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SECTION 1

DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL
AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT(ESIA)

ACRONYMS

AER
AIDS
BOQ
CBO
DFR
DVLA
DUR
EA
EAR
EIA
EIS
EMP
EMU
EP
EPA
FSD
GHA
GPRS II
HIV
L.I
MRH
NGO
RSED
STI
TOR
WRC

Annual Environmental Report


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Bill of Quantities
Community-Based Organization
Department of Feeder Roads
Driver and Vehicle Licensing Authority
Department of Urban Roads
Environmental Assessment
Environmental Assessment Regulations
Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Statement
Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Management Unit
Environmental Permit
Environmental Protection Agency
Forest Services Division
Ghana Highway Authority
Ghanas Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy II
Human Immune Virus
Legislative Instrument
Ministry of Roads and Highways
Non-Governmental Organization
Road Safety and Environment Division
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Terms of Reference
Water Resources Commission

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................................ i
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................. v
1.0

INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1

1.1 BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................... 1


1.1.1

The Kulungugu Bridge ............................................................................................ 2

1.1.2

The Garu Bridge ..................................................................................................... 5

1.1.3

The Doninga and Sissili Bridges ............................................................................. 7

1.1.4

The Kulun and Ambalara Bridges ......................................................................... 11

1.2 STUDY TEAM ..................................................................................................................... 12


2.0

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT ........................................................... 13

3.0

POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK ............................................ 14

3.1

Ghana Governments Environmental Policy .................................................................... 14

3.2

Road Sector Policy and Administrative Framework ......................................................... 15


3.2.1
Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) and Resettlement
Policy Framework (RPF) .................................................................................................... 16

3.3

Legal Framework ............................................................................................................ 16

3.4

Environmental Assessment Regulations and Procedures ............................................... 17

3.5

Institutional Framework ................................................................................................... 19


3.5.1

Institutional and Implementation Arrangements .................................................... 19

4.0

DESCRIPTION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ................................................... 22

4.1

Physical features ............................................................................................................ 22


4.1.1

Soil and drainage ................................................................................................. 22

4.1.2

Vegetation ............................................................................................................ 23

4.1.3

Climate ................................................................................................................. 24

4.1.4

Political and administrative structure .................................................................... 25

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4.1.5

Rainfall ................................................................................................................. 26

4.1.6

Water Quality ....................................................................................................... 26

4.1.7

Air Quality and Noise Levels ................................................................................ 28

4.1.8

Fauna ................................................................................................................... 30

4.1.9

Geology and Soils .................................................................................................. 31

4.2

Sissili and Doninga Bridges (Builsa District) Relief .......................................................... 32

4.3

Kulungugu Bridge (Bawku Municipality) .......................................................................... 37

4.4

Garu (Timne) Bridge (Garu-Timpane District) ................................................................. 39

4.5

Ambalara and Kulun Bridges .......................................................................................... 41

5.0

SOCIAL BASELINE ....................................................................................................... 43

5.1

Upper East Region (UER) ............................................................................................... 43

5.2

6.0

5.1.1

Builsa District Assembly ....................................................................................... 53

5.1.2

Bawku Municipal Assembly ................................................................................. 57

5.1.3

Garu Timpane District Assembly .......................................................................... 61

UPPER WEST REGION ................................................................................................. 63


5.3.5

Age dependency ratios ......................................................................................... 65

5.3.6

Population distribution - rural-urban composition .................................................. 66

5.3.11

Economic characteristics ...................................................................................... 73

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES ................................................................................... 80

6.1 The No-Action Alternatives ................................................................................................ 80


6.2 The proposed Bridge Developments in the EIA ................................................................... 80
6.2.1

Sissili Bridge......................................................................................................... 81

6.2.2

Doninga Bridge .................................................................................................... 81

6.2.3

Kulungugu Bridge ................................................................................................. 81

6.2.4

Garu Bridge .......................................................................................................... 81

6.2.5

Ambalara Bridge .................................................................................................. 82

6.2.6

Kulun Bridge......................................................................................................... 82

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6.3

Overview of Alternative Analysis ..................................................................................... 82

7.0

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION & MITIGATION................................... 83

7.1 Site Preparation and Construction ....................................................................................... 85


7.2

Operations ...................................................................................................................... 91

8.0

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN ................................................................... 93

8.1

Key Stakeholders ............................................................................................................ 93

8.2

Key Responsibilities ........................................................................................................ 93

8.3

8.4

9.0

8.2.1

Current Environmental Policy of GHA and EPA .................................................... 93

8.2.2

General Roles and Responsibilities of the Consultant/Engineer ........................... 95

8.2.3

General Roles and Responsibilities of the Contractor ........................................... 96

8.2.4

Environmental Management Responsibilities of the Public ................................. 100

Key Environmental and Social Clauses ......................................................................... 100


8.3.1

General Clauses ................................................................................................ 100

8.3.2

Environmental Clauses ...................................................................................... 101

Monitoring plans ........................................................................................................... 105


8.4.1

Construction Phase Monitoring and Enforcement ............................................... 105

8.4.2

Post-Construction Monitoring ............................................................................. 106

CONCLUSION............................................................................................................. 110

REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................ 111


APPENDIX 1 ........................................................................................................................... 113
CONSULTATIONS.................................................................................................................. 113
APPENDIX 2 ........................................................................................................................... 127
STAKEHOLDERS CONCERNS............................................................................................. 127

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction

In September 2007, heavy rains hit northern Ghana causing significant damage to a
number of bridges and culverts. As a result, the routes to most farming communities
were cut off, severely limiting travel to and from these areas. As a temporary emergency
measure, DANIDA and the Government of Ghana undertook emergency repairs by
installing Bailey bridges and other temporary measures until such time as permanent
bridges could be constructed.
The Government of Ghana (GOG) acting through the Ministry of Roads and Highways
and the Ghana Highway Authority has requested for financial support from Danida in the
form of a Mixed-Credit facility to construct permanent bridge structures at six (6) different
sites of critical importance for the development of the Upper East and Upper West
regions of Ghana.
The request shall be used for the construction of the following bridges:

Item

Proposed Bridge
Name

Location

Current Span

Proposed Span

1.

Kulungugu

Upper East

58km

100m

2.

Garu

Upper East

10m and 68km

175m

3.

Doninga

Upper East

31m

50m

4.

Sissili

Border of
Upper and
Upper West

Non existent

5.

Kulun

Upper West

Non Existent

100m

Upper West

45km
Washed away
Bridge

60m

6.

Ambalara

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150m

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Proposed Bridge Project


The project would essentially comprise of two major components:
(i) the construction/replacement of the proposed bridges and
(ii) proposed protective river training works including gabions along the river

The construction phase of the project shall entail:


1. Mobilization of heavy equipment (front end loaders, backhoes, etc.),
2. Temporary diversion of the River courses (to allow for construction in the river
bed),
3. Excavation for buried pile caps (where necessary),
4. Mobilization of a pile driver to the river bed,
5. Pile driving for pier support (to be confirmed from material/soil report),
6. Excavation of abutments,
7. Bending and tying of steel (for the abutments),
8. Pouring of abutment concrete,
9. Construction of piers and superstructure,
10. Packing and lacing of the gabion baskets (with stones and boulders of suitable
size), among others.

This report presents the findings of the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
(ESIA) conducted for the proposed construction and operation of the bridges in the
Upper East and Upper West regions of Ghana.

Proposed Impacts and Mitigation Measures


The report examined the impact and mitigation measures for the proposed bridge
projects on the physiographic, soils, geology, water quality, noise, air quality and
biological issues of the project affected areas. Socioeconomic assessments were also
undertaken as part of the studies.
The majority of identified negative impacts were short-term, minor, local impacts which
are either insignificant and/or easily mitigated. Where relevant (and appropriate),
suitable mitigation measures have been recommended.

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Only two major, potential, negative impacts were identified during the study. These could
occur during the construction phase of the project and include (i) suspended solid runoff,
and (ii) traffic congestion. These two negative impacts are, however, short-term, local
impacts and are therefore considered small/insignificant impacts, during the construction
phase of the project.
In regards to potential suspended solid runoff, soil erosion and siltation of the river
channel could lead to an impaired flow regime, localized upstream/downstream flooding
and declined water quality within the Rivers.
Recommended mitigation measures include, (i) the provision of catch or diversion
drains, (ii) installation of silt fences, (iii) monitoring of the sand and excavated material
levels within the river channels (coupled with appropriate action in the likelihood of
possible overtopping/flooding), and (iv) proper storage/stockpile of construction and
waste material, outside the river channels.
With regards to potential traffic congestion, the construction of the new bridges may
necessitate the re-routing of some vehicular and pedestrian traffic, introducing traffic
delays and increased travel time. To reduce traffic congestion (and to ensure a steady
vehicular flow), it is recommended that the existing bridges are left in place while new
ones are built for those locations that are proving passages with adequate and
appropriate construction warning signs be installed. For the bridge locations where there
are no possibilities of passing, adequate and ample notice be given to pending road
works and detours.

Major, long-term, positive impacts of the project include:


1. the protection of life,
2. the protection of property,
3. reduced river bank erosion,
4. food availability and poverty reduction and
5. reduced dust.
Minor, long-term, positive impacts of the project include:
1.reduced silt and sedimentation,
2.reduced flooding potential,
3.improved water quality (within the river channel),
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4.lower transportation costs,


5. reduce travel time and, and
6. reduced vehicle maintenance and operating costs.

Conclusion
Finally, based on the history of the collapses associated with the bridges and the socioeconomic importance of their functions to the catchment areas, it is recommended that
the design of the bridges should consider as a matter of importance the following critical
issues including
i.

measures for the protection of the rivers/streams bank should also be considered
in areas that are susceptible to erosion;

ii.

river trimmings to direct the flow of water within the bridges abutments and
protection; and

iii.

measures for scour protection, and the openings beneath the bridge, should be
carefully designed (given high velocity profile predictions).

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1.0

INTRODUCTION

This report presents the findings of an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
(ESIA) for the construction of proposed six bridges in Upper East and Upper West
regions of Ghana. It also outlines analyses alternate options and provides mitigative
steps to be undertaken to minimize or eliminate the potential environmental and social
impacts of the proposed project.

1.1 BACKGROUND
In September 2007, heavy rains hit northern Ghana causing significant damage to a
number of bridges and culverts. As a result, the routes to most farming communities
were cut off, severely limiting travel to and from these areas. As a temporary emergency
measure, DANIDA and the Government of Ghana undertook emergency repairs by
installing Bailey bridges and other temporary measures until such time as permanent
bridges could be constructed.
The Government of Ghana (GOG) acting through the Ministry of Roads and Highways
and the Ghana Highway Authority has requested for financial support from Danida in the
form of a Mixed-Credit facility to construct permanent bridge structures at five (5)
different sites of critical importance for the development of the Upper East and Upper
West regions of Ghana. The bridges are:

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Table 1: The Bridge Projects


Item

Proposed
Bridge Name

Location

Current Span

Proposed Span

1.

Kulungugu

Upper East

58km

100m

2.

Garu

Upper East

10m and 68km

175m

Doninga

Upper East

31m

50m

3.
4.

Sissili

Border of Upper
and Upper West

Non existent

150m

5.

Kulun

Upper West

Non Existent

100m

6.

Ambalara

Upper West

45km
Washed away
Bridge

60m

1.1.1 The Kulungugu Bridge


The Kulungugu Bridge in the Upper West region of Northern Ghana provides a link to
Burkina Faso through to Niger as well as serving as a short cut for the flow of traffic to
the Eastern part of Burkina Faso. The Kulungugu Bridge is a major link for the
transportation of goods from Ghana through to Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger.

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Figure 1: Location Map, Kulungugu


ridge.

The bridge which has a span of 68m has not seen any major maintenance. In 2007
torrential rains led to a total collapse of the bridge. The Ghana Highway Authority
immediately made emergency repairs to re-open the bridge. However, the current bridge
is a temporary structure and vulnerable to damage from the river during the rainy season
as indicated in Picture 1.1 below. The temporary bridge consist of a bailey steel bridge
which is placed on top of a collapsed bridge structure, the foundation on the Southern
end is made up of packed boulders and that of the Northern end rests on older concrete
structures. The emergency repair was aimed at protecting the temporary bridge for a
period of 4 to 5 years.

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Figure 2: Kulungugu Bridge


The volume of traffic crossing the Kulungugu bridge consist of 46% heavy goods
vehicles, 29% medium trucks and only 25% are light passenger vehicles. Table 1.2
gives an overview of the traffic crossing the bridge. It should be noted that traffic counts
is for 10 hours only. To adjust traffic levels to 24 hours GHA applies an average
adjustment factor of 1.4 in order to capture traffic outside the 7 am to 5 pm counting
window.

Table 2: Average 10 hours traffic over seven months


(Jan July 2007) Missiga Kulungugu road section
Type of Vehicle

Number

Adjusted Number

Percentage

Light

160

224

25

Medium

189

265

29

Heavy

297

416

46

Total

646

905

100

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1.1.2 The Garu Bridge


The Garu Bridge in Northern Ghana is located in the Upper East Region on the North
South eastern trunk road. It is an important bridge on the N2 trunk road linking Burkina
Faso/ Kulungugu going south through the Northern and Volta regions to Accra and
Tema. See Map below.

N2

Figure 3: Location Map of Garu Bridge

The Garu Bridge also collapsed during the 2007 torrential rains. As a measure to open
the bridge the bridge to traffic, the Ghana Highway Authority through the assistance of
Danida, constructed a bailey bridge to a temporary supports and filled the approaches to
make the bridge motorable. This is expected to last for about 5 years.

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Figure 4: Garu Bridge

The traffic volume over the Garu bridge consist of 36% heavy goods transporting
vehicles. Table 3.1 summarizes the traffic crossing the bridge. It should be noted that
traffic counts are 10 hours only. To adjust traffic levels to 24 hours GHA applies an
average adjustment factor of 1.4 in order to capture traffic outside the 7 am to 5 pm
counting window.

Table 3: Average 10 hours traffic over seven months


(Jan July 2007) Missiga Garu road section
Type of Vehicle

Number

Adjusted Number

Percentage

Light

160

224

37

Medium

118

165

27

Heavy

154

216

36

Total

432

605

100

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1.1.3 The Doninga and Sissili Bridges


The Doninga Bridge is located on Sandema Wa road and provides a vital and shorter
link between Wa and Bolgatanga. Wa and Bolgatanga are the regional capitals of
Ghanas Upper West and Upper East Regions, respectively. However, due to the nonexistence of a bridge on the Sissili River (Sissili Bridge), the shortest route between
these two cities is currently cut-off.
In 2007, the Doninga Bridge was also washed away as a result of flooding in the area.
Through the support of Danida, a bailey bridge has been erected with approaches as a
temporary measure, thereby making the road motorable for about 5 years until such time
as funds would be secured for a permanent bridge to be put in place.

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BOLGATANGA

WA

Sissila

Doninga

Bridge

Bridge

Figure 5: Doninga and Sissili Bridge Locations

= Existing Bolga-Tumu-Wa Road


= Bolga-Sandema-Wa Road with the non-existence Sissili Bridge

The map above shows the two routes between Wa and Bolgatanga i.e Bolga-Tumu-Wa
and Bolga-Sandema-Wa. Currently, the northern route of Bolga-Tumu-Wa road is being
used due the missing link of the Sissili Bridge on the alternate Bolga-Sandema-road.

The Sissili River is about 10 kilometres from the Doninga Bridge location. The River
Sisili which forms the boundary between Upper East and Upper West has had not bridge
at the location indicated in figure 1.3 above is no bridge at present.

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It is also of

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importance to note that on this Bolga-Sandema-Wa road lies the Kulun and Ambalara
Rivers.
On the Sandema Doninga stretch the traffic contains 21% heavy goods transporting
vehicles. 39% are medium trucks and 40% are light passenger transporting vehicles,
see table 5.1. It should be noted that traffic counts are 10 hours only. To adjust traffic
levels to 24 hours GHA applies an average adjustment factor of 1.4 in order to capture
traffic outside the 7 am to 5 pm counting window.

Figure 6: Sissili River Bed

Figure 7: Doninga Bridge Before (Washed away) and After Repairs

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Table 4: Average 10 hours traffic over seven months


(Jan July 2007) Sandema Doninga road section
Type of Vehicle

Number

Adjusted Number

Percentage

Light

34

48

40

Medium

38

46

39

Heavy

18

25

21

Total

85

119

100

Traffic data on the Bolga-Tumu-Wa road is being used for the alternative link of BolgaSandema-Wa road. On this route the traffic consist of 19% heavy goods transporting
vehicles. 36% are medium trucks and 41% are light passenger transporting vehicles,
see table 1.5. It should be noted that again the traffic counts are 10 hours only. To adjust
traffic levels to 24 hours GHA applies an adjustment factor between 1.3 1.57 in order
to capture traffic outside the 7 am to 5 pm counting window and to adjust for the
weekday on which the count was carried out.

Table 5.: Adjusted average daily traffic over three


months
(Oct. Dec. 2007)Tumu Navrongo road section
Type of Vehicle

Adjusted

Percentage

Number
Light

41

43

Medium

36

37

Heavy

19

20

Total

96

100

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1.1.4 The Kulun and Ambalara Bridges


The Kulun and Ambalara Bridges which are 3.2km apart are located in Upper West
Region and forms part Bolga-Sandema-Wa road. The bridges which were constructed in
the early 19th century have totally collapsed. Currently no bridge structures exist at the
bridge locations making it possible to drive through the river bed during the dry season,
though it is virtually impossible to gain access at these sites during the wet season.

Figure 8: Kulun and Ambalara Bridges in Upper West Region.

Figure 9: Kulun river bed (left) and Ambalara River bed (right). April 2008.

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The traffic count is as stated in table 4.1. No traffic counts were carried out on the
proposed bridge site itself. Instead traffic counts for the Bulenga Yaala road section
was used. The two Bridge locations are located along this stretch of road.
Again, it should be noted that traffic counts are 10 hours only. To adjust traffic levels to
24 hours GHA applies an adjustment factor between 1.3 1.57 in order to capture traffic
outside the 7 am to 5 pm counting window and to adjust for the weekday on which the
count was carried out.

Table 6: Adjusted average daily traffic over three


months
(Oct. Dec. 2007) Bulenga - Yaala road section (Kulun
Bridge)
Type of Vehicle

Adjusted

Percentage

Number
Light

43

47

Medium

41

45

Heavy

Total

91

100

1.2 STUDY TEAM


A team of Environmental, Design, Geotechnical and Structural Engineers as well as
Development Officers, Sociologist, Anthropologist and field Officers from the Ghana
Highway Authority undertook the studies.

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2.0

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT

The proposed project consists of the construction to a total of span of bridges at six
locations on the Upper East and Upper West regions of Ghana.
A summary of the bridge features are as follows.

The construction phase of the bridges will entail:


1. Mobilization of heavy equipment (front end loader, backhoe);
2. Temporary diversion of river course to allow for construction in the river bed at certain
sites;
3. Excavation for the buried pile caps;
4. Mobilization of pile driver to river bed;
5. Pile driving for pier support;
6. Excavation of abutment;
7. Bending and tying of steel for abutment;
8. Pouring of abutment concrete;
9. Construction of piers and superstructure;
10. Pouring of deck way;
11. Laying of pavement on bridges and approaches;
12. Placement of the gabions and suitable boulders;
13. Packing and lacing of stones and boulders of suitable size.

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3.0

POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK

3.1

Ghana Governments Environmental Policy

The ultimate aim of the National Environmental Policy of Ghana is to improve the
surroundings, living conditions and the quality of life for all citizens, both present and
future. It seeks to ensure reconciliation between economic development and natural
resource conservation, to make high quality environment a key element supporting the
countrys economic and social development (EPA, 1991).
This environmental policy specifically seeks to:
Maintain ecosystems and ecological processes essential for the functioning of the
biosphere;
Ensure sound management of natural resources and the environment;
Adequately protect humans, animals and plants, their biological communities and
habitats against harmful impacts and destructive practices, and preservation
biological diversity;
Guide development in accordance with quality requirements to prevent, reduce,
and as far as possible, eliminate pollution and nuisances;
Integrate environmental considerations in sectoral, structural and socio-economic
planning at the national, regional, district and grassroots levels;
Seek common solutions to environmental problems in West Africa, Africa and the
world at large.
Environmental protection in Ghana therefore is guided by the preventive approach, that
is, with the recognition that socio-economic development must be undertaken in such a
way as to avoid the creation of environmental problems.

This is reflected in the

Environmental Policy of Ghana formulated in the National Environmental Action Plan


(NEAP) of 1993. The NEAP defined a set of policy and other actions that would make
Ghanas development strategy more environmentally sustainable.

The policy seeks

reconciliation between economic planning and environmental resources development


with the view to achieving sustainable national development.

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Creation of awareness, among all sections of the community, of the environment and its
relationship to socio-economic development, and of the necessity for rational resource
use among all sectors of the country, is a vital part of the overall objective. Public
participation in the environmental decision-making process is an important element of
government policy.

3.2

Road Sector Policy and Administrative Framework

The Government of Ghanas (GOG) transport policy provides for continued


improvements to the nations rural and urban road network. This objective will be met
through an improved road maintenance as well as rehabilitation and construction
programme.
The Ministry of Roads and Highways (MRH) is responsible for formulating policies and
overall strategies on roads and vehicular transport. The Ghana Highway Authority
(GHA), Department of Feeder Roads (DFR) and Department of Urban Roads (DUR) are
the organizations under the MRH which carry out actual implementation of road policies.
Ghana Highway Authority is responsible for 14,900 km of roads about 65% of which are
gravel roads. The current project falls within the jurisdiction of Ghana Highway Authority.
Specifically, the Road Sector Policy seeks to:

Achieve sustainable improvements in the performance of trunk, feeder and


urban roads and road transport services in all regions of Ghana;

Strengthen the capabilities for management and implementation in the road


sector; and

Establish management systems that will ensure the upgrading and preservation
of an improved road system and the use thereof in an environmentally, socially
and financially sustainable fashion.

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3.2.1 Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF) and Resettlement


Policy Framework (RPF)
The Ministry of Roads and Highways has prepared an Environmental and Social
Management Framework (ESMF) as well as a Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) to
be used as guidelines for the Transport Sector Development Program (TSDP) but with
focus on road sector projects.
The ESMF and RPF represent statements of policy, guiding principles and procedures,
as well as environmental and social safeguards instruments of reference for the road
sector projects, agreeable to all key stakeholders such as the EPA, the World Bank,
Danida, EU, AFD, MRH and the implementing Agencies.
The purpose of the ESMF and RPF is to provide corporate environmental, social and
resettlement safeguard policy frameworks, institutional arrangements and capacity
available to identify and mitigate potential safeguard issues and impacts of each subproject. It is envisaged that with the preparation and use of the above-mentioned
documents/guidelines, national, local environmental and social requirements will be met
which will also be consistent with the World Banks OP4.01, OP4.12 and other
applicable safeguards.
This ESIA study has thus been conducted within the framework of the ESMF and RPF of
the Road Sector.

3.3

Legal Framework

In Ghana, there are a number of laws and regulations concerned with development,
health related matters and the environment in general. The major laws related to this
project include:

Environmental Assessment Regulations LI 1652, 1999 and (Amendment) LI


1703, 2002 - To provide guidance and ensure adequate consideration of
biodiversity and related sensitive resources for Environmental Impact
Assessments in Ghana.

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Environmental Protection Agency, Act 490, 1994 - Responsible for advising


government on all maters relating to the environment - monitoring sound
ecological balance and coordinating environment activities, education and
research. The Act also specifies requirements for the production of an EIA for
various proposed works. Figure 2 below indicates the EIA Procedure.

Criminal Code (Act 29) Section 296-297, 1960 - Prevents the accumulation
and exposure of filth and refuse of all kinds and the prohibition of activities,
which may endanger public health or cause damage to lands, crops, cattle or
goods. Any project activities that will pose danger to health and safety will be
infringing on this law.

Water Resources Commission Act 522 (1996) - provides for the preparation of
comprehensive plans for the regulation, utilization, conservation, development
and improvement of water resources and develops policy framework for water
resources management in the country. This Act also grants rights to exploit
water resources.

Wild Life Reserve Regulations (LI 710) 1971 - Creation of wildlife reserves
and the prohibition of water pollution within the reserve. This Act would be
particularly relevant where the road passes through or near a Game Reserve

Local Government Act 462, 1994, - District Assemblies will therefore be


responsible for the development, improvement and maintenance of human
settlements and environment in the district and local levels. The Assemblies
will therefore be responsible for the management and maintenance of the
roads within their respective jurisdiction

Town and Country Planning Cap 84, 1951 - Preparation of district layout
plans, and protection and preservation of amenities and public services such
as drainage, roads, refuse disposal, sewerage and water supply.

3.4

Environmental Assessment Regulations and Procedures

Under Ghanas Environmental laws, an EIA is mandatory for seventeen (17) types of
activities classified as environmentally critical and require an Environmental Permit (EP).
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Construction of roads and bridges is one of these critical undertakings and therefore an
EIA and EP are mandatory for the proposed project. Figure 2 below provides the EIA
and Permitting Process in Ghana.
SUBMISSION OF
EA APPLICATION

No EIA
Required

INSPECTION

SCREENING

EP ISSUED

EP DECLINED
PER SUBMISSION

EIA Required

PER REVIEW
EP ISSUED

EP DECLINED
SCOPING

PUBLIC
HEARING

EIA STUDY
DRAFT EIS SUBMISSION
PUBLIC
EIS REVISION

Revision Required

DRAFT EIS REVIEW

Public Hearing

HEARING
(Committee)
Approval
Revision Required

Recommended

EIS FINALISED

Required

DECISION
Approval
Recommended

EP DECLINED
EP ISSUED

EPA Action
Proponent Action
Public

EIA - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMNET

EA - ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

EIS - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

EP - ENVIRONMENTAL PERMIT

PER - PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT


PEA - PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

Figure 10: The EIA Procedure in Ghana

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3.5

Institutional Framework

Institutional responsibilities for the co-ordination, planning, administration, management


and control of development and environmental issues are fragmented among a number
of agencies, ministries and organizations. The major institutions involved include:
1. Environmental Protection Agency
2. Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing
3. Water Resources Commission
4. Ministry of Roads and Highways
5. Ghana Highway Authority
6. Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development
7. District Assemblies.
8. Ministry of Lands and Forestry
9. Ministry of Food and Agriculture
10. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
11. Department of Town and Country Planning
12. National Development Planning Commission (NDPC).

During the preparation of the ESIA, these major institutions and/or their documents were
consulted for their technical advice, expert knowledge and concerns or future
programmes as related to the project.

3.5.1 Institutional and Implementation Arrangements

Ministry of Roads and Highways (MRH)

The MRH has the specific task of coordinating and guiding the activities of the three
main executing agencies in the road sector under the Ministry. The MRH has a Deputy
Director in charge of Road Safety and Environment (RSE).
The MRH has responsibility for the:
-

Formulation and implementation of integrated transport policy and planning;

Promotion of strategic investment in the sector;

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Development, implementation and monitoring of road projects; and

Regulation of standards

Ghana Highway Authority (GHA)

The GHA is a semi-autonomous body with a responsibility for the provision and
management of trunk roads. It was originally established in 1974 as the organization
responsible for the development and administration of the entire national road network.
Since the GHA Act 540 of December 1997, its role has been limited to the
administration, control, development and maintenance of trunk roads and related
facilities subject to the policies of the MRH.
The GHA has a 4-person Environmental Management Unit (EMU) that has oversight on
environmental and social issues of the Authoritys mandate. The EMU operates under
the Road Safety and Environment Division (RSED).

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The EPA has the mandate to decide on project screening, guide the conduct of any EA
studies and to grant environmental approval for road sector projects to commence. Its
mandate also covers monitoring of implementation phase of road and bridge projects to
ensure compliance with approval conditions, mitigation measures, and other
environmental commitments and quality standards.

Resource Management Institutions

The Water Resources Commission (WRC), Wildlife Division (WD) and the Forest
Services Division (FSD) of the Forestry Commission (FC) are the water, wildlife and
forest resources management institutions respectively.

These institutions become

relevant whenever such resources under their management are likely to be impacted on
or implicated in a proposed road project. Such stakeholder institutions would then be
consulted in the planning and decision processing to prevent, avoid, reduce or mitigate
the likely impact of the project. They may also have to give their consent with respect to

Draft ESIA for Bridges in Ghana

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the extent to which such resources may be affected or lost as a result of the road
development.

