an alarm has occurred, if the deviation (DV) absolute value drops lower
than the absolute value of the deviation alarm setpoint (DL) minus the hysteresis value (HYS),
there is a recovery from the alarm.
Further, when the same value as for the SV scale span (positive value) is set in the deviation
alarm setpoint (DL), neither a positive direction nor negative direction deviation alarm occurs
regardless of the deviation alarm check.

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DV
+DL

HYS

Conditions causing an alarm


DV>+DL
DV<DL
Time

DL

Conditions causing recovery from alarm


DV+DLHYS
DVDL+HYS

HYS

DV+
DV-

Figure 1.23-6 Actions of Deviation Alarm Check in the Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)

Deviation Alarm Check Settings

The type of deviation alarm check, deviation alarm setpoint (DL), and alarm hysteresis value
can be set.
The type of deviation alarm check is defined by the deviation alarm check item in the Function Block Detail Builder. The types of deviation alarm checks are given below. The default is
detection of both directions.

Detection of both directions


Monitors the deviation of both the positive and negative directions

Detection of single direction


Monitors the deviation of either the positive or negative direction only

No alarm
No detection is performed

When single direction is selected for the deviation alarm check type, only the deviation in the
positive direction is monitored when the deviation alarm setpoint (DL) has a plus sign, and only the deviation in the negative direction is monitored when the deviation alarm setpoint has a
minus sign.
Setting of the deviation alarm check type can be performed in the sequence control block or
CALCU, CALCU-C blocks in addition to the Function Block Detail Builder.
The deviation alarm setpoint (DL) is set by the operation and monitoring function.
Deviation alarm setpoint (DL): Engineering unit data within the SV scale span range
Default is SV scale span.
When single direction is selected for the deviation alarm check type, add the sign (+ or -) for
the direction to be detected to the deviation alarm setpoint (DL) engineering unit data.
Setting for the alarm hysteresis value is done by the Function Block Detail Builder for each
regulatory control block.
Hysteresis:

Engineering unit data within the range of 0 to SV scale span, or percentage data for the SV scale span
When specifying percentage data, add % after the numeric value.
The default is 1.0 %.

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n Data Items - VELLIM


Table 1.23-3 Data Items of Velocity Limiter Block (VELLIM)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S(MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

-----

SV

Setpoint value

SV engineering unit value

-----

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

Value in the same engineering unit as SV

-----

RSV

Remote setpoint value

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as SV

-----

DV

Deviation

Value in the same engineering unit as SV

-----

MV

Manipulated output value

(*5)

MV engineering unit value

-----

RMV

Remote manipulated output


value

(*6)

Value in the same engineering unit as MV

-----

DL

Deviaton alarm setpoint

(SSH - SSL)

SSH-SSL

MH

Manipulated variable high limit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable low limit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

SVH

Setpoint high limit

SSL to SSH

SSH

SVL

Setpoint low limit

SSL to SSH

SSL

DMVP

Upward velocity limit value

0 to (SSH - SSL)

SSH-SSL

DMVM

Downward velocity limit value

0 to (SSH - SSL)

SSH-SSL

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

TU

Velocity limit timer unit

0 (second) or 1 (minute)

BPSW

Velocity limit bypass switch

0, 1

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

BSW

Backup switch

0, 1

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

*1:
*2:

*3:

Range (*2)

(*3)

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SSH: SV scale high limit
SSL: SV scale low limit
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL

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*4:
*5:
*6:

SEE

ALSO

1-300

Entry is permitted when the block mode is RCAS


Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted when the block mode is ROUT

For more information about valid block modes of the VELLIM block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.24

Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)

The Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L) compares the value of the signals from multiple inputs, then selects 1 signal (PV) as output. This block may be applied to the signal selection
loop.

n Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)


Connection, Constant Input

The Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L) compare the signals from 2-position input or 3-position
input, then selects the maximum, minimum or medium value signal (PV) as output. The selection may be operated manually.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L):
0
1
IN1

RV1

IN2

RV2

IN3

RV3

2
Automatic
signal
selection

PV

OUT

4
SW

SEL
Selected
number

Figure 1.24-1 Function Block Diagram of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)

The Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L) are classified into three types according to the automatic selection rule used:
Table 1.24-1 Types of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)
Code

Automatic selection rule

SS-H

Selects the maximum value (high selector)

SS-M

Selects the medium value

SS-L

Selects the minimum value (low selector)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L):
Table 1.24-2 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Signal Selector
Blocks (SS-H/M/L)
I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method (*1)


Connection destination (*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN1

Input signal
1

IN2

Input signal
2

IN3

Input signal
3

OUT

Manipulated output

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).
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The methods used by the Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L) to obtain input signals (RV1 to
RV3) include two connection input types and one constant input type.
The terminal connection input methods include:

Data reference to other function block via data reference connection from the input connection terminals.

Data setting from other function block via terminal connection to the input connection terminals.

The constant input method does not involve connection to the input connection terminals. Instead, the signal input value (RVn) set from operation and monitoring functions is used as a
constant.
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define whether connection input or constant input
is used for each input signal. The input signal for which connection input is specified but no
connection has been made, will not be regarded as signal selection targets of the Signal selector blocks.
Input Signal (IN1 to IN3): Select Constant Input or Connection Input.
The default is Connection Input.

n Functions of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)


The SS-H/M/L blocks perform control computation processing, output processing, and alarm
processing.
The only processing timing available for the SS-H/M/L blocks is a periodic startup. Selections available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan
period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE

ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of output processing and alarm processing possible for the SS-H/M/L
blocks, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)


The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Signal selector
blocks (SS-H/M/L):
Table 1.24-3 Control Computation Processing Functions of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)
Control computation processing

Description

Signal selection

Compares the sizes of three input signal values


(RV1, RV2, RV3) and selects the one that satisfies
the condition set by the signal selection switch.

