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Lecture Two

University of Santo Tomas

College of Arts and Letters
Department of Philosophy

Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

Schematic Presentation
Operation / Act
Simple Apprehension

Idea / Concept



Mental Operation
A.) Simple Apprehension
It is called as the first act of the mind.
It implies an act of conceiving the object.
Its nature necessitates the use of the five senses.
In essence, it is defined as a mental act of conceiving something without affirming or denying
anything about it.
The act of conceiving means the awareness of something
The formulation of an idea / concept
A.1 Concept
The mental image, which is created by the mind or the process of conceiving the object.
It is attained through the process of abstraction.

Abstrahere means to segregate or to move away

It is a mental process whereby the mind separates the essential
features of an object from the non-essential ones.
Essential features it means without which a certain object
will cease to exist.
Non-essential features are those features that are not
substantial in the strictest sense but they are added to the
very essence of the object.


Five Senses


Mind receives raw data

Producing sensible image

Process: Interpret and Evaluate


Phantasm is produced in the absence of the object; it is infinite,

repetitious, continuous movement of the senses.

Example: What makes a tree, a tree? (Or what is the essence of a tree?)

Meaning, what makes all the trees, (such as Narra, Acacia, Pine, Mango, and others) have in
Thus, to know the essence of a tree, the mind must learn how to abstract
To separate the ESSENTIAL from NON-ESSENTIAL features the mind is capable of
distinguishing these two and is able to conceive the tree-ness of a tree.

Represented in the mind

(Concept of a tree)

Once conceived

What-ness or Quiddity
of an object (tree)

Note: In the absence of a thing, the mind creates a mental representation of the same thing that we have
experienced (seen, heard, touched, smelled, or tasted). This is manifested after the mind makes an
A.2 Term
The outward representation of an idea
An essential part of a proposition

Question-1: Why? Because it can either serve as a subject or a predicate.

Question-2: When is a term considered as a term? A term is called as such when it has meaning or
character of its own.
Note: Not all words are terms, but all terms are words.

Does not contain meaning or signification

They cannot be considered as subjects or predicates
Interjections (form of speeches; ejaculatory words)
Articles (a, an the)
Linking verbs (is, was, were, etc.)
Prepositions (of, in, at, etc.)

In essence, a term applies both to words and to phrases that express a whole idea and form one of the units
of expression in a language applying especially to units with a more or less precise technical use or meaning.
Three Kinds of Terms:
1.) Univocal a term one meaning only or subject to single interpretation
Example: Man
Because its meaning namely: rational animal remains exactly the same when
applied to: white man, black man, or this man.
2.) Equivocal a term having two or more meaning or signification. A term that is totally different when
applied in different senses.
Example: Trunk would mean a tree, a car, or an elephant
Note: This term is related to the Fallacy of Four Terms. Some synonymous words

3.) Analogous a term having a similar function but different in structure and origin. It means partially
the same yet partially different.
Example: Land (ground) and Land (to set down)
Classification of Terms according to Application:
1.) Universal a term which stands not only for a class as a whole, but also to every member of that
All students
Every politician
Each father
2.) Particular a term, which stands for indefinite number of individuals.
Many fathers
Certain president
Some people
A few days ago
3.) Singular a term that has only one specified object, individual or group.
All Common Nouns, All Collective Nouns, All Superlatives,
All Periodical Pronouns, All Demonstrative Pronouns
Two Types of Methods of Reasoning:
1.) Deductive Reasoning a logical process in which a conclusion drawn from a set of premises contains
no more information than the premises taken collectively.
All philosophers are great thinkers.
Aristotle is a philosopher.
Ergo, Aristotle is a great thinker.
From general (universal) propositions to specific (particular) conclusions.
The truth of the conclusion is dependent only on the method.
2.) Inductive Reasoning a logical process in which a conclusion is proposed that contains more
information than the observations or experience on which it is based.
Every crow ever seen was black.
Ergo, all crows are black.
From general (universal) propositions to specific (particular) conclusions.
The truth of the conclusion is verifiable only in terms of future experience and certainty is
attainable only if all possible instances have been combined.
B.) Judgments
The second act of the mind
A mental operation whereby an act of pronouncement regarding agreement or disagreement
between two concepts is made.
B.1) Proposition
The external sign of judgment
A statement, which affirms or denies something about a certain reality or object.
It is often formulated in Declarative form.
Exclamatory, Interrogative, Command, sentences are not considered propositions.

Standard Component of a Proposition

Subject Copula (Linking Verb) Predicate
It is a proposition by which the affirmation or denial between two concepts is expressed in an
absolute, immediate, direct, or unconditional manner.

Categorical Propositions



A All S is P.
E No S is P.



I Some S is P.
O Some S is not P.


Affirmative Propositions

Negative Propositions

S is P.
S is non-P.
Non-S is P.
Non-S is non-P.

S is not P.
Non-S is not-P.
S is not non-P.
Non-S is not non-P.

Categorical Propositions

Meaning in
Class Notation

ALL S is P.

Every member of the S-class is a member of the Pclass, that is, the S-class is included in the P-class.

NO S is P.

No member of the S-class is a member of the Pclass, that is, the S-class is excluded in the P-class.

SOME S is P.

At least one member of the S-class is a member of

the P-class.


At least one member of the S-class is not a member

of the P-class.

Important Note:
Distribution (universal value) is an attribute of the terms (subject and predicate) of a proposition; a term
is distributed if and only if the proposition makes an assertion about every member of the class denoted
by the terms; otherwise it is undistributed (particular value).