Utility Service Providing Institutions

The Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG), Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL),
Ghana Telecom (GT) and Bulk Oil Storage and Transport (BOST) are public /private
institutions that provide and/ manage utility services including electricity, water,
telecommunication and petroleum transmission and storage infrastructure. These are all
linear transmission facilities either through underground pipes or overhead lines, often
along existing road network corridors (where roads exist).

Road construction or

reconstruction and other services and interventions tend to affect such transmission
lines. These often require relocation, realignment, etc to make room for the road project,
which calls for the involvement of the respective utility companies or institutions to be
consulted in the road project decision-making processes as appropriate.

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4.0

DESCRIPTION OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

4.1

Physical features

The Upper East Region (UER) is located in the north-eastern corner of the country
between longitude 00 and 10 West and latitudes 100 30N and 110N. It is bordered to
the north by Burkina Faso, the east by the Republic of Togo, the west by Sissala in
Upper West and the south by West Mamprusi in Northern Region. The land is relatively
flat with a few hills to the East and southeast. The total land area is about 8,842 sq km,
which translates into 2.7 per cent of the total land area of the country as indicated below

Figure 11: Regional Maps


The Upper West Region (UWR) on the other hand covers a geographical area of
approximately 18,478 square kilometers. This constitutes about 12.7 per cent of the total
land area of Ghana. The region is bordered on the North by the Republic of Burkina
Faso, on the East by Upper East Region, on the South by Northern Region and on the
West by Cote dIvoire.
4.1.1 Soil and drainage
The regions soils are upland soil mainly developed from granite rocks. It is shallow and
low in soil fertility, weak with low organic matter content, and predominantly coarse
textured. Erosion is a problem. Valley areas have soils ranging from sandy candy loams
to salty clays. They have higher natural fertility but are more difficult to till and are prone
Draft ESIA for Bridges in Ghana

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to seasonal water logging and floods. Drainage is mainly by the White and Red Volta
and Sissili Rivers (Regional Coordinating Unit, 2003).

4.1.2 Vegetation
The UER has natural vegetation that of the savannah woodland characterized by short
scattered drought-resistant trees and grass that gets burnt by bushfire or scorched by
the sun during the long dry season. Human interference with ecology is significant,
resulting in near semi-arid conditions. The most common economic trees are the
sheanut, dawadawa, boabab and acacia. The UW region is located in the guinea
savannah vegetation belt. The vegetation consists of grass with scattered drought
resistant trees such as the shea, the baobab, dawadawa, and neem trees. The
heterogeneous collection of trees provides all domestic requirements for fuel wood and
charcoal, construction of houses, cattle kraals and fencing of gardens. The shorter
shrubs and grass provide fodder for livestock.

Fig 12: Typical vegetation in the dry

Typical vegetation in the wet seasons

seasons

According to the Forestry Services Division (FSD) the dominant tree species found
along the bank of River Sissili and other low lying areas include Khaya senegalensis,
Anogeissus spp. Daniella oliveri, Parkia bioglobosa, Vitellaria paradoxum and other
common savanna species.
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In addition, the FSD indicated that Sissili North Forest Reserve serves as a watershed
area for Sissili River and its tributaries. It also serves as a shelter for a good number of
wildlife species and as a faunal corridor for migratory animals from Nazinga Game
Reserve in Burkina Faso. Mammals like Loxodonta Africana (elephants) and other
migratory mammals move from Burkina Faso through Sissili North forest reserve. The
Sissili North forest reserve then provides a protective corridor for animals to either
Chiana Hill forest reserve or Sissili central forest reserve both of which share common
boundaries with it.
The Non-Timber (NTFPs) found in the reserve include fruits of Gardenia spp., Parkia
bioglobosa, Vitellaria paradoxe, Lannea acida, Diospyros mespiliformis, Annona
senegaiensis for food; poles and rafters for building, small timber for tool handles and
mortars as well as medicinal plants.
4.1.3 Climate
The UER has a climate is characterized by one rainy season from May/June to
September/October. The mean annual rainfall during this period is between 800 mm and
1.100 mm. The rainfall is erratic spatially and in duration. There is a long spell of dry
season from November to mid February, characterized by cold, dry and dusty harmattan
winds. Temperatures during this period can be as low as 14 degrees centigrade at night,
but can go to more than 35 degrees centigrade during the daytime.
Humidity
Humidity is, however, very low making the daytime high temperature less uncomfortable.
The region is entirely within the Meningitis Belt of Africa. It is also within the
onchocerciasis zone, but with the control of the disease, large areas of previously
abandoned farmlands have been declared suitable for settlement and farming.
Temperature
The climate of the UWR is one that is common to the three northern regions. There are
two seasons, the dry and the wet seasons. The wet season commences from early April
and ends in October.
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The dry season, characterized by the cold and hazy harmattan weather, starts from
early November and ends in the latter part of March when the hot weather begins, with
intensity and ends only with the onset of the early rainfall in April.
The temperature of the region is between a low of 150C at night time during the
harmattan season and a high of 400C in the day during the hot season.

4.1.4 Political and administrative structure


Both regions are administered politically from the capitals i.e. Bolgatanga and Wa. The
main administrative structure at the regional levels is the Regional Co-ordinating Council
(RCC), headed by the Regional Ministers.
Other members of the RCC include representatives from each district assembly,
regional heads of decentralized ministries, and representatives of the Regional House of
Chiefs. The UE region has 6 administrative districts3, namely Builsa, Kassena-Nankana,
Bongo, Bolgatanga, Bawku West and Bawku East while the UW region has five
administrative districts namely, Wa, Nadawli, Jirapa-Lambussie, Lawra and Sissala
District Assemblies.
Each district is administered by a Municipal/District Assembly headed by a Chief
Executive. The districts are autonomous with regard to the planning, budgeting and
implementation of projects. The Districts are further subdivided into Area/Town
Councils/Unit Committees. Within the UE region there are currently twelve (12) political
parliamentary constituencies. These are Builsa South, Navrongo Central, Chiana-Paga,
Bongo, Bolgatanga, Sandema, Talensi, Nabdan, Zebilla, Binduri, Bawku Central and
Garu-Tempane. The UWR on the other hand currently has eight political parliamentary
constituencies namely, Wa Central, Wa East, Nadawli North, Nadawli South, Jirapa,
Lambussie, Sissala and Lawra-Nandom.

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4.1.5 Rainfall
The mean annual rainfall is between 1000 and 1100mm which occurs from March to
April after which there is usually a long dry season which is highly pronounced and starts
from November and lasting till.
The rainfall pattern has a unimodal distribution with the highest rainfalls (of less than
1000mm around Paga to 1100mm in Tamale) being expected in July and August with
the highest floods arising in the period August to September. The floods are caused
either by short-period, high intensity storms or by longer periods of persistent rainfall of a
lower intensity. The relative importance of these two types of storms depends on, inter
alia, the size, slope, shape and vegetation cover of the river catchments. The more
intense storms are the result of thunderstorms, generally of a north-south orientation and
moving from east to west. The torrential rain usually lasts from two to three hours up to
twelve hours.

4.1.6 Water Quality

Methodology
Physical and biological data were collected from water samples from all the Rivers.
Some parameters were measured in-situ whiles the others were obtained at the Aqua
Vitens Rand Laboratories in Bolga and Wa depending on the location of the River bed.
Samples taken from the Rivers/Streams were stored on ice and transported to the Aqua
Vitens Rand Limited laboratories in Bolga and Wa.
Results
Rivers have become the conduit through which pollutants are transported from
agricultural and other domestic waste. The results of the tests are as indicated in Table
7 and 8 below.

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Table 7: Physical and Chemical parameters


Sample

pH

SAL

Cond

Temp

TSS

TDS

NO3

PO4

Kulungugu 7.3

0.1

160.5

28.2

76

2.10

0.17

Garu

6.5

91.2

28.5

96

43

15.6

0.43

Doninga/

8.3

55

28.3

26

1.5

0.12

Ambalara

6.7

0.1

160.3

34.0

20

75

4.0

0.04

Kulun

7.5

0.1

149.3

35.0

70

1.9

0.19

Sisili

SAL=Salinity

Cond=Conductivity

Temp=Temperature
TSS=Total Suspended Solids

TDS=Total Dissolved Solids

NO3=Nitrates
PO4=Phosphates
Table 8: Biological Parameters
Sample

F.COLI

TOT. COLI

(MPN/100ml)

(MPN/100 ml)

Kulungugu

>16

200

Garu

>16

220

Doninga/

Ambalara

>16

TNTC

Kulun

Sisili

F. COLI = Faecal Coliform TOT. COLI = Total Coliform

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Temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and total dissolved solids were satisfactory
in almost all the water samples (except in Garu where the TSS was too high) and within
the WHO limits.
Nitrate and phosphate concentrations in all the water samples were also within the WHO
acceptable limits.
However faecal coliform and total coliform levels in the Kulungugu, Garu and Ambalara
Rivers were too high and within unacceptable levels. The high levels of the coliforms in
this Rivers are a cause for concern and can be used as an indicator of sewage
contamination. Faecal coliform are found in the bowels of mammals.
The coliform (faecal and total) within the Sissili/Doninga and Kulun Rivers were within
acceptable levels.
The proposed construction of the bridges has the potential to have a negative impact on
the water quality within the rivers. It has the potential to increase total suspended solids
(TSS and turbidity), both of which may impact on the aquatic life (both flora and fauna)
and also the aesthetic quality.

4.1.7 Air Quality and Noise Levels


The road corridors leading to the Rivers all experience the countryside air type and with
the untarred roads generates dust with the movement of vehicles otherwise they are
generally of good quality. There are no specific sources of gaseous or particulate
emissions however, during the dry season when the north-easterly dry Harmattan winds
are prevalent, however, construction and haulage activities would generate considerable
dust leading to dust pollution in the project areas.

Noise level along most sections of the roads reflects the rural nature of the road
alignment. The background noise levels are not expected to rise above the levels of
55Dba for between 0600-2200 hours set by the Environmental Protection Agency for
such areas. However, it is expected that the more developed areas such as the District
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Capitals and other bigger settlements along the road will experience a higher noise level
than usual. The Contractors equipment during the construction stage will each generate
noise levels indicated in Table 7.

Table 9:

Typical construction equipment noise levels before and after


mitigation

EQUIPMENT TYPE

NOISE LEVEL AT 15M


WITHOUT NOISE

WITH FEASIBLE NOISE

CONTROL

CONTROL1

Front loaders

79

75

Backhoes

85

75

Dozers

80

75

Tractors

80

75

Scrapers

88

80

Graders

85

75

Trucks

91

75

Pavers

89

80

Concrete mixers

85

75

Concrete pumps

82

75

Cranes

83

75

Pumps

76

75

Generators

78

75

Compressors

81

75

Pile Drivers

101

95

Jack Hammers

88

75

EARTHMOVING

MATERIALS HANDLING

STATIONARY

IMPACT

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Pneumatic Tools

86

80

Saw

78

75

Vibrators

76

75

81

OTHERS

Asphalt-Concrete

Batch

Plants2

Sources: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001 and Asphalt Drum Mixers,
Inc. (ADM), 1998.
1. Estimated levels obtained by selecting quieter procedures or machines and
implementing
noise control features requiring no major redesign or extreme cost.
2 Represents the average maximum operational noise level based on tests
performed under varying Conditions for four different places of similar equipment:
Starjet 580, Powerstar 580, Ecostar 100, Starjet Conversion Kit 580 (ADM, 1998)

4.1.8 Fauna
The vegetation of the project area provides a suitable habitat for a diverse range of
fauna. A description of the fauna in the project area was, therefore, undertaken. The
objective was to assess the potential fauna diversity of the area by preparing a check list
of fauna species, and their relative abundance to form the baseline data for any future
monitoring that may take place and also to determine if there are any species of
conservation significance (including their habitat).
The FSD indicated that detail information on wildlife species and their populations has
not been documented. However, direct observation on patrol, as well as information
from local hunters indicates that the following animals are present in the reserve:
Loxodonta Africana (elephant), Kobus defassa, (Water buck), Hippotragus equines (roan
antelope), Potamochoerus porcus (bush pig) Lepus carpensis (hare), Heliosciurus spp.,
Funiscium spp, (tree squirrels) and Cricetonys gambianus (giant rats), Python sebae,
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Francolinus spp. (bush fowls), Falconidae (hawks, falcons, kites) etcre the Baobab,
Shea, Acacia dudgeoni, Isoberlinia spp., Burkea africana, Daniellia oliveri, Lophira
lanceolata, Vitellaria paradoxa and Parkia clappertoniana. The Characteristic grasses
include members of the genera Andropogon, Hyparrhenia, Bothriochloa, Loudetia,
Vetiveria, Panicum, and Paspalum.

4.1.9

Geology and Soils

The project area is underlain in the Kintampo section by the Voltaian formation,
consisting principally of sandstones, mud rocks, conglomerates, limestone and tillites. In
parts, they have created highlands, rocky scarp slopes and valleys with waterfalls.
The soils formed over the Voltaian rocks vary in nature depending on the parent rock.
The residual soils formed over the Voltaian formation consist principally of clayey and
softy sands, with quartz veins of substantial thickness existed in the parent rock.
Over the mudstones, heavy clays may result while over the sandstones the resulting
soils may range from clean sands to sandy gravels depending on the rainfall and
drainage. The major soil association with this type of geology is the Damango - Murugu Tanoso types, developed from the Voltaian sandstone under savanna vegetation. They
are well drained lateritic and savanna ochorosols interspersed with patches of clay.
Generally the soils are red, deep and suitable for the cultivation of crops like yams,
cassava, maize, vegetables and legumes. Cashew, tobacco and cotton also do well in
these soils.
The weathered residual lateritic red soil found along the rolling terrain of the alignment
from after Kintampo through Tamale to Bolgatanga is reasonably uniform in nature.
From Bolgatanga to Paga the geology is more of metamorphic and igneous rock in
nature. The laterites have been derived from the underlying fine-grained Sedimentary
Voltaian sandstone, mudstone and siltstones.

The deposits of laterite typically show

layers of nodular laterite (gravel) between 0.5mm and 1.5m thick beneath an overburden
of organic topsoil and plinthite of approximately 0.5m.

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The area is considered to fall within the Interior Savannah Vegetation Zone, with the
soils being classified as mostly of the Groundwater Laterite and Groundwater
Laterite/Ochrosol intergrades, changing to Savannah Ochrosol. The Groundwater
Lateritic sil are poorly drained loamy soils which provide poor pastures while the
Savannah Ochrosols are well-drained porous soils which are extensively farmed.

4.2

Sissili and Doninga Bridges (Builsa District) Relief

The topography of the area is undulating and slopes ranging from 200 metres to 300
metres are found in the Northern part of the District particularly around Bachonsa and
Chuchuliga zones. In the valleys of Sissili, Kulpawn, Besibeli, Tono, Asibelika and the
Azimzim, the slopes are gentler and range from 150 metres to 200 metres.

Inselbergs and other granitic outcrops occasionally break the monotony of the near flat
surfaces. In general the low-lying nature of the land makes greater part of it liable to
flooding in years of copious rains.

Drainage
Like most parts of Northern Ghana, a significant portion of the District falls within the
Volta basin and is heavily dissected by a number of important tributaries of the White
Volta such as the Sissili, Kulpawn, Tono, Asebelika, Belipieni, etc, giving a very high
drainage density. Most of these streams are however seasonal and dry up during the
extended dry season with an adverse effect on the supply of water for both agricultural
and domestic use.

Besides the high drainage density coupled with the low-lying terrain reduces the level of
accessibility in the District. Between July and October in particular most rivers and
streams overflow their banks, a number of roads, tracks and foot paths are flooded and
settlements cut off from the centre.

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Temperature
The District has mean monthly temperatures ranging between 21.90 C and 34.10 C.
The highest temperatures are recorded in March and this can rise to 45 0 C, whereas the
lowest temperatures are recorded in January. The dry season is characterized by dry
harmattan winds and wide diurnal temperature ranges.

Weather Situation
During the first quarter of the year, the district usually experiences two extremes of
weather conditions: The dry harmattan cold winds, which prevail over the entire district
for the months of January and February even though there could be some days of hot
and warmer conditions.

The second quarter of the year experiences drier, hotter and warmer conditions over the
entire area especially in March followed by intermittent rainfall accompanied by strong
winds interspersed with periods of drought. Thus on the whole the period January to
June may experience some small to moderate amount of rainfall averaging about
850mm although the rainfall may start early enough, an unexpected dry spell may affect
the moisture inflow and hence curtail the rains. This situation can affect adversely
agricultural activities and crop performance. For instance a short drought that occurred
between March and April 2002 resulted in a fall in the expected rainfall amounts of about
133.1mm as compared to that of the same period in 2001.

Rainfall
There is only one rainy season, which builds up gradually from little rains in April to a
maximum in August-September, and then declines sharply coming to a complete halt in
mid-October when the dry season sets in. Rainfalls are very torrential and range
between 85mm and 1150mm p.a. with irregular dry spells occurring in June or July.

Vegetation and Land Uses


The vegetation of the District is characterized by savannah woodland and consists
mostly of deciduous widely spaced fire and drought resistant, trees of varying sizes and
Draft ESIA for Bridges in Ghana

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density with dispersed perennial grasses and associated herbs. Through the activities of
man, the woodland savannah has been reduced to open parkland where only trees of
economic value like baobab, acacia, sheanut and the dawadawa have been retained
with time.

These trees satisfy domestic requirements for fuel wood and timber for local housing
construction, cattle kraals, vegetable garden fences and materials for handicraft. On the
whole there are about sixteen (14) different land uses derived from the main natural
savannah vegetation. These are:
1. Mixed arable cropping grass and herb with or without savanna trees.
2. Mixed arable cropping closed savanna woodland
3. Mixed arable cropping open savanna woodland.
4. Mixed arable cropping, widely open savanna woodland.
5. Closed forest plantation
6. Reserved closed savanna woodland
7. Open-access savanna woodland
8. Reserved open savanna woodland
9. Open-access open savanna woodland with/without scattered farms/grazing
10. Open-access grassland with/without scattered farms.
11. Riverine vegetation with/without farms
12. Forests
13. Cloud/Haze covered vegetation
14. Reservoir (dam) sites
In the dry season, annual bush fires decimate the grasses and shrubs and as a result
pastures for livestock are largely destroyed. These bush fires also ravage the forest
reserves in the District and render them hardly distinguishable from the surrounding
vegetation.

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Geology
The main rock types underlying soils of the District are Granitic formations, Birimian
rocks, Voltaian shale and Alluvia material or deposits.
Granitic Rocks including hornblende granite constitute over 70% of the geological
formations of the District and cover about 153, 295 hectares of the area.
They stretch across the northern section of the District from Chuchuliga to Doninga,
covering greater part of Sandema and Siniensi Zones. They extend southwards to
Wiaga, parts of Gbedema, Uwasi and Southern Fumbisi.

Few iron as well as

concretions of manganese dioxide and calcium carbonate may be found in these rock
deposits.
Birimian rock formations cover approximately 11,905 hectares or a little over 5% of the
sub-soil and are found extensively in eastern and southern parts of Kadema. They are
also localized outside Fumbisi south. The Birimian formations have abundant green
stone brash aggregates with some quartz stones in a matrix of brown to reddish brown
silty clay.
The Voltaian Shales are relatively minor in extent and cover 10,950 hectares or about
5% of the District. They are in the South Eastern and Southern parts of the District,
mostly around Uwasi and Gbedembilisi area and in the flood plains of the White Volta.
These constitute the second largest group of geological formations in the District and are
made up of recent and old alluvia sand stones as well as very old river terraces. They
cover some 28,970 hectares or 19% of the land area and are found mostly in the
terraces of the White Volta and its tributaries, namely Sissili, Kulpawn and Kandembeli.
They cover parts of Wiesi, Gbedembilisi and south of Uwasi.
Soils
As noted from above, the soils of Builsa District are developed from five different
geological formations namely Granite, Birimian rocks, Voltaian shale, Recent and Old
Alluvium of mixed origin and Very Old River Terraces. Out of these, the dominant soil
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groups in the District are of granite origin and they cover over 70% (approximately
153,300ha) of the Districts land area. They form the predominant soils in the northern
half of the District and more than half of the southern section.

Most of these soils are Gravelly and concretionary, except for the lower slope and valley
bottom soils, which are generally free of gravel and concretions. Majority of the soils can
be used for agriculture except the Wenchi and Chuchuliga series, which are considered
as non-agricultural soils. This is because of the presence of iron pan boulders,
occurrence of iron pan at shallow depths, rock outcrops and little profile development in
some of these soils. These non-agricultural soils cover more than 2.0% of the District.

The second largest groups of soils in the District are those derived form alluvia of mixed
origin and those on very old river terraces. These soils, which cover approximately
19.0% (28.970 ha) of the District, are the best agricultural soils.

They are

characteristically gravel-free, non-concretionary, deep to very deep and medium to


heavy textured. In terms of drainage, these soils fall into two broad groups; well to
moderately well-drained and imperfectly to poorly-drained. With good water control
measures and effective soil management practices, these alluvial soils can be cultivated
to a very wide range of crops. They are also highly suitable for both hand and
mechanized cultivation.

The soils developed from Birimian rocks and Voltaian shale form the smallest group in
the District. The soils of Birimian rock origin cover a little over 5.0% (11,905ha) while
those of Voltaian shale, are about 5.0% (10,980ha) of the Districts land area. The
middle to lower slope and valley bottom soils of the Birimian rock origin are generally
deep, gravel-free and non-concretionary and, in some cases, brashly. Most of the soils
of Voltaian shale origin are gravelly and highly concretionary. Iron pan may also occur
in them as exposures or as a massive, compact and manganiferrous layer at shallow
depth. The valley bottom soils of the Volta-Lima Association on the other hand are deep
to very deep and may have no iron pan. These soils occur on level land and are
therefore, suitable for mechanized farming under effective water management.
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Irrespective of their geographical formation, all the soils are generally low in fertility,
especially nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter. In general, greater part of the soil
covers of the District is poorly drained. Intense erosion overtime has contributed to
serious

reduction

in

soil

depth

and

thereby

to

loss

of

arable

surface.

The alluvial soils of the South are on the whole very suitable for rice production due to
the seasonal flooding in the areas. It is envisaged that the regular application of mineral
fertilizers and maintenance of high organic matter levels will sustain crop production in
the District.

4.3

Kulungugu Bridge (Bawku Municipality)

Relief and Drainage

The municipality is underlain mainly by Birrimian and granite rock formation. The relief
of the municipality easily marks the highest point of the Upper East Region. In areas
bordering the basins of the White Volta River and its tributaries, the relief is generally
low and slightly undulating with heights of 120-150 metres above sea level. The rest of
the municipality consists of a series of plateau surfaces. These being remnants of
prolonged periods of weathering and erosion of the scattered hills. The average height
of the plateau is 400 metres above sea level, but isolated peaks rise beyond 430 metres
as in the case of Zawse hills. Outcrops of rocks are also found in many areas.

The Bawku municipality is drained mainly by the White Volta and its tributaries. Other
streams which influence the drainage system include Kulupielega and the Poanaba
Kayinchingo. Except in a few areas around the river basin where the drainage becomes
poor because of seasonal flooding. The area is generally drained.

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Climate
As with the whole of the Upper East Region, Bawku municipality is part of the interior
continental climatic zone of the country characterized by pronounced dry and wet
seasons. The two seasons are influenced by two oscillating air masses. First is the
warm, dusty and dry harmattan air mass which blows in the north easterly direction
across the whole municipality from the Sahara Desert. During the period of its influence
(late November early March) rainfall is entirely absent, vapour pressure is very low
(less than 10 mb) and relative humidity rarely exceeds 20% during the day but may rise
to 60% during the nights and early mornings. Temperatures are usually modest at this
time of the year by tropical standards (260c 280c).
May to October marks the wet season. During this period, the whole of West African
sub region including Bawku municipality is under the influence of a deep tropical
maritime air mass. This air mass together with rising conviction currents, provide the
municipality with rains.
The total rainfall amounts to averagely 800m per annum. A striking characteristic of the
rainfall worth noting is the extreme variability and reliability both between and within
seasons. Another striking characteristic is the large quantity of rain water normally lost
through evapotranspiration from open water surfaces. Estimates of the volume of rain
water loss vary from 1.55mm to 1.65mm per annum.
Vegetation
The vegetation is mainly of the Sahel Savannah type consisting of open Savannah with
fire swept grassland separating deciduous trees among which may be seen a few broadleaved and fire-leached tree species. Parts of the forest reserves include Morago West,
Kuka and the White Volta basin. These are protected areas by local authorities and the
Municipal Assembly. The Climatic conditions render the municipality susceptible to bush
fires in the dry season and thus exacerbate environmental degradation and poverty in
the municipality.

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Soils
Soils in the Municipality are generally of the savanna ochrosol type. Detailed soil
classification reveals four different soil series. These are:
(i)

Varempare series, found mostly around Bawku and surrounding settlement.


They are mainly sandy loams associated with hornblende and granites. They are
quite permeable with moderately good water retention capacity and are suitable
for the cultivation of cereals and legumes.

(ii)

Tafali series, similar to the varempare series and found around Binduri and
surrounding settlements.

(iii)

Gule and Brenyasi series, which occur in the low slope and valleys. These are
clay loams used for the cultivation of rice, sorghum (naga red) and dry season
vegetable cultivation (onions and tomatoes). The soils in Bawku Municipality as
typified by research results at Manga, show low nutrient properties compared with
the standard. This renders the fertility of the soils low and normally requires the
application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer to support cropping.

4.4

Garu (Timne) Bridge (Garu-Timpane District)

According to the Garu-Timpane District Assembly, what we refer to in this report as the
Garu Bridge is called the Timne Bridge because the bridge is built over the Timne
River.
The natural environment over the years has been degraded. The vegetation cover has
been reduced; the Surface water in the dry season is also limited. Indiscriminate felling
of trees for charcoal and farming activities have impacted negatively on the environment.
Other negative environmental practices in the District are:
* Bush burning
* Bad farming practices leading to soil erosion and leaching
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* Overgrazing by animals
* Gravel winning.
* Pollution of the water bodies.
Many of these also constitute the principal causes of disasters in the District in addition
to rainstorm Drastic measures need to be put in place to safeguard the environment
Hydrology
In the basement complex, ground water is found in weathered mantle not in abundant
quantities. The quality of ground water from the basement complex makes it ideally
suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes. It is therefore not difficult drilling boreholes
and constructing dams in the area.
Soil
The District is covered with three main soil types:
* Red and brown Sandy loam and clays associated with hornblende granular.
* Moderately deep, pale brown coarse sandy loams associated with biotitic
granites.
* Gray sandy loams and clays in river valleys.
These support a variety of crops in the District, mainly cereals and Legumes.

Minerals
There are limestone deposits in the Western part of the District notably in the
Worikambo Area. This could be exploited for the manufactured of paint and chalk.

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4.5

Ambalara and Kulun Bridges

Topography & Drainage


The land is generally undulating with height between 180-1300m above sea level.
Drainage is the dendrite type, dominated by the Kulpawn and its tributaries. Most of the
rivers over flow their banks during the raining seasons and make most parts of the
district inaccessible during this period.
However, they dry up during the dry season but offer great opportunities for fishing and
irrigation dams if they are proper climate and vegetation.
The climate is tropical equatorial, which prevails throughout the northern part of Ghana.
Temperatures are high all-year, ranging between 15c-45c. The temperatures are
lowest in December/January, while the highest occur in March /April. The average
annual and average monthly temperatures are 21c and 38c respectively.
Climate
The Harmattan, characterized by cold, dry dusty wind with occasional haze occurs
between November to April yearly. The district has a single rainfall regime from MayOctober. The average annual rainfall is about 1,200mm/year and they are torrential,
erratic and stormy. The single rainfall regime does not make farming all year round
possible.
Most farmers therefore become redundant during the long dry season, from November
to May. There is therefore the need for irrigation facilities in the district to provide
employment opportunities during this period.
The vegetation is guinea savanna, depicted by isolated woodlands, short thick trees,
shrubs and grasses of varying heights. The common economic trees in the district
include sheanut, baobab, kapok, dawadawa, acacia, neem and ebony, mangoes,
cashew and acheaple. Over 30% of the natural vegetation has been destroyed by
annual bush burning, inappropriate farming practices, indiscriminate cutting of trees for
wood, charcoal and poor animal husbandry practices. The consequence of these human
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practices is that the district is faced with a serious problem of environmental


degradation.
As a measure to address this problem, The Friends of the Environment in Agro-Forestry,
an NGO has initiated a project aimed at promoting tree-planting by individuals and
organizations in the district.
Geology and Soil
The district consists mainly of pre-cambrian base rock, granite and metamorphic rock
types. Deposits of gold, iron and bauxite and clay abound in the Bulenga sub-district and
in other parts of the district. The rocks offer opportunities for mining and illegal miners
called galamsey are exploiting them.
The soils are mainly sandy loamy which are very fertile and suitable for the cultivation of
tubers, cereals, legumes and livestock.