PV pushback

Causes the non-selected input signal values to agree


with the selected signal value (PV).

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n Signal Selection
The signal selection function selects one signal from multiple input signals. The signal to be
selected varies depending upon the type of the Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L) and value
of the signal selection switch (SW).

Function of the Signal Selection Switch (SW)

The table below shows the signal selection switch positions and corresponding actions:
Table 1.24-4 Signal Selection Switch Positions and Corresponding Actions
Switch position (SW)

Action

Holds the selected signal value (PV).

Selects input signal 1

Selects input signal 2

Selects input signal 3

Selects the result of signal-size comparison (automatic selection).

When the signal selection switch (SW) is set to automatic selection (SW=4)
The values of input signals (RV1 to RV3) are compared. The SS-H, SS-L and SS-M
blocks select the maximum, minimum or medium value, respectively as a selected signal
value (PV).

When the SW is set to 1 to 3


The input signal (RV [SV]) that corresponds to each SW value is selected unconditionally.

When the SW is set to 0


Signal selection is not performed, but the previously selected signal value (PV) is held
and output.

The automatic selection rule to be used is determined by the code of the function block.
If automatic selection is performed and one of the input signals has an invalid (BAD) data status, the maximum or minimum value will be selected from the data excluding the invalid signal. If two input signals are invalid (BAD), the remaining non-invalid input signal (RVn) is selected.
The table below shows invalid input signals and corresponding actions when selecting the
medium value:
Table 1.24-5 Invalid Input Signals and Corresponding Actions When Selecting the Medium Value
Input signal with BAD data status

Action

RV1

RV2 is selected.

RV2

RV1 is selected.

RV3

RV2 is selected.

Any two signals

RVn that is not BAD is selected.

All signals BAD

The previously selected value is stored and the SW


is set to 0.

The rules of determining the data status of the selected signal value (PV) are shown below:

When SW=0
The status of the previous value is stored.

When SW=1 to 3

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The status of the selected signal value (PV) is determined based on the status of the currently selected input signal.

When SW=4
The status of the selected signal value (PV) is determined based on the status of the currently selected input signal. If all input signals have invalid (BAD) data status, the data
status of the previous value is stored.

Display of Selected Number (SEL)

Whether it is performed automatically or manually, the signal selection action displays the
number of the currently selected input signal (1, 2 or 3) as a selected number (SEL). If the
signal selection switch position is 0 and no signal is selected, SEL becomes 0.

Change in Selected Signal Value (PV)

When the signal selection switch position is 0, the selected signal value (PV) can be set from
operation and monitoring functions or other function block.

Set Parameters of Signal Selection

The parameters of signal selection:


If the signal selection switch position is set above the switch high limit setpoint (SWH) or below the switch low limit setpoint (SWL) via operation from operation and monitoring functions,
an acknowledgment dialog box appears to prompt for the operators confirmation. When confirms, the switch position can be set outside the high/low limit setpoint range.

Switch high limit setpoint (SWH)


Select 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.
The default is 4.

Switch low limit setpoint (SWL)


Select 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.
The default is 0.

n PV Pushback
The PV pushback function causes the non-selected input signal values (RV1 to RV3) to agree
with the selected signal value (PV).
The PV pushback action targets the input signal values that are obtained via terminal connection to the input terminals. The PV pushback action is not performed to the input signal values
which are received via data reference or for which constant input is specified.
The figure below shows the action of PV pushback:
0
1
IN1

RV1

IN2

RV2

IN3

RV3

2
Automatic
signal
selection

PV

OUT

4
SW

SEL
Selected
number

PV pushback

Figure 1.24-2 PV Pushback

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An abrupt change in the selected signal value (PV) upon switching of the selection switch,
may have a negative impact on the process. Preventing this abrupt change in the selected
signal value (PV) is called, bumpless switching.
Combining the PV pushback function with the output tracking function of the input connected
destination function block enables the signal selection switch position to be changed bumplessly. The following example shows a control loop where the signal selection switch position
is changed bumplessly.
Output tracking
PV

PV pushback

MV

RATIO
PV
SS-H

Figure 1.24-3 PV Pushback and Output Tracking

1.

The PV pushback function sets the selected signal value (PV) to the non-selected input
signals (RV1 to RV3).

2.

The output value tracking functions of the upstream function blocks connected to the IN1
to IN3 terminals cause the output values of the upstream function blocks to track the values of input signals (RV1 to RV3).

n Data Items - SS-H/M/L


The table below shows the Data Items of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L):
Table 1.24-6 Data Items of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range

Default (*2)

-----

O/S(AUT)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Selected signal value

PV engineering unit value

SL

SW

Signal selection switch

0, 1, 2, 3, 4

SEL

Selected number

0, 1, 2, 3

RV1

Input signal value 1

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RV2

Input signal value 2

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RV3

Input signal value 3

(*4)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

SWH

Switch high limit setpoint

0 to 4

SWL

Switch low limit setpoint

0 to 4

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

(*3)
x

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Data Item

Range

Default (*2)

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*2:
*3:
*4:
ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

SH

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SL: PV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted if Constant input is specified

For more information about valid block modes of the SS-H/M/L blocks, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.25

Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)

The Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L) compare signals from 2-position or 3-position input from
2 or 3 controller blocks and automatically select one signal as manipulated output value (MV).
Auto-selector blocks may be applied to the override control loops for signal selection.

n Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)


