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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

GROUP TECHNOLOGY/PWBS/IPC
GT is not new
Has only had limited application in shipyards.
Typical uses have been structural part variety reduction and
development of pipe piece families.
Many shipyards say they use it but they only think so as they use
Work Breakdown Structures, classification and coding. This is
not GT.
GT is necessary if a shipyard wants to utilize automated pipe
shop, Computer Aided Process Planning and/or robotics.
However, GT is not for everyone. It should not be used unless a
clear understanding of why they need it.
Many people need a classification and coding system but not
GT.
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

GROUP TECHNOLOGY/PWBS/IPC (Continued)


Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) have been used for many
years in many industries.
WBSs are a convenient method to show desired tasks and/or
processes to be used to build a product.
A WBS can be Custom, Group Technology or Standard based.
Custom based is when the product and its components are all
different and no attempt is made to group the tasks or processes.
Group Technology based is when, even though the end
products may be different the tasks or processes can be group
into similar categories based on work requirements.
Standard based is when the product is completely made up of
standard components in the same way every time.

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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

GROUP TECHNOLOGY/PWBS/IPC (Continued)


A Product Breakdown Structure is a graphic representation of an
indented Bill of Material, where the indentations reflect the
order in which the components are assembled.
The term Product-oriented Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)
refers to the specific case where the product, work and
organization are combined into a system to address a specific
industrial product, like ships.
The concept was introduced into U.S. shipbuilding by the IHI
Technology Transfer in 1982 by the NSRP Report Productoriented Work Breakdown Structure.
Since then most U.S. shipbuilders have adopted the concept to
some level, but not to the extent or the way that the report
described. In fact the report is confusing in many ways and has
caused implementers considerable trouble.
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

GROUP TECHNOLOGY/PWBS/IPC (Continued)


A PWBS can be one of the most important tools in a shipyards
attempt to improve its performance. This is because when it is
developed correctly and applied to assist in the integration of the
many systems in a shipyard, the benefits are significant.
Some shipyards develop a more detailed breakdown in the form
of an Interim Product Catalog. The catalog can range from a
few basic interim product types to a very comprehensive catalog
of all parts through to erection. It can also identify work stations
and processes used to manufacture the interim products as well
as manhour budget and manning.

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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES
A breakdown structure is a structured representation of
hierarchical information related to products of work.
Bills of Material (BOM) are tabular representations of the
components that are required to assemble a product. BOM can
be simple sequential lists of all material or they can be indented
to represent what components go into higher level components.
A PRODUCT Structure (PS) is formed by making a hierarchical
tree in place of the indented BOM. For convenience it is usually
turned 90 degrees to present a vertical cascade.

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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

BILL OF MATERIAL
>>Assembly 1
>>Assembly 2
>>Sub-Assembly 1
>>Sub-Assembly 2
>>Sub-Assembly 3
>>Sub-Assembly 4
>>Part 1
>>Part 2
>>Part 3
>>Part 4
>>Part 5
>>Part 6
>>Part 7
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

INDENTED BILL OF MATERIAL


>>Assembly 1
Sub-Assembly 1
Part 1
Part 2
Sub-Assembly 2
Part 3
>>Assembly 2
Sub-Assembly 3
Part 4
Part 5
Sub-Assembly 4
Part 6
Part 7
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE


Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) have been used for many
years in many industries
WBS are a convenient way to show desired tasks and/or
processes to be used to build a product
A WBS can be standard, group technology or custom based
Standard is when the product is completely made up of standard
components I the same way every time.
Group technology is when, even though the end products may be
different, the tasks or processes can