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5.0

SOCIAL BASELINE

The Social Impact Area (SIA) for this study was demarcated as five (5) kilometers from
the proposed bridge locations.

Interviews were conducted with residents within the communities in the study areas.
Questionnaires were administered in a stratified and random manner to community
persons and
shop keepers throughout the SIA. Questionnaires were administered with the bulk being
done within a 2.5km radius of the proposed location of the bridges since those persons
would be more likely to be impacted by the developments.

5.1

Upper East Region (UER)

Demographic characteristics
The population of the region is 920,089, which is less than one twentieth (4.9%) of the
national population. This however is an increase of 19 per cent over the 1984 figure of
722,744, which is the lowest rate of increase among all the regions in the country.
The inter censual growth rate of 1.1 per cent per annum is slightly below one-half the
national growth rate of 2.7 per cent and is the lowest regional growth rate recorded. The
regions population density of 104.1 persons per square kilometer is higher than the
national density of 79.3 persons per square kilometer and ranks fifth in the country.
Rural-urban population
The population is primarily rural (84.3%) and scattered in dispersed settlements. There
are generally no distinct boundaries between communities as compounds in contiguous
villages over lap. The rural population in 1984 was 87.1 percent. There was, thus, a 2.8
percentage point reduction in the rural share of the population between 1984 and 2000.

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The slight increase in the urban share of the population has been due mainly to increase
in population of existing urban centers. Only 2 towns, Garu and Pusiga have grown from
rural to urban localities since 1984. Garu increased from 3,104 in 1984 to 5,057 in 2000,
while Pusiga grew from 1,125 to 6,823 over the same period. The largest growth in
urban proportion occurred in Bawku (34,074 to 51,379) and Bolgatanga (32,495 to
49,162). Some urban centre however decreased in population (e.g., Navrongo, Paga).
With only 15.7 per cent of the population living in urban areas, the region is the least
urbanized in the country. In fact, together with Upper West, they are the two regions with
a less than 20 per cent urban population.
As an increasing number of children mature and enter the reproductive years, the
number of women in child bearing ages 15-49 years will increase. A large increase in
the number of women of childbearing ages inevitably means more children (i.e. in terms
of total quantity) even though individual women may give birth to fewer children than
their mothers.
The simple explanation is that there are just so many more women available to give
births. Women of childbearing ages 15-49 comprise 24.9 per cent the total population of
the region in 2000, compared with 23 per cent in 1984.
Age structure by sex
The age structure for the sexes shows that in the region, there are more females than
males. This, however, varies by age. The proportion of males aged 0-19 years (56.3%)
is higher than that for females (49.0%). Between ages 20 and 64 years, there is a higher
proportion of females (45.1%) than males (36.8%), while those 65 years and older are
6.8 per cent males compared to 5.9 per cent females. In the female reproductive age
group of 15-49 years, there is an overall excess of females (44.3%) over males (39.2%)
of about 13.0 percent.
The observed age-sex structure of the region follows very closely the pattern found at
the national level where there are more females than males in almost every age group
from ages twenty up to seventy-four. It is important to note, however, that although the
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regional proportions at the various age groups follow the national pattern, there are
substantial differences in the magnitude of the proportions between the country as a
whole and the region.
The higher excess of female in the adult age groups within the region compared to the
national picture may be due partly to long-term out migration of able - bodied men to the
southern regions of the country and to a lesser extent due to higher male mortality in
ethnic conflicts.
The excess of females has implications for agriculture and food production given the
known traditional male control of access to land and landownership in the region. The
implications of the female excess for sexual and reproductive behaviours should also be
a matter of great concern even after taking into account the mitigating effects of the
practice of polygamy.
For the elderly population (70 years and older), the pattern of more males than females
is repeated. The sex ratios reflect the observed pattern which is contrary to the expected
pattern of more females than males at the older ages, and may be partly due to
exaggeration of age by elderly men. The sex distribution of the regions population
favours females. There are 92.6 males to 100 females, which is a slight increase over
the 91.0 males per 100 females in 1984.
Age dependency burden/ratio
The dependency ratio of 99.2 in 2000 for the region is a slight increase from the 96.7 in
1984. The ratio implies that there is roughly one dependent person for every
economically active adult. This trend has serious implications for socio-economic
planning.
The need to provide for the economically dependent persons puts pressure on the
resources of the region and individual families. On the whole, children are particularly
dependent. They must be housed, fed, clothed, educated and provided with health care
and other services that either take a long time to yield dividends or have no immediate
bearing on economic growth.
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The region has a large and youthful labour force, which, if properly managed, can
become a great economic asset. About 56 per cent (55.7 percent) of the labour force is
below 35 years.
Nationally the labour force aged 15-34 years shrank slightly from 63.7 per cent of the
total labour force in 1984 to 61.1 per cent in 2000, while those aged 35-64 increased
between 1984 and 2000.
For the region, also, the labour force aged 15-34 years shrank slightly from 56.4 per cent
of the total labour force in 1984 to 55.7 per cent in 2000, while those aged 35-64
increased marginally.

Ethnicity
Ghanaians by birth or parenthood constitute 92.5 per cent of the population of the
region. Naturalized Ghanaians constitute 5.3 per cent and the rest are non-Ghanaians.
There are far fewer non-Ghanaians (2.1 percent) than naturalized Ghanaians.
The main ethnic groups in the region are the Mole-Dagbon, Grusi, Mande-Busanga and
Gurma. Among the Mole-Dagbon, the Nabdam, Kusasi, Nankani/Gurense and Builsa
are significant. The significant other subgroups are the Kassena among the Grusi, the
Busanga among the Mande-Busanga and the Bimoba among the Gurma.
The regional picture however changes, depending on the base district of the ethnic
groups. The Nabdam who form 30.5 per cent of the regions population, make up 94.2
per cent of the population of Bongo and 83.8 per cent of the population of Bolgatanga.
The Builsa, who constitute 7.6 per cent of the regions population, make up 84.1 per cent
of the population of Builsa. The Kassena and the Nankani, who make up 15.7 per cent
of the regions population, together make up 88.3 per cent of the population of KassenaNankana.

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The Kusasis make up 22.6 per cent of the regions total population, but they make up
about 75 per cent of the population of Bawku West and 47.6 per cent of the population
of Bawku East. The Busanga also make up about 6 per cent of the regions population
and are mostly in Bawku East (15.4%) and Bawku West (7.8%).
The Mamprusi comprise only 1.8 per cent of the regions population. They are thinly
spread in the districts. The highest concentration is in the Bawku East district where they
comprise 3.7 per cent of the population. However, the two adjacent districts in the
Northern region, which are located to the South of Bawku East and Bawku West, are
mostly Mamprusi.
Bawku East is the most mixed district in terms of ethnic groups. Only the Kusasi and the
Busanga constitute more than ten per cent of the population. The two ethnic groups
account for 63 per cent of the population. The remaining 37 per cent is made up of over
thirty other ethnic groups, including the Bimoba and the Mamprusi. The socio-cultural
problems that can arise as a result of the ethnic diversity of Bawku East often
manifested in the many ethnic conflicts in the district.
Religious affiliation
Three main religious groupings are found in the region, namely the Traditional (46.4%),
Christianity (28.3%) and Islam (22.6%). Builsa has the highest proportion of
Traditionalists (63.7%) followed by Bawku West (61.9%). The lowest proportion (26.8%)
is in Bawku East where Islam (51.1%) is the predominate religion.
The second major religion is Christianity, constituting of 28.3 percent; it is not
predominant in any district. Within the Christian religion, the Catholics are in the
majority. This is explained in terms of the work of the Order of the White Fathers who
arrived in Navrongo in 1906 and began proselytizing the northern territories.
Following the Catholics (57.7%) are the Pentecostal/Charismatic groups (21.7%) and
Protestants (12.3%). The regional picture is replicated in all the districts (irrespective of
the

size

of

the

Christian

population)

except

Bawku

West

where

the

Pentecostal/Charismatic group constitutes the majority of Christian population.


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Education
Basic education facilities are available in almost all communities. There are 449 primary
Schools, 177 JSS and 23 SSS. Private basic schools are found in Bolgatanga,
Navrongo and Bawku.
The high correlation between levels of education and positive health and other social
indicators makes education a very important variable in any development planning at the
district level. Higher education, especially of women, is usually associated with greater
knowledge and use of sound health practices and family planning methods.
School attendance
At the district level, Bawku East has the highest proportion (77.3%) of the 6 years and
older who have never attended school (91.3% males and 82.7% females). This situation
is most likely due to the combined effects of the late introduction of Western education,
the influence of Islamic religion, general poverty and other cultural practices. The lowest
proportion (61.2%) is in Bolgatanga (55.9% males and 66.2% females).
The problem with education is the large number of persons aged 6 years and older who
have never attended school. The data shows that in the region, more females than
males have never attended school. When the population who have ever attended school
is isolated, the levels attained are not significantly different between males and females.
Primary school is the highest level attained by 52.4 per cent in the region.
Three-quarters (74.5%) of those who have attended school in the region reached only
primary or middle/JSS levels. The proportion of males who have attended school in the
region who reached primary school level is 18.0 percent, compared to 14.3 per cent for
females. About 8.1 per cent males and 5.5 per cent females attainted middle/JSS level.
Thus put together the proportion of females in the region (19.8%) with primary and
middle/JSS is lower than that for males (26.1%). A higher proportion (9.4%) of males
attain higher levels of schooling than females (5.3%).

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Only 3.5 per cent who have ever attended school reached secondary/SSS level. This is
made up of 4.5 per cent males and 2.6 per cent females. The proportion with the
vocational/technical/commercial level is 1.3 percent, made up of 1.7 per cent males and
1.0 per cent females.
Those with post-secondary level (agricultural schools, nursing training schools and
teacher training colleges) make up 2.5 percent, with 3.2 per cent being males and 1.7
per cent females. About 1.0 per cent attained the tertiary level, made up of 1.4 per cent
males and 0.8 per cent females.
A comparison with the national situation also shows that there is significant difference
between the proportions of males and females who have never attended school.
Although the differences between the region and the total country for various
educational levels, the differences are very large. For example 45.8 per cent at the
national level attained up to middle/JSS, while at the regional level it is 22.7 percent.
The data shows that within each district, three out of every four persons (74.5%) who
had ever attended school attained primary or middle/JSS level. The proportion ranges
from 72.2 per cent in Bolgatanga to 81.1 per cent in Bawku West. Within the districts at
least 10 per cent attained JSS/SSS level except Bongo (9.7%) and Bawku West (8.6%).
The proportion that attained Vocational/Technical/Commercial education level ranges
from 2.9 per cent in Bawku West to 5.2 per cent in Bolgatanga. The proportion that
attained Secondary/Teacher Training level varies from 3.0 per cent in Bawku West to
5.2 per cent in Kassena-Nankana. Only 3.5 per cent of those who had ever attended
school reached the tertiary level varying from 2.3 per cent in Builsa to 4.0 per cent in
Bongo.
The much-discussed educational difference between males and females in the region is
due, as much to differences in initial enrolment, as to differences in school achievement.
Since fewer females than males have attended school there is bound to be fewer
females at each level of education, even assuming the ideal situation of females
achieving the same school continuation rates as males.
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Data on current enrolment show that the gap between boys and girls in school
attendance still exists. In each district and at almost every level, more boys than girls are
enrolled; Builsa is the exception, where the majority of pupils are girls. Generally, at
every level the proportion of girls progressing to the next grade reduces from one grade
to the other.
Literacy
The 2000 Census results show that only 23.5 per cent of the regions population (15
years and older) are literate in either English or a known Ghanaian language (7.0% are
literate in both). For the region as a whole and for each district, illiteracy is higher for
females than for males. The overall level of literacy is about 80 per cent or higher in
three districts, Builsa (79.8%), Bawku East (81.2%) and Bawku East (87.0%). For
females, the level is below 80 per cent in Kassena-Nankana (78.6%), Bolgatanga
(76.3%) and Bongo (74.9%).
Much of literature and mass communication is in English. This means that the level of
effective literacy (literate in English only or literate in English and a Ghanaian language)
is only 21.4 per cent in the region. Among the districts, Bolgatanga (27.7%) has the
highest effective literacy level with 34.2 per cent for males and 22.0 for females. The
lowest effective communication level (12.0%) is in Bawku West with 17.4 per cent for
males and 8.2 per cent for females.
Three districts (Builsa (17.3%), Bawku West (12.0%) and Bawku East (16.5%)) all have
literacy below 20 percent. These are the same three districts with very low levels of
school attendance. In view of the fact that current publications effectively exclude the
proportion literate in Ghanaian language only, greater efforts need to be made to
translate very useful reading communication materials as well as publish newspapers in
Ghanaian languages.
Literacy in a Ghanaian language is low in the region. The proportion literate in a
Ghanaian language (Ghanaian language only and English and Ghanaian language) is
8.3 per cent compared to the proportion literate in English only (14.4%). At the national
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level, the proportion literate in a Ghanaian language/English and a Ghanaian language


is 40.6 per cent compared to 16.4 per cent literate in English only.
In the districts, the proportion literate in a Ghanaian language ranges from 0.5 per cent
of the population aged 15 years and older in Bawku West to 2.6 per cent in Bongo. The
low level of literacy in a Ghanaian language in the region may imply that the teaching of
Ghanaian languages in schools in the region is not being pursued in a sustainable
manner.
The differences in the proportion which are in the effective functional literacy category
and the proportions literate in a Ghanaian language may also imply that literacy is
acquired mostly in the classroom setting than through the existing adult education or
functional literacy programmes.
Agriculture
Agriculture, hunting and forestry are the main economic activities in the region. About
eighty per cent of the economically active population engages in agriculture. The main
produce are millet, guinea-corn, maize, groundnut, beans, sorghum and dry season
tomatoes and onions.
Livestock and poultry production are also important. There are two main irrigation
projects, the Vea Project in Bolgatanga covering 850 hectares and the Tono Project in
Navrongo covering 2,490 hectares. Altogether they provide employment to about 6,000
small-scale farmers. Other water-retaining structures (dams and dugouts) provide water
for both domestic and agricultural purposes.
Economic characteristics
The main occupations in the region in order of magnitude are, agriculture and related
work (65.9%), production and transport equipment work (14.5%), sales work (9.5%)
service work (3.9%), and professional, technical and related work 3.8 per cent. The five
together make up 97.6 per cent of all occupations. The occupational structure of the
region is thus not very diverse.
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The substantial lack of formal sector, office based bureaucratic activities in the region is
reflected in the fact that only 1.7 per cent of the economically active are engaged in
administrative, managerial, clerical and related work. About two out of every three are in
agriculture (66.4%).
The rank order of the five occupations is same for males and females. The proportion of
females in sales work (13.3%) is twice that of males (5.8%). The proportion of males in
agriculture is 71.8 per cent compared with 61.2 per cent females
Industry
The three major industrial activities at the national level are agriculture, including hunting
and forestry (49.1%) wholesale and retail trade (15.2%) and manufacturing (10.9%).
Significantly, these remain the three major activities for both sexes in the region.
The proportional shares of the three industry groups in the region are agriculture,
including hunting and forestry (67.2%), manufacturing (11.3%) and wholesale and retail
trade (9.6%). All the remaining industry groups make up about one eighth (11.9%) of
activities in the region, compared with 24.8 per cent at the national level. Education
(2.8% for males) and hotels and restaurants (1.8 % for females) deserve mention as the
fourth major activities in the region.
Energy
Fuel wood for cooking is scarce and the dried stem of sorghum and millet are mostly
used for that purpose. The use of liquefied petroleum gas is being encouraged. There is
a fuel depot at Bolgatanga for the storage of petroleum products.
Water supply
About 51 per cent of the regions population has access to potable drinking water.
Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) supplies pipe-born water to Bolgatanga,
Chuchuliga, Zebilla, Bawku, Sandema, Navrongo, Bongo and Paga.

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Almost two thousand (1,627) hand pumps (boreholes) and a number of hand-dug wells
serve a majority of the rural populations. While water treated for consumption in
Bolgatanga is from the Vea Dam, the pipe-born water systems in the other townships
make use of mechanised boreholes. The dam is also used for irrigation and fish farming.
Health facilities
The orthodox health service in the region is organised in a four-tier system: regional,
district, sub-district and community levels. The Regional Health Directorate is
responsible for the overall health service planning, organisation, monitoring, supervision,
evaluation and provision of technical support to districts. The Regional Hospital located
at Bolgatanga is the second level referral centre in the region.
There are four district hospitals which provide first level referral services. These are
Sandema, the War Memorial Hospital (Navrongo), Zebilla and Bawku Presbyterian
Hospital. The Bongo Health Centre is in the process of being upgraded into a district
hospital. There are 26 health centres and 36 clinics. There are also maternity homes
and nine dressing centres. The region has three Midwifery Schools and one State
Registered Nursing School. Navrongo also has a Health Research Centre.
Housing
The majority of the people live in huts built of mud and roofed with straw or zinc. The
main features of the predominantly traditional architecture are round huts with flat roofs
and small windows with poor ventilation.

5.1.1 Builsa District Assembly


Builsa District is bounded to the north and east by the Kassena-Nankana District, to the
east by the Sissala District and to the south by the West Mamprusi District. The district
capital is Sandema.

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Location and Size


Builsa District is one of the eight Districts in the Upper East Region of Ghana. It lies
between longitudes 10 05West and 10 35 West and latitudes 100 20 North and 100 50
North. It is bounded on the North and East by the Kassena-Nankana District on the
west by the Sissala District and on the South by the West Mampruisi District and part of
Kassena-Nankana District.

The District covers an area of 2,220 km2 and constitutes 25.1% of the total land area of
the Upper East Region.

Quarry Stone
Granite constitutes the dominant geological formation in the District and covers over
70% (approx. 153, 300 ha) of the land area occurring mostly in the northern section.
Excellent exposures of granitic rocks are therefore found in the northern parts of the
District, stretching from Chuchuliga Zone across Sandema to Bachonsa area.

These rocks can easily be quarried for stone as road and housing construction material.
Some of these rocks have fine crevices and can be shaped into ornamental and design
blocks commonly used in housing construction. It is important to note that a detailed
mineralogical test is required to establish the actual quantity and quality of the various
mineral deposits in the District for industrial use.
Dam/Dug-Outs
Presently the District has 17 Dams and Dug-outs. These dams serve as sources of
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drinking water for a wide range of livestock besides being used for dry season vegetable
production. In view of the high market demand for vegetables like onions, tomatoes,
peppers, garden eggs and most leafy vegetables, dry season irrigation gardening has
enormous potential for boosting the income generating capacity of the District. Massive
investment in the area will generate employment opportunities for majority of the
economically active age group, particularly the unemployed youth and thus help reduce
the incidence of poverty in the District.
Forest/Game Reserves
There are eight (8) Forest Reserves in the Builsa District, namely Bopong, Sissili
Central, Pogi, Kandembeli, Wiaga and Gia reserves. The largest of these is the Sissili
Central Reserve, which covers 155.09sq Km. Together the forest reserves occupy a
land area of 356.86sq km. These forest reserves serve as important habitats for wildlife
particularly endangered animal species. They also help to protect the headwaters of
most rivers/streams in the district and are important tourist attraction spots.

Agricultural
Total cultivable area is 37,000ha. The people are predominantly small holders growing a
range of rain-fed food crops. The main food crops are cereals (maize, rice, sorghum,
millet) and pulses (cowpea and groundnuts). The people are also engaged in livestock
and poultry production.
The vegetation is guinea savannah. The soils are degraded, low in organic matter
content and nutrients due to continuous cropping and other land degradation activities
such as bush burning. The methods of cultivation are the hand hoe, animal traction and
tractor; however the predominant method is the hand hoe. The District has a single
maximum rainfall regime expanding over a period of 5 months with annual totals ranging
between 700-1,000mm (Uni modal). The dry period extends for 7 months with a mean
temperature of 25-30C.
A list of common crops and livestock produced in the district together with their current
market prices are as follows:
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Table 9: Current Market Prices of livestock in Builsa District

Livestock/Poultry

Market

Prices

(GH)
Cattle (Hybrid)

400.00

Cattle (Local)

250.00

Sheep

50.00

Goat

40.00

Local fowl

5.00

Guinea fowl

6.00

Prices are as at 17th January 2010


Table 10: Current Market Prices of food in Builsa District

Crops (Bags)

Market prices (GH)

Maize

45.00

Sorghum

62.00

Millet

58.00

Rice

88.00

Cowpea

71.00

Groundnut

80.00

Tomato (52kg)

40.00

Yam (250kg)

52.00

Prices are as at 17th January 2010

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5.1.2

Bawku Municipal Assembly

The Bawku Municipal shares boundaries with the Republic of Burkina Faso to the north,
Togo to the north-east, East Mamprusi District of the Northern Region to the south and
Bawku West District to the west.

Location and Size


Bawku municipality is one of the eight districts and municipalities in the Upper East
Region of Ghana. It is located approximately between latitudes 11o 111 and 100 401
North and longitude 0o 181w and 0o 61 E in the north-eastern corner of the region. The
municipality has a total land area of about 1215 05 sq km. It shares boundaries with
Burkina Faso, the Republic of Togo, Bawku West District and Garu Tempane District
to the north, east, west and the south respectively.
Population size, density and growth rate
The estimated total population of Bawku Municipality is 205,849. Its population density
is 169 persons per square kilometer. The population growth rate of the Municipality is
1.1. The population of the Municipality constitutes about twenty percent of the Upper
East Regions population and 0.99 percent of the Nations population. The population is
20 percent urban and 80 percent rural.

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Age distribution and Employment


The dependency ratio is 1:1:25. As shown on the tables above about 55 percent of the
population is outside the working group which constitutes a stress on the working
population.

Household sizes in the municipality are fairly large like it pertains in most parts of the
country. According to the 2000 population census report, on the average there are
seven persons per household. Though these large households could mean availability
of labour, it has some financial implication in terms of feeding, healthcare, education,
clothing etc. The large number of household therefore constitute economic burden.
Agriculture is the dominant income and expenditure levels of households occupation of
the people of the municipality, accounting for about 62% of the total employment. The
major crops grown are millet, sorghum, maize, rice, groundnuts, leafy vegetables,
pepper, water melon, onion and livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, donkey etc.

Poultry especially guinea fowl production is quite significant. Farm sizes range between
one and two hectors as a result of high population density. Yields are very low as
compared to other parts of the country due to poor soils, unreliable rainfall etc. Also
farmers are not able to get enough organic manure or purchase chemical fertilizers.
Most farmers therefore face greater food insecurity for the greater part of the year.

There are a few dams and dug-outs which are being used for dry season gardening.
Farmers also dig into the sand of dry riverbeds to get water.

Cash crops in the municipality are onions, tomatoes and Soyabeans, Tomatoes and
Onions are cultivated in the dry season, however, onion is referred to by the residents as
the cocoa of Bawku municipality.

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In the Bawku Municipality, millet, maize, groundnut, soya beans, sweet potatoes, onions,
pepper and tomatoes are the common produce. The produce is sent to Burkina Faso
and Togo. Some are also transported to Bolga, Kumasi and Accra, particularly onions.
Transportation is by land, trucks buses, and articulators. Movement of produce from
farms to road side is by head portage and donkey carts.
Ethnicity
The predominant tribes in the municipality are Kussasis Mamprusis, Bissas and Moshies
with Kussasis forming the majority followed by Mamprusis. However, there are quite a
number of migrants from other parts of the country especially the south (most of whom
are civil servants) and the neighbouring countries like Togo and Burkina Faso. Ethnic
heterogeneity has had implications for harmony in the municipality. In the very recent
past, there have been sporadic violent ethnic clashes between the Kussasis and
Mamprusis. It is expected however, that inter-marriages among the diverse ethnic
groupings will provide the impetus for peaceful co-existence.
Despite the varied tribal components of the municipality, the society is generally
patrilineal and traditionally male dominated. Women are not generally less active in
decision making but are also traditionally responsible for the bulk of the households
activities such as planting, weeding, harvesting and selling as well as cooking and
fetching of water.
Water
The Bawku municipality is served with relatively good sources of water supply. The
population of the township is served largely from 12 mechanised boreholes (pipe borne)
a number of hand pumps, hand dug wells and scattered small dams. There is
intermittent supply of pipe borne water especially in high density areas and even not all
parts of the town is covered. There are a total of 418 boreholes, 52 hand-dug wells
fitted with pumps, 223 hand dug wells without pumps and 582 traditional wells.
Statistically 62% of the population have access to potable water, however, the factors
mitigating against this impressive figure are: Inadequate and intermittent supply of pipeborne water in Bawku Township and long distance covered by many people in the rural
areas to have access to boreholes as a result of the pattern of settlement.
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Housing
The municipalitys population of about 205,849 mentioned live in a total of about 27,493
houses defined as any type of shelter used as living quarters. It has over 37395
households, 1.4 households per house, 11.2 persons per household and 8.2 average
household sizes. About 95.3 percent households live in more or less permanent
structures.
Table 11: Type of Dwelling
Compound house

52.4

Separate house

19.5

Semi-detached house

13.2

Several huts/building

9.4

Flat/apartment

0.8

Hotel/Hostel

0.6

Kiosk/Container

0.2

Attached to shop

0.3

Others

3.6

Source: 2000 population and housing census, Ghana Statistical Service.


The table above indicates that compound houses are the predominant type of dwelling
for households in the municipality. The proliferation of kiosks and cargo containers as
dwelling units does not yet appear to be a problem in the municipality.
Health
Sanitation is very poor in the Municipality. Even though there are KVIP, most people use
free range for their toilet. There are no household toilets. Currently the Community
Water and Sanitation Agency is providing toilets at the Bazuah zonal council.
Good drinking water coverage is about 60%. The Municipality is endowed with health
facilities. However, the availability of health personnel is lacking because of the conflict
in the area.
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According to the District Health Administrator, the most prevalent disease conditions in
the district are malaria, hypertension, diarrhoea and diabetics. Maternal health however
has improved considerably and there are Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in the
communities and zones. There is one government hospital and private clinics. There are
7 medical doctors in the district but not all of them are at post.

5.1.3 Garu Timpane District Assembly


The Garu-Tempane Districts is a newly created district that is faced with a number of
teething problems which are centered on how to harness our human and natural
resources to improve

Health sector
Currently, there are 4 health centres, 3 clinics, 5 CHPS centres, and 1 private clinic.
There are 2 medical assistants, 26 nurses, and 3 dispensary officers operating these
facilities. The District, because of her geographical location, is CSM prone.

The common diseases are malaria, T.B HIV/AIDS. Health issues with regards to quality
assurance are; poor patient referral system, poor continuity of care, poor management
of

accidents

and

poor

or

irrational

prescription

and

use

of

drugs.

Population Doctor Ratio is zero since there is no Doctor and no Hospital in the District.
The nearest hospital is about 25 kilometers away in Bawku. The Nurse Population ratio
is 1:4,604.
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The major produce in the district are sorghum, millet, soya beans, groundnuts, cowpea,
maize and rice. Livestock reared include cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and donkeys.
Domestic birds like guinea fowls and fowls are also reared. Farming is predominantly
subsistence. The price of the common crops and animals produced in the district
include:
Table 12: Current Market Prices of crop in the Bawku District
Crops

Qty kg

Market

prices

(GH)
Maize

100

42

Sorghum

100

42

Millet

93

50

Rice

100

75

Cow pea

100

72

Groundnut

82

96

Tomatoes

Crate

30

Yam

100tubers

70

Prices are as at 17th January 2010

Table 13: Current Market Prices of livestock in Bawku District


Livestock/Poultry

Market prices (GH)

Cattle (Hybrid)

350.00

Cattle (Local bred)

250.00

Sheep

60.00

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Livestock/Poultry

Market prices (GH)

Goat

40.00

Local fowl

5.00

Guinea fowl

7.00

Prices are as at 17th January 2010


Poverty levels are high with about 90% of the people under the poverty line. Sanitation is
not the best in the district. In fact it is the lowest in the Upper East Region. Most people
use free range in the community. KVIP coverage is a little above 20%.
Portable drinking water coverage is 38.2% and this is made up of boreholes or hand dug
wells fitted with pumps. About 80% of the people depend on ponds, creeks and rivers.
Diarrhoea is common in the district.