Connection, Constant Input

The Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L) compare the signals from 2-position input or 3-position
input, then selects the maximum, minimum or medium value signal (PV) as output. The selection may be operated manually.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of Signal Selector Blocks (SS-H/M/L):
An auto-selector control system can be configured by combining an Auto-Selector Blocks
(AS-H/M/L) and 2 to 3 controller blocks. In other words, final control elements of a single loop
can be controlled in such a way that 2 to 3 variables are monitored and maintained on the
safe side of their presetpoint values using a signal selector unit; whereas, in a normal case
the final elements are controlled based on a single variable.
The figure below shows a function block diagram of the Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L):
INT
0
1
IN1

RV1

IN2

RV2

IN3

RV3

2
Automatic
signal
selection

AUT

PV

3
4

Output
processing

MV

OUT

MAN
SW

SEL
Selected
number

Figure 1.25-1 Function Block Diagram of Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)

The Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L) are classified into three types according to the automatic selection rule used:
Table 1.25-1 Types of Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)
Code

Automatic selection rule

AS-H

Selects the maximum value (high selector)

AS-M

Selects the medium value

AS-L

Selects the minimum value (low selector)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L):
Table 1.25-2 Connection Methods and Connected destinations of the I/O Terminals of Auto-Selector
Blocks (AS-H/M/L)
I/O terminal
IN1

Input signal
1

Connection method (*1)


Connection destination (*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block
x

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I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method (*1)


Connection destination (*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN2

Input signal2

IN3

Input signal
3

OUT

Manipulated output

INT

Interlock
SW input

x
x

x
x

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or an inter-station data link block (ADL).

The methods used by the Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L) to obtain input signals 1 to 3 (RV1
to RV3) include two connection input types and one constant input type.
The connection input methods include the following:

Data reference to other function block via data reference connection from the input connection terminals

Data setting from other function block via terminal connection to the input connection terminals

The constant input method does not involve connection to the input connection terminals. Instead, the signal input value (RVn) set from operation and monitoring functions is used as a
constant.
Use the Function Block Detail Builder to define whether connection input or constant input
is used for each input signal. The input signal for which connection input is specified but no
connection has been made, will not be regarded as signal selection targets of the Auto-selector blocks.
Input Signal (IN1 to IN3): Select Constant Input or Connection Input.
The default is Connection Input.

IMPORTANT
When a controller block is terminal connected to the INx terminal of an Auto-selector blocks
(AS-H/M/L), be sure to specify positional type for the control output action of the controller
block.

n Functions of Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)


The AS-H/M/L blocks perform control computation processing, output processing, and alarm
processing.
The only processing timing available for the AS-H/M/L blocks is a periodic startup. Selections available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan
period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

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SEE
ALSO

For more information about the types of output processing and alarm processing possible for the AS-H/M/L
blocks, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processin, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)


The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Auto-Selector
blocks (AS-H/M/L):
Table 1.25-3 Control Computation Processing Functions of Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)
Control computation processing

Description

Signal selection

Compares the sizes of three input signal values (RV1, RV2,


RV3) and selects one input signal that satisfies the condition
set by the signal selection switch.

Automatic control output computation

Performs range conversion to the selected signal value (PV) to


obtain a manipulate output value (MV).

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each


control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The
control output actions available with this function block are of
positional type only.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it


to change abruptly when the block mode has been changed or
when the manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in
a downstream block in cascade.

Bumpless switching

Output pushback

Causes the input signal values (RV1, RV2, RV3) to agree with
the manipulated output value (MV) to prevent the manipulated
output value (MV) from changing abruptly.

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the


control action. This action takes place when the initialization
manual condition becomes satisfied.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control


action. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

Block mode change interlock

Stops the control action of function blocks currently operating


automatically, while disabling the stopped function blocks from
changing to the automatic operating mode.

n Signal Selection
The signal selection function selects one signal from multiple input signals. The signal to be
selected varies depending upon the type of the Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L) and value of
the signal selection switch (SW).
The Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L) do not output the selected signal value (PV) if the block
mode is manual (MAN) or initialization manual (IMAN). However, as the signal selection function remains active, the selected number (SEL) and selected signal value (PV) are updated
constantly.

Function of the Signal Selection Switch (SW)


The table below shows the signal selection switch positions and corresponding actions:
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Table 1.25-4 Signal Selection Switch Positions and Corresponding Actions
Switch position (SW)

Action

Holds the selected signal value (PV).

Selects input signal 1

Selects input signal 2

Selects input signal 3

Selects the result of signal-size comparison (automatic selection).

When the signal selection switch (SW) is set to automatic selection (SW=4)
The values of input signals (RV1 to RV3) are compared. The SS-H, SS-L and SS-M
blocks select the maximum, minimum or medium values, respectively as the selected signal value (PV).

When the SW is set to 1 to 3


The input signal (RV [SV]) that corresponds to each SW value is selected unconditionally.

When the SW is set to 0


Signal selection is not performed, but the previously selected signal value (PV) is held
and output.

The automatic selection rule to be used is determined by the code of the function block.
If automatic selection is performed and one of the input signals has an invalid (BAD) data status, the maximum or minimum value will be selected from the data excluding the invalid signal. If two input signals have invalid (BAD) data value, the remaining non-invalid input signal
(RVn) is selected.
The table below shows invalid input signals and corresponding actions when selecting the
medium value:
Table 1.25-5 Invalid Input Signals and Corresponding Actions When Selecting the Medium Value
Input signal with BAD data status

Action

RV1

RV2 is selected.

RV2

RV1 is selected.

RV3

RV2 is selected.

Any two signals

RVn that is not BAD is selected.

All signals BAD

The previously selected value is stored and the SW


is set to 0.

The rules of determining the data status of the selected signal value (PV) are shown below:

When SW=0
The previous status is stored.

When SW=1 to 3
The status of the selected signal value (PV) is determined based on the status of the currently selected input signal.

When SW=4
The status of the selected signal value (PV) is determined based on the status of the currently selected input signal. If all input signals are invalid (BAD), the data status of the
previous value is stored.

