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ISSN: 2456-1657

Elins Journal
Elins International Journal of Science Engineering & Management (EIJSEM), Volume-1, Issue-5, Sept 2016

Fire Extinguishing Bot With High Temperature Following Algorithm For Fire
Mohit Lamba
Maharaja Agrasen Institute Of Technology (affl. GGSIPU), B.Tech ECE Third Year, Delhi, India

Abstract : The main objective of this project is to develop an embedded system, which can be used in critical conditions/fire hazards.
A fire instance demolishes and causes loss to life and assets. Fire brigade is the task force to deal with such hazards but their life is at
threat under those damnatory conditions. This robot will not just extinguish fire in those conditions but would be comparatively faster.
This robot has capabilities to find fire source by detecting highest temperature in surrounding area and then following the source. Fire
origin having critical temperature emits sufficiently large heat which makes the robot to stop and use fire extinguisher to stop flames
from spreading. After annihilating that fire source, temperature decreases in surrounding area after which it again starts detecting
higher temperature and repeats same cycle of extinguishing fire. It is connected wirelessly to a system/terminal which stores and read
the data of its movement when it changes direction. Also, at any point of time if we want to check temperature in area under fire then
sending character a from terminal (using bluetooth terminal GUI in Android devices ) will show the status of temperature around
KeywordsBluetooth, ADC (Analog To Digital Converter), UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter), Terminal,
Android, MCU (Microcontroller unit), Embedded C, PU (Processing Unit), RISC(reduced instruction set computing), Temperature
sensors, hex file.



A robot is a machine which can be operated manually or

autonomously that can perform tasks to replace human effort.
Robot might not perform functions like human beings but it is
designed to perform tasks repeatedly and efficiently [1].
Nowadays, robots are implemented in many industries and
their use and popularity is growing steadily [2].
This project of extinguishing fire has immense usage in every
sector to fight fire hazards. This robot can be used by fire
brigade department or directly by industries, organizations,
localities etc. Mean temperature of earth has increased by 0.8
degree Celsius, which about two-third of increase is occurring
since 1980 [3]. The proposed model reads data continuously
from temperature sensors and controls movement of robot
accordingly. The system uses an AVR microcontroller. A
Bluetooth device (Long range wireless devices can be
connected) is interfaced to the microcontroller using UART
communication protocol.
Fire extinguisher cylinder is
attached in front of the robot. When robot reaches the fire
source it stops and damper flames using fire extinguisher.
ADC in microcontroller is used for the sensor development. It
converts the analog value from sensor into the digital values;
this digital value is used to accurately calculate the
temperature in surrounding. Serial interrupts are used in

Manuscript No. EIJM0916002

UART to receive temperature around robot at any required

time. To perform these tasks of following the heat and then
controlling it, MCU is loaded with Intel formatted hex code
which is created from the compiled algorithm written in
Embedded C language.
MCU is a device which integrates a number of features of the
microprocessor system on to a single chip. It has inbuilt PU,
memory and peripherals to make it as a mini computer. These
internal peripherals into MCU distinguish it from a
microprocessor system where these peripherals have to be
connected separately on the microprocessor board.
MCU has advanced RISC architecture with 512 bytes of
internal EEPROM, 1k byte internal SRAM. Its data retention
is 20 years at 85C and 100 years at 25C.
Robot body has motors attached for fast movement during fire
conditions to control rising flames. Also, it has attached fire
extinguisher and tough heat resistant body to protect its
circuitry. High precision temperature sensors are used to
detect temperature from source of fire. All the components
used are either tolerant to heat or placed in controlled
environment because wires with PVC coating etc are likely to
get damaged. Sampath and B.S developed a robot which
features to move in the direction in accordance with the fire
density [4].