5.2

UPPER WEST REGION

Demographic characteristics
The total population of the region is 576,583. This represents three per cent of the
national population. The population of the region is not evenly distributed among the five
districts. Wa has the largest population of 224,066, representing 38.9 per cent of the
regions population, while the remaining districts have about 15.0 per cent each.
Growth and density
The regions population of 576,583 is a 31.6 per cent increase from the figure of 438,000
in 1984. The growth rate of 1.7 per cent between 1984 and 2000 indicates that the
regions population is growing at a slower rate than that of the nation (2.7Per cent). The
region has a population density of 31.2 persons per square kilometre. Though this is
higher than that of 1984, it is much lower than the national figure of 79.3 but higher than
that of the Northern Region (25.9).
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Comparatively, the region is larger than the Upper East with regard to land size
(approximately 18,478 square kilometers compared to 8,842 square kilometers).
However, it has a smaller population, a lower population density, fewer District
Assemblies and fewer Parliamentary Constituencies than Upper East.
The country shifted from the Local Authorities system to the District Assembly concept of
administration in 1988. With this change, the country was demarcated into 138 districts
out of the existing local authorities. It is therefore not possible to derive trend data for the
districts. The boundaries of the districts in 2000 do not necessarily conform to the
boundaries of the local authorities in 1984 but are coterminous with regional boundaries
(Ghana Statistical Service, March 2002).
Age structure
The characteristic of the age structure of Ghana is that of a high proportion of children
(less than 15 years) and a small proportion of elderly persons (64 years and older). The
age structure of the region, which mirrors the national picture, has a broad base
(43.4%), representing children younger than 15 years and narrows up at the top with a
small proportion (6.1%), representing the population aged 65 years and older.
The age-structure of the population in the districts is examined in broad and sometimes
overlapping segments, each of which has implications for the demand for social
services, future population growth, youth unemployment, the overall dependency
burden, as well as the total labour force of the district.
In every district, at least 13.3 per cent of the population is a child below 5 years. The
populations below 15 years fall within the narrow range of 40.5 per cent in Lawra and
44.2 per cent in Wa. This means that in all the districts, about two out of every five
persons are children under 15 years of age who are almost entirely dependent on others
for their needs.
The proportion of the population aged 0-4 years is lower than that of 5-9 years in each
district. There is a difference of at least 11.0 percentage points in four districts and 6.0

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percentage points in the fifth district, Wa. The youth aged 15-19 years are 9.0 per cent,
or slightly higher, in each district. The median age of the population is around 18 years.
The population aged 65 years and older forms a small proportion of the population,
ranging from 5.2 per cent in Wa to 7.8 per cent in Lawra, a reflection of the young age
structure of the population of the districts.
Sex ratio
The age-sex ratios drop sharply at the regional level, from a high of about 110 males in
the age group 15-19 years to below 85 males in the age group 20-24 years. The agesex ratios remain low till age 40-44 years when they pick up again. The age-sex ratios
from the age group 45-49 to the oldest age, pick-up gradually, in a consistent manner
except for the dents at ages 50-54 and 60-64 years.
The observed pattern of the sex ratios reflects the effect of the sex ratio at birth, and the
different patterns of migration and mortality for males and females. At the national level,
the drop from age 15-19 to 20-24 is 13.1 percentage points while at the regional level,
the drop is 26.2 points (from 109.5 to 83.3).
This is observed in each district. The magnitude of the drop however, varies between
districts. The sharpest drop is in Lawra (30.0 percentage points), followed by Sissala
(29.2 percentage points). The drop is lowest, 20.6 percentage points, in Nadawli.

5.3.5 Age dependency ratios


The dependent population is measured by the young population (aged less than 15
years) and the aged population (65 years and older). The dependency ratio is therefore
defined as the ratio of the sum of the young and aged populations to the active
population (aged 15-64 years) expressed as a percentage.
The proportion of the dependent population has declined from 51.3 per cent in 1984 to
49.5 per cent in 2000 and from a dependency ratio of 105.3 in 1984 to 98.2 in 2000. This
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implies that there are now fewer dependants for the economically active population to
support in 2000 than in 1984, although the burden is still relatively high.
5.3.6 Population distribution - rural-urban composition
The region has 17.5 per cent of its total population living in urban localities and is
second to the Upper East Region as the least urbanized. There are only six urban
localities in the region, almost all located in the regional and district capitals.
Although the total urban population is still relatively small, the six urban centres have
grown tremendously since 1970. Wa, the regional capital, is the most significant, having
grown from 13,740 in 1970 through 36,067 in 1984 to 66,644 in 2000 (84.8% increase).
Tumu, the second largest town in the region, grew from 4,366 in 1970 to 6,014 in 1984
(37.8% increase) and to 8,858 in 2000 (47.3% increase). Jirapa also increased by 55.3
per cent from 3,520 in 1970 to 5,466 in 1984 and by 47.5 per cent to 8,060 in 2000. The
population of Nandom which was 3,236 in 1970 increased to 4,336 in 1984 (34%
increase) and again to 8,060 in 2000 (85.9% increase).
Lawras population of 2,709 in 1970 increased to 4,080 in 1984 (5.6% increase) and to
5,763 in 2000 (41.3% increase). Hamile increased by 72.2 per cent from 2,526 in 1970
to 4,349 in 1984 and then by 20.6 per cent to 5,245 in 2000.
Wa is the most urbanised district in the region, accounting for about two-thirds (65.8%)
of the regions total urban population. Over a tenth (13.2%) is in Jirapa- Lambussie and
12.2 per cent is in Lawra. Nearly a tenth (8.8%) is in Sissala. Nadawli is entirely rural.
All the six urban localities in the region are in four out of the five districts. The Wa
District, which is 29.7 per cent urbanised, has only the capital Wa, as an urban locality.
Jirapa-Lambussie has two urban localities, Jirapa (8.3%) and Hamile (5.4%). Lawra
District also has two urban localities: Lawra (6.6%) and Nandom (7.4%).

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Ethnicity
Of the total population of 576,583 enumerated in the region, 95.1 per cent are
Ghanaians by birth while 2.9 per cent constitutes naturalised Ghanaians. Other
ECOWAS nationals constitute 1.2 per cent whereas African Nationals other than
ECOWAS (0.3%) and Non- African nationals (0.5%) account for 0.8 per cent.
In the region, there are two predominant ethnic groups, the Mole Dagbon (75.7%) and
the Grusi (18.4%). The Wala (16.3%) of the Mole Dagbon and the Sissala (16%) of the
Grusi are the major subgroupings in the region. Other indigenous ethnic groupings
collectively constitute an additional 5.0 per cent of the population in the region, while all
Akan ethnic groups put together constitute 3.2 per cent.
There are wide variations within the districts. For example, in Nadowli (91.7%) and
Lawra (90.5%), the Dagaabas constitute more than 90.0 per cent of the population. The
Dagaabas who are also in the majority in Jirapa-Lambussie (71.8%) constitute the
largest single ethnic group in Wa.
Although the Sissala make up only 16.0 per cent of the population of the region, they
constitute 74.9 per cent of the population of the Sissala District and an important
minority ethnic group in Jirapa-Lambussie (13.5%). The Walba (Wala) also make up
16.3 per cent of the regions population but are concentrated in Wa (40.3%).
Religious affiliation
There are three main religious groups in the region, Christianity (35.5%), Islam (32.2%)
and Traditional (29.3%).
There are very marked differences among the districts in relation to religious affiliation.
Christians make up the largest religious group in two districts Nadawli (58.5%) and
Lawra (56.4%), with a very strong presence in Jirapa-Lambussie (42.5%) and Wa
(24.7%).

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The Islamic religion has most of its adherents in Sissala (70.1%) and in Wa (44.4%).
Adherents of traditional religion make up 44.8 per cent of the population in JirapaLambussie, with fairly good presence in Lawra (34.1%), Wa (27.1%) and Nadawli
(25.0%).
Catholics constitute the majority of Christians in all districts, ranging from 69.3 per cent
in Wa to 96.1 per cent in Jirapa-Lambussie. The Pentecostal/Charismatic group is the
second largest denomination, after Catholics. Other Christian groups are as important in
Wa as the Pentecostal/Charismatic and are second to Catholics in Sissala.
Education
Information on school attendance was collected from all persons 3 years or older. Such
information relates to full time education in an educational institution.
Such institutions include nursery, kindergarten (pre-school) primary middle, junior
secondary, secondary/senior secondary/vocational/commercial, teacher training college,
university or similar types of school where a person spends or has spent at least four (4)
hours a day receiving general education in which the emphasis is not on vocational skill
or trade training.
Although the information on school attendance was collected for all persons 3 years or
older, the official school entry age in the country is 6 years. Much of the analysis
therefore focuses on school attendance of persons age 6 years and older.
For the country, the proportion of the population that has ever attended school is 61.2
per cent in 2000, (66.9% of males and 59.5% females). This means that the proportions
who have never attended school at the national level is 38.8 per cent (33.1% males and
44.5% females).
Comparing these national figures with those for Upper West Region, one observes a
very wide gap in the educational attainment between the country as a whole and the
region. In the region, 69.8 per cent of the population, aged 6 years and older, have
never attended school (65.1% males and 73.9% females).
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At the district level, Sissala has the highest proportion (75.4%) of the population aged 6
years and older that never attended school (73.1% males and 77.6% females).
Lawra has the lowest proportion (65.1%) of the population without formal education
(60.3% males and 69.3% females). The low level of education in the region is due not
only to general poverty and cultural practices but also to the very late introduction of
higher education into northern Ghana.
This, in effect, limited education in the north to primary and middle school levels for the
older generations and is reflected in the high proportion of those who attained only
primary/middle school level in the region.
This situation is most likely due to the combined effects of the late introduction of
Western education, the influence of Islamic religion, general poverty and other cultural
practices.
Current school enrolment, in primary one, is still generally lower in the region compared
with the national situation for both males and females. Substantial differences also exist
between the national and regional pattern at the JSS level.
The gross Admission ratio (GAR) is the number enrolled at a first grade divided by the
population of the appropriate age group (the official entry age) multiplied by 100. The
gross enrolment ratio (GER), in say primary school, is the number of pupils enrolled in
P1-P6 divided by the total population of primary school going age (6-11 years) multiplied
by 100.
Data on current enrolment shows that the gap between boys and girls in school
attendance is minimal. At the entry point of both primary (74.5% boys and 75.6% girls)
and JSS (36.4% boys and 36.3% girls) the proportions of boys and girls admitted are
about equal, but at every level, the proportion of girls progressing to the next grade
reduces from one grade to the next, such that there is a widening (though small) gap
between boys and girls.

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Educational attainment
For the population aged six years and older who have ever attended school, 45.1 per
cent attained primary level, 23.8 per cent attained middle/JSS, and about one in eight
(12.8%) attained Secondary/SSS. About five per cent attained each of the other levels:
vocational/technical/ commercial (5.6%), post-secondary (5.6%), and tertiary level
(5.2%).
The rather large proportion of the educated population of the region attained only
primary and Middle/JSS, as the highest level (68.9%). This poses a big challenge for the
full implementation of the fCUBE and other education improvement programmes.
Data show that in each district, at least 60.0 per cent of those who had ever attended
school attained primary or middle/JSS level. The proportion varies from 64.7 per cent in
Wa to 74.4 per cent in Nadawli. Within each district, at least 10.0 per cent of those who
had ever-attended school attained secondary/SSS level.
This proportion ranges from 10.4 per cent in Nadawli to 15.3 per cent in Sissala. The
proportion that has vocational/technical/ commercial education ranges from 4.2 per cent
of the educated in Sissala to 6.4 per cent in Wa.
The proportion that attained post secondary level ranges from as low as 4.3 per cent of
the ever-attended school in Nadawli to as high as 6.5 per cent in Wa, where they are
above the regional value. The proportion that attained tertiary level ranges from 3.4 per
cent in Nadawli to 5.9 per cent in Wa. The proportions are above the regional value of
5.2 per cent in Wa and Lawra.
There is a disparity in the level of educational attainment between males and females in
the region and in each district. At the regional level, the proportion of females who have
ever attended school and attained the level of primary school constitutes 48.0 per cent
while that of the males is 42.7 per cent. At the secondary school/SSS level the
proportion is 14.1 per cent for males and 11.2 per cent for females, and at the
vocational/ technical/commercial level the proportion for both sexes are the same. At the

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post secondary level, the proportion is slightly higher for males (6.3%) than for females
(4.7%)
It is noted that at the tertiary level, the proportion of males (5.7%) is slightly higher than
that of females (4.6%). After the Middle/Junior Secondary School level, the proportions
for females begin to reduce as they progress to the tertiary level. Differences in
educational attainment between males and females in the region may be explained by
differences in initial enrolment as well as to differences in continuation rates.
Since fewer females than males had ever attended school, even assuming the ideal
situation of females achieving the same continuation rates as males, there is bound to
be fewer numbers of females at each successive level of educational attainment. In the
region and in each district, the proportions for females are highest at the pre-school and
primary, but lower after the middle/JSS level, as they progress to the tertiary level.
In the region, and in each district, the proportion of the educated population (aged 6
years and older) that attained secondary school or higher is lower for females except at
the Vocational/Technical/Commercial level where they are the same (5.6%).
Of those who have attended school in the region, 29.2 per cent attained secondary
school or higher. The proportion for males is 31.7 per cent compared to 26.1 per cent for
females. A comparison of the regional and national levels shows that the region and
districts have higher proportions than the country as a whole, at secondary school or
higher.
Literacy
At the regional level, the proportion of the population aged 15 years or older that is not
literate in any language is 73.4 per cent, which is much higher than the national average
of 42.1 per cent. The overall level of illiteracy in three of the five districts (Nadawli,
Sissala and Jirapa-Lambussie) is higher than the regional average of 73.4 per cent.

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The data also show that for the region as well as for each district, illiteracy is higher for
females than for males. For females, the level is higher than the regional value in the
same districts where illiteracy levels are higher than the regional level.
The 2000 Census results show that only 25.4 per cent of the regions population aged
15 years and older is literate in either English or a known Ghanaian language or literate
in both English and a Ghanaian language Since most publications and mass
communication are in English, the proportion that is effectively functional is only 24.3 per
cent in the region (13.4% in English only and 10.9% in English and a Ghanaian
language).
In the districts, Lawra has the highest functional literacy level (28.3%), with males at
34.2 per cent and females at 23.7 per cent, followed by Wa 27.5 per cent and Nadawli
21.7 per cent. Sissala (19.7%) and Jirapa-Lambussie (19.5%) have levels of effective
functional literacy just below 20.0 per cent.
Literacy in a Ghanaian Language is low in the region. The proportion literate in a
Ghanaian language (Ghanaian language only 1.1%, and English and a Ghanaian
language 10.9%) is only 12.0 per cent. In the districts, this proportion ranges from 4.2
per cent in Sissala to 15.2 per cent in Lawra.
Since instruction in schools in Ghana is in both English and a Ghanaian language, the
low level of literacy in a Ghanaian language in the region may therefore imply that the
teaching and learning of Ghanaian languages in schools in the region are not being
pursued in a sustainable manner.
The differences in the proportion which are effectively functionally literate and the
proportions literate in a Ghanaian language may also imply that literacy in the region is
acquired mostly in the classroom setting than through the existing adult education or
functional literacy programmes.

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5.3.11 Economic characteristics


75.4 per cent of economically active persons had worked for at least one day during the
reference period. There is no substantial difference between the proportion for males
(74.8%) and females (76.0%). About a tenth (9.6%) had a job but did not work. The
proportion unemployed constitutes 15.0 per cent, which is higher than the national figure
of 12.5 per cent.
At the district level, the proportions of those employed or who had jobs but did not work
or were unemployed follow the regional patterns closely. In each district, except Wa and
Sissala slightly more females than males had worked. The proportion of males who had
worked ranges from 65.2 per cent in Lawra to 83.6 per cent in Jirapa-Lambussie. The
proportion for females ranges from 66.6 per cent in Sissala to 86.2 per cent in Nadawli.
Unemployment is slightly higher for males than for females in the region. The overall
level of unemployment is highest in Sissala and Lawra. In the region as a whole,
unemployment is higher in the urban areas (18.5%) than in the rural areas (14.3%).
It is also higher for females than for males in the urban areas. The proportion is the
same for males and females in the rural areas. Urban unemployment is also higher in
the region compared to the total country figure of 15.6 per cent. In Wa, unemployment is
higher in the urban areas, compared to the rural areas and also higher for females in
both the urban and rural areas.
In Sissala, the proportion unemployed is about the same in both urban (19.8%) and rural
(19.4%) areas. In both urban and rural areas, more females than males are
unemployed, with the urban areas recording a larger a differential between males and
females. In Lawra and Jirapa-Lambussie, however, unemployment is higher for males
than for females in both urban and rural areas.

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Social characteristics
There are 80,599 households in the region, which is about 2.2 per cent of the total
households in the country. With a population of 576,583, this gives an average
household size of 7.2 persons.
The total number of houses in the region is 51,898; which gives the average number of
1.6 households per house. Household sizes in the region are high, and the lowest, 6.7 in
both Lawra and Nadawli, is higher than the national average.
Wa East District

Location and Size:


The Wa East district was curved out of the Wa municipality and made an autonomous
district by L.I 1746 in July 2004. The district is remotely located in the southeastern part
of the Upper West region. The capital is Funsi, about 115km away from Wa, the regional
capital. The district shares boundaries with West Mamprusi to the northwest, West
Gonja to southeast and the Sissala East district to the north.
It has a landmass of about 1,078km, which lies between latitudes 9 55n and 10 25n
and longitude 1 10w and 2 5w. The remoteness of the district relative to other
districts of the region has deprived it of basic social and economic infrastructure and
services.
Population
The population of the district for 2005 was estimated at 66358 with an annual growth
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rate of 1.7% by the 2000 PHC. Thus, the districts population growth rate is lower than
the national growth rate of 2.6%.
Sex/Age structure
The districts population structure has a low sex ratio of 100 males to 103 females. The
population is youthful comprising 47% (between 0-14 years), 49% between 15-64 years
and 4% over 60 years old.
Culture
There are four major tribes in the district; Wala (45%), Sisala (21%), Chakali (19%) and
Dagaba/Lobi (15%). The dominant religion is Islam (about 70%), Christianity (about
10%) and Traditional religion (about 20%). Cultural practices of the people are syncretic
in nature. Islam has a great influence on the lives of the people. one of the fallouts of this
influence is that women are hardly included in decision-making. The nnoboa system has
engendered a high communal spirit in communities in the district.

Location and distribution of services and facilities


The uneven distribution of the district population partly explains the over concentration of
social and economic infrastructure in the north east part of the district. The distribution
of services and facilities in the district are woefully inadequate and skewed towards the
capital, funsi and the major settlements in the district namely, Funsi, Baayiri, Kundugu,
Loggu, Bulenga, Kulkpong, Goripie, Manwe, Duccie, Yaala, Buffiama. The major
settlements are concentrated at the southeastern part of the district and close to Wa
municipal.

PLWHAs and the physically challenged


Data on people living with HIV Aids in the district is non-existent, as the district has no
VCT centre so all cases are refer to WA hospital. There are 164 people suffering from
various disabilities in the Funsi area.ie about 70 people who are visual impaired, 40
physical challenge,50 people are epileptic and 4 have hearing problems. The large
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number of visual impairment could be attributed to the presence of the Oncho disease in
the past.
Women and Children
Most children of school going age are not in school and are engaged in cattlle-rearing
and in other economic activities or due to early marriage in the case of the girl-child.

Women in the district are the most poor. The traditional set up in communities in the
district relegates rights and economic pursuits of women to the background. Majority of
women therefore continue to live under difficult conditions characterized by elopement
and forced early marriage.
Agriculture
The major crops cultivated include, sorghum, millet, maize, cassava. Other crops are
cowpea, bambara beans, groundnuts and rice. soya beans, cashew, cotton and
mangoes are also cultivated mainly for sale. sheanuts and dawadawa are also gathered
and processed into butter for cooking, cosmetics and medicinal purposes. about 67% of
farmers rely on animal drawn The district has only two major feeder roads that run
through the district: they are
(1) Wahabu -Funsi - Yaala- Kundugu -Sombisi
(2) Wa through Bulenga to the Kulung.
The Kulung River is a major impediment to the development of the district as it divides
the district into two parts. The bridging of the river will require massive capital
investment, which is beyond the capability of the district and will therefore require urgent
attention by government and development partners.
implements while 33% of farmers use labour-intensive methods of the hoe and cutlass.

Farming is rain fed and limited to the single rainfall regime from may to October and
remains subsistent throughout the district. However, the district is able to produce
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enough food and livestock making it the food basket of the region. in 2005 for example,
the district was able to achieve 24.5 mt/ha yield for its major crops as against the
targeted yield of 19.6 mt/ha.

Commerce/Industry
Small scale activities include cloth/smock weaving, blacksmith, pito brewing, pottery
and shea- butter extraction.

Markets in the district are periodic. They attract traders

from within and outside the district and are a major source of revenue to the district.
Improvements in market infrastructure will go a long way to expand the revenue base of
the

district.

The district has only one post office with 40 mail- boxes located at the district capital,
Funsi. The district assembly and the catholic agricultural project have installed a
radiotelephone system in Funsi. This has improved communication between Funsi and
Wa and the rest of the country by telephone. The absence of telephone and other
communication facilities in the district is a major hindrance to the socio-economic
development of the district.

There is no bank in the district. It has only a credit union. People and organizations in
the district are therefore forced to commute to Wa for their banking needs.

Transportation
There are no transport services for people in the district to travel within and outside the
district except on market days. The major means of transport in the district is by
motorbikes and bicycles.
Poor feeder roads link communities in the district. More than 40 % of roads are
inaccessible throughout the year. Agricultural produce gets locked-up in these
inaccessible areas of the district. Post harvest losses are therefore high and it worsens
the poverty situation of families in these areas.

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Energy
The district is not connected to the national grid. Feasibility studies have been
completed and low-tension poles have been procured and erected in Bulenga area.
Electricity will improve security and boost small-scale businesses. Solar power is in use
at the catholic secretariat in Funsi. This is a potential source of power energy, which can
be exploited for the development of other deprived communities. It is important to note
that about 95% of the people in the district depend on kerosene, fuel wood and charcoal
implying that serious felling of trees is taking place in the district.
Educational Infrastructure
There are 102 educational facilities in the district, which comprises of (52) primary
schools, (24) J.S.S and (26) Pre-schools in the district. The Pre-schools are under
sheds. The children are thus exposed to the vagaries of the weather when they are in
school.

School Enrollment
In 2004/05, the total enrollment figure for boys and girls at all levels at the basic school
stood at 4,927 and 4406 respectively giving a total enrollment figure of 9,333 in 2005.
The enrollment increased by 27% percent giving a total enrollment figure of 12789. This
high increase is attributable to the introduction of the capitation grant 2005.

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Table 14: School enrollment at the basic school level by sex in the Wa East
district
Level

No of schools

Enrolment

2003/4 2004/5 2004/5

2005/6

Boys

Girls

Boys

Girls

Pre-schools

26

414

475

1158

1281

Primary

50

52

3864

3543

4710

4374

J.S.S

22

24

649

388

788

478

Total

80

102

4927

4406

6656

6133

Total

9,333

12,789

Source: GES, Wa East


Table 15: Availability of teachers
Trained

Untrained

Total

Pre-school

Primary

114

75

189

JSS

49

28

77

Total

168

104

272

Source: GES, Wa East

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6.0

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES

The discussion and analysis of alternatives in this report is carried out to ensure that
other practicable strategies will promote the elimination and/or minimization of negative
environmental impacts identified. This section is a requirement of the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), and is critical in consideration of the ideal development with
minimal environmental disturbance.
This report has identified the major environmental impacts and the following alternatives
have been identified below:
The No-Action Alternatives
The proposed Developments as described in this ESIA
6.1 The No-Action Alternatives
The no action alternative is required to ensure the consideration of the original
environment without any development. This is necessary for the decision-makers in
considering all possibilities.
The developments will have a minimal effect on the physical environment. In terms of
the social environment, the no-action alternatives would result in traffic detours during
rains, increase travel hazard, eliminate job opportunities, higher transport costs, food
shortages, poverty, higher travel times, increase the dust nuisance created by driving
through the river beds and increase the wear and tear on the vehicles.

6.2 The proposed Bridge Developments in the EIA


The impacts and mitigation measures for this alternative are discussed in detail
throughout this report. The positive impacts have been identified in social and economic
benefits. The developments will have a minimal effect on the physical environment. In
terms of the social environment, it would potentially result in the less likelihood of traffic
detours during rains, decreased travel hazard, lower transport costs, increased food
production and transportation, decreased travel time, reduce poverty to a level, reduced

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dust nuisance as vehicles would not be driving through the river bed and decreased
wear and tear on the vehicles.

6.2.1 Sissili Bridge

A three span bridge of 150m span shall be built on this River to follow the existing road
alignment on both sides of the bridge. This bridge is a proposed new bridge about 5km
of road shall be built to be able to connect the bridge to the both the Upper East and
Upper West Regions.

6.2.2 Doninga Bridge

The proposed Doninga bridge will be built at the existing bridge location and shall be
expanded to 50m long to improve the drainage in the area.

6.2.3 Kulungugu Bridge

The proposed bridge would be a three span, 100m bridge and would be positioned at a
distance of about 260m on the left of the existing bridge. This will straighten this existing
road alignment and improve traffic safety among others.

6.2.4 Garu Bridge

The initial investigation recommends a three span bridge of 175m long to be located at
about 242m on the right of the existing bridge. This will merge the existing Garu Bridge
and its relief bridge which are 50m meters apart and hence contributing to the flooding of
the catchments area into a single bridge and improve the flow of water during the high
tide.

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6.2.5 Ambalara Bridge

This bridge which has been washed away shall be replaced with a 60m bridge to be
spanned to follow the existing road alignment.

6.2.6 Kulun Bridge

The proposed Kulun Bridge shall consist of a three span, 100m long bridge to be located
in a position that will follow the existing road alignment.
These alternatives (6.2.1 6.2.6) consider putting the ends of the bridge on firmer
ground. This will have minimal ecological impact. It has the potential to create some
level of noise and dust nuisance to nearby communities during its construction.
However, once the projects are completed, the seasonal destruction of the structures
and its effect on the districts, communities and individuals shall cease. The benefits are
far more outweighing. This alternative is preferred.

6.3

Overview of Alternative Analysis

Based on the above, the most environmentally sound and most economical alternatives
are those developments as proposed in this report.

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7.0

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IDENTIFICATION & MITIGATION

An environmental impact as indicated in this chapter is defined as any change to an


existing condition of the environment during the implementation of the bridge projects.
The nature of the impacts has been categorized in to:
Direction - positive or negative
Duration - long or short term
Location - direct or indirect
Magnitude - large or small
Extent - wide or local
Significance - large or small
To systematically identify the impacts associated with the proposed bridge
developments, an impact matrix has been constructed below which arrayed the main
project activities against the relevant environmental factors. Tables 16 and 17 give the
following.

Table 16: Impact Matrix for Site Preparation and Construction Phases
Activity/Impact

DIRECTION
Pos

Neg

DURATION
Long

LOCATION

Short

Direct

Indirect

MAGNITUTUDE
Major

Minor

EXTENT
Wide

Local

SIGNIFICANCE
Large

Small

1. Site Preparation
Vegetation Removal
Habitat Removal
Increased Infiltration/runoff
Increased soil erosion
Suspended solid runoff
Blasting
Noise

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Air Quality

2. Cut. Fill and Leveling


Generated solid waste
Dust
3. Material Transport
Dust and Spillage
Traffic issue
Routing through small towns
4. Improper Material
Storage
Dust
Suspended runoff
5. Construction Works
Noise
Dust
Repair and fuelling of
vehicles
6. Removal of Existing
Bridges
Reduce River flow
Impact Water quality
7. Construction Crew
Waste Generation
Emergency Response
8. Traffic
Traffic Congestion

9. Employment
Job creation

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Table 17: Impact Matrix for Operational Phase


Activity/Impact

DIRECTION

DURATION

LOCATION

MAGNITUTUDE

EXTENT

SIGNIFICANCE

Pos

Long

Short

Direct

Major

Wide

Large

Neg

Indirect

Minor

Local

Small

1. Bridge Maintenance
Polluted

runoff

from

maintenance

2. Altered Local Hydrology


Increase flow, erosion and

siltation

3. Transportation

Lower transport cost

Lower travel time

Lower VOC

3. Air Quality

Reduce dust

7.1 Site Preparation and Construction

The GHA and EPA being a responsible Government Agencies should ensure that
appropriate best practices are incorporated in the Contract document and specifications
as well as environmental protection requirements are issued to the Contractor.

IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES

Impacts: Vegetation Removal


The flora in the proximity of the bridges is sparse and not endemic, endangered or rare
and is commonly found around the districts.
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Mitigation:
No mitigation required.

Impacts: Soil Removal and Blasting


In this case, some soil and bedrock excavation may be necessary, prior to the
construction works (especially at Kulungugu). In practice, this excavation may involve a
variety of methods one of which is controlled blasting. Insensitive blasting (i.e. controlled
or otherwise) has the potential of resulting in unpredictable and unstable rock fissures
and cracks within the bedrock formations.

Mitigation:
To prevent caving-ins and the development of unstable/unpredictable rock fissures (on
and off the site), blasting will be used in instances where it is deemed unavoidable.
Alternative methods such as bulldozing and jack hammering will be the preferred
options, with blasting practices being the last resort option. These blasting practices will
be kept to a minimum and will involve directional, controlled blasts, using mats where
possible.

Impacts: Soil Erosion and Siltation


Soil erosion and siltation of watercourses could have a negative impact on the flow
regime and water quality within the river/gully associated with the bridge in question.
This could lead to minor negative impacts during the construction phase such as
declined water quality and water transparency, along with severe negative impacts such
as flow impairment and localised upstream/downstream flooding (arising from the
overtopping of the river/gully banks). It is imperative, therefore, that proper
soil/construction material management practices be implemented during site clearance,
site preparation and the construction phase of the project.

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Mitigation:

Under no circumstance will sand or silt be allowed to collect within the river to the extent
that they impair surface water flow and provide the opportunity for overtopping and
flooding.

Fine grained materials (sand, etc.) will be stockpiled away from drainage channels and
low berms will be placed around the piles which themselves will be covered with
tarpaulin to prevent them from being eroded and washed away.

Provision of catch or diversion drains to divert surface flows from unsloped catchments
around disturbed area prior to major works.

Installation of silt fences.

Impact: Noise Pollution


Site clearance and construction of the proposed bridge developments necessitates the
use of heavy equipment to carryout the nature of the job. These equipment include
bulldozers, backhoes, jackhammers etc., additionally there some blasting will be carried
out. They possess the potential to have a direct negative impact on the environment.
Noise directly attributable to reconstruction activity should not result in noise levels in the
residential areas to exceed 55dBA during day time (7am 10 pm) and 50dBA during
night time (10pm 7 am). Where the baseline levels are above the stated levels then it
should not result in an increase of the baseline levels by more than 3dBA.

Mitigation:
i.

Use equipment that has low noise emissions as stated by the manufacturers.

ii.

Use equipment that is properly fitted with noise reduction devices such as
mufflers.

iii.

Operate noise-generating equipment during regular working hours (e.g. 7 am


7pm) to reduce the potential of creating a noise nuisance during the night.

iv.

Construction workers operating equipment that generates noise should be


equipped with noise protection. A guide is workers operating equipment
generating noise of 80 dBA (decibels) continuously for 8 hours or more should

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use ear muffs. Workers experiencing prolonged noise levels 70 - 80 dBA should
wear earplugs.

Impact: Air Quality


Site preparation and construction has the potential to have a two-folded direct negative
impact on air quality. The first impact is air pollution generated from the construction
equipment and transportation. The second is from dust from the proposed construction
areas and raw materials stored on site. Fugitive dust has the potential to affect the
health of construction workers, the resident population and the vegetation.

Mitigation:
i.

Areas should be dampened every 4-6 hours or within reasonable periods to


prevent a dust nuisance and on hotter days, this frequency should be increased.

ii.

Minimize cleared areas to those that are needed to be used.

iii.

Cover or wet construction materials to prevent a dust nuisance.

iv.

Where unavoidable, construction workers working in dusty areas should be


provided and fitted with N95 respirators.

Impact: Solid Waste Generation


During this construction phase of the proposed project, solid waste generation may
occur mainly from two points:
i.

From the construction campsite.

ii. From construction activities such as site clearance and excavation.

Mitigation:
i.

Skips and/or bins should be strategically placed within the campsite and
construction site.

ii.

The skips and/or bins at the construction campsite should be adequately


designed and covered to prevent access by vermin and minimize odour.

iii.

The skips and bins at both the construction campsite and construction site should
be emptied regularly to prevent overfilling.

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iv.

Disposal of the contents of the skips and bins should be done at an approved
disposal site.

Impact: Wastewater Generation and Disposal


With every construction campsite comes the need to provide construction workers with
sanitary conveniences. The disposal of the wastewater generated at the construction
campsite has the potential to have a minor negative impact on groundwater. No
significant environmental impacts were identified from this activity.

Mitigation:
i. Provide portable sanitary conveniences for the construction workers for control of
sewage waste. A ratio of approximately 25 workers per chemical toilet should be used.

Impact: Storage of Raw Material and Equipment


Raw materials, for example sand used in the construction of the proposed development
will be stored onsite. There will be a potential for them to become air or waterborne.
Stored fuels and the repair of construction equipment has the potential to leak hydraulic
fuels, oils etc.

Mitigation:
i.

Raw materials that generate dust should be covered or wet frequently to prevent
them from becoming air or waterborne.

ii.

Raw material should be placed on hardstands surrounded by berms.

iii.

Equipment should be stored on impermeable hard stands surrounded by berms


to contain any accidental surface runoff.

iv.

Bulk storage of fuels and oils should be in clearly marked containers (tanks/drums
etc.) indicating the type and quantity being stored. In addition, these containers
should be surrounded by berms to contain the volume being stored in case of
accidental spillage.

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Impact: Transportation of Raw Material and Equipment


The transportation and use of heavy equipment and trucks would be required during
construction. Trucks will transport raw materials and heavy equipment. This has the
potential to directly impact traffic flow along local roads.

Mitigation:
i.

Adequate and appropriate road signs should be erected to warn road users of

the
construction activities. For example reduced speed near the construction site.
ii.

Raw materials such as sand should be adequately covered within the trucks to
prevent any escaping into the air and along the roadway.

iii.

The trucks should be parked on the proposed site until they are off loaded.

v.

Heavy equipment should be transported early morning (12 am 5 am), possible


as much as with proper pilotage.

v.

The use of flagmen should be employed to regulate traffic flow.

Impact: Emergency Response


Construction of the proposed bridges has the potential for accidental injury. There
maybe
either minor or major accidents.

Mitigation:
i.

A lead person should be identified and appointed to be responsible for


emergencies occurring on the site. This person should be clearly identified to
the construction workers.

ii. The Contractor should have onsite first aid kits and arrange for a local nurse and/or
doctor to be on call for the construction site.
iii. Make prior arrangements with local health care facilities such as health centres or
the hospitals to accommodate any eventualities.
iv.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) should be store onsite.

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Impact: Workers Safety


Construction of the bridges entails workers being suspended in the construction
process.
This has the potential for increase construction accidents. Additionally, there maybe
some blasting in preparing the sites for the erection of a new bridges.

Mitigation:
i.

The provision of lifelines, personal safety nets or safety belts and scaffolding for
the construction workers.

ii.

Adequate communication with workers and signage should be put in place to


alert/inform workers of the time, location of such blasting and instructions.

Impact: Traffic Management


Construction of the new bridges may necessitate the re-routing of some vehicular and
pedestrian traffic and introducing traffic delays thereby increasing travel times. The rerouting of vehicular traffic has the potential to lead to increase fares to.

Mitigation:

i.

Place adequate and appropriate construction warning signs.

ii.

Give adequate and ample notice of the pending road works and detours.

7.2

Operations

Impacts: Drainage and Flooding


As is the case under the site preparation and construction phases of the projects,
siltation
of watercourses (due to soil erosion and runoff during the operational phase of the
project) could have a negative impact on the flow regime within the rivers/gullies
associated with the bridges in question. This could lead to severe negative impacts such
as flow impairment and localized upstream/downstream flooding (arising from the
overtopping of the river/gully banks). Increased stream flow is often a direct result of
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river channelization and deepening and increased channel water flows are generally
coupled with increased potentials for within-channel erosion and the associated
transport of large volumes of silt downstream.

Mitigation:
i.

Proposed engineering works (particularly those proposing channel alterations) will


seek to keep to a minimum changes in surface flows within the river gully
channels in question.

ii.

A one-year post-project monitoring exercise of stream flow and channel erosion


will be undertaken at the bridge site where channel alteration was deemed
necessary during the construction phase of the project. The impact of the
alterations on increased stream flow, channel erosion and upstream/downstream
flooding will be monitored and ascertained and, if necessary, mitigative measures
implemented (i.e. during this period) to correct any resulting adverse negative
impacts in regards to soil erosion, drainage and increased flood risk.

ii.

Maintenance of the river channels should be a part of the routine annual


maintenance works in the Regions and a post-project maintenance plan for the
bridges should be drawn.

Impact: Transportation/Traffic

The bridges shall be constructed to accommodate a maximum weight from vehicular


traffic. If this is exceeded especially on a regular basis then this activity has the potential
to reduce the life span of the bridge.

Mitigation:
i.

Adequate signage should be erected to inform the travelling public of the


maximum allowable weight for the bridge.

ii.

The weight stipulation should be enforced by traffic police, GHA or relevant

agencies.
Weighing stations at strategic points along the roads, in particular in the vicinity of
the bridges are recommended for consideration by the EIA team.
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8.0

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

This Environmental Management Plan (EMP) will act as an abridged Operational


Manual for the bridge projects with respect to environmental issues during the
implementation and operation of the bridge projects. It sets out in practical terms, how
the mitigation measures proposed should be implemented. It includes details of the
environmental monitoring programme (i.e.it defines various responsibilities, parameters,
locations and frequency).

8.1

Key Stakeholders

The key stakeholders in the environmental management activities are: GHA ,EPA and
Water Resources Commission (Government Agencies), the Design Consultant,
Engineer, Contractor, Local Authorities and, to some extent, the Public. Responsibilities
for implementation of the proposed mitigation measures have been allocated to the
various stakeholders as discussed below.

8.2

Key Responsibilities

8.2.1 Current Environmental Policy of GHA and EPA


Enshrined in the Ghana Highway Authoritys policy framework are issues regarding the
protection of the environment, occupational health and safety, etc which is signified in
the setting up of a whole unit under the Road Safety and Environment Division. In these
policies, the responsibilities and roles of the Authority regarding general and specific
situations are clearly indicated. To this effect, the commitment of the Ghana Highway
Authority to its policy objectives can be summarized in the following statement that: the
construction and operation of the road project will be undertaken using the best available
technological and human resource capacity of the Authority to ensure sustainable
development.

Similarly the Environmental Protection Agency and Water Resources Commission


(WRC) has mandates which covers monitoring of projects to ensure compliance with
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approval conditions mitigation measures, quality standards and all other environmental
conditions. Table 18 summarizes the environmental management responsibilities of the
GHA and EPA/WRC for the various phases of the project.
Table 18: Environmental Management Responsibilities of the GHA and EPA/WRC

PROJECT

NO

RESPONSIBILITIES OF GHA/EPA/WRC

Issue necessary environmental permits, instructions and

PHASE

guidelines to be incorporated in the Project Document.

Project
Preparation

Approve of locations for quarries and borrows pits and


plan for their rehabilitation.

Inspect and together with the Engineer, marks trees


along the existing road to be felled

Project Execution

Observe the overall environmental performance of the


project.

Issue instructions and guidelines for additional mitigation


measures to be included during project execution.

Issue interim notes of approval for staged rehabilitation of


project areas, e.g. construction sites, borrow pits,
campsites.

Conduct awareness raising campaigns on public health


as well as on traffic safety.

Demobilisation

Issue

letter

of

recognition

that

all

environmental

obligations have been appropriately fulfilled

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8.2.2 General Roles and Responsibilities of the Consultant/Engineer


The Engineer shall be responsible for supervising and enforcing the Contractors
performance on all environmental provisions that are included in the Contract and may
recommend additional mitigation measures for implementation where deemed
necessary.

He shall assist and support GHAs Environmental Unit or any other

institution responsible for the monitoring of the general environmental impact of the
Project.

The consultant shall also ensure that bridge/road safety education,

environmental information and awareness raising campaign is organized for residents


along the project road to educate them to be safer road users.

Public health and

HIV/AIDS awareness-raising programmes in the communities and work camps shall also
be included.
Table 19: Environmental Management Responsibilities of the Design Engineer
The Design Consultant/Engineer shall prevent
PROJECT DESIGN

erosion

and

other

negative

impacts

by

incorporation of suitable measures in the project


design.
The Design Consultant/Engineer shall incorporate
all suitable clauses requiring the contractor to
execute his work with due diligence and apply

CONTRACT DOCUMENTS

environmentally
requirements
necessary

friendly

must be
methods

methods.

Such

accompanied

by the

for

monitoring

and

enforcement.
3

The Design Consultant/Engineer will supervise


and enforce the contractors performance on all
environmental

requirements

included

in

the

contract Documents.

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The Design Consultant and Engineer will monitor


4
IMPLEMENTATION

the overall environmental impact of the project and


recommend additional mitigation measures for
implementation when deemed necessary.
The Design Consultant and Engineer will liaise

with the local health, traffic and educational


authorities to plan agreed awareness raising
campaigns.

8.2.3 General Roles and Responsibilities of the Contractor


The construction method and behaviour of the Contractor(s) and his workforce will
determine the extent to which the projects could adversely impact on the environment.
The basic responsibility of the contractor(s) towards protecting the environment has
been defined as such to compel the contractors to take all reasonable steps to protect
the environment and avoid damage and nuisance arising as a result of his activities.

The Contractor(s) shall ensure that site managers and foremen are well aware of the
potential environmental as well as the relevant health and safety implications of the
Projects. He shall also ensure that all relevant staff are well aware of pertinent national
safety regulations, sufficiently trained in environmentally friendly construction methods
and that these methods are ultimately applied and appropriate measures taken
throughout the implementation of the Project.

The Contractor(s) shall be familiar with all pertinent national and local legislation relating
to his activities and shall generally take all reasonable steps to adequately secure traffic,
road and health safety and to protect the environment on and off the site during
construction. He shall prepare and perform his work in such a way and achieve such
results as to avoid damage or nuisance to persons, to public property or others resulting

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from the organization of traffic, from pollution, noise or any other causes arising as a
consequence of these methods of operation.
Considering the impact that the projects will have on the environment, it is expedient that
the Environmental Clauses are specifically defined and incorporated in the contract
agreement to enable the Contractor(s) reduce or eliminate the environmental impacts
and also to emphasize the importance of environmental protection. He shall inform the
Engineer in due time of any unforeseen adverse environmental impacts that may arise.
Table 20 summarizes the environmental management responsibilities of

the

contractor(s).

Table 20: Environmental Management Responsibilities of the Contractor


PROJECT PHASE

NO

CONTRACTOR(S) RESPONSIBILITIES
Ensure that the headquarters staff as well as site

managers and foremen are well informed about all


environmental issues of the project.
Ensure that his site managers and foremen know

about and understand environmentally friendly


construction methods, especially those related to
prevention of soil erosion
Maintaining and operating his own and subcontractors equipment in accordance with the

Mobilisation
3

original manufacturers specifications and service


manuals to control noise, vibrations and emissions.
Faulty equipment must be rectified or replaced
within 24 hours of being given notice

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Properly

establish,

operate

and

rehabilitate

construction camps

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PROJECT PHASE

NO

CONTRACTOR(S) RESPONSIBILITIES
Prepare

and

management

submit
for

plans

approval

for
by

borrow
the

pit

relevant

authorities and the Engineer in due time before


starting any clearing activity at the site.

Establish a waste management plan covering all


types of waste
Possess adequate relevant knowledge of the rules
and regulation for environmental protection in
Ghana:

Noise
Air
Tree cutting

10

Fulfill all environmental requirements of the contract


documents
Apply environmentally friendly equipment

and

construction methods
Inform the Engineer if any unforeseen negative
environmental impact should occur.
Responsible for the occupational health and safety

Project Execution

11

of all persons (workers and visitors) present at his


work sites at any time.
Responsible for providing safe passage around or

12

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through his work site for all kinds of traffic

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PROJECT PHASE

NO

CONTRACTOR(S) RESPONSIBILITIES
Spraying any dusty road touched upon by project
activities to sufficiently fulfil the EPA guidelines for

13

14

ambient air quality.


Possess

erosion

prevention

work

plans

and

promptly re-vegetate all exposed areas.


Provide proper storage facilities for fuel, oil and

15

lubricants and wastes thereof to prevent water


pollution.
Responsible for providing potable water to any
community

16

whose

water

source

is

made

unwholesome due to the project activities until the


water is made wholesome again
Responsible for not cutting or damaging any trees
which

have

not

been

marked

for

felling.

Felling/destruction of such trees will involve an


automatic fine to be deducted from next payment
17

due. Any tree felled is the property of the


Government of Ghana and must be handed over to
the Department of Forestry.
Responsible for the management of all type of
waste

18

generated

from

construction

activities,

camps, quarries and borrow pits. Wastes include


that from plants must be dealt with in such a
manner that any kind of water pollution is
prevented.

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PROJECT PHASE

NO

CONTRACTOR(S) RESPONSIBILITIES
Responsible for immediate elimination of any

19

breeding site of disease vectors resulting from the


project activities.
Ensure that all affected project areas have been

20
Demobilisation

properly cleaned of waste, graded and re-vegetated

8.2.4 Environmental Management Responsibilities of the Public


The general public has no specific tasks in the environmental management plan. Their
role however is very important. The public must express its concerns about the project
not only in the preliminary design phase but also wherever it becomes aware of
previously unforeseen impacts or that impacts take on a different order of magnitude
than expected. The public has an unwritten obligation to inform the authorities and the
Supervising Engineer about such developments as early as possible. The public will also
be the target of awareness raising campaigns to mitigate the negative impacts of the
project.
8.3

Key Environmental and Social Clauses

Management of the impacts identified is best achieved through the incorporation of


clauses in the construction contract document. Rigorous enforcement of the contract
clauses ensures the effective mitigation of the adverse environmental impacts. The
contractor(s) responsibilities are defined and not limited to the following clauses, to be
incorporated in the contract document or specification for the works.
8.3.1 General Clauses
Clause 1: The contractor shall be responsible for familiarizing himself with all
national and local legislation relating to his/her activities during the construction
phase of the

project.

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Clause 2: The contractor shall throughout the implementation phase of the


project take all reasonable steps to protect the environment on and off the sites
so as to avoid damage or nuisance to persons or property of the public or others
resulting from pollution, noise or other causes arising as a consequence of
his/her methods of operation.

8.3.2 Environmental Clauses

WASTE DISPOSAL

The construction of the bridges are likely to generate waste in various forms, which need
to be dealt with to avoid environmental degradation either on or off-site. The situation
could be controlled through the incorporation of the following clauses.
Clause 3: The contractor shall at all times maintain all sites under his control in a
clean and tidy condition and shall provide appropriate and adequate facilities for
the temporary storage so as to avoid the necessary accumulation of waste;
Clause 4: The contractor shall be responsible for the safe transportation and
disposal of all waste generated as a result of his activities in such a manner as
will not give rise to environmental pollution in any form, or hazard to human or
animal health. In the event of any third party being employed to dispose of
waste, the contractor shall be considered to have discharged his responsibilities
under this clause only when he has demonstrated that the transportation and
disposal arrangements have not given rise to pollution or will give rise to health
hazard;
Clause 5: The contractor shall be responsible for the provision of adequate
sanitary facilities for his workforce and that of his sub-contractors. The
contractors shall not allow the discharge of any untreated sanitary waste to
groundwater or any surface water course.

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The contractor shall provide details of sanitary arrangements to the Ghana


Highway
Authority Engineer for approval after satisfying himself that the proposal facilities
are
adequate and are unlikely to pollute water resources.

WATER RESOURCES

In view of the potential for accidental spillage and leakage of based products and other
potential hazardous materials, specific control measures are necessary to minimize the
possibility of water resources pollution. The following are, therefore, to be incorporated
in the contract document or specification for the works.
Clause 6: The Contractor shall take all reasonable measures, at all sites under
his control, to prevent spillage and leakage of materials likely to cause pollution
of water resources. Such measures shall include, but not limited to the provision
of berms around fuel and oil storage facilities, and oil and grease traps in
drainage systems associated with vehicle and plant washing, serving and
fuelling areas. Prior to locating of such facilities, the Contractor shall submit
details of pollution prevention measures to the Engineer for approval.

REPLANTING OF TREES

Replacing the existing tall trees is an important mitigation measures. This will be
controlled through the incorporation of the following clause in the contract document.

Clause 7: The contractor shall exercise great effort during construction phase to
minimize the number of trees to be felled along the road. Four trees of the same
species shall be planted for every tree felled along the road.

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RESTORATION OF BORROW PITS

Restoration of borrow pits after the extraction of materials is an important mitigation


measure. This will be controlled through the incorporation of the following clause in the
contract document:
Clause 8:The contractor shall be responsible for ensuring that any gravel or
other borrow pits, working areas and the like are regarded and covered with
topsoil or a suitable bio-engineered product to ensure their natural regeneration.
This shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

STORAGE OF TOPSOIL

Site clearance work may produce quantities of topsoil that could be of use later. The
following is, therefore, proposed in the contract document.
Clause 9: The contractor shall make arrangements to store any soil suitable for
later re-use. Where relevant, soil should be taken out in horizon and each
horizon stored in a separate pile, for return/re-use in a similar order. The piles
shall be grassed over or covered as in clause 8 above, all to the satisfaction of
the Engineer.

TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS

Transport of materials, stones and sand to the site is not expected to give rise to any
problems along the access roads. Nevertheless the incorporation of the following clause
is recommended as a precaution:
Clause 10: The Contractor shall ensure that his vehicles do not cause a safety
hazard, noise, dust or disturbance to local inhabitants.

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TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION

Depending on the exact location of the bridges, temporary diversions may be made
available for which full reinstatement is required. In all cases, alternatives routes for
pedestrian traffic will be necessary.
Clause 11: The Contractor shall provide, erect and maintain on the site and at
such position on the approaches, traffic signs and traffic control signals
necessary for the direction and control of traffic. The signs shall be reflectorised
or adequately illuminated at night in a manner approved by the Engineer and
kept clean and legible at all times. The Contractor shall reposition, cover or
remove signs as required during the various stages of implementation.
Clause 12: The contractor shall take reasonable precautions to keep the
waterways and approach roads clear of any spillage or materials from his
operation to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The contractor without delay shall
clear any spillage.
Clause 13: The Contractor shall construct, maintain, remove and reinstate
temporary diversion ways to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

NOISE AND AIR POLLUTION

Noise and air pollution are not expected to result in a nuisance to the people living near
the project corridor. Nevertheless the following are recommended to be included in the
contract document in order to minimize any excessive noise or exhaust particulates from
plant and equipment.
Clause 14: All vehicles and plant operated by the contractor or his subcontractors shall at all times be maintained in accordance with the original
manufactures specifications and service manuals, with particular regard to the
control of noise and diesel particulate emissions. The Engineer shall have the
right to require the contractor to replace or rectify any vehicle or plant, which in
his opinion causes excessive noise or emits smoke within 2 days of the
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contraction being so notified.

8.4

Monitoring plans

Outlined in this section are proposals for an appropriate environmental monitoring plan,
which will assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures to be implemented during
the implementation of the bridge projects.
These proposals include a description of the monitoring arrangements (type, location,
frequency, etc.) an implementation schedule and institutional arrangements necessary
implement the project.

8.4.1 Construction Phase Monitoring and Enforcement


All major stakeholders in the project have a monitoring responsibility of some kind.
However, only the Supervising Engineer, the Ghana Highway Authoritys Environmental
Unit, the EPA, the Water Resources Commission and the Contractor(s) are allocated
specific and formal monitoring obligations. Traffic Police, Health Authorities and other
Public Authorities will automatically monitor some of the effects of the project during their
daily work. Such information should on a regular basis be collated and analyzed by
those with a formal monitoring responsibility.

A project-specific monitoring team is,

however, necessary.

Monitoring Team
Bridge construction/rehabilitation invariably impacts on the functional areas of various
institutions for which reason it is relevant to assemble a cross-sectional team to meet a
regular intervals to monitor and assess the level of compliance to the set standards and
constructional specifications by the Contractor.
During construction, safety of vehicular traffic and pedestrians most essentially lie within
the responsibility of the Contractor. The Motor Transport and traffic Unit of the Ghana

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Police Force (MTTU) shall be informed to assist in achieving traffic safety through
regular patrols in the corridor under construction.
A monthly meeting of a monitoring team is recommended, apart from the more regular
patrols of the supervisory organization (GHA).

Such a team should also include a

representative from the Environmental Protection Agency and Water Resources


Commission as required by the EPA Act (Act 490, 1994), among others.
During construction phase the Ghana Highway Authoritys Environmental Officers shall
pay regular visits to the site to ensure that the mitigation measures proposed in the ESIA
and ESMP are being effectively implemented to ensure sustainable development.

8.4.2 Post-Construction Monitoring


Further to the monitoring work prescribed to be undertaken during the construction stage
that seeks to ensure the Contractors compliance with specified constraints, a post
construction phase monitoring for assessing the actual environmental impacts of the
Projects are of paramount importance.
Table 21: Monitoring Responsibility of Major Stakeholders
PARTY

PARAMETERS TO BE

RESPONSIBLE

MONITORED

EPA/WRC

Overall

OUTPUT

ACTION TIME
FRAME

Environmental Instructions to Throughout project

Performance of the project

Contractor
through

life cycle
the

Engineer
Water

- Impact on water bodies

Instructions to On-going

Resources

Contractor

responsibility

Commission

through

throughout

Engineer

construction phase.

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Overall

Environmental

Page 106

PARTY

PARAMETERS TO BE

RESPONSIBLE

MONITORED

Ghana Highway Performance of the


Authority
Environmental
Unit

project

Payment

of

FRAME

Monthly

Once a month but

Environmental responsibility

- Community relations
-

ACTION TIME

OUTPUT

Reports

runs

throughout

appropriate

the

project life cycle

compensation
- HIV/AIDS awareness raising
campaigns
-

Construction

methods

and

material
- Environmental management of
construction sites

Monthly
Environmental

- Implementation of mitigation Reports


measures for

air, water, soil,

traffic, occupational health and

On-going

safety, trees etc.

responsibility

The Engineer

throughout

- Environmental management of
construction camps

- Environmental management of Reports


and

borrow pits and quarries


-

Contractors

construction phase.

Incident

waste

management

as
when

required
(spills,
accidents and

- Staged rehabilitation of impact the like).


areas
- Environmental performance of

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PARTY

PARAMETERS TO BE

RESPONSIBLE

MONITORED

ACTION TIME

OUTPUT

FRAME

Contractors equipment
-Accidents (traffic, spills etc)
- Environmental performance of
mitigation measures
- Environmental performance of - Maintenance
equipment and plants.

records

On-going

- Implementation of interim and


permanent
The
Contractor(s)

mitigation

measures.
- Occupational Health and safety
measures
- Water Quality
-Air quality
- Accidents of any kind

responsibility
-

Accidents

Reports
-

throughout
construction phase.

Mitigating

actions

eg.