Display of Selected Number (SEL)


Whether it is performed automatically or manually, the signal selection action displays the
number of the currently selected input signal (1, 2 or 3) as a selected number (SEL). If the
signal selection switch position is 0 and no signal is selected, SEL becomes 0.
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Set Parameters of Signal Selection

The parameters of signal selection.


If the signal selection switch position is set above the switch high limit setpoint (SWH) or below the switch low limit setpoint (SWL) from operation and monitoring functions, an acknowledgment dialog box appears to prompt for the operators confirmation. When confirms, the
switch position can be set outside the high/low limit setpoint range.

Switch high limit setpoint (SWH)


Select 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.
The default is 4.

Switch low limit setpoint (SWL)


Select 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.
The default is 0.

n Automatic Control Output Computation


The automatic control output computation function determines the manipulated output value
(MV) by performing range conversion to the selected signal value (PV). This action takes
place in the automatic (AUT) mode. The computational expression of range conversion:
MV= MSH-MSL (PV-SL)+MSL
SH-SL
SH

: PV scale high limit

SL

: PV scale low limit

MSH : MV scale high limit


MSL : MV scale low limit

n Control Output Action


The control output action converts the manipulated output change (MV) of each control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV). The action that converts the manipulated output change to an actual manipulated output value (MV) is called, control/calculation output
action.
The control action applied in the Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L) are of positional type only.
The result of automatic control output computation is output as a manipulated output value
(MV).

n Bumpless Switching
The bumpless switching function switches the block mode of the function block or manipulated output value of the downstream block in cascade loop without causing the manipulated
output value (MV) to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless change).
The action during bumpless switching varies in accordance with the control output action and
block mode status.
The type of bumpless switching performed by the Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L) is output
pushback.
The output pushback function causes the input signal values (RV1 to RV3) to agree with the
manipulated output value (MV).

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INT
0
1
IN1

RV1

IN2

RV2

IN3

RV3

PV

Automatic
signal
selection

AUT

Output
processing

MV

OUT

MAN
SW

SEL
Selected
number

Figure 1.25-2 Output Pushback

In any block mode, the output pushback function of the Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L) sets
as the input signal values (RV1 to RV3), the range-converted values based on MV.
RVn=

SH-SL
MSH-MSL

(MV-MSL)+SL

Output pushback operates in coordination with the output tracking function of the output processing targets, and causes the input signal values (RV1 to RV3) to agree with the values at
the output destination blocks cascade connected downstream.
By using the output pushback function in a cascade control loop built around an Auto-Selector
Blocks (AS-H/M/L), the cascade status can be switched without causing an output bump.
Output pushback is performed only to the input signal values received from the input terminals used for cascade connection. Output pushback is not performed to the input signal values that are extracted via data reference or used as constants during constant input.
The following example shows a control loop where the signal selection switch position is
changed bumplessly.
Output tracking
PV

PV pushback

MV
PID
PV
SS-H

Figure 1.25-3 PV Pushback and Output Tracking

1.

The output tracking function causes the selected signal value (PV) to track data at the
output destination.

2.

The output pushback function sets the tracked data as input signals (RV1 to RV3).

3.

The output value tracking functions of the upstream function blocks connected to the IN1
to IN3 terminals cause the output values of the upstream function blocks to track the values of input signals (RV1 to RV3).

n Initialization Manual
The initialization manual is an error processing function that suspends the control action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization manual (IMAN). This action takes place
when the initialization manual condition is established.

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Characteristics of the Initialization Manual

The initialization manual function suspends the control action and control output action temporarily during the automatic (AUT) mode or other automatic control operation mode when the
initialization manual condition is established, and changes the block mode of the function
block to initialization manual (IMAN).
Because the initialization manual action causes the manipulated output value (MV) to track
the value at the connected destination, even when the initialization manual (IMAN) mode is
changed to manual (MAN), the initialization manual (IMAN) mode will override the manual
(MAN) mode. Therefore, no actions in the manual (MAN) mode take place.
The block returns to the original mode when the initialization manual condition vanishes. However, if try to change block mode in the initialization manual (IMAN) mode, the block only
change to that mode when the initialization condition vanishes.

Initialization Manual Condition

The initialization manual condition is a block mode transition condition that suspends the control action and control output action temporarily by changing the block mode to initialization
manual (IMAN). The initialization manual (IMAN) block mode becomes active only when the
initialization manual condition is established.
The following example shows when the initialization manual condition establishes and vanishes:
AUT

Initialization manual condition establishes

IMAN (AUT)

Initialization manual condition vanishes

AUT
The initialization manual condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status at the connected destination of manipulated output value (MV) is
conditional (CND) (i.e., the cascade connection is open).

When the data status at the connected destination of manipulated output value (MV) is a
communication error (NCOM) or output failure (PTPF) (i.e., the cascade connection is
open).

When the connected destination of manipulated output value (MV) is a switch block
(SW-33, SW-91) and the cascade connection is switched off.

When the connected destination of manipulated output value (MV) is a process output
and a failure or output open alarm is detected in the process output.

n MAN Fallback
The MAN fallback is an error processing function that stops the control and forces the function
block to enter manual operation state. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition is established.

Characteristics of the MAN Fallback


The MAN fallback stops the control by changing the block to manual (MAN) mode regardless
of the current operation status, and forces the function block to enter manual operation state.
Once the MAN fallback condition is established, the block mode remains manual (MAN) even
when the condition later vanishes.

