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9/10/2012

Topic 1. Mechatronics

Topic 1. Mechatronics
1.1 What is mechatronics?

Learning Outcomes:
At the end of this topic, you should be able to:
Explain the term mechatronics
Identify the basic elements of a closed loop
system
Draw up the block diagram for a typical closed
loop system

The term mechatronics is used for the integration


of microprocessor control systems,
electrical/electronic systems and mechanical
systems:
Electrical/electronic
systems

Mechanical
systems

Mechatronics
Microprocessor control
systems

Kevin Craig's definition of mechatronics:

"Mechatronics represents more than


mechanical and electronics," according to Craig, a
professor of mechanical engineering at Marquette
University.
"Mechatronics is really all about design of
any physical system, where you integrate controls,
electronics, and computers from the very start of
the design process."
FROM:
http://www.memagazine.org/contents/current/features/whoowns/whoowns.html

http://www.me.utexas.edu/~longoria/me340/leks/notes/WhoOwnsMechatronics_
MEMag_June2008.pdf

Mechatronics brings together areas of technology


involving:
- sensors and measurement systems

Activity 1
MECHATRONICS

- drive and actuation systems


Mechanical
systems

Electronic
systems

Control
systems

Computers

- micro-processor systems
- analysis of the behaviour of systems

Electromechanics

Control
electronics

Digital
control
systems

- control systems

Mechanical
CAD

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1.1.1 Examples of mechatronics systems

Hard disk drive*

Autofocus camera

http://www.memagazine.org/contents/
current/features/rightthe/rightthe.html

Washing machine

Autofocus camera
*http://www.howstuffworks.com/hard-disk.htm

1.1.2 Embedded systems

Embedded system where microprocessors


are embedded into systems
Microprocessor can be considered as being a
collection of logic gates and memory elements
whose logic functions are implemented by means
of a software

Complex mechatronics enable the Nexans Spider remotely


operated underwater vehicle to prepare the sea floor for
pipelines running 3,000 feet under the ocean.

Microcontrollers micropocessesors used in


control system that is equipped with additional
chips for data storage and input/output ports

http://www.memagazine.org/contents/
current/features/rightthe/rightthe.html

What is the difference between a


microprocessor and a microcontroller?

1.3 Systems
A system can be considered as a box which has
an input and an output:

Look up: http://wiki.answers.com

1.2 The design process


(Self-reading)

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A measurement system can be considered as


a black box used for making measurements.
It has as its input the quantity being
measured and its output the value of that
quantity, e.g.

1.4 Measurement systems

A control system can be considered as a black


box which is used to control its output to some
particular value or particular sequence of values.

Activity 2

Measurement system can be considered to be


made up of three elements:

Name the three main elements of a measurement


system in the correct sequence:

Display
system

Signal
conditioner
Sensor

1.5 Control systems

1.5.2 Open loop and closed loop system

Control system is a system which can be used to:

Two basic forms of control system: Open loop and


closed loop.

1. Control some variable to some particular value


2. Control the sequence of events
3. Control whether an event occurs or not

Example of an open loop system: A manually


controlled heating system:
Controller
(person)

Hand
activated

1.5.1 Feedback
In feedback control, signals are fed back from
the output and compared to what is required, and
the output is adjusted accordingly.

Advantage of open-loop systems:


Relatively simple, low cost
Disadvantage of open-loop systems:
Inaccurate, no correction for error

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Example of a closed loop (feed back) system:


Automatically controlled heating system:

1.5.3 Basic elements of a closed-loop system


General form of a basic closed-loop system:

Controller
(person)

Advantage of closed-loop systems:


Accurate in matching the actual to the required values
Disadvantage of open-loop systems:
More complex, more costly, greater chance of
breakdown

Comparison element: Compares the required or


reference value of the variable condition being
controlled with the measured value of what is being
achieved and produces an error signal.

1.5.3 Basic elements of a closed-loop system

1.5.3 Basic elements of a closed-loop system

General form of a basic closed-loop system:

General form of a basic closed-loop system:

Control element: Decides what action to take


when it receives an error signal.
- control plans may be hard-wired systems or
programmable systems

Correction element: Produces a change in the


process to correct or change the controlled
condition.

1.5.3 Basic elements of a closed-loop system

Activity 3

General form of a basic closed-loop system:

Name ALL the elements of the feedback control


system shown in the block diagram:
?
?
?

?
?

?
Process element: What is being controlled.

Measurement element: Produces a signal


related to the variable condition of the process
that is being controlled.

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Activity 4
For the closed-loop system for a person controlling the
temperature of a room identify the various elements of the
closed loop system:

Required
room
temperature

Activity 5
Identify the various elements of the
closed loop system shown

Activity 6

Example of a simple control system used to


maintain a constant water level in a tank:

Room
temperature

A simple automatic control system for the speed of rotation of


a shaft:

LEARNING POINTS
1. Name the FIVE basic elements of a control system

Controlled variable:
Reference value:
Comparison element:
Error signal:

2. Draw the block diagram of a closed loop control


system and label all the elements.

Control unit:
Correction unit:
Process:
Measuring device:

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1.5.4 Analog and digital control systems

1.5.5 Sequential controllers

Basic elements of a digital closed-loop control system

The term sequential control is used when control


is such that actions are strictly ordered in a time or
event driven sequence
Such control could be obtained by an electrical
circuit with sets of relays or cam-operated switches
which are wired up in such a way as to give the
required sequence

As an illustration of sequential control, consider


domestic washing machine:
Hard-wired circuits are now commonly replaced by
a microprocessor-controlled system, with the
sequencing being controlled by means of a software
program

1.6 Programmable logic controller

Example of control sequence using PLC:

Programmable logic controller (PLC)


microprocessor based controller which uses
programmable memory to store instructions and to
implement functions such as logic, sequence, timing
counting and arithmetic to control events.

1. Switch on pump to move liquid into tank


2. Switch off pump when a level detector gives the
on signal
3. Switch on the heater
4. Switch off the heater when temperature sensor
given the on signal to indicate required
temperature is reached
5. Switch on pump to empty liquid from container
6. Switch off pump when level detector gives on
signal

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1.7 Examples of mechatronic systems

1.7 Examples of mechatronic systems

1.7.1 The digital camera and autofocus

1.7.1 The digital camera and autofocus

No feedback control:

With feedback control:

1.7.2 The engine management system

An engine control unit (ECU), also known as power-train control module


(PCM), or engine control module (ECM) is a type of electronic control unit
that determines the amount of fuel, ignition timing and other parameters an
internal combustion engine needs to keep running. It does this by reading
values from multidimensional performance maps (so called LUTs), using
input values (e.g. engine speed) calculated from signals coming from sensor
devices monitoring the engine. Before ECU's, air/fuel mixture, ignition timing,
and idle speed were directly controlled by mechanical and pneumatic
sensors and actuators.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engine_control_unit

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Activity 7
LEARNING POINTS
1. Name the four main components of Mechatronics.
2. What is meant by an embedded system?

Replace the mechanical control system with an


electrical/electronic control system for the tank
filling system shown:

3. Name the three main elements of a measurement


system.
4. What is the main difference between open-loop
and closed-loop systems?
5. List the five basic elements of a closed-loop
system.