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A Half-Bridge LLC Resonant Converter With Loose Coupling Transformer and Transition Capacitor

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Yueh-Ru Yang

Ming Chi University of Technology

New Taipei City, Taiwan

yryang@mail.mcut.edu.tw

the switching loss is greatly reduced. Basically, the principal

resonant mode of LLC converter is series resonance. Moreover,

since the voltage gain of LLC tank is larger than unity while

switching frequency is smaller than series-resonant frequency,

the holdup time of the off-line power supply with LLC

converter is prolonged, while utility AC source is abruptly

disrupted. Accordingly, in this paper, the LLC converter is

designed and implemented for off-line DC power supplies.

The input and output of the converter are 400V and 12V,

respectively. A half-bridge inverter is used to switch the input

voltage to a half, and a transformer steps down the voltage to

the desired level of load. Due to the use of transformer, the

transformer is integrated into the LLC tank to get rid of the

problem of transformer leakage and make use of the leakage.

This paper studies the circuit operation of the LLC converter in

time domain, and designs the transformer tank with the

fundamental approximation in frequency domain.

For

convenience, the used transformer parameters are short circuit

inductance and open circuit inductance, both are measured at

the primary-side of the transformer.

converter with a loose-coupling transformer and a transition

capacitor is analyzed and implemented. The LLC resonant tank

is comprised with a loose-coupling transformer and a seriesresonant capacitor. For transiting the resonant current of the

switching transistors and improving the zero-current turn off of

the rectifying diodes, a small transition capacitor is added and

paralleled to the switching transistors. To verify the analysis of

the switching circuit, circuit simulation is executed. And, to

demonstrate the design of the LLC converter, a 200W prototype

is built and tested. The DC input and output ratings of the

converter are 400V and 12V, respectively. The experimental

results coincide with the design and prediction.

KeywordsLLC; resonant converter; DC/DC converter

I.

INTRODUCTION

step up or step down output voltage. Due to imperfect

magnetic coupling, leakage flux always exists and the coupling

coefficient of transformer is always less than unity. Usually,

the leakage of transformer increases with the turn ratio. As a

large turn-ratio transformer is used in a hard-switching circuit,

the switching noise arisen from the leakage inductance and

stray capacitance easily generates cumbersome electromagnetic

interference. To overcome the problem of switching noise and

improve the efficiency of power conversion, soft-switching

converters were developed [1]. In these converters, the LLC

resonant converter is very suitable for the application of the

off-line power supply with transformer. Since the leakage of

transformer can be naturally absorbed and utilized as a part of

the LLC resonant tank [2-10], the problem of electromagnetic

interference arisen from the leakage and stray capacitance is

reduced. Besides, soft switching reduces the power loss and

the efficiency of power supply is hence improved.

II.

Shown in Fig. 1 is the LLC converter with independent

LLC tank and transformer. The front-end DC/AC circuit feeds

the LLC tank with square-wave voltage and the tank drive the

load R L through transformer Tr , diode rectifier and filtering

capacitor Cf . The transformer is not only for isolation, but also

for increasing voltage ratio. While input voltage Vd fluctuates

or output load R L changes, the voltage gain of the LLC tank is

continuously changed to keep the output voltage VL constant.

As L p is far larger than L s , the LLC tank is viewed as a series-

independent capacitor, two connected inductors and resistive

load. One of the two inductors is connected to the capacitor in

series, and the other is connected to the load in parallel. The

capacitor not only resonates with the series inductor but also

resonates with the parallel inductor and the resistive load.

According to the circuit connection of LLC components, the

frequency of series resonance is constant and is always larger

than the frequency of parallel resonance. As switching

frequency is larger than the series-resonant frequency, the LLC

resonant tank is certainly inductive, and switching transistors

can be naturally turned on at zero-voltage condition. Therefore,

c

978-1-4799-4315-9/14/$31.00 2014

IEEE

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

resonant tank and the voltage gain is equal to or less than unity.

Tr

Cr

Vd

1344

Ls

Lp

Lm

Cf

VL

RL

Fig. 1. The LLC converter with independent LLC tank and transformer.

In Fig. 1, the transformer leakage is ignored. However, the

leakage always exists in transformers and especially can not be

ignored in large turn ratio transformers. In order to make use

of the leakage inductance LA1 and LA 2 , an integrated LLC

transformer resonant tank is designed as shown in Fig. 2.

power supplies. Therefore, as shown in Fig. 3, a half-bridge

inverter, a center-tap transformer and a rectifier are adopted.

Here, the two secondary windings are identical in turn ratio and

L

magnetic coupling coefficient. Namely, L A 2 = L A3 = A21 , n is

n

the turn ratio of the primary to the secondary.