ISSN: 2456-1657
The motor driver IC is used to drive dc motors with wide
Supply-Voltage Range from 4.5 V to 36 V. Two 200 rpm
motors are used to run the robot. However, brush type DC
motor offers light weight but it has restriction on duty cycles
because of epoxy- encapsulated armatures which are unable to
dissipate heat in comparison with iron core armatures and
therefore are subjected to damage or destruction if overheated
[12]. The motors give high torque due to which robot is able to
maintain balance.
The chassis setup is clean and to the ground. Center of gravity
is kept low to the ground. Also the batteries, motors and other
apparatus is attached keeping center of gravity low to maintain
the balance of robot [7].
The wheels are connected to motors which draw current from
motor driving IC LM293d which can rotate motors in both
clockwise and anti-clockwise directions using H-bridge. This
module also uses external battery source for powering up
A 9-12V battery can be used to power up the circuit, sensor
modules and to operate fire extinguisher.

of CVAVR are HEX, BIN or ROM File to be flashed by

programmer to microcontroller unit. COFF( Common Object
File Format ) file containing information for debugger. OBJ
file stores the compiled Object code.
Simulation software Proteus was used to test and run prepared
code. Proteus is a software for microprocessor simulation,
schematic capture, and PCB ( Printed Circuit Board) design
and offers a huge set of ICs and sensors. After successful
testing of prepared Embedded C code on proteus simulation
model, Khazama software is used to burn the hex file inside
the MCU. Then, this programmed MCU is connected to the
robot and sensors placed on bot. Final connections are done by
placing prepared MCU connections on balanced chassis and
attaching fire extinguisher.
Fire extinguisher robot works autonomously on the basis of
data collected by temperature sensors. These sensors can
detect temperature from a long distance. Temperature sensor
like thermister implements negative temperature coefficient
i.e. when temperature increases output voltage from thermister
decreases. Giving this voltage as input to the ADC of MCU
voltage value of the temperature is calculated [9].

Fire extinguisher is used instead of water jet because inner

pressure of extinguisher is enough for expelling the firefighting agent, which eliminates the need for providing
additional power for pumping water. This allows
simplification of structure of the robot (Extinguishers using
cartridge are available in dry chemical and powder in the U.S.
and For the rest of the world in water, wetting agent, foam, dry
chemical (classes ABC and B.C.), and dry powder (class D) )

There are four temperature sensors attached to the robot in all

four directions and all of them continuously send data to
microprocessor as shown in figure 1. This received data is
compared to find the highest temperature. If the temperature
of front sensor is maximum then the robot continues to move
forward. In other case when the highest temperature is from
rear or back sensors then the robot starts rotating until the
front sensor detects highest temperature. This algorithm makes
robot to travel towards burning area. If the robot senses
temperature as threatening or above critical temperature then it

Data transmission can be done by using RF module, Bluetooth

module, Wi-Fi etc, which can be selected on the basis of
requirement of the range and usability to communicate. UART
is used to send interrupts and receive data. Bluetooth can be
used for short ranges. In the long range working environment
Wi-fi Router should be used with camera integrated with robot
using a smart device or microcontroller. Live video can be
accessed on a laptop/smart device connected to same Wifi
network. IP webcam is a good example of the same which is
an android application which transmits videos and images
from Smartphone to laptop browser using Wifi or internet.
Previously, [5] Sang-Uk park developed a system which
uses High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) network
to transmit images from the affected environment.

Figure 1: Simulation on proteus software.


Embedded C compiler based software CVAVR ( Code Vision
AVR is IDE for development of hex file required to be embed
on AVR hardware) is used to create a hex file. [6] Output files
Manuscript No. EIJM0916002

stops and extinguishes fire using extinguisher. Fire

extinguisher sprays directly on fire and thus controls flames
from expanding (temperature sensors are protected from
Extinguisher to protect from sending false data). After
successful diminishing of flames it again continues to move
trying to find highest temperature and once again repeats the

ISSN: 2456-1657
same cycle and the process continues until the fire is damned
or robot is signaled to stop from wireless telemetry device.
Serial interrupts are also used to get data from temperature
sensors in between operation [11]. The received data is
displayed on the terminal. Terminal also shows the direction
of moving robot whenever it changes direction. When robot is
moving forward, terminal will show forward until some
other sensor detects highest temperature. If any rear sensor
detects highest temperature then terminal will show their
direction of movement until it front sensor sense the maximum
temperature as describe in figure 2.