Sprinkling

of

water,

traffic

signs,

safety

barriers,
maintain
baseline
water

quality

parameters
- Traffic nuisances
Traffic Police

- Traffic safety measures


- Traffic accidents

Police reports
and
instructions to
contractor and
GHA

Draft ESIA for Bridges in Ghana

On-going
responsibility
throughout
construction

and

Page 108

PARTY

PARAMETERS TO BE

RESPONSIBLE

MONITORED

ACTION TIME

OUTPUT

FRAME
operational phases

Health

Change

Authorities

of

frequency

of

diseases

Upon
Health reports

- Occurrence of new disease in

of

observation

incidence

of

diseases

the area
Local

Negative

Communities

environmental Complaints to Throughout project

impacts.
- Social disturbance

contractor,

life cycle

supervising
Engineer, and
GHA

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9.0

CONCLUSION

This ESIA report has considered the environmental implications of the construction of
the proposed six bridges in the Upper East and West Regions of Ghana.
There is an increased level of environmental awareness of the general public and
concern for high quality of services in the country in recent times. For this reason it is of
great relevance that efforts are made to address relevant issues of environmental
management in development projects.
The proposed mitigation measures, monitoring arrangements and management plans, if
well implemented, will help achieve the much needed environmental sustainability in the
project areas in particular, and the national economy in general.
Finally, based on the history of the collapses associated with the bridges and the socioeconomic importance of their functions to the catchment areas, it is recommended that
the design of the bridges should consider as a matter of importance the following critical
issues including
vi.

measures for the protection of the rivers/streams bank should also be considered
in areas that are susceptible to erosion;

vii.

river trimmings to direct the flow of water within the bridges abutments and
protection; and

viii.

measures for scour protection, and the openings beneath the bridge, should be
carefully designed (given high velocity profile predictions).

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References
1. Bridge Justification Report for Danida Funding, 2008
2. Environmental Protection Agency,1996. A Guide to Environmental Assessment in
Ghana. EPA, Accra,
3. Ghana.Environmental

Protection

Agency,

1999.

Environmental

Assessment

Regulations, LI 1652. EPA, Accra,


4. Ghana.Environmental Protection Agency, 1994. Environmental Protection Agency
Act, Act 490. EPA, Accra, Ghana.
5. Environmental Protection Agency, 1991: Ghana Environmental Action Plan. EPA,
Accra, Ghana.
6. Ghanadistricts.com
7. Ghana Statistical Service, 2000: Population and Housing Census Provisional
Results.
8. Ghana Statistical Service, 1999. A Pattern of Poverty in Ghana (1988-1999). A
Study Based on Ghana Living Standards Survey.
9. Ghana Statistical Service, 1984: Population Census of Ghana: Demographic and
Economic Characteristics Northern and Brong Ahafo Regions.
10. GOG/MRT/GHA: Highway Network Master Plan (2001-2020) Draft Final Report.
August 2000.
11. Livingstone, D. A., 1963. Chemical Composition of Rivers and Lakes. In: Fleicher, M.
(ed.). Data of Geochemistry. Wiley, New York, 780p.
12. Ministry of Health, 1995: Annual Report.
13. MRT, Environmental and Social Management Framework
14. MRT, Resettlement Policy Framework
15. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1992. Good Practice for
Environmental Impact Assessment of Development Projects. Paris: Development
Assistant Committee. OECD.
16. Raisuddin Ahmed and Mahabub Hassain. 1990. Development Impact of Rural
Infrastructure in Bangladesh. International Food Policy Research Institute Report
83. October.
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Page 111

17. Jorgensen, S. E., 1970. Handbook of Environmental Data and Ecological


Parameters. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 12162p.
18. Shades, 1996 - Prediction of Road Traffic Noise Part, Building Research Digest,
UK.
19. World Bank, 1998. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook. Volume I. The World
Bank. Washington, D.C., USA.
20. World Bank, 1998. World Development Indicators. The World Bank, Washington
DC:USA
21. World Bank, 1997.

Roads and the Environment: A Handbook. World Bank

Technical Paper No. 376. The World Bank, Washington DC:U.SA


22. World Bank 1991, Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Vol. 11. Procedures and
Cross-Sectoral Issues. Washington DC Environment Department.
23. World Health Organisation, 1984. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, Vol. 1
Recommendations. WHO, Geneva, 130p.

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APPENDIX 1
CONSULTATIONS

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(BOLGATANGA)

NAME

Miss Janet Ataebya

Mr. Steve Ampofo

PHONE
NUMBER

POSITION

Water Quality
Assurance

0243 607123

MIS Officer

0244 521359

ORGANISATION

Aqua Vitera Resources

Environmental Protection
Agency
Environmental Protection
Agency

Zenabu Wasai-King

Regional Director

0244 577909

Solomon Bagasah

Officer in charge

0246 031986

Forestry Commission

Emmanuel Mensah

Director

0244 186193

Geological Services

BUILSA DISTRICT

NAME

POSITION

PHONE
NUMBER

ORGANISATION
Builsa District
Assembly

Hon. Norbert G. Awulley

District Chief
Executive

0244 366466

Mr. Moses Awarikaro

District Engineer

0243 150804

Builsa District

0243 668268

Builsa District

Mr. Lawrence Webadua Tangyei


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Development
Planning Officer

Page 114

NAME

PHONE
NUMBER

POSITION

Mr. Samuel Kyei

District Manager

ORGANISATION

0248 991337

Builsa District
Forestry Services
Division
Navrongo

Mr. Anthony Aleka

District Health
Director

0244 780972

Mr. Yahaya Alhassan

Disease Control
Officer

020 8076369

District Health
Director

Mr. Edgar Drah

District Director

0242 636988

MOFA

BAWKU DISTRICT

NAME

POSITION

PHONE
NUMBER

ORGANISATION

Municipal Planning
Officer

0266 024440

Mr. Michael K
Bawre

Administrator

0249 923517

District Health
Directorate

Mr. Charles
Aboyella

MIS Officer

0244 864837

MOFA

Mr. J. A. Abugre

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0246 173886

Bawku Municipal
Assembly

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GARU TIMPANE DISTRICT

NAME

POSITION

PHONE
NUMBER

ORGANISATION

Garu District
Assembly

Mr. Iddrisu Andani

District Planning Officer

0245 669625

Mr. Emmanuel K.
Botchway

District Engineer

0243 630624

Garu District
Assembly

Madam Alice Sojoeh

District Health Director

0244 761850

District Health
Directorate

Mr. Emmanuel Konlan

Disease Control Officer

0243 217759

District Health
Directorate

Mr. George Janwo

District Account Officer

0244 157449

MOFA

Wa Municipal and Wa East Distict Assemblies

NAME

POSITION

PHONE NO.

ORGANISATION

1. Mr. John Ocansey

Regional

020813364

Forestry service Division

2. Ahmed Tahiru

Water Work Head

0276220693

Aqua Vitens Road Ltd

3.Majeed Adamu

Schedule officer

0208240399

Town & Country Planning

Winston Churchill

Regional Manager

0244512099

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NAME
4.Jonas Kpierekoh
Asher Nkegbe

POSITION
Senior Programmer
Officer
Regional Manager

PHONE NO.
0209023801

ORGANISATION
Env. Protection Agency

8294658020

5. Chief Yayoyiri Ntaedie

Chief of Yayoiri Village

0247806914

Yayoryiri Village

6. Sumaila Euntomah

District Co-ordinating
Director

0244576033

Wa East District assemble


Funsi

7. Musah Yussif

Planning Officer

0246242547

Wa East District Assemble


Funsi

8. Kasimu Habilu

District Engineer

0246683284/

Wa East District assemble


Funsi

0208532500
9. Thompson Dumba

District Health Adm.

0208240908

District Health Dir. Funsi

10. Urmar Ibn Mohammed

Ag District Director

0244096174

MOFA, Funsi

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Miss Janet Ataebya - 0243 607123


521359

Mr. Steve Ampofo - 0244

Aqua Vitens Rand/Ghana Water Company, Bolga


Agency, Bolga

Environmental Protection

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Mr. Solomon Bagaseh - 0246 031986/072 2294


577909
Forestry Services Division, Bolga

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Mad. Zenabu Wasai-King - 0244

EPA Regional Director, Bolga

Page 119

Mr. Emmanuel Mensah - 0244 186193/07222247

Mr. Samuel Kyei - 0248 991337

Geological Services Department Director


Division, Navrongo

District Manager Forestry Service

(for the 3 Northern Regions Bolgatanga)

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Hon. Norbert G Awulley - 0244 366466


District Engineer

Mr. Moses Awarikar - 0243 150804

Builsa District Chief Executive

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Mr. Lawrence Webadua Tangyei 0243 668268


District Director of Health Development Planning Officer.
Alhassan 020 8076369 Disease Control Officer

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Mr. Anthony Aleka 0244 780972


And Mr. Yahaya

Page 122

Mr. Micheal Bawre 0249 923517 Administrators,


Regional Manager District Health
Division

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Mr. John Ocansey 0208133684 UW


Forestry Services

Page 123

Ahmed Tahiru 0276220693. UW Reg.Head Aqua Vitens


country

Majeed Adamu 0208240399 Town and

Rand

Planning Department, Wa

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Jones Kpierekoh 0209023801 Senior Programme Officer


Chief of Yoyoyiri Environmental Protection Agency

Chief Yayoyiri Ntaedie 0247806914


Village

Sumaila Ewuntomah 0244576033 District Co-ordinating


0246683284/0208532500

Kasimu Habilu

Director, Wa East

Wa East District Engineer.

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Urmar Ibn Mohammed 0244096174 MOFA, Funsi.

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APPENDIX 2
STAKEHOLDERS CONCERNS

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Draft ESIA for Danida Funded Bridges

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Draft ESIA for Danida Funded Bridges

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Draft ESIA for Danida Funded Bridges

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Draft ESIA for Danida Funded Bridges

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Draft ESIA for Danida Funded Bridges

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Draft ESIA for Danida Funded Bridges

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Draft ESIA for Danida Funded Bridges

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Draft ESIA for Danida Funded Bridges

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SECTION 2
GEOMETRIC AND DRAINAGE DESIGNS
REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1

2.0
KULUNGUGU BRIDGE SITE ................................................................................ 1
2.1 Existing Bridge.................................................................................................................. 1
2.2 Proposed Bridge Location .............................................................................................. 1
2.3 Hydrological Analysis ...................................................................................................... 1
2.4 Highest Water Level Information ................................................................................... 2
2.5 Hydraulic Analysis............................................................................................................ 2
2.6 Proposed Bridge Depth ................................................................................................... 2
2.7 Horizontal Alignment ....................................................................................................... 2
2.8 Vertical Alignment ............................................................................................................ 2
2.9 Cross Section ................................................................................................................... 3
3.0
GARU BRIDGE SITE ............................................................................................ 4
3.1 Existing Bridge.................................................................................................................. 4
3.2
Proposed Bridge Location ............................................................................................. 4
3.3 Hydrological Analysis ...................................................................................................... 4
3.4 Highest Water Level Information ................................................................................... 4
3.5 Hydraulic Analysis............................................................................................................ 4
3.6 Proposed Bridge Depth ................................................................................................... 5
3.7 Horizontal Alignment ....................................................................................................... 5
3.8 Vertical Alignment ............................................................................................................ 5
3.9 Cross Section ................................................................................................................... 5
4.0
DONINGA BRIDGE SITE ...................................................................................... 6
4.1 Existing Bridge.................................................................................................................. 6
4.2 Proposed Bridge Location .............................................................................................. 6
4.3 Hydrological Analysis ...................................................................................................... 6
4.4 Highest Water Level Information ................................................................................... 7
4.5 Hydraulic Analysis............................................................................................................ 7
4.6 Proposed Bridge Depth ................................................................................................... 7
4.7 Horizontal Alignment ....................................................................................................... 7
4.8 Vertical Alignment ............................................................................................................ 7
4.9 Cross Section ................................................................................................................... 8
5.0
SISSILI BRIDGE SITE........................................................................................... 8
5.1 Proposed Bridge Location .............................................................................................. 8
5.2 Hydrological Analysis ...................................................................................................... 8
5.3 Highest Water Level Information ................................................................................... 8
5.4 Hydraulic Analysis............................................................................................................ 9
5.5 Proposed Bridge Depth ................................................................................................... 9
5.6 Horizontal Alignment ....................................................................................................... 9
5.7 Vertical Alignment ............................................................................................................ 9
5.8 Cross Section ................................................................................................................. 10
6.0
KULUN BRIDGE SITE ........................................................................................ 10
6.1 Proposed Bridge Location ............................................................................................ 10
6.2 Hydrological Analysis .................................................................................................... 10
6.3 Highest Water Level Information ................................................................................. 10
Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page i

6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

Hydraulic Analysis.......................................................................................................... 11
Proposed Bridge Depth ................................................................................................. 11
Horizontal Alignment ..................................................................................................... 11
Vertical Alignment .......................................................................................................... 11

7.0
AMBALARA BRIDGE SITE ................................................................................ 12
7.1 Proposed Bridge Location ............................................................................................ 12
7.2 Hydrological Analysis .................................................................................................... 12
7.3 Highest Water Level Information ................................................................................. 12
7.4 Hydraulic Analysis.......................................................................................................... 13
7.5 Proposed Bridge Depth ................................................................................................. 13
7.6 Horizontal Alignment ..................................................................................................... 13
7.7 Vertical Alignment .......................................................................................................... 13
7.8 Cross Section ................................................................................................................. 14
APPENDIX A.................................................................................................................. 15

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page ii

1.0

INTRODUCTION

This report describes the procedures for the design of the six (6) stream crossings in the
Upper East and Upper West Regions of Ghana.

Four (4) of the sites which are specifically located at;


i.

Kulungugu

ii.

Garu

iii.

Doninga

iv.

Ambalara

had their structures either overtopped or washed away by flood waters in 2007.

The two (2) other sites located at;


i.

Sissili and

ii.

Kulun

do not have any bridge structure over them

2.0

KULUNGUGU BRIDGE SITE

2.1

Existing Bridge

This bridge forms part of the N2/11 route.


The existing bridge has a span of 58m and a depth of 1.5m (from bridge soffit to the river
bed). It is located in a bend and this has resulted in deposition of sediments at the
upstream of the river.

2.2

Proposed Bridge Location

The proposed location for the new bridge is 260m downstream of the existing bridge
channel (measured from the start of the existing bridge along the bank).
The proposed bridge has a span of 100m.

2.3

Hydrological Analysis

The Rational method was used to estimate the maximum flood discharge from the
catchment. The run-off co-efficient (c) assumed was 0.6 since the area is flat arable.

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 1

A Return Period of 100years was in the analysis. The maximum flood discharge obtained
was 361.417m3/s as shown in appendix A.

2.4

Highest Water Level Information

By our inspection, the highest water level was 4.5m. This was obtained at the midpoint of
the existing bridge Parapet. We obtained this information from the local inhabitants.

2.5

Hydraulic Analysis

The 0DQQLQJV method was used to determine the capacity of the existing bridge
structure and for the design of the new bridge structure.
A channel bed slope of 0.3% obtained from the river cross section survey was used.
The capacity of the existing bridge structure was 574.846m3/s which presupposes that
WKH H[LVWLQJ EULGJHV FDSDFLW\ LV DGHTXDWH LI RQO\ UXQRII IURP WKH FDWFKPHQW ZHUH WR
contribute to the flow.
The highest water level (HWL) of 4.5m also gave a channel and flood plain discharge of
2147.113m3/s. This was reportedly due to the opening of the Dam in Burkina Faso.

2.6

Proposed Bridge Depth

The proposed bridge depth is 6m including a freeboard of 1.5m.

2.7

Horizontal Alignment

The design speed used was 100kph. The road approaches were realigned to conform to
the new bridge location. The alignment design controls are as shown in table 1.
The entry and exit approaches are 1636.3m and 1113.7m respectively.

2.8

Vertical Alignment

The topography of the road corridor is relatively flat.


A maximum grade of 1.3% was obtained.
The alignment design controls are as shown in table 2.1.

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 2

Table 2.1. Alignment Design Controls


DESIGN

H O R I Z O N T A L

RMIN

SPEED

Lmin

C U R V E S

Superelevation
Des

Rmin
Adverse

Transition
Curve

Sight Distance

Des.

Abs.

Stopping

Km/h

100

700

370

170

6.0

5000

160

VERTICAL CURVES

Passing

Ls (min)

K factor
Crest

Lmin

GRADIENT

min

max

Des

Des

85

0.4

Sag

Cross-fall

2.9

620

56

64

28

Cross Section

The cross section details used in the design are shown in the tables 2.2 & 2.3 below.

Table 2.2

Approach Road
Carriageway

Shoulder

Side Slope

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Max
Superelevation
%

Width
m

Slope
%

Cut

Fill

7.3

2.5

5.51

3.0

1:2

1:2

Table 2.3

Bridge Section
Carriageway

Walkway

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Width
m

Slope
%

7.3

2.5

1.5

2.5

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 3

3.0

GARU BRIDGE SITE

3.1

Existing Bridge

This bridge forms part 0f the N2/10 route.


There are two existing bridges of varied spans, namely;
a. Masonry bridge of 10m span and 6.5m depth (from bridge soffit to the river bed)
b. Bailey bridge of 68m span and 5.5m depth (from bridge soffit to the river bed)

3.2

Proposed Bridge Location

The new bridge is located 242m downstream of the existing bailey bridge (measured
from the end of the existing bailing bridge along the bank). The new bridge replaces the
two bridges and has a span of 175m.

3.3

Hydrological Analysis

The maximum flood discharge from the catchment was estimated using the Rational
method. The run-off coefficient (c) assumed was 0.6 since the area is flat arable.

A Return Period of 50years was used in the analysis.


The maximum flood discharge obtained was 426.2m3/s as shown in appendix A.

3.4

Highest Water Level Information

The Highest water level observed from our inspection was 2m. This was obtained from
water marks on the walls of the masonry bridge.

3.5

Hydraulic Analysis

0DQQLQJV method was used to access the capacity of the two (2) existing bridge
structures and for the design of the new structure.
A channel bed slope of 0.4% obtained from the river cross section survey was used.
The capacity of the two (2) existing bridge structures was 983.208m3/s which is higher
than the maximum flood discharge from the catchment.
The highest water level (HWL) of 2m for the new bridge gave a channel and flood plain
discharge of 2257.963m3/s.

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 4

3.6

Proposed Bridge Depth

The proposed bridge depth is 5.5m including a freeboard of 3.5m (using the approaches
as controls)

3.7

Horizontal Alignment

A design speed of 100kph was used. The road approaches were realigned to conform to
the new bridge location.
The entry and exit approaches are 885m & 706.7m respectively.
The alignment design controls are as shown in table 3.1.

3.8

Vertical Alignment

The topography of the road corridor is relatively flat.


A maximum grade of the 2.4% was obtained.
The alignment design controls are as shown in table 3.1.

Table 3.1. Alignment Design Controls


DESIGN

H O R I Z O N T A L

RMIN

SPEED

Lmin

Superelevation
Des

Rmin
Adverse

C U R V E S

Sight Distance

Des.

Abs.

Stopping

Km/h

100

700

370

170

6.0

5000

160

Passing

VERTICAL CURVES

Transition
Curve
Ls (min)

K factor
Crest

Lmin

GRADIENT

min

max

Des

Des

85

0.4

Sag

Cross-fall

3.9

620

56

64

28

Cross Section

The cross section details used in the design are shown in the tables 3.2 & 3.3 below.

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 5

Table 3.2

Approach Road
Carriageway

Shoulder

Side Slope

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Max
Superelevation
%

Width
m

Slope
%

Cut

Fill

7.3

2.5

2.5

3.0

1:2

1:2

Table 3.3

Bridge Section
Carriageway

Walkway

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Width
m

Slope
%

7.3

2.5

1.5

2.5

4.0

DONINGA BRIDGE SITE

4.1

Existing Bridge

This bridge forms part of the R181/01 route.


The existing bridge has a span of 31m and a depth of 2.3 (from bridge soffit to the river
bed). It is located in a straight.

4.2

Proposed Bridge Location

The proposed bridge is at the same location as the existing Bailey bridge.
The proposed bridge has a span of 50m.

4.3

Hydrological Analysis

The maximum flood discharge from the catchment was estimated using the Rational
method.
A run-off co-efficient of 0.6 was used since the area is flat arable.
A Return Period of 50years was used in the analysis.
The maximum flood discharge obtained was 178.308m 3/s as shown in Appendix A.

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 6

4.4

Highest Water Level Information

By our inspection, the highest water level was 3.8m. We obtained this information from
the local inhabitants.

4.5

Hydraulic Analysis

The 0DQQLQJV method was used to determine the capacity of the existing bridge
structure and the proposed bridge structure. A channel bed slope of 0.3% obtained from
the river cross section survey was used.
The capacity of the existing bridge structure was 162.191m3/s which is lower than the
maximum flood discharge from the catchment. The highest water level (HWL) of 3.8m
gave a channel and flood plain discharge of 749.7m 3/s.
4.6

Proposed Bridge Depth

The proposed bridge depth is 4.8m including freeboard of 1m.

4.7

Horizontal Alignment

The design speed used was 80kph.


The entry and exit approaches are 224.9m and 375.5m respectively.
The alignment design controls are as shown in table 4.1.

4.8

Vertical Alignment

The topography of the road corridor is relatively flat. A maximum grade of 1.4% was
obtained. The alignment design controls are as shown in table 4.1.

Table 4.1. Alignment Design Controls


H O R I Z O N T A L

DESIGN

RMIN

SPEED

Lmin

Des.

Abs.

424

234

140

Superelevation
Des

Rmin
Adverse

C U R V E S

Sight Distance
Stopping

Passing

VERTICAL CURVES

Transition
Curve
Ls (min)

K factor
Crest

Lmin

Sag

GRADIENT

min

max

Des

Des

Cross-fall

Km/h

80

6.0

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

3500

110

500

44

30

18

70

0.4
Page 7

4.9

Cross Section

The cross section details used in the design are shown in the tables 4.2 & 4.3 below.

Table 4.2

Approach Road
Carriageway

Shoulder

Side Slope

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Max
Superelevation
%

Width
m

Slope
%

Cut

Fill

7.3

2.5

3.0

3.0

1:2

1:2

Table 4.3

Bridge Section
Carriageway

Walkway

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Width
m

Slope
%

7.3

2.5

1.5

2.5

5.0

SISSILI BRIDGE SITE

5.1

Proposed Bridge Location

There is no bridge at this location. The bridge site is 2km from the Doninga bridge site.
The bridge span is 150m and will form part of the R181/02 route.

5.2

Hydrological Analysis

The Rational method was used to estimate the maximum flood discharge from the
catchment. The run-off co-efficient (C) assumed was 0.6 since the area is flat arable.

A Return Period of 100years was used in the analysis.


The maximum flood discharge obtained was 2486.152m 3/s as shown in Appendix A.

5.3

Highest Water Level Information

By our inspection, the highest water level was 5.75m from the river bed as observed as
water marks on trees at the river banks.
Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 8

5.4

Hydraulic Analysis

The 0DQQLQJV Method was used to determine the capacity of the proposed bridge
structure.
The highest water level (HWL) of 5.75m gave a channel and flood plain discharge of
2866.746m3/s.

5.5

Proposed Bridge Depth

The proposed bridge depth is 7.25m including a free board of 1.5m.

5.6

Horizontal Alignment

A design speed of 80kph was used.


The entry and exit approaches are 369.626m & 355.4m respectively.
The alignment design controls are show in table 5.1.

5.7

Vertical Alignment

The topography of the road corridor is relatively flat.


A maximum grade of 2.8% was obtained.
The alignment design controls areas shown in table 5.1.

Table 5.1. Alignment Design Controls


DESIGN

H O R I Z O N T A L

RMIN

SPEED

Lmin

Des.

Abs.

424

234

140

Superelevation
Des

Rmin
Adverse

C U R V E S

Sight Distance
Stopping

Passing

VERTICAL CURVES

Transition
Curve
Ls (min)

K factor
Crest

Lmin

Sag

GRADIENT

min

max

Des

Des

Cross-fall

Km/h

80

6.0

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

3500

110

500

44

30

18

70

0.4

Page 9

5.8

Cross Section

The cross section details used in the design are shown in the tables 5.2 & 5.3 below.

Table 5.2

Approach Road
Carriageway

Shoulder

Side Slope

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Max
Superelevation
%

Width
m

Slope
%

Cut

Fill

7.3

2.5

3.0

3.0

1:2

1:2

Table 5.3

Bridge Section
Carriageway

Walkway

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Width
m

Slope
%

7.3

2.5

1.5

2.5

6.0

KULUN BRIDGE SITE

6.1

Proposed Bridge Location

The proposed bridge will link the existing approaches which forms part of the IR11/06
route. It has a span of 100m.

6.2

Hydrological Analysis

The maximum flood discharge from the catchment was estimated using the Rational
method. The runoff co-efficient (C) assumed was 0.6 since the area is flat arable.
A return period of 100years was used in the analysis.
The maximum flood discharge obtained was 547m3/s as shown in appendix A.

6.3

Highest Water Level Information

The highest water level was 4.8 from the river bed as reported by the local inhabitants.

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 10

6.4

Hydraulic Analysis

The 0DQQLQJV Method was used to determine the capacity of the proposed bridge
structure. A channel and flood plain discharge of 1800.6m3/s was obtained using the
highest water level obtained from the site.

6.5

Proposed Bridge Depth

The proposed bridge depth is 7.9m including a freeboard of 3.1m.

6.6

Horizontal Alignment

A design speed of 80kph was used.


The entry and exit approaches are 971m & 644m respectively.
The alignment design controls are as shown is table 6.1.

6.7

Vertical Alignment

A maximum grade of 1.9% was obtained since the topography of the road corridor is
relatively flat.
The alignment design controls are as shown in table 6.1.

Table 6.1. Alignment Design Controls


H O R I Z O N T A L

DESIGN

RMIN

SPEED

Lmin

Des.

Abs.

424

234

140

Superelevation
Des

Rmin
Adverse

C U R V E S

Sight Distance
Stopping

Passing

VERTICAL CURVES

Transition
Curve
Ls (min)

K factor
Crest

Lmin

Sag

GRADIENT

min

max

Des

Des

Cross-fall

Km/h

80

6.0

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

3500

110

500

44

30

18

70

0.4

Page 11

6.8

Cross Section

The cross section details used in the design are shown in the tables 6.2 & 6.3 below.

Table 6.2

Approach Road
Carriageway

Shoulder

Side Slope

Width
M

Crossfall
%

Max
Superelevation
%

Width
m

Slope
%

Cut

Fill

7.3

2.5

3.0

3.0

1:2

1:2

Table 6.3

Bridge Section
Carriageway

Walkway

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Width
m

Slope
%

7.3

2.5

1.5

2.5

7.0

AMBALARA BRIDGE SITE

7.1

Proposed Bridge Location

The proposed bridge will link the existing approaches which forms part of the IR11/06
route. It has a span of 60m.

7.2

Hydrological Analysis

The maximum flood discharge from the catchment was estimated using the Rational
method. The runoff co-efficient (C) assumed was 0.6 since the area is flat arable.
A return period of 50years was used in the analysis.
The maximum flood discharge obtained was 218.137m3/s as shown in appendix A.

7.3

Highest Water Level Information

The highest water level was 4m from the river bed as reported by the local inhabitants.

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 12

7.4

Hydraulic Analysis

The 0DQQLQJV Method was used to determine the capacity of the proposed bridge
structure. A channel and flood plain discharge of 1410m3/s was obtained using the
Highest water level obtained from the site.

7.5

Proposed Bridge Depth

The proposed bridge depth is 6m including a freeboard of 2m.

7.6

Horizontal Alignment

A design speed of 80kph was used.


The entry and exit approaches are 735.672m & 667.2m respectively.
The alignment design controls are as shown is table 7.1.

7.7

Vertical Alignment

A maximum grade of 1.2% was obtained since the topography of the road corridor is
relatively flat.
The alignment design controls are as shown in table 7.1.

Table 7.1. Alignment Design Controls


H O R I Z O N T A L

DESIGN

RMIN

SPEED

Lmin

Des.

Abs.

424

234

140

Superelevation
Des

Rmin
Adverse

C U R V E S

Sight Distance
Stopping

Passing

VERTICAL CURVES

Transition
Curve
Ls (min)

K factor
Crest

Lmin

Sag

GRADIENT

min

max

Des

Des

Cross-fall

Km/h

80

6.0

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

3500

110

500

44

30

18

70

0.4

Page 13

7.8

Cross Section

The cross section details used in the design are shown in the tables 6.2 & 6.3 below.