The magnetic coupling coefficient k is usually expressed as

a ratio of the magnetizing inductance to the total inductance,

and is measured with open-circuit test and short-circuit test. As

the short-circuit inductance and open-circuit inductance

are L1,s and L1, o respectively, the coefficient k is

voltage on the load R L is regulated with the switching

frequency of the half-bridge inverter.

n :1

Cr

Vd

vg1

Lp

Ls + L p

Vd

2 L s C r

, fp =

1

2 (L s + L p )C r

n :1

LA1

LA 2

D3

Cf

Cr

RL

Lm

Q 2 D2 C z 2

LA3

D4

Fig. 3. The LLC converter with resonant transformer and transition capacitor.

C r iLs

Ls

io

a:1

IL

iLp

vi

Lp

vo

Cf

RL

VL

R ac

1

RL

(3)

Lp

L

L A 2 + m2 = 2

(4)

n

a

, the relation between a and n can be known.

a

=k

(5)

n

In this case, the pseudo turn ratio a is smaller than the real

turn ratio n. The smaller value is used to compensate the

voltage drop on the primary leakage inductance.

Corresponding to the short-circuit inductance and open-circuit

inductance L1,s and L1, o , the series-resonant frequency f s and

fs =

Q1 D1 C z1

(2)

in Fig. 4 are

VL

Cf

Fig. 2. The LLC converter with integrated LLC tank and transformer.

ease of analysis. As shown in Fig. 4, the real turn ratio n is

changed as a pseudo turn ratio a. And,

L1,s = Ls , L1,o = Ls + L p .

LA 2

Lm

vg2

Lm

L1,s

k=

= 1

. (1)

L A1 + L m

L1,o

LA1

(6)

a part of resonant current ( i Ls i Lp ) that flows through the

primary winding is transferred to the secondary winding. The

rectifying diode D 3 ( D 4 ) rectifies the secondary-side current,

III.

CIRCUIT OPERATION

driven with v g1 and v g 2 . A DC bias 0.5Vd is produced and is

blocked by the series capacitor C r . As the variable switching

frequency is equal to the series-resonant frequency, the sum of

the voltage drop on the series-connected Ls and C r is zero,

and the voltage gain of the LLC tank is equal to unity. Based

on this important feature, the fixed series-resonant frequency is

chosen as the boundary frequency of the LLC circuit operation.

According to the variation of switching frequency, the detailed

of the circuit operation is depicted as follows.

A. Switching frequency is series resonant frequency

As the variable switching frequency is equal to the seriesresonant frequency of the LLC tank, the six figures shown in

Fig. 5 are used to illustrate the current paths of each stage, and

the corresponding voltage and current waveforms of each

stage are shown in Fig. 6.

1345

Fig. 8 shows the waveforms that switching frequency is

smaller than series-resonant frequency. Stage 3 is re-divided

into interval 3a and 3b, and stage 6 is re-divided into 6a and

6b. In these intervals, C r resonates with L1,o and i Lp = i Ls .

current of D1 falls to zero and stage-1 ends. Due to series

resonance, the voltage sum of C r and L s is zero. The voltage

across L p is clamped at input voltage ( 0.5Vd ) and i Lp rises

linearly.

Stage-2 ( i Ls ( t ) i Lp ( t ) 0 , t 1 < t t 2 ): After t 1 , i Ls is positive

and flows through Q1 . The current i Lp reverses in this stage.

circulating current deteriorates the circuit efficiency.

D1

C z1 C r

Q2

D2

Cz 2

Q1

D1

C z1 C r

while switching voltage v ds1 rises to the DC voltage Vd .

Stage-4 ( i Ls (t ) i Lp ( t ) < 0 , t 3 < t t 4 ): In stage-4, i Ls i Lp < 0 ,

Q2

D2

Cz 2

Q1

D1

C z1 C r

Q2

D2

Cz 2

Q1

D1

C z1 C r

Q2

D2

Cz 2

Q1

D1

C z1 C r

current of D 3 drops to zero at t 2 . That is, D 3 cuts off with

zero current condition.

Stage-3 ( i Ls ( t ) i Lp ( t ) = 0 , t 2 < t t 3 ): After t 2 , v g1 and v g 2

Q1

Ls

a :1

D3

Cf

RL

Lp

D4

Stage 1

Ls

a :1

D3

D4

Ls

D3

At series-resonant

D4

Ls

B. Switching frequency > series resonant frequency

Fig. 7 shows the waveforms that switching frequency is

larger than series-resonant frequency. In stage 3 and 6, Q1

the transition of resonant current. A part of the resonant

current is transferred to the secondary, and the secondary

1346

Stage 3

D3

Cf

RL

Lp

secondary and the voltage of R L is kept with C f . At t 6 ,

RL

a :1

D4

drops to zero at t 5 . D4 cuts off with zero current condition.