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MAN Fallback Condition

The MAN fallback condition is used to stop the control by changing the function block to manual (MAN) mode regardless of the current operation status, and forces the function block to
enter manual operation state. When the MAN fallback condition is established, it indicates
that a fatal error has occurred and requests operator interruption.
The following example shows when the MAN fallback condition is established:
AUTMAN
IMAN (CAS) IMAN (MAN)
The MAN fallback condition is established in the following situation:

When the data status of the process variable (PV) is invalid (BAD) or calibration (CAL).

When the data status of the manipulated output value (MV) is output failure (PTPF).

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O and the FCS is
having an initial cold start.

When the block mode change interlock condition is established.

When the manipulated output value (MV) is connected to a process I/O, and one of the
I/O points connected to the I/O module has been changed via maintenance.

n Block Mode Change Interlock


The block mode change interlock function stops the control computation processing of function blocks that are operating automatically, while disabling the currently stopped function
blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. This action takes place when the block
mode change interlock condition is established.

Characteristics of the Block Mode Change Interlock

Stops the control computation processing of the function blocks that are operating automatically, and disables the currently stopped function blocks from changing to an automatic operation state. The following actions will take place:

The block mode changes to manual (MAN).

Any block mode change command to obtain an automatic operation state (AUT mode)
becomes invalid.

Block Mode Change Interlock Condition


The Block mode change interlock condition is established when the switch at the connected
destination of the interlock switch input terminal (INT) is turned ON. This switch is manipulated in the process control sequence and the switch is turned on when the sequence judge
that the loop can not run in Auto mode, or etc.,.

n Data Items - AS-H/M/L


Table 1.25-6 Data Items of Auto-Selector Blocks (AS-H/M/L)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S(MAN)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

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Data Item
AOFS

Alarm masking specification

PV

Selected signal value

SW

Signal selection switch

MV

Manipulated output value

SEL

Selected number

RV1

Input signal value 1

RV2

Range (*2)

Default (*2)
0

PV engineering unit value

SL

0, 1, 2, 3, 4

MV engineering unit value

MSL

0, 1, 2, 3

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

Input signal value 2

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

RV3

Input signal value 3

(*5)

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SWH

Switch high limit setpoint

0 to 4

SWL

Switch low limit setpoint

0 to 4

MH

Manipulated variable high limit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSH

ML

Manipulated variable low limit setpoint

MSL to MSH

MSL

PMV

Preset manipulated output


value

MSL to MSH

MSL

PSW

Preset MV switch

0, 1, 2, 3

OPHI

Output high-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSH

OPLO

Output low-limit index

MSL to MSH

MSL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*2:
*3:
*4:
*5:
ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
-----

*1:

SEE

Data Name

(*3)
x
(*4)

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
MSH: MV scale high limit
MSL: MV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL
Entry is permitted when the block mode is MAN
Entry is permitted if Constant input is specified

For more information about valid block modes of the AS-H/M/L blocks, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1.26

Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block


(SS-DUAL)

Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL) may be applied in a redundant configuration to automatically select one of the two input signals from the same process signal source
but received separately via two signal paths.

n Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL)


Connection

The Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL) automatically selects one of the two
input signals. The selected signal is output as process variable (PV).
With the Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL), the redundant configuration become possible. Similar to the dual-redundant transmitter configuration, the dual-redundant analog I/O modules are provided in the process input and output configuration.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block
(SS-DUAL):
Deviation
check

RV1

IN1

RV2

IN2

Automatic
signal
selection

Input
processing

3
SW

PV

OUT

SEL
Selected
number

Figure 1.26-1 Function Block Diagram of Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL):
Table 1.26-1 Connection Methods and Connected Destinations of I/O Terminals of Dual-Redundant
Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL):
I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN1

Input signal
1

IN2

Input signal
2

OUT

Manipulated output

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or inter-station data link block (ADL).

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n Function of Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL)


The SS-DUAL block performs input processing, control computation processing, output processing, and alarm processing.
The only processing timing available for the SS-DUAL block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE

ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of input processing, output processing, and alarm processing possible
for the SS-DUAL block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the input processing, refer to:
3, Input Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block


(SS-DUAL)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Dual-Redundant
Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL):
Table 1.26-2 Control Computation Processings of Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL)
Control computation processing

Description

Signal selection

Tests the data status of two input signal values (RV1, RV2) and selects
the one that satisfies the condition set by the signal selection switch.

Selected signal error

Changes the data status of the selected signal (PV) to BAD when two input signals have an invalid (BAD) data status or when a deviation alarm
is present.

Alarm Processing Specific to Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SSDUAL)


The SS-DUAL block performs a special operation triggered by the presence of a deviation
alarm in its alarm processing.

n Signal Selection
The signal selection function selects one of multiple input signals.

Signal Selection Switch (SW)


The table below shows the signal selection switch positions and corresponding actions:
Table 1.26-3 Signal Selection Switch Positions and Corresponding Actions
Switch position (SW)
1

Action
Selects input signal 1.

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Switch position (SW)

Action

Selects input signal 2.

Selects input signal 1 or 2, whichever is in normal


state.

If the signal selection switch is set to 3 (automatic selection), the data statuses of input signals RV1 and RV2 are tested, and the signal whose data status is other than invalid (BAD) is
selected as the selected signal value (PV). If both input signals are normal or abnormal, the
previously selected input signal remains selected. If the signal selection switch is set to 1 or
2, the specified input signal is selected unconditionally.

Selected Number (SEL)


The currently selected input signal number (1 or 2) is stored as the selected number (SEL)
and displayed.

Non-Selected Signal Value (SV)


The input signal value of the signal not selected is stored as the non-selected signal value
(SV) and displayed.

n Selected Signal Error


The selected signal error function changes the data status to invalid (BAD) when the selected
signal error conditions are satisfied.
Table 1.26-4 Selected Signal Error Conditions
Switch position (SW)

Error condition

Input signal 1 is BAD.

Input signal 2 is BAD.