Table 7.2

Approach Road
Carriageway

Shoulder

Side Slope

Width
M

Crossfall
%

Max
Superelevation
%

Width
m

Slope
%

Cut

Fill

7.3

2.5

3.0

3.0

1:2

1:2

Table 7.3

Bridge Section
Carriageway

Walkway

Width
m

Crossfall
%

Width
m

Slope
%

7.3

2.5

1.5

2.5

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 14

APPENDIX A

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 15

KULUNGUGU BRIDGE SITE


HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS (USING RATIONAL METHOD)
Area
Catchment Area
Correction
2
(Km )
Factor

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Longest
Stream
Length(Km)

+ IW

+ P

Slope (m/km)

Tc(hr)

Return
Period (yrs)

Runoff Coefficient C

Rainfall
Intensity
I(in/hr)

Rainfall
Intensity
I(mm/hr)

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Maximum
Discharge
Q(cu.m/s)

270

1.000

270.000

33.810

350

106.680

3.155

14.966

100

0.60

0.51

12.954

270.000

582.930

270

0.620

167.400

33.810

350

106.680

3.155

15.699

100

0.60

0.51

12.954

167.400

361.417

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS (USING MANNINGS METHOD)

Bridge

HWL (m)

Water Sect.
Area(sq.m)

Wetted
Perimeter(m)

100m span

4.5

299.99

103.81

58m span

110.40

61.56

Hydraulic Channel
Radius(m)
Slope
2.890
1.793

0.003
0.003

Manning's
Roughness
0.015
0.015

Average Discharge
Vel.(m/s) Qc(cu.m/s)
7.157
5.207

Remarks

2147.113

Proposed Bridge Span

574.846

HWL used is the same


as the depth of the
Existing Bridge

Note
1. The max. discharge from the catcment gives 3m depth of bridge (1.5m actual + 1.5m assumed freeboard) for the existing bridge
2. The max. flood discharge observed (reportedly due to the openning of dam in Burkina Faso) gives 6m depth of bridge (4.5m actual + 1.5m freeboard)

GARU BRIDGE SITE


HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS (USING RATIONAL METHOD)
Area
Catchment Area
Correction
(Km2)
Factor

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Longest
Stream
Length(Km)

+ IW

+ P

Slope (m/km)

Tc(hr)

Return
Period (yrs)

Runoff Coefficient C

Rainfall
Intensity
I(in/hr)

Rainfall
Intensity
I(mm/hr)

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Maximum
Discharge
Q(cu.m/s)

419.450

1.000

419.450

35.700

250

76.200

2.134

16.351

50.0

0.60

0.4

10.16

419.450

710.269

419.450

0.600

251.670

35.700

250

76.200

2.134

17.208

50.0

0.60

0.4

10.16

251.670

426.161

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS (USING MANNINGS METHOD)


Water Sect.
Area(sq.m)

Wetted
Perimeter(m)

Hydraulic Channel
Radius(m)
Slope

Manning's
Roughness

Average Discharge
Vel.(m/s) Qc(cu.m/s)

Bridge

HWL (m)

Remarks

175m span

345

178.4

1.934

0.004

0.015

6.545

2257.963

Proposed Bridge Span

175m span

604.74

181.37

3.334

0.004

0.015

9.411

5691.067

Proposed Bridge Span

68 span

136

72

1.889

0.004

0.015

6.443

876.243

Existing Bridge Span

10m span

20

14

1.429

0.004

0.015

5.348

106.965

Existing Masonry Bridge

175m span

175

177

0.989

0.004

0.015

4.185

732.296

Proposed Bridge Span

983.208

Note
1. The max. discharge from the catcment gives 3.0m depth of bridge (2.0m actual + 1.0m assumed freeboard)
2. Using the approaches as controls gives 5.5m depth of Bridge (same as existing structure, i.e. 2m actual + 3.5m freeboard)

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 16

DONINGA BRIDGE SITE


HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS (USING RATIONAL METHOD)
Area
Catchment Area
Correction
(Km2)
Factor

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Longest
Stream
Length(Km)

+ IW

+ P

Slope (m/km)

Tc(hr)

Return
Period (yrs)

Runoff Coefficient C

Rainfall
Intensity
I(in/hr)

Rainfall
Intensity
I(mm/hr)

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Maximum
Discharge
Q(cu.m/s)

97.500

1.000

97.500

22.150

250

76.200

3.440

10.670

50

0.60

0.6

15.24

97.500

247.650

97.500

0.720

70.200

22.150

250

76.200

3.440

11.026

50

0.60

0.6

15.24

70.200

178.308

Manning's
Roughness

Average
Vel.(m/s)

Discharge
Qc(cu.m/s)

Remarks

0.015

5.928

749.697

Proposed Bridge Span

162.191

HWL used is the same


as the depth of the
Existing Bridge

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS (USING MANNINGS METHOD)

Bridge

HWL (m)

Water Sect.
Area(sq.m)

Wetted
Perimeter(m)

50m span

3.8

126.474

54.927

30m span

2.3

40.555

31.781

Hydraulic Channel
Radius(m)
Slope
2.303
1.276

0.003
0.003

0.015

3.999

Note
1. The max. discharge from the catcment gives 2.3m depth of bridge (1.3m actual + 1.0m assumed freeboard) for the existing bridge
2. The max. flood discharge observed gives 4.8m depth of Bridge (3.8m actual + 1.0m freeboard)

SISSILI BRIDGE SITE


HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS (USING RATIONAL METHOD)
Area
Catchment Area
Correction
(Km2)
Factor
9788.000

0.600

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Longest
Stream
Length(Km)

+ IW

+ P

Slope (m/km)

Tc(hr)

Return
Period (yrs)

Runoff Coefficient C

Rainfall
Intensity
I(in/hr)

Rainfall
Intensity
I(mm/hr)

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Maximum
Discharge
Q(cu.m/s)

5872.800

258.130

620

188.976

0.732

112.472

100

0.60

0.1

2.54

5872.800

2486.152

Manning's
Roughness

Average
Vel.(m/s)

Discharge
Qc(cu.m/s)

0.015

4.824

2866.746

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS (USING MANNINGS METHOD)

Bridge

HWL (m)

Water Sect.
Area(sq.m)

Wetted
Perimeter(m)

150m span

5.75

594.28

156.54

Hydraulic Channel
Radius(m)
Slope
3.796

0.001

Note
1. The max. flood discharge observed (due to openning of dam in Burkina Faso) gives 7.25m depth of bridge (5.75m actual + 1.5m freeboard)

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 17

KULUN BRIDGE SITE


HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS (USING RATIONAL METHOD)
Area
Catchment Area
Correction
(Km2)
Factor

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Longest
Stream
Length(Km)

+ IW

+ P

Slope (m/km)

Tc(hr)

Return
Period (yrs)

Runoff Coefficient C

Rainfall
Intensity
I(in/hr)

Rainfall
Intensity
I(mm/hr)

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Maximum
Discharge
Q(cu.m/s)

2051

1.000

2051.000

186.000

550

167.640

0.901

86.367

100

0.60

0.11

2.794

2051.000

955.082

2051

0.600

1230.600

186.000

550

167.640

0.901

90.894

100

0.60

0.105

2.667

1230.600

547.002

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS (USING MANNINGS METHOD)

Bridge

HWL (m)

Water Sect.
Area(sq.m)

Wetted
Perimeter(m)

100m span

4.8

261.23

82.26

Hydraulic Channel
Radius(m)
Slope

Manning's
Roughness

Average Discharge
Vel.(m/s) Qc(cu.m/s)

Remarks

3.176

0.002

0.015

6.893

1800.622

Proposed Bridge Span

AMBALARA BRIDGE SITE


HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS (USING RATIONAL METHOD)
Area
Catchment Area
Correction
2
(Km )
Factor

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Longest
Stream
Length(Km)

+ IW

+ P

Slope (m/km)

Tc(hr)

Return
Period (yrs)

Runoff Coefficient C

Rainfall
Intensity
I(in/hr)

Rainfall
Intensity
I(mm/hr)

Modified
Catchment
Area(sq.km)

Maximum
Discharge
Q(cu.m/s)

120.450

1.000

120.450

24.200

550

167.640

6.927

9.923

50

0.60

0.62

15.748

120.450

316.141

120.450

0.690

83.111

24.200

550

167.640

6.927

10.298

50

0.60

0.62

15.748

83.111

218.137

HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS (USING MANNINGS METHOD)

Bridge

HWL (m)

Water Sect.
Area(sq.m)

Wetted
Perimeter(m)

Hydraulic Channel
Radius(m)
Slope

Manning's
Roughness

Average Discharge
Vel.(m/s) Qc(cu.m/s)

60m span

174.21

63.03

2.764

0.004

0.015

8.094

1410.064

Proposed Bridge Span

45m span

1.2

54

47.4

1.139

0.004

0.015

4.483

242.069

Distance b/n existing


abutments

Remarks

Note
1. The max. discharge from the catcment gives 2.2m depth of bridge (1.2m actual + 1.0m freeboard)
2. The max. flood discharge observed (probable contribution from Kulpawn Catchment) gives 5m depth of bridge (4.0m actual + 1.0m freeboard)

Geometric and Drainage Designs Report

Page 18

SECTION 3
GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS

KULUNGUGU BRIDGE SITE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT KULUNGUGU 1

1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 1


1.2 Fieldwork ..................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground .................................... 1
2.0
2.1

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS ..................................................................... 2


Introduction ................................................................................................ 2

2.2 Surficial Soil Profile ..................................................................................... 2


2.3 Country Rock .............................................................................................. 3
2.4 Groundwater Conditions ............................................................................. 3
3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS ...................................... 4

3.1 Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular ................ 4


4.0 FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE ................................................................. 4
APPENDIX A LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT KULUNGUGU ........... 5
APPENDIX B RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY .................... 9
APPENDIX C SITE PHOTOGRAPHS ............................................................... 11

Geotechnical Report

Page i

1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT KULUNGUGU

1.1
Introduction
Foundation investigation has been carried out at proposed River site found in the
Upper East Region.
The River crossing was located at Kulungugu.

1.2
Fieldwork
The fieldwork was carried out between 27th and 28th January, 2010. To facilitate
the attainment of the requirement of the fieldwork, and also ensure compliance
with the requirements of soil sample recovery and performance of specified field
tests such as standard penetration tests and recovery of undisturbed
clayey/compressible soils, a 1-ton mobile cable percussion boring rig was used
to undertake subsoil investigation.
1.3

Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground

Percussion drilling in soft ground involved the drilling of two (2No.) boreholes at
Kulungugu. One borehole was drilled at each approach.
The various depths attained in soft ground and decomposed rock are shown in
Table 1 of Appendix. Sampling and in-situ testing were carried out in the
boreholes in accordance with project specifications.
All boreholes in soft ground were deemed to have attained refusal when a total
of 50 blows have been applied during any one of the three 0.15m (6-ins)
sampler advancement during SPT. The final depths of the boreholes ranged
from 3.0m in BH 1 to 4.2m in BH 2. Duration for chiseling in each borehole
averaged two (2) hours.

Geotechnical Report

Page 1

Table 1: Drilling Depths


Kulungugu
Depth in Soft

Depth in Rock

Ground

Borehole

(Chiselling with

(Percussion

California Hammer)

Drilling)

2.0

Total
Depth

B1

2.8m

0.2m

3.0m

B2

3.6m

0.6m

4.2m

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

2.1
Introduction
This section present the results of the field activities and samples recovered as
part of the investigations.

2.2
Surficial Soil Profile
The boreholes sunk at the site revealed the following ground
conditions;
Table 2: Stratigraphy of Site
Kulungugu
Stratum

Thickness

Soft to firm light brown fine 1.0m 3.6m

Average SPT N
13

grained moist sandy SILT


Very dense moist greyish/dark 1.5m 4.2m

refusal

brown silty SAND with fined


grained

sandy

gravel

(Weathered Granite)

Geotechnical Report

Page 2

Surficial soils were mainly sand with a heterogeneous mixture of soft to firm
Light brown fine grained moist silt, occasionally greyish silty sand with fine
grained very dense sandy gravel.
Logs and Locations of borehole can be found on Appendix A attached.

2.3
Country Rock
Bedrock of weathered Granite belonging to the Middle Precambrian granitic
Rocks with minor belts of Birrimian rocks was encountered in all locations
drilled.
It was chiselled at all borehole locations. The geological map indicates that
granite was to be expected along the project corridor. At Kulungugu the material
actually chiseled is greyish, brown weathered rock.

2.4
Groundwater Conditions
Groundwater was not encountered in all boreholes drilled at the site.
At the project corridor, the major rainy season occurs from August to October.
Groundwater levels are normally expected to peak at mid September to mid
October and be at lowest in mid December to mid April. Seasonal fluctuation in
groundwater level is dependent on several factors notable are; geology, rainfall
amount, topography, catchment area size, groundwater abstraction and recharge
rates, surface drainage and land-use characteristics.

Geotechnical Report

Page 3

3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS

3.1

Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular

Soils/Weathered Rock
The results obtained for N may be used to estimate bearing capacity for
granular soils of weathered granite formations. This is done in conjunction with
estimated width (B) of footing, and this is read off in the relationship established
by Terzargi and Peck curve for soils, ultimate bearing pressure in kN/m
Qult =

2
N
B + 0.3
B
0.08

The detailed results of allowable bearing capacity have been given in Table 3
below.

4.0 FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE


At the Kulungugu bridge site, a foundation depth range of between 2.8m 3.6m
should be adopted, this depth will be mainly in the competent weathered
rock horizon.

It is therefore recommended that a design bearing capacity of 500


750KN/m2 be used and footings placed at least between 2.80m 3.6m. At
that footing depth, spread footing is to be used.

Geotechnical Report

Page 4

APPENDIX A

LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT KULUNGUGU

Geotechnical Report

Page 5

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Kulungugu

LOCATION:

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8

N-value

Soil/Rock Description

(%)

(%) (%) (%)

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

Chemical
Tests

pH Value

LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

Cl- (mgl-1)

DATE : 27th January, 2010

Borehole No.: 1

SO42- (mgl-1)

BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

Soft to firm moist light brown sandy


SILT

spt1

N=21

40

23

70

30

N=>60

35

16

70

30

Very dense moist greyish brown silty


SAND (decomposed/weathered GRANITE)

spt2

End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
- Ground water

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
2SO
- Sulphate Content
Cl- - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chiseled for 2.5hours. There was no penetration.

Geotechnical Report

Page 6

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Kulungugu

LOCATION: Kulungugu

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4

ds1

Soil/Rock Description

N-value

(%)

Loose to medium dense moist light


brown sandy SILT

spt1

(%) (%) (%)

28

13

49

51

52

47

N=5

29

12

N=6

31

13

56

44

26

13

70

30

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

Chemical
Tests

pH Value

LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

Cl- (mgl-1)

DATE : 23rd January, 2010

Borehole No.: 2

SO42- (mgl-1)

BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

Very loose, moist brown sandy SILT


spt2

spt3
Dense to very dense moist greyish silty
SAND ( weathered granite )
End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
- Ground water

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
2SO4 - Sulphate Content
Cl - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 2.0hours advancing 0.2m

Geotechnical Report

Page 7

Geotechnical Report

Page 8

APPENDIX B

RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY

Geotechnical Report

Page 9

Table 3:

Summary of Foundation Details at Borehole Locations


Kulungugu

Location

BH 1

Foundation Soil

Very dense, moist, greyish micacious silty

Soil Thickness

Proposed Foundation

Allowable Bearing

Net Safe Bearing

Depth

Pressure

Pressure

3.0m

2.8m

1267KN/m

422KN/m

4.2m

3.6m

1140KN/m

380 KN/m

GRAVEL (Weathered Granite)


BH2

Very dense, moist dark brown coarse grained


SAND with some gravel.

Assuming a factor of safety of 3

Geotechnical Report

Page 10

APPENDIX C

SITE PHOTOGRAPHS

Geotechnical Report

Page 11

Photographs of the Existing Bridge at Kulungugu

Geotechnical Report

Page 12

Drilling at Borehole 1

Drilling at Borehole 2

Geotechnical Report

Page 13

GARU BRIDGE SITE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT GARU ............. 1

1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 1


1.2 Fieldwork ..................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground .......................................... 1
2.0

Subsurface Conditions .............................................................................. 2

2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 2


2.2 Surficial Soil Profile ..................................................................................... 2
2.3 Country Rock .............................................................................................. 3
2.4 Groundwater Conditions ............................................................................. 3
3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS ...................................... 4

3.1 Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular ................ 4


4.0

Foundation Depth and Type ...................................................................... 4

APPENDIX A LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT GARU ......................... 5


APPENDIX B RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY ..................... 8
APPENDIX C SITE PHOTOGRAPHS ................................................................ 10

Geotechnical Report

Page i

1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT GARU

1.1
Introduction
Foundation investigation has been carried out at proposed River site found in the
Upper East Region.
The River crossing was located at Garu.

1.2
Fieldwork
The fieldwork was carried out between 23rd January and 25th January,
2010. To facilitate the attainment of the requirement of the fieldwork, and also
ensure compliance with the requirements of soil sample recovery and
performance of specified field tests such as standard penetration tests and
recovery of undisturbed clayey/compressible soils, a 1-ton mobile cable
percussion boring rig was used to undertake subsoil investigation.
1.3

Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground

Percussion drilling in soft ground involved the drilling of two (2No.) boreholes at
Garu. One borehole was drilled at each approach.
The various depths attained in soft ground and decomposed rock are shown in
Table 1 of Appendix A. Sampling and in-situ testing were carried out in the
boreholes in accordance with project specifications.
All boreholes in soft ground were deemed to have attained refusal when a total
of 50 blows have been applied during any one of the three 0.15m (6-ins)
sampler advancement during SPT. The final depths of the boreholes ranged
from 9.6m in BH 1 to 10.0m in BH 2. . Duration for chiseling in each borehole
averaged two (2) hours.

Geotechnical Report

Page 1

Table 1: Drilling Depths


Garu
Depth in Soft
Ground

Borehole

(Percussion
Drilling)

Depth in Rock
(Chiselling with
California Hammer)

Total
Depth

B1

8.6m

1.0m

9.6m

B2

9.6m

0.4m

10.0m

2.0

Subsurface Conditions

2.1
Introduction
This section present the results of the field activities and samples recovered as
part of the investigations.

2.2
Surficial Soil Profile
The boreholes sunk at the site revealed the following ground
conditions;
Table 2: Stratigraphy of Site
Garu
Stratum

Thickness

Soft, moist greyish/ brown silty 1.0m 3.0m

$YHUDJH6371
11

sandy CLAY
Very loose, moist, greyish/ brown 3.0m 8.6m

15

clayey silty SAND


Very dense moist greyish/dark 8.6m 10.0m
brown

silty

sandy

refusal

GRAVEL

(Weathered Granite)

Geotechnical Report

Page 2

Surficial soils were mainly sand with a heterogeneous mixture of loose to


medium, occasionally yellowish/dark/brown/grey silty sand with clay and very
dense sandy gravel.
Logs of borehole are presented in Appendix A.

2.3
Country Rock
Bedrock of weathered Granite belonging to the Middle Precambrian granitic
rocks, with minor belts of Birrimian rocks was encountered in all locations
drilled. It was chiselled at all borehole locations. The geological map indicates
that granite was to be expected along the project corridor. At Garu the material
actually chiseled is greyish, dark brown weathered rock.

2.4
Groundwater Conditions
Groundwater was encountered in all boreholes drilled at the site and it occurred
at depths range of between 2.7m in BH1 and 1.7m in BH2.
At the project corridor, the major rainy season occurs from mid August to
October. Groundwater levels are normally expected to peak at mid September
to mid October and be at lowest in mid December to mid April. Seasonal
fluctuation in groundwater level is dependent on several factors notable are;
geology, rainfall amount, topography, catchment area size, groundwater
abstraction and recharge rates, surface drainage and land-use characteristics.

Geotechnical Report

Page 3

3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS

3.1

Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular


Soils/Weathered Rock

The UHVXOWV REWDLQHG IRU 1 PD\ EH XVHG WR HVWLPDWH EHDULQJ FDSDFLW\ IRU
granular soils of weathered granite formations. This is done in conjunction with
estimated width (B) of footing, and this is read off in the relationship established
by Terzargi and Peck curve for soils, ultimate bearing pressure in kN/m
Qu lt

N
0.08

>

 0.3

The detailed results of allowable bearing capacity have been given in Table 3
of Appendix A.
4.0

Foundation Depth and Type

At the Garu bridge site, a foundation depth range of between 8.6m 10.0m
should be adopted, this depth will be mainly in the competent weathered
rock horizon.

It is therefore recommended that a design bearing capacity of 500


750KN/m2 be used and footings placed at least between 8.6.0m 9.6m. At
that footing depth, either piles or caissons is to be used.

Geotechnical Report

Page 4

APPENDIX A

LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT GARU

Geotechnical Report

Page 5

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

GARU

LOCATION:

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4

(%)

ds1

ds2

(%) (%) (%)

Shear
Test
Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS
Fines %

Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test
N-value

Soil/Rock Description

Sand %

Sample

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile
OD

48

52

30

94

10

90

17

82

89

10

87

13

34

17

56

Chemical
Tests
pH Value

LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

Cl- (mgl-1)

DATE : 23rd January , 2010

Borehole No.: 1

SO42- (mgl-1)

BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

Soft moist greyish brown Sandy SILT

spt1

- Ground water


N=8

59

26

spt2

N=11

56

24

spt3

N=17

32

15

N=5

17

Very Loose Moist Reddish Brown SAND


With Gravel ( Alluvial Deposit )

spt4

non- plastic

spt5

N=4

spt6

N=5

spt7

N=17

19

85

N=>50

31

12

85

non- plastic

93

Soft moist greyish / dark brown


silty CLAY with sand

spt8

Soft moist greyish / dark brown


silty CLAY with sand

CPT

Very dense SAND


End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
- Ground water

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
2SO4 - Sulphate Content
Cl - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 2hours advancing 0.6m
Cone Test Performed at 9.3m. There was no penetration after 70 blows.

Geotechnical Report

Page 6

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

GARU

LOCATION:
BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

DATE : 23rd January , 2010


LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

(%)

(%) (%) (%)

pH Value

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
10

Soil/Rock Description

Chemical
Tests
Cl- (mgl-1)

Type

Shear
Test
Cu (kN/m2)

Level*
(m)

N-value

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS
Sand %

OD

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

SO42- (mgl-1)

Borehole No.: 2

Soft moist dark brown dark grey clayey


SILT
ds1

spt1

Soft moist yellowish brown , grey


sandy CLAY

42

16

39

61

- Ground water


N=11

37

21

34

66

N=5

21

88

44

56

spt2

spt3

N=3
non-plastic
Very loose wet brown coarse grained
SAND with silt

spt4

N=5

spt5

N=5

spt6

N=12

non-plastic

94

non-plastic

87

50

47

88

10

56

42

95

34

15

Soft wet greyish sandy SILT with clay

spt7

25

12

35

19

27

13

N=13

spt8

Soft to firm greyish / yellowish brown


clayey SILT

N=52

ds2

Very dense moist dark brown coarse

grained SAND with some gravel


spt9
N=52

End of borehole

CPT

N=>67

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
- Ground water

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
2SO4 - Sulphate Content
Cl - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 2hours advancing 0.65m
Cone test performed at 10m. Penetration after 67 blows was 0.05m

Geotechnical Report

Page 7

APPENDIX B

RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY

Geotechnical Report

Page 8

Table 3:

Summary of Foundation Details at Borehole Locations


Garu

Location

BH 1

Foundation Soil

Very dense, moist, greyish micacious silty

Soil Thickness

Proposed Foundation

Allowable Bearing

Net Safe Bearing

Depth

Pressure

Pressure

9.6m

8.6m

1056kN/m

352 KN/m

10.0m

8.6m

1056kN/m

352 KN/m

GRAVEL (Weathered Granite)


BH2

Very dense, moist dark brown coarse grained


SAND with some gravel.

Assuming a factor of safety of 3

Geotechnical Report

Page 9

APPENDIX C

SITE PHOTOGRAPHS

Geotechnical Report

Page 10

Photograph of the Existing Bridge at Garu

Photograph of Drilling Rig being towed to Site

Geotechnical Report

Page 11

Drilling at Borehole 1

Drilling at Borehole 2

Geotechnical Report

Page 12

DONINGA BRIDGE SITE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT DONINGA ....... 1

1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 1


1.2 Fieldwork ..................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground ......................................... 1
2.0

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS ..................................................................... 2

2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 2


2.2 Surficial Soil Profile ..................................................................................... 2
2.3 Country Rock .............................................................................................. 3
2.4
3.0

Groundwater Conditions ............................................................................ 3


ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS ...................................... 4

3.1 Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular ................ 4


4.0

FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE ............................................................. 4

APPENDIX A LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT DONINGA ................... 5


APPENDIX B RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY ..................... 9
APPENDIX C SITE PHOTOGRAPHS ................................................................ 11

Geotechnical Report

Page i

1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT DONINGA

1.1
Introduction
Foundation investigation has been carried out at proposed River site found in the
Upper West Region.
The River crossing was located at Doninga.

1.2
Fieldwork
The fieldwork was carried out between 5th and 6th February, 2010.
To facilitate the attainment of the requirement of the fieldwork, and also
ensure compliance with the requirements of soil sample recovery and
performance of specified field tests such as standard penetration tests and
recovery of undisturbed clayey/compressible soils, a 1-ton mobile cable
percussion boring rig was used to undertake subsoil investigation.

1.3
Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground
Percussion drilling in soft ground involved the drilling of two (2No.) boreholes at
Doninga. One borehole was drilled at each approach.
The various depths attained in soft ground and decomposed rock are shown in
Table 1. Sampling and in-situ testing were carried out in the boreholes in
accordance with project specifications.
All boreholes in soft ground were deemed to have attained refusal when a total
of 50 blows have been applied during any one of the three 0.15m (6-ins)
sampler advancement during SPT. The final depths of the boreholes ranged
from 5.7m in BH 1 to 7.1m in BH 2. . Duration for chiseling in each borehole
averaged three (3) hours.

Geotechnical Report

Page 1

Table 1: Drilling Depths


Doninga
Borehole

Depth in Soft

Depth in Rock

Total

Ground

(Chiselling with

Depth

(Percussion

California Hammer)

Drilling)

2.0

B1

5.3m

0.4m

5.7m

B2

6.8m

0.3

7.1m

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

2.1
Introduction
This section present the results of the field activities and samples recovered as
part of the investigations.

2.2
Surficial Soil Profile
The boreholes sunk at the site revealed the following ground conditions;
Table 2: Stratigraphy of Site
Doninga
Stratum
Soft moist dark brown sandy

Thickness

$YHUDJH6371

0.4m 2.3

2.3m 5.3m

14

5.3m 7.1m

refusal

SILT
Loose wet grey coarse grained
silty SAND with gravel
Very dense, moist greyish
GRANITE with sand and gravel
(weather Rock)

Geotechnical Report

Page 2

Surficial soils were mainly sand with a heterogeneous mixture of dense,


occasionally greyish/yellowish/brown dense silty gravel.
Logs and Location of borehole are presented in Appendix A.

2.3
Country Rock
Bedrock of weathered Granite belonging to the Middle Precambrian granitic
rocks, with minor belts of Birrimian rocks was encountered in all locations
drilled. It was chiselled at all borehole locations. The geological map indicates
that granite was to be expected along the project corridor. At Doninga the
material actually chiseled is greyish sand with fined grained gravel (weathered
rock).

2.4
Groundwater Conditions
Groundwater was encountered in all boreholes drilled at the site and it occurred
at depths range of between 1.6m in BH1 and 3.7m in BH2.
At the project corridor, the major rainy season occurs from mid August to
October. Groundwater levels are normally expected to peak at mid September
to mid October and be at lowest in mid December to mid April. Seasonal
fluctuation in groundwater level is dependent on several factors notable are;
geology, rainfall amount, topography, catchment area size, groundwater
abstraction and recharge rates, surface drainage and land-use characteristics.

Geotechnical Report

Page 3

3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS

3.1

Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular

Soils/Weathered Rock
The UHVXOWVREWDLQHGIRU1PD\EHXVHGWRHVWLPDWHEHDULQJFDSDFLW\IRU
granular soils of weathered granite formations. This is done in conjunction with
estimated width (B) of footing, and this is read off in the relationship established
by Terzargi and Peck curve for soils, ultimate bearing pressure in kN/m

Qult

N >B  0.3 @2
B
0.08

The detailed results of allowable bearing capacity are presented in Table 3


of Appendix B.

4.0

FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE

At the Doninga bridge site a foundation depth of 5.5m should be adopted. This
will mainly be in the competent weathered rock horizon.

It is therefore recommended that a design bearing capacity of 500


750KN/m2 be used and footings placed at 5.5m. At that footing depth,
either piles or caissons is to be used.