Cf

Lp

At t 5 , v g 2 disappears and Q 2 cuts off.

Stage 2

a :1

while the diode current of D 2 drops to zero.

Stage-5 ( i Ls (t ) i Lp ( t ) 0 , t 4 < t t 5 ): After t 4 , C r resonates

RL

Lp

t 3 . The voltage drop across L p is clamped at negative 0.5Vd

Cf

Ls

Stage 4

a :1

D3

Cf

RL

Lp

Q 2 D2

Cz 2

Q1

D1

C z1 C r

D2

Cz 2

D4

Ls

a :1

D3

Stage 5

Cf

RL

Lp

Q2

D4

Stage 6

Fig. 5. The current paths of each stage that switching frequency equals to the

series-resonant frequency.

v g1

IV.

vg2

t

Vd

vds2

v ds1

0.5V d

i Ls

0

i Lp

v D3

0

i D3

Vo

iD4

1

t 0 t1

3 4

t 2 t3 t 4

6

t5 t6

v g1

vg2

t

vds2

v ds 1

Zin =

0.5V d

i Ls

0

vD3

0

Vo

iD3

1

t 0 t1

iD4

t

5

3 4

t 2 t3 t4

Qs =

t5 t6

v g1

Vd

vg 2

vds2

vds1

1.4

v D3

|Vo/Vi|

1.2

(13)

1.6

Z0

Ls

, Z0 =

R ac

Cr

Fig. 9 depicts the frequency response of the LLC tank and Fig.

10 shows the details with three 2-D plots. At series-resonant

frequency, b = 1 , the voltage gain is equal to unity.

i Lp

i Ls

(11)

ease of analysis,

L1, o

f

f

(14)

b= , m=

= ( s )2 .

fs

fp

L1,s

0.5V d

1

+ sLs + sLp // R ac

sCr

Vo sL p // R ac

b 2 (m 1)

=

=

,

(12)

2

Vi

Zin

mb 1 + j b(b 2 1)(m 1) Q s

The loaded quality factor of series resonance and

characteristic impedance are

i Lp

In Fig. 4, as switching frequency is f and load current is I L ,

the output current of LLC tank is approximated as

IL

i o (t) =

sin 2ft

(7)

2 a

For fixed voltage VL and infinite capacitance C f , the

fundamental output voltage of the LLC tank is

4

v o ( t ) = aVL sin 2ft

(8)

v

8

R ac = o = 2 a 2 R L

(9)

io

LLC circuit is written as

4 V

v i ( t ) = ( d ) sin( 2ft + )

(10)

2

, where is the phase angle between input voltage and output

voltage. The input impedance expressed with complex

frequency s is

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

iD3

1

t 0 t1

iD4

3a 3 b 4

t 2 t 3 a t 3b t 4

6a6 b

t 5 t 6 a t 6b

0.2

m=5

0

0

Qs 0.5

1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1347

3.5

and f p . The peak gain frequency increases with the loaded

1.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Qs

1.4

|Vo/Vi|

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

m=3

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

b

1.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Qs

1.4

|Vo/Vi|

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

m=5

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Qs

1.4

|Vo/Vi|

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

m=7

0.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

Peak Gain

the loaded quality factor. Basically, the loaded LLC resonant

tank is resistive at peak-gain frequency, and is inductive above

peak-gain frequency. Let the derivative of the magnitude of

voltage gain function equals to zero can get the peak-gain

frequencies and the corresponding peak gains.

Fig. 11 displays a number of peak gains for various loaded

quality factors and induction ratios. It states that peak gain

decreases with the induction ratio for fixed loaded quality

factor. The required peak gain for line and load regulations is

determined with the minimum input voltage and the maximum

loaded quality factor. The minimum frequency for obtaining

zero-voltage switching is also determined with the minimum

DC input voltage and the maximum load power. The

maximum frequency presents at the maximum DC input

voltage and the minimum load power.

3

2.5

1.5

1

0.5

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.9

Qs

Fig. 11. The peak gain of LLC tank for different loaded quality factor and

induction ratio.

Step-1: Determine the required peak gain with the minimum

DC input voltage.

Step-2: Determine the induction ratio with the required peak

gain and the loaded quality factor.

Step-3: Design the transformer with the induction ratio.

Step-4: Determine the induction ratio (coupling coefficient)

with the peak gain and the loaded quality factor.

Step-5: Determine the resonant capacitance and inductance

with the series-resonant frequency.

The DC specifications of the designed LLC converter are as

follows: the rated input voltage is DC400V and the minimum

input voltage is DC300V; the rated output voltage is DC12V

and the rated output power is 200W. Based on above, the

pseudo turn ratio a is 15 and the real turn ratio n of

transformer is 17. The required peak gain of the LLC

resonant tank is 1.2. The equivalent AC resistance R ac of the

DC load is 131.3 Ohms.