Both input signals 1 and 2 are BAD, or a deviation


alarm is present.

In a control loop where the selected signal value (PV) that received this selected signal error
processing is input as a process variable, the block mode changes to manual (MAN).

n Operations during Deviation Alarm


Deviation Alarm, SS-DUAL PV Update during Deviation Alarm

If the signal selection switch is set to 3, when the difference between the selected signal value
(PV) and non-selected signal value (SV) exceeds the deviation alarm settings value (DL), a
deviation alarm will be generated and the PV data status will become invalid (BAD). While the
deviation alarm is being generated, the PV data value immediately prior to the alarm generation is maintained. However, if SS-DUAL PV Update during Deviation Alarm is selected on
the property sheet of the FCS, the data value will be updated to the selected input value even
if the PV data status is BAD due to a deviation alarm.
The table below shows the difference in operations between when SS-DUAL PV Update during Deviation Alarm is selected and when Maintain PV value is selected.
Table 1.26-5 Operations during Deviation Alarm Generation when SW=3
Item

Maintain PV Value (Default)

Update PV Value

PV data status

BAD (Data value invalid)

BAD (Data value invalid)

PV data value

Maintains value immediately prior


to deviation alarm generation

Updates value

Digital filter

No operation

Operates
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Item

Maintain PV Value (Default)

Update PV Value

Totalizer

No operation

No operation

High-limit, low-limit alarm


High-high limit, low-low limit alarm

Performs check

Performs check

Velocity alarm

Does not perform check

Does not perform check

Output from OUT terminal

Maintained value is output

Updated value is output

Operation of connected function


block

Performs MAN fallback since the


PV data status is BAD. The destination data value is not updated.

Performs MAN fallback since the


PV data status is BAD. The destination data value is not updated.

n Specifying Operation during Deviation Alarm


The operation during deviation alarm generation is specified for each FCS station using the
FCS Properties. The operation cannot be specified for individual SS-DUAL blocks. The specification can only be changed off-line.

Update PV Value during SS-DUAL Deviation Alarm Generation:


Select this specification by placing a check in the check box. By default, the PV value immediately prior to the generation of a deviation alarm is maintained during the alarm generation (the check box is left blank)

n Data Items - SS-DUAL


Table 1.26-6 Data Items of Dual-Redundant Signal Selector Block (SS-DUAL)
Data Item

Data Name

MODE

Block mode

ALRM

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)
x

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

-----

O/S(AUT)

Alarm status

-----

NR

AFLS

Alarm flashing status

-----

AF

Alarm detection specification

-----

AOFS

Alarm masking specification

-----

PV

Selected signal value

PV engineering unit value

SL

SUM

Totalizer value

Engineering unit value

SV

Non-selected signal value

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

DV

Deviation

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

RV1

Input signal value 1

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

RV2

Input signal value 2

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

SL

SW

Signal selection switch

1, 2, 3

SEL

Selected number

1, 2

HH

High - high limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

LL

Low - low limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

PH

High - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SH

PL

Low - limit alarm setpoint

SL to SH

SL

(*3)
x

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Data Item

Range (*2)

Default (*2)

Velocity alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

DL

Deviation alarm setpoint

(SH - SL)

SH - SL

OPMK

Operation mark

0 to 64

UAID

User application ID

-----

SH

PV scale high limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

SL

PV scale low limit

Value in the same engineering unit as PV

-----

*2:
*3:
ALSO

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

VL

*1:

SEE

Data Name

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
: Entry is permitted conditionally
SH: PV scale high limit
SL: PV scale low limit
Entry is permitted when the data status is CAL

For more information about valid block modes of the SS-DUAL block, refer to:
1.1.4, Valid Block Modes for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-18

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1-321

Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)

The Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) distributes cascade setpoint signals input from
controller blocks to multiple down-stream controller blocks. This block may be applied in a
cascade control loop with multiple function blocks in parallel downstream connected.

n Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)


Connection

The Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) can distribute cascade signals to as many as 8
function blocks.
Using the Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) enables the creation of a cascade control
loop where multiple controller blocks are connected in parallel downstream. The system does
not support to simply link the downstream controller blocks in a chain connection.
The Cascade Signal Distributor Block transmits the cascade open or clamp status of the
downstream controller blocks to the upstream controller block.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of the Cascade Signal Distributor Block
(FOUT):

CSV

SET

Output
computation

SV

MV1

J01

MV2

J02

MV8

J08

Figure 1.27-1 Function Block Diagram of Cascade Signal Distributor Block

The setpoint value (SV) of the Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) can be used for data
reference but not for data setting.
The figure below shows an application example of the Cascade Signal Distributor Block
(FOUT):
IN

PV

MV
PID

OUT
SET
SV

MV1

FOUT

MV2

J01
J02
SET
IN

PV

SV

MV
PID

SET
OUT

IN

PV

SV

MV
PID

OUT

Figure 1.27-2 Application Example of Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)

Considering the range of each output destination, the cascade setpoint signals to be distributed undergo range matching. Assume that the SV range of the Cascade Signal Distributor
Block (FOUT) is 0 to 100 %, while the PV ranges of the two downstream controller blocks are
0 to 20.00 KG/H and 0 to 10.00 KG/H, respectively. If the manipulated output of the upstream
controller block is 50 %, the output values of the Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) become 10.00 KG/H and 5.00 KG/H, respectively.