Metal detectors can be used for detection of any particular

metal. This concept can be used for bomb and flammable
cylinders/containers detection. Metal detectors work by
transmitting an electromagnetic field from search coil to
ground and any metal objects within the electromagnetic field
will become energized to transmit electromagnetic waves of
their own. These are detected by metal detector to produce a
target response [15].
Also, It could be equipped with manual mode and along with
obstacle avoidance algorithm in autonomous mode.

Proposed system can be used in place of human fire fighters to
eliminate risks of their life in extreme conditions and to
provide industries, power companies and even households a
cheap and effective way to fight fire without any risk. This
will maintain efficiency and ensure safety. Also, to extinguish
fire in easy and fast way for minimum damages and
consequences on nature.

[1] Omesh Kumar M, Implementing 3600 rotation of Robot
on its axis, International Journal of Computer
Applications (0975 8887), Volume 45 No.17, May
2012, Engineering College Ghaziabad, India.
[2] Steve Rapp, classification of robots, A. Linwood Holton
Governor's School.

Figure 2: Flow chart of algorithm.

It can extinguish fire in initial stages if installed in hazard
prone arena like electricity grids and hubs. It can be used with
fire brigade team to extinguish fire in areas having critical
temperatures /flammable/hazardous chemicals etc. Its Fast
operation can saves lots of life in fire conditions. It can be
used in offices where paper work and records are kept [8]. It
can be installed in server rooms or rooms having complex
electronic components systems which require quick action and
remedy. This project has potential use in nuclear, Chemicals,
and oil industry along with hospitals, schools, offices etc [8].
This project can be improved in several more efficient ways
like when the extinguisher material is empty it can trace back
its path for replacement of extinguisher tank.
Fire extinguisher should have a rotating sprinkler so that it can
extinguish fire more efficiently.
Manuscript No. EIJM0916002

[3] Boo Siew Khoo, SiewWen Chin, Leong Yee Soo, Edwin
Chuah, FireDroid- An Automated Fire Extinguishing
Robot", 2013 IEEE International Conference on Control
System, Computing and Engineering, 29 Nov. - 1 Dec.
2013, pp: 356 360.
[4] Sampath, B.S., Automatic fire extinguisher robot",
Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intelligence (URAI)
2011, 23 Nov.-26 Nov. 2011, pp: 215 218.
[5] Sang-Uk Park et al., Wireless image communication
system for firefighting robots", Computer and Automation
Engineering (ICCAE), IEEE International Conference
Publications, vol.3, Feb.2010, pp: 254-256.
[6] Amol guhane, Fire detector and extinguisher robot. . pp- 12 ( Software Description).
[7] Anthony M., Ivan O. and Randy S. (2001), EE 382Junior
Design Firefighting Robot Project, pp 4.
[8] Fire Fighting Robot. Sahil S.Shah1 , Vaibhav K.Shah2 ,
Prithvish Mamtora3 and Mohit Hapani4 Volume 2, Issue
4 July August 2013. pp 234.
[9] GSM based Fire Sensing and Extinguishing Robot. V.
Vimala Bharathi1 , M. V. D. Prasad. Volume 2 Issue 4,
April 2013.pp 355 (2.1.6).

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[10] Kujuro and H. Yasuda, "Systems Evolution in Intelligent
Building", IEEE Communication Magazine, pp. 22-26,
October 1993.
[11] Chetan Patil, Development of a simple serial
communication protocol for microcontrollers, IJSRP,
Vol 1, Issue 1, Dec 2011, pp 2-3.
[12] Paul E. Sandin, Robot Mechanisms and Mechanical
Devices Illustrated McGraw-Hill publications. Pp 1617.\
[13] Dr. Wael R. Abdulmajeed; Dr. Ali I. Mahdi ; Karzan M
Taqi. Human Wireless Controlling Fire Fighting Robot
(FFR) with 3-Axis Hose. IJACT, Volume 2, Issue 3 pp

Manuscript No. EIJM0916002

[14] Types of extinguishers.

[15] Rohith Punughanti, Anusha Srinivas, Laxmi F Savanoor,
Divya Shree R. PIC based Fire Sensing And
Extinguishing robot. International Journal of Electrical,
Electronics and Data Communication, Volume-2, Issue-6,
June-2014. Pp 16.
[16] Richard Barnet,Larry OCull,Sarah Cox. Embedded chip
programming with microchip pic. pp 157.