Geotechnical Report

Page 4

APPENDIX A

LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT DONINGA

Geotechnical Report

Page 5

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Doninga

LOCATION:

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

N-value

Soil/Rock Description

(%)

(%) (%) (%)

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

Chemical
Tests

pH Value

LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

Cl- (mgl-1)

DATE : 05th February, 2010

Borehole No.: 1

SO42- (mgl-1)

BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

Loose To Medium Dense Reddish Brown


Silty SAND
ds1

20

spt1

13

Non Plastic

N=5

41

58

96

*URXQGZDWHU

spt2

spt3

Loose Wet Grey Coarse Grained


SAND With Silty Gravel

spt4

spt5

Very Dense Greyish GRANITE


With Gravel ( Alluvial Deposit )

N=5

Non Plastic

88

N=6

Non Plastic

93

N=4

Non Plastic

88

N=>53

End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
*URXQGZDWHU

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
2SO4 - Sulphate Content
Cl- - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 3hours advancing 0.05m
Cone test performed at 5.3m. Penetration after 57 blows was 0.05m

Geotechnical Report

Page 6

pH Value

(%) (%) (%)

Cl- (mgl-1)

(%)

Chemical
Tests

SO42- (mgl-1)

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1

N-value

Soil/Rock Description

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

Soft moist Reddish Brown GRAVEL


Mixed With Concrete

ds1

26

13

13

43

56

Soft Moist Dark Brownish Grey


SILT With Clay
spt1

N=6

24

13

11

50

48

spt2

N=8

33

15

18

32

68

N=9

Non Plastic

81

18

Loose Moist Yellowish Brown / Grey


Silty SAND
spt3

*URXQGZDWHU

ds2
spt4

spt5

Dense To Very Dense, Moist Greyish /


Yellowish Brown Clayey SAND

spt6

28

13

77

17

N=13

47

16

31

70

28

N=60

55

19

25

19

47

34

95

N=>53
Very Dense Moist Light Green / Greyish
SAND With Gravel ( Weathered Rock)
Non Plastic

CPT

End of borehole

LEGEND
Cu - Cohesion

ds - disturbed sample

nmc - natural moisture content

ud - undisturbed sample

LL - Liquid Limit

- Coefficient of shear resistance

spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample

PI - Plasticity Index

SO4 - Sulphate Content

CPT - Cone Penetration Test

DFS - Differential Free Swell

Cl- - Chloride Content

N-value

2-

*URXQGZDWHU

Note
Hole chisseled for 2hours advancing 0.3m
Cone test performed at 7.1m. There was no penetration after 50 blows

Geotechnical Report

Page 7

Geotechnical Report

Page 8

APPENDIX B

RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY

Geotechnical Report

Page 9

Table 3:

Summary of Foundation Details at Borehole Locations


Doninga

Location

BH 1

Foundation Soil

Soft moist greyish / dark brown silty

Soil Thickness

Proposed Foundation

Allowable Bearing

Net Safe Bearing

Depth

Pressure

Pressure

5.7m

5.5m

1267kN/m

422 KN/m

7.1m

5.5m

1119KN/m

373KN/m

CLAY with sand


BH2

Very dense, moist dark brown coarse grained


SAND with some gravel.

Assuming a factor of safety of 3

Geotechnical Report

Page 10

APPENDIX C

SITE PHOTOGRAPHS

Geotechnical Report

Page 11

Photographs of the Existing Bridge at Doninga

Geotechnical Report

Page 12

SISSILI BRIDGE SITE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

Foundation Investigations for the Bridge at Sisili................................... 1

1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 1


1.2 Fieldwork ..................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground .......................................... 1
2.0

Subsurface Conditions .............................................................................. 2

2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 2


2.2 Surficial Soil Profile ..................................................................................... 2
2.3 Country Rock .............................................................................................. 3
2.4 Groundwater Conditions ............................................................................. 3
3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS ...................................... 4

3.1

Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular ................. 4

4.0

FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE ............................................................. 4

APPENDIX A LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT SISSILI ....................... 5


APPENDIX B RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY ................... 11
APPENDIX C SITE PHOTOGRAPHS ................................................................ 13

Geotechnical Report

Page i

1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT SISILI

1.1
Introduction
Foundation investigation has been carried out at proposed River site found in the
Upper West Region.
The River crossing was located at Sisili.

1.2
Fieldwork
The fieldwork was carried out between 30th January and 3rd February,
2010. To facilitate the attainment of the requirement of the fieldwork, and also
ensure compliance with the requirements of soil sample recovery and
performance of specified field tests such as standard penetration tests and
recovery of undisturbed clayey/compressible soils, a 1-ton mobile cable
percussion boring rig was used to undertake subsoil investigation.
1.3

Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground

Percussion drilling in soft ground involved the drilling of three (3No.) boreholes
at Sisili. On each approach as well as the middle of the span a borehole was
drilled.
The various depths attained in soft ground and decomposed rock are shown in
Table 1. Sampling and in-situ testing were carried out in the boreholes in
accordance with project specifications.
All boreholes in soft ground were deemed to have attained refusal when a total
of 50 blows have been applied during any one of the three 0.15m (6-ins)
sampler advancement during SPT. The final depths of the boreholes ranged
from 9.1m in BH 1 to 7.5m in BH 2 and 8.5m in BH3. Duration for chiseling in
each borehole averaged two and half (2) hours.

Geotechnical Report

Page 1

Table 1: Drilling Depths


Sisili
Depth in Soft

Depth in Rock

Ground

Borehole

(Chiselling with

(Percussion

California Hammer)

Drilling)

Total
Depth

B1

8.7m

0.4m

9.1m

B2

7.0m

0.5m

7.5m

B3

8.0m

0.5m

8.5m

2.0

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

2.1
Introduction
This section present the results of the field activities and samples recovered as
part of the investigations.

2.2
Surficial Soil Profile
The boreholes sunk at the site revealed the following ground conditions;
Table 2: Stratigraphy of Site
Sisili
Stratum

Thickness

Very

loose

moist 2.3m 7.0m

$YHUDJH6371
13

reddish/yellowish brown SAND


with gravel (Aluvial Deposit)
Dense

moist

reddish

sandy GRAVEL with

brown 7.0m 8.7m

45

greyish/

dark brown silty clay


Very dense, moist grayish sand 8.7m 9.1m
with

fine

grained

refusal

GRAVEL

(Weathered Granite)
Geotechnical Report

Page 2

Surficial soils were mainly sand with a heterogeneous mixture of dense,


occasionally greyish/yellowish/brown dense sandy gravel.
Logs and Locations of borehole are presented in Appendix A.

2.3
Country Rock
Bedrock of weathered Granite belonging to the Middle Precambrian granitic
rocks, with minor belts of Birrimian rocks was encountered in all locations
drilled. It was chiselled at all borehole locations. The geological map indicates
that granite was to be expected along the project corridor. At Sisili the material
actually chiseled is greyish sand with fined grained gravel (weathered rock).

2.4
Groundwater Conditions
Groundwater was encountered in all boreholes drilled at the site and it occurred
at depths range of between 2.6m in BH1, 1.7m in BH2 and 2.6m in BH3.
At the project corridor, the major rainy season occurs from mid August to
October. Groundwater levels are normally expected to peak at mid September
to mid October and be at lowest in mid December to mid April. Seasonal
fluctuation in groundwater level is dependent on several factors notable are;
geology, rainfall amount, topography, catchment area size, groundwater
abstraction and recharge rates, surface drainage and land-use characteristics.

Geotechnical Report

Page 3

3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS

3.1

Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular


Soils/Weathered Rock

The UHVXOWV REWDLQHG IRU 1 PD\ EH XVHd to estimate bearing capacity for
granular soils of weathered granite formations. This is done in conjunction with
estimated width (B) of footing, and this is read off in the relationship established
by Terzargi and Peck curve for soils, ultimate bearing pressure in kN/m

Qult

N >B  0.3 @2
B
0.08

The detailed results of allowable bearing capacity are presented in Table 3 of


Appendix B.

4.0

FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE

At the Sisili bridge site, a foundation depth range of between 6.9m 8.7m
should be adopted, this depth will be mainly in the competent weathered
rock horizon.

It is therefore recommended that a design bearing capacity of 500


750KN/m2 be used and footings placed at least between 6.9m 8.7m. At
that footing depth, either piles or caissons is to be used.

Geotechnical Report

Page 4

APPENDIX A

LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT SISSILI

Geotechnical Report

Page 5

Geotechnical Report

Page 6

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Sisili

LOCATION:

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9
9.1

Soil/Rock Description

N-value

(%)

ds1

(%) (%) (%)

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

30

18

21

79

28

16

35

64

88

Chemical
Tests

pH Value

LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

Cl- (mgl-1)

DATE : 30th January , 2010

Borehole No.: 1

SO42- (mgl-1)

BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

Soft moist greyish brown Sandy SILT

spt1

N=4

spt2

N=5
NON-PLASTIC
*URXQGZDWHU

spt3

N=3

NON-PLASTIC

95

spt4

N=8

NON-PLASTIC

14

82

spt5

N=10

NON-PLASTIC

12

85

spt6

N=20

10

82

41

52

52

43

10

90

Very Loose Moist Reddish Brown SAND


With Gravel ( Alluvial Deposit )

spt7

N=31

20

13

NON-PLASTIC

Soft moist greyish / dark brown


silty CLAY with sand

spt8

N=>60

33

19

Refusal

59

26

Soft moist greyish / dark brown


silty CLAY with sand
End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
*URXQGZDWHU

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
2SO4 - Sulphate Content
Cl- - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 2hours advancing 0.3m

Geotechnical Report

Page 7

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Sisili

LOCATION:
BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

DATE : 03rd February , 2010


LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

(%) (%) (%)

pH Value

(%)

Chemical
Tests

Cl- (mgl-1)

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

N-value

Soil/Rock Description

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

SO42- (mgl-1)

Borehole No.: 2

*URXQGZDWHU

spt1

N=4

NON-PLASTIC

92

spt2

N=7

NON-PLASTIC

86

spt2

N=14

17

89

10

N=>53

27

11

50

50

33

63

87

Very Loose , Yellowish Brown SAND With


Some Gravel

spt2
Soft moist greyish Sandy SILT

Medium Dense To Dense Moist Reddish


Brown Sandy GRAVEL
spt2

( Weathered Rock )

Refusal

NON-PLASTIC

End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
*URXQGZDWHU

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
SO42- - Sulphate Content
Cl- - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 2hours advancing 0.2m

Geotechnical Report

Page 8

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Sisili

LOCATION:
BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

DATE : 2th February , 2010


LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

ds1

(%) (%) (%)

30

18

21

79

28

16

95

pH Value

(%)

Chemical
Tests

Cl- (mgl-1)

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

N-value

Soil/Rock Description

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

SO42- (mgl-1)

Borehole No.: 3

Loose Moist Dark Grey / Reddish Brown


Silty SAND

spt1

N=2
*URXQGZDWHU

spt2

N=6

NON-PLASTIC

88

spt3

N=5

NON-PLASTIC

97

spt4

N=4

NON-PLASTIC

98

spt5

N=5

NON-PLASTIC

87

15

80

92

52

43

Very Loose Moist Greyish SAND


With Silt And Gravel

Very Dense Yellowish Brown SAND With


With Gravel And Clay
spt6

N=7

spt7

N=>50

33

18

15

NON-PLASTIC

Very Dense Yellowish Brown Silty SAND


With Gravel ( Weathered Rock )
spt8

End of borehole

Refusal

33

19

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
*URXQGZDWHU

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
SO42- - Sulphate Content
Cl - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 2hours advancing 0.2m

Geotechnical Report

Page 9

Geotechnical Report

Page 10

APPENDIX B

RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY

Geotechnical Report

Page 11

Table 3:

Summary of Foundation Details at Borehole Locations


Sisili

Location

BH 1

Foundation Soil

Soft moist greyish / dark brown silty

Soil Thickness

Proposed Foundation

Allowable Bearing

Net Safe Bearing

Depth

Pressure

Pressure

9.1m

8.5m

1056kN/m

352 KN/m

7.5m

7.0m

1119KN/m

373KN/m

8.5m

8.0m

1056kN/m

352KN/m

CLAY with sand


BH2

Very dense, moist dark brown coarse grained


SAND with some gravel.

BH3

Very dense, yellowish brown silty SAND


(Weathered Rock)

Assuming a factor of safety of 3

Geotechnical Report

Page 12

APPENDIX C

SITE PHOTOGRAPHS

Geotechnical Report

Page 13

Drilling at Borehole 1

Drilling at Borehole 2

Drilling at Borehole 3

Geotechnical Report

Page 14

KULUN BRIDGE SITE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT KULUN ........... 1

1.1

Introduction ................................................................................................. 1

1.2

Fieldwork ..................................................................................................... 1

1.3

Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground................................... 1

2.0

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS ..................................................................... 2

2.1

Introduction ................................................................................................. 2

2.2

Surficial Soil Profile .................................................................................... 2

2.3

Country Rock .............................................................................................. 3

2.4

Groundwater Conditions ............................................................................. 3

3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS ...................................... 4

3.1

Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular ................ 4

4.0

FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE ............................................................ 4

APPENDIX A LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT KULUN ....................... 5


APPENDIX B RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY ..................... 9

Geotechnical Report

Page i

1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT KULUN

1.1
Introduction
Foundation investigation has been carried out at proposed River site found in the
Upper West Region.
The River crossing was located at Kulun.

1.2
Fieldwork
The fieldwork was carried out between 11th and 13th February, 2010.
To facilitate the attainment of the requirement of the fieldwork, and also
ensure compliance with the requirements of soil sample recovery and
performance of specified field tests such as standard penetration tests and
recovery of undisturbed clayey/compressible soils, a 1-ton mobile cable
percussion boring rig was used to undertake subsoil investigation.
1.3

Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground

Percussion drilling in soft ground involved the drilling of two (2No.) boreholes at
Kulun. One borehole was drilled at each approach.
The various depths attained in soft ground and decomposed rock are shown in
Table 1. Sampling and in-situ testing were carried out in the boreholes in
accordance with project specifications.
All boreholes in soft ground were deemed to have attained refusal when a total
of 50 blows have been applied during any one of the three 0.15m (6-ins)
sampler advancement during SPT. The final depths of the boreholes ranged
from 9.5m in BH 1 to 6.8m in BH 2. Duration for chiseling in each borehole
averaged one hour thirty minutes.

Geotechnical Report

Page 1

Table 1: Drilling Depths


Kulun
Depth in Soft
Borehole

Depth in Rock

Ground

(Chiselling with

(Percussion

California Hammer)

Drilling)

Total
Depth

B1

9.5m

0.0m

9.5m

B2

6.8m

0.0m

6.8m

2.0

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

2.1
Introduction
This section present the results of the field activities and samples recovered as
part of the investigations.

2.2
Surficial Soil Profile
The boreholes sunk at the site revealed the following ground conditions;
Table 2: Stratigraphy of Site
Kulun
Stratum

Thickness

Soft moist dark brown sandy 0.0m 2.1m

$YHUDJH6371
7

SILT
Loose to medium dense coarse 2.1m 9.3m

grained silty SAND with gravel


Very dense GRANITIC rock

Geotechnical Report

9.3m 9.5m

refusal

Page 2

Surficial soils were mainly sand with a heterogeneous mixture of dense,


occasionally greyish/yellowish/brown dense silty gravel.
Logs and Location of borehole are presented in Appendix A.

2.3
Country Rock
Bedrock of weathered Granite belonging to the Middle Precambrian granitic
rocks, with minor belts of Birrimian rocks was encountered in all locations
drilled. It was chiselled at all borehole locations. The geological map indicates
that granite was to be expected along the project corridor. At Kulun the
material actually chiseled is greyish sand with fined grained gravel (weathered
rock).

2.4
Groundwater Conditions
Groundwater was encountered at a depth of 4.65m in BH1 and 4.0m in BH2.
Within the project area, the major rainy season occurs from mid August to
October. Groundwater levels are normally expected to peak at mid September
to mid October and be at lowest in mid December to mid April. Seasonal
fluctuation in groundwater level is dependent on several factors notable are;
geology, rainfall amount, topography, catchment area size, groundwater
abstraction and recharge rates, surface drainage and land-use characteristics.

Geotechnical Report

Page 3

3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS

3.1

Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular


Soils/Weathered Rock

The UHVXOWV REWDLQHG IRU 1 PD\ EH XVHG WR HVWLPDWH EHDULQJ FDSDFLW\ IRU
granular soils of weathered granite formations. This is done in conjunction with
estimated width (B) of footing, and this is read off in the relationship established
by Terzargi and Peck curve for soils, ultimate bearing pressure in kN/m

Qult

N >B  0.3 @2
B
0.08

The detailed results of allowable bearing capacity are presented in Table 3


of Appendix B.

4.0
FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE
At the Kulun bridge site a foundation depth of 9.3m should be adopted. This will
mainly be in the competent weathered rock horizon.

It is therefore recommended that a design bearing capacity of 500


750KN/m2 be used and footings placed at 5.5m. At that footing depth,
either piles or caissons is to be used.

Geotechnical Report

Page 4

APPENDIX A

LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT KULUN

Geotechnical Report

Page 5

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Kulun

LOCATION:
BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

DATE : 11th February, 2010


LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

(%) (%) (%)

pH Value

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5

(%)

Chemical
Tests

Cl- (mgl-1)

Type

Shear
Test

Cu (kN/m2)

Level*
(m)

N-value

Soil/Rock Description

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

SO42- (mgl-1)

Borehole No.: 1

Loose moist light brown sandy SILT

spt1

N=8

6.8

19

48

52

spt2

N=3

6.7 Non-plastic

78

22

N=5

5.1 Non-plastic

86

14

Loose moist light brown silty SAND

spt3

Loose moist light brown fine-grained


silty SAND with ome gravel particles

*URXQGZDWHU

spt4

N=6

32.8 Non-plastic

83

11

spt5

N=4

15.0 Non-plastic

93

N=6

16.7 Non-plastic

78

22

N=7

17.2

65

35

7.6 Non-plastic

43

56

Loose wet reddish brown coarse-grained


SAND with some gravel

spt6

spt7

20

Loose to medium dense greyish silty


SAND mixed with pebbly gravel
and mica (weathered Rock)

spt8

N=24

spt9

N>50
Very hard granitic rock

CPT

End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
*URXQGZDWHU

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
SO42- - Sulphate Content
Cl- - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 1.5hours. There was no pentration
Cone test performed at 9.5m. There was no penetration after 60 blows

Geotechnical Report

Page 6

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Kulun

LOCATION:
BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

DATE : 13th February, 2010


LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

(%)

(%) (%) (%)

pH Value

N-value

Chemical
Tests

Cl- (mgl-1)

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8

Soil/Rock Description

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

SO42- (mgl-1)

Borehole No.: 2

ds1

Loose moist light brown sandy SILT

spt1

N=5

11.7

29

14

26

74

spt2

N=6

15.4

20

45

55

N=5

24.3

24

10

49

51

spt3

Loose moist light brown greyish


silty SAND

*URXQGZDWHU

spt4

N=6

22.1

27

10

43

57

spt5

N>50

9.4

21

35

57

13.6 Non-plastic

92

Very dense wet reddish brown


sandy GRAVEL

spt6

CPT

Very dense moist dark grey


silty SAND (weathered granitic rock)
End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
*URXQGZDWHU

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
2SO4 - Sulphate Content
Cl- - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 1.5hours. There was no pentration
Cone test performed at 6.8m. There was no penetration after 60 blows

Geotechnical Report

Page 7

KULUN

BRIDGE

BOREHOLE LOCATION
12-02-10

44m

KuB3

KuB4

15m
48m
BH2

KUlun

BH1

51m

34.7m

52m

44m

KuB2

KuB1

Bulenge/Wa

Geotechnical Report

Page 8

APPENDIX B

RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY

Geotechnical Report

Page 9

Table 3:

Summary of Foundation Details at Borehole Locations


Kulun

Location

Foundation Soil

Soil Thickness

Proposed Foundation

Allowable Bearing

Net Safe Bearing

Depth

Pressure

Pressure

BH 1

Very hard granitic rock

9.3m

9.3m

1267kN/m

422 KN/m

BH2

Very dense silty SAND (weathered granitic rock)

6.4m

5.7m

1267KN/m

422KN/m

Assuming a factor of safety of 3

Geotechnical Report

Page 10

AMBALARA BRIDGE SITE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0
1.1

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT AMBALARA ... 1


Introduction ................................................................................................ 1

1.2 Fieldwork ..................................................................................................... 1


1.3 Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground ......................................... 1
2.0

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS ..................................................................... 2

2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 2


2.2 Surficial Soil Profile ..................................................................................... 2
2.3

Country Rock ............................................................................................. 3

2.4 Groundwater Conditions ............................................................................. 3


3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS ...................................... 4

3.1 Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular ................ 4


4.0

FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE ............................................................ 4

APPENDIX A LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT AMBALARA ............... 5


APPENDIX B RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY ..................... 9

Geotechnical Report

Page i

1.0

FOUNDATION INVESTIGATIONS FOR THE BRIDGE AT AMBALARA

1.1
Introduction
Foundation investigation has been carried out at proposed River site found in the
Upper West Region.
The River crossing was located at Ambalara.

1.2
Fieldwork
The fieldwork was carried out between 14th and 16th February, 2010.
To facilitate the attainment of the requirement of the fieldwork, and also
ensure compliance with the requirements of soil sample recovery and
performance of specified field tests such as standard penetration tests and
recovery of undisturbed clayey/compressible soils, a 1-ton mobile cable
percussion boring rig was used to undertake subsoil investigation.

1.3
Percussion Drilling (Soft Boring) in Soft Ground
Percussion drilling in soft ground involved the drilling of two (2No.) boreholes at
Ambalara. One borehole was drilled at each approach.
The various depths attained in soft ground and decomposed rock are shown in
Table 1. Sampling and in-situ testing were carried out in the boreholes in
accordance with project specifications.
All boreholes in soft ground were deemed to have attained refusal when a total
of 50 blows have been applied during any one of the three 0.15m (6-ins)
sampler advancement during SPT. The final depths of the boreholes ranged
from 6.8m in BH 1 to 4.0 in BH 2. Duration for chiseling in each borehole
averaged one and half hours.

Geotechnical Report

Page 1

Table 1: Drilling Depths


Ambalara
Depth in Soft
Borehole

Depth in Rock

Ground

(Chiselling with

(Percussion

California Hammer)

Drilling)

Total
Depth

B1

6.7m

0.1m

6.8m

B2

4.0m

0.0m

4.0m

2.0

SUBSURFACE CONDITIONS

2.1
Introduction
This section present the results of the field activities and samples recovered as
part of the investigations.

2.2
Surficial Soil Profile
The boreholes sunk at the site revealed the following ground conditions;
Table 2: Stratigraphy of Site
Ambalara
Stratum

Thickness

Soft moist dark brown sandy 0.4m 2.1

Average SPT N
5

SILT
Loose wet grey coarse grained 2.1m 4.1m

14

silty SAND with gravel


Medium dense to very dense 4.1m 6.8m
silty

SAND

with

40

gravel

(weathered rock)

Geotechnical Report

Page 2

Surficial soils were mainly sand with a heterogeneous mixture of dense,


occasionally greyish/yellowish/brown dense silty gravel.
Logs and Location of borehole are presented in Appendix A.

2.3
Country Rock
Bedrock of weathered Granite belonging to the Middle Precambrian granitic
rocks, with minor belts of Birrimian rocks was encountered in all locations
drilled. It was chiselled at all borehole locations. The geological map indicates
that granite was to be expected along the project corridor. At Ambalara the
material actually chiseled is greyish brown silty SAND with ravel (weathered
rock).

2.4
Groundwater Conditions
Groundwater was encountered at a depth of between 1.7m n BH1.
Within the project area, the major rainy season occurs from mid August to
October. Groundwater levels are normally expected to peak at mid September
to mid October and be at lowest in mid December to mid April. Seasonal
fluctuation in groundwater level is dependent on several factors notable are;
geology, rainfall amount, topography, catchment area size, groundwater
abstraction and recharge rates, surface drainage and land-use characteristics.

Geotechnical Report

Page 3

3.0

ESTIMATION OF FOUNDATION PARAMETERS

3.1

Allowable Bearing Capacity Estimation for footings on Granular

Soils/Weathered Rock
The results obtained for N may be used to estimate bearing capacity for
granular soils of weathered granite formations. This is done in conjunction with
estimated width (B) of footing, and this is read off in the relationship established
by Terzargi and Peck curve for soils, ultimate bearing pressure in kN/m
Qult =

2
N
B + 0.3
B
0.08

The detailed results of allowable bearing capacity are presented in Table 3


of Appendix B.

4.0
FOUNDATION DEPTH AND TYPE
At the Ambalara bridge site a foundation depth of 6.0m should be adopted. This
will mainly be in the competent weathered rock horizon.

It is therefore recommended that a design bearing capacity of 500


750KN/m2 be used and footings placed at 6.0m. At that footing depth,
either piles or caissons is to be used.

Geotechnical Report

Page 4

APPENDIX A

LOGS & LOCATION OF BOREHOLE AT AMBALARA

Geotechnical Report

Page 5

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Ambralara

LOCATION:

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8

ds1

N-value

Soil/Rock Description

(%)

(%) (%) (%)

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

Chemical
Tests

pH Value

LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

Cl- (mgl-1)

DATE : 14th February, 2010

Borehole No.: 1

SO42- (mgl-1)

BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

Dense reddish brown GRAVEL

Loose moist light brown fine-grained


SAND

spt1

N=5

5.7 Non-plastic

89

11

- Ground water

spt2

N=6

10.2

30

11

11

71

18

16.1

39

22

75

23

16.7

39

21

73

25

Very loose to loose wet light grey/light


brown SAND with gravel

spt3

N=2

spt4

N=35

Medium dense to dense moist light green


grayish brown silty SAND with gravel
and mica (weathered Rock)

spt5

N=41

spt6

N>50

End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
- Ground water

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
SO42- - Sulphate Content
Cl- - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 1.5hours. There was no pentration of 0.1m

Geotechnical Report

Page 6

BOREHOLE LOG
PROJECT:

Ambralara

LOCATION:
BORING METHOD: Percussion Drilling

DATE : 16th February, 2010


LOGGED BY: Ebenezer

ds1

Dense moist reddish brown GRAVEL

(%) (%) (%)

1.2

22

52

41

N=34

10.3

39

20

62

30

N=47

6.8

30

14

74

25

10.7 Non-plastic

74

25

pH Value

(%)

Chemical
Tests

Cl- (mgl-1)

0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4

N-value

Soil/Rock Description

Cu (kN/m2)

Type

Shear
Test

Fines %

Sample

Consistency
Limits
nmc LL PI DFS

Sand %

OD
Level*
(m)

In-situ
Test

Gravel (%)

Symbol

Soil Profile

SO42- (mgl-1)

Borehole No.: 2

Medium dense moist greyish/dark grey


light green silty SAND
(decomposed ROCK)

spt1

spt2
Very dense dry greyish brown/dark grey slity
silty SAND with traces of broken quartz
particles (Weathered Rock)

spt3

N>50

End of borehole

LEGEND
ds - disturbed sample
ud - undisturbed sample
spt - Standard Penetration Test Sample
CPT - Cone Penetration Test
N-value

nmc - natural moisture content


LL - Liquid Limit
PI - Plasticity Index
DFS - Differential Free Swell
- Ground water

Cu - Cohesion
- Coefficient of shear resistance
2SO4 - Sulphate Content
Cl - Chloride Content

Note
Hole chisseled for 1.5hours. There was no pentration

Geotechnical Report

Page 7

AMBALARA

BRIDGE BOREHOLE LOCATION


14-02-10
Kulun

AB3

AB4
24.20m

15.60m
BH1

Ambralara

BH1
32.2m
53.0m
AB2
AB1

WA

Geotechnical Report

Page 8

APPENDIX B

RESULTS OF ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACTY

Geotechnical Report

Page 9

Table 3:

Summary of Foundation Details at Borehole Locations


Ambalara

Location

BH 1

Foundation Soil

Medium dense to very dense silty SAND

Soil Thickness

Proposed Foundation

Allowable Bearing

Net Safe Bearing

Depth

Pressure

Pressure

6.8m

6.0m

1119kN/m

373 KN/m

4.0m

4.0m

1267kN/m

422KN/m

with gravel (weathered rock)


BH2

Very dense, dry dark grey silty SAND with


broken quartz particles (weathered rock)

Assuming a factor of safety of 3

Geotechnical Report

Page 10