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The function blocks that can be used upstream of the Cascade Signal Distributor Block are
limited to those that satisfy the following conditions:

A regulatory control block with a manipulated output value (MV), capable of forming cascade connection

An analog calculation block capable of forming cascade connection

When Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) are connected in cascade in multiple levels,
the maximum number of Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) that can be connected serially between the top block and bottom block is 6. Switch blocks (SW-33, SW-91) inserted in
between are not counted. If FOUT blocks used exceed the limit, the manipulated output value
(MV) of the top function block becomes output failure (PTPF).
The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT):
Table 1.27-1 Connection Methods and Connected Destinations of I/O Terminals of Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FPIT):
I/O terminal

*1:

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

SET

Setting input

J01

Manipulated output
1

J02

Manipulated output
2

J03

Manipulated output
3

J04

Manipulated output
4

J05

Manipulated output
5

J06

Manipulated output
6

J07

Manipulated output
7

J08

Manipulated output
8

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed

SET terminal can not be connected to the terminals of other stations function block.

n Function of Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)


The FOUT block performs control computation processing and output processing.
The only processing timing available for the FOUT block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.

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<1.27 Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)>


*1:

SEE

ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of output processing possible for the FOUT block, see the following:,
refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Cascade Signal Distributor Block


(FOUT)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Cascade Signal
Distributor Block (FOUT):
Table 1.27-2 Control Computation Processing Functions of Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)
Control computation processing

Description

Range conversion output distribution

Performs range matching to the cascade setpoint value


(CSV) based on the range of the output destination, and uses
the result as a manipulated output value (MV). Range matching is performed for each output destination.

Bumpless switching

Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing


it to change abruptly when the block mode has been changed
or when the manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in a downstream block in cascade.

Bumpless switching

Obtains a cascade setpoint value (CSV) from the Cascade


Signal Distributor Blocks (FOUT) manipulated output value
(MVn) via range conversion. Prevents abrupt changes in the
manipulated output by utilizing output tracking.

Output pushback

Output Processing Specific to Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)


As part of its output processing, the FOUT block employs a special output clamp.

n Range Conversion Output Distribution


The control algorithm used by the Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) is based on range
conversion output distribution.
The range conversion output distribution function performs range matching to the cascade
setpoint value (CSV) set from the upstream function block, for each connected destination
based on the destination range. During range conversion output distribution, range matching
is performed using output range tracking.
Range matching is based on the following expression:
MVn=

MSHn-MSLn
SSH-SSL

(SV-SSL)+MSLn

MVn

: nth manipulated output value (MV1 to MV8)

SSH

: SV scale high limit

SLS

: SV scale low limit

MSHn : MVn scale high limit


MSLn : MVn scale low limit

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MSHn and MSLn are caused to automatically agree with the scale high limit and low limit of
the output destination via the output range tracking function.

Setpoint Value (SV) Range

SV Range

Use the Function Block Detail Builder to set the setpoint value (SV) range:

SV Range High Limit Value


Specify a numeric value of 7 digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 100.0.

SV Range Low Limit Value


Specify a numeric value of 7 digits or less, where the sign and decimal point occupy one
digit each.
The default is 0.0.

n Bumpless Switching
The bumpless switching function switches the block mode of the function block or manipulated output value downstream in cascade without causing the manipulated output value (MV)
to change abruptly (i.e., bumpless change).
The action during bumpless switching varies in accordance with the control output action and
block mode status.
The type of bumpless switching performed by the Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT) is
output pushback.
The output pushback function sets as the setpoint value (SV) and cascade setpoint value
(CSV), the SV-range values converted from the manipulated output value (MVn) via range
conversion.
Combining the output pushback and output tracking functions enables the creation of a control loop where a balanceless bumpless transfer can be performed.
The computational expression of range conversion:
SV=

SSH-SSL (MVn-MSLn)+SSL
MSHn-MSLn

CSV=SV
Output pushback is executed when the following occur:

When the cascade status of one output destination of the Cascade Signal Distributor
Block (FOUT) has changed to close, while the cascade statuses of all other output destinations remain open.

In a configuration where a selector switch exists between the Cascade Signal Distributor
Block (FOUT) and the upstream function block in cascade connected to the FOUT, the
switch status has changed from open to close.

When cascade is open and tracking is enabled at the J01 terminal.

1.

When cascade is open, the output tracking function causes the manipulated output value
(MVn) to track data at the output destination.

2.

When cascade is closed, the manipulated output value (MVn) is pushed back to the level
of SV. However, this occurs only when one of the above output pushback execution conditions is satisfied.

3.

The output value tracking function of the upstream function block causes the output value
of the upstream function block to track the setpoint value (SV).
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<1.27 Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)>

In a control loop where these actions take place, the output value of the upstream function
block agrees with data at the output destination of the Cascade Signal Distributor Block
(FOUT) when the cascade status is switched to close. Therefore, no output bump occurs as a
result of the cascade status switching to close.
Output pushback can handle only one input signal (RVn) at one time. In other words, balanceless bumpless transfer of a cascade loop is possible only in the first loop.
Bumpless switching based on the output pushback function will not be executed to the second and subsequent output destinations to close cascade. However, abrupt changes in output
as a result of changes in the setpoint value can be prevented if the downstream controller
blocks are PID type controller blocks (PID), as they bypass control computation during the
first control period after the cascade connection establishes.
If the upstream function block is a calculation block, neither output pushback action nor output
tracking action take place.

n Output Clamp
The output clamp is a function that limits the manipulated output value (MV) in such a way
that it cannot be changed to a value greater than or less than the current output value. The
status where the manipulated output value (MV) is limited in this way is called the output
clamp status.
In the FOUT block, if the output value at each output destination is subject to a limitation, the
output clamp status is indicated by the MVn data status high limit clamp (CLP+) or low limit
clamp (CLP-).
The cascade setpoint value (CSV) data status will be data status (CLP+ or CLP-) if the data
statuses for all output points that are in the cascade close status are CLP+ or CLP-, respectively.