V.

The designed circuit parameters are as follows: the seriesresonant frequency f s is 87 kHz, the resonant capacitor C r is

20nF, the equivalent series-inductance L s is 168uH, the opencircuit inductance L1 is 722uH, the inductance ratio m is

4.298, the coupling coefficient k is 0.876, and the frequency

ratio b is 2.074. Circuit simulation is performed to verify the

circuit parameters. The used MOSFET is IRF840. For

convenience, the series-resonant capacitance is changed to

observe and compare the resonant waveforms resulted from

different switching frequency. Fig.12 shows the simulation

results of waveforms with different resonant capacitance,

40nF, 20nF and 15nF, and the used transition capacitance is

1nF. The zero-voltage switching is achieved. Fig. 13 states

the zero-current switching of two rectifying diodes. The

experimental results tested with the rated DC400V input

voltage and 20% 50% and 100% loads are listed in Table I.

The switching frequency at 100% load is 89 kHz, which is

very close to the designed series-resonant frequency 87 kHz.

The maximum efficiency is 0.909. The conduction loss

Fig. 10. The voltage gain of LLC tank for induction ratio, m=3,5,7.

1348

0.8

20V

0

500V

0

1A

0

15A

0

0

15A

0 0

v ds1

VI.

vgs1

v gs 2

v ds 2

v ds1

i Lp

Science Council, Taiwan. The contract number is NSC1022221-E-131-015.

iQ1

id4

i d3

REFERENCES

[1]

New YorkJohn Wiley & Sons, 1995.

Bo Yang and F. C. Lee, A. J. Zhang, Guisong Huang, LLC resonant

converter for front-end DC to DC conversion, APEC 2003, pp. 605-609.

Bing L., Wenduo L., Yan L., Fred C. L.,Jacobus D., Van W. Optimal

design methodology for LLC resonant converter. Applied Power

Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC) 2006, pp. 533538.

Simone, S.D., Adragna, C., Spini, C. and Gattavari, G. Design-oriented

steady state analysis of LLC resonant converter based on FHA.

International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives,

Automation and Motion, 2006, pp.200-207.

Hangseok Choi, Analysis and design of LLC resonant converter with

integrated transformer, APEC 2007, pp. 1630-1635.

Daocheng Huang, Shu Ji, Fred. C. Lee, Matrix transformer for LLC

resonant converters, APEC 2013, pp.2078-2083.

Daocheng Huang, Shu Ji, and Fred C. Lee, LLC Resonant converter

with matrix transformer, IEEE Trans. Power Electronics., Vol. 29, No. 8,

pp.464-469, 2014.

R. Yu, Godwin. K. Y. Ho, Bryan M. H. Pong, Computer-aided design

and optimization of high-efficiency LLC series resonant converter,

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 27, No.7, pp.3243-3256, 2012.

Xiaodong Li, A LLC-type dual-bridge resonant converter: analysis,

design, simulation, and experimental results, IEEE Trans. Power

Electron., Vol.29, No.8, pp.4313-4321, 2014.

Il-Oun Lee, and G-W Moon, Analysis and design of a three-level LLC

series resonant converter for high-and wide-input-voltage applications,

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., Vol.27, No.6, pp.2966-2979, 2012.

v gs1

v gs 2

[2]

v ds 2

v ds1

[3]

1.5us / Div

i Ls

[4]

i Lp iQ1

id4

i d3

[5]

[6]

[7]

1us / Div

i Ls

[8]

1A / Div

i Lp

[9]

i D3

v D3

30V / Div

10A / Div

vD 4

v gs1

CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

1.5us / Div

i Ls

Efficiency (%)

87.9

90.9

89.4

transformer and transition capacitor is analyzed, simulated,

designed and implemented in this paper.

The circuit

simulation results demonstrate the analysis and design of this

paper. A small transition capacitor is added to the half-bridge

inverter to ameliorate the transition of switching current. The

transformer should be optimized to decrease circulating losses.

And, the loss of rectifying diodes is deserved to be reduced

id4

Fig. 12. The simulation with different resonant capacitance C r , from top to

Frequency (kHz)

98.0

95.0

89.9

1.5us / Div

i d3

20V

0 0

500V

0 0

1A

0 0

v ds 2

Load (%)

20

50

100

i Lp iQ1

20V

0 0

500V

0 0

v gs 2

i Ls

15A

0

1A

0 m

v gs1

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

TABLE I.

to be reduced.

[10]

v ds1

.

Fig. 13. The zero-current turn off of rectifying diodes, C r = 40nF, C z = 1nF.

1349

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