SEE

ALSO

For more information about the output clamp, refer to:


4.3, Output Clamp in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

n Data Items - FOUT


Table 1.27-3 Data Items of Cascade Signal Distributor Block (FOUT)
Data Item

Data Name

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range

Default (*2)

SV

Setpoint value

CSV

Cascade setpoint value

MV1

Manipulated output value 1

Value in the same unit as


MSL1
connection destination JO1

MV2

Manipulated output value 2

Value in the same unit as


MSL2
connection destination JO2

MV3

Manipulated output value 3

Value in the same unit as


MSL3
connection destination JO3

MV4

Manipulated output value 4

Value in the same unit as


MSL4
connection destination JO4

MV5

Manipulated output value 5

Value in the same unit as


MSL5
connection destination JO5

MV6

Manipulated output value 6

Value in the same unit as


MSL6
connection destination JO6

MV7

Manipulated output value 7

Value in the same unit as


MSL7
connection destination JO7

SV engineering unit value

SSL

Value in the same engineering unit as SV

SSL

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Data Item
MV8
*1:
*2:

Data Name
Manipulated output value 8

Entry Permitted
or Not (*1)

Range

1-326
Default (*2)

Value in the same unit as


MSL8
connection destination JO8

x: Entry is permitted unconditionally


Blank: Entry is not permitted
SSL: SV scale low limit
MSLn: MVn scale low limit

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<1.28 Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM)>

1.28

Feedforward Signal Summing Block


(FFSUM)

Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM) adds the feedforward signal to the feedback
control signal then outputs the result. This block may be applied to the control loop that performs feedforward compensation control or base load control.

n Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM)


Connection

Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM) adds up the feedback signal (manipulated output value) input to the IN terminal from an up-stream controller block via cascade connection
and the feedforward signal input to the SET terminal via cascade connection, and outputs the
result.
The figure below shows the function block diagram of Feedforward Signal Summing Block
(FFSUM):
SET

CSV

BIN
(VN)

CAS
AUT
MAN

TSI

INT

(TSW)

SV

CAS/AUT

Signal
addition

PV

IN

TIN

Output
processing

MV

OUT

MAN
FSW

(PV, PV, MV, MV)


SUB

Figure 1.28-1 Function Block Diagram of Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM)

The table below shows the connection methods and connected destinations of the I/O terminals of the Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM):
Table 1.28-1 Connection Methods and Connected Destinations of I/O Terminals of Feedforward Signal
Summing Block (FFSUM)
I/O terminal

Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

IN

FB signal
input

SET

FF setting
input

OUT

Manipulated output

SUB

Auxiliary
output

BIN

Compensation input

TIN

Tracking
signal input

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Connection method(*1)
Connection destination(*1)
Data refer- Data setTerminal
Software
Function
Process I/O
ence
ting
connection
I/O
block

I/O terminal

*1:

TSI

Tracking
SW input

INT

Interlock
SW input

x: Connection allowed
Blank: Connection not allowed
: Connection allowed only when connecting to a switch block (SW-33, SW-91) or an inter-station data link block (ADL).

n Function of Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM)


The FFSUM block performs control computation processing, output processing, and alarm
processing.
The only processing timing available for the FFSUM block is a periodic startup. Selections
available for the scan period used to execute a periodic startup include the basic scan period, the medium-speed scan period (*1), and the high-speed scan period.
*1:

SEE
ALSO

The medium-speed scan period can only be used for the FFCS series, KFCS2, KFCS, LFCS2, and LFCS.

For more information about the types of output processing and alarm processing possible for the FFSUM
block, refer to:
1.1.3, Input Processing, Output Processing, and Alarm Processing Possible for Each Regulatory Control Block on page 1-12
For more information about the output processing, refer to:
4, Output Processing in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)
For more information about the alarm processing, refer to:
5, Alarm Processing-FCS in the Function Blocks Overview (IM 33K03E21-50E)

Control Computation Processing of Feedforward Signal Summing Block


(FFSUM)
The table below shows the control computation processing functions of the Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM):
Table 1.28-2 Control Computation Processings of Feedforward Signal Summing Block (FFSUM)
Control computation processing

Description

Feedforward control signal addition

Obtains a manipulated output value (MV) by adding to the


feedforward setpoint value (SV) the feedback input value (PV)
corrected by the input corrected value (VN).

Control output action

Converts the manipulated output change (MV) during each


control period to an actual manipulated output value (MV).
The control output actions available with this function block
are of positional type only.

I/O compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from outside


to the input signal or control output signal of PID computation
when the controller block is operating automatically. Only input compensation is available.

I/O compensation

Input compensation

Adds the I/O compensated value (VN) received from the outside to the input signal of the PID control computation.

Setpoint value limiter

Limits the setpoint value (SV) within the setpoint high/low limits.

Setpoint value pushback

Causes two of the three setpoint values (SV, CSV, RSV) to


agree with the remaining one.
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Control computation processing

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Description
Switches the manipulated output value (MV) without causing it
to change abruptly when the block mode has been changed or
when the manipulated output value (MV) has been switched in
a downstream block in cascade.

Bumpless switching

Output pushback

Forcibly sets as the feedback input value, the PV value calculated back from the MV output destination readback value
(MVrb). This prevents the manipulated output value (MV) from
changing abruptly.

Balance action

Prevents abrupt changes in the manipulated output value


(MV) by initializing the balance term in the manipulated output
computational expression.

Bumpless switching

Initialization manual

Changes the block mode to IMAN to temporarily suspend the


control action. This action takes place when the initialization
manual condition becomes satisfied.

Control hold

Temporarily suspends the control action while maintaining the


current block mode. During control hold, the output action is
performed normally.

MAN fallback

Changes the block mode to MAN to forcibly stop the control


action. This action takes place when the MAN fallback condition becomes satisfied.

AUT fallback

Changes the block mode to AUT when the function block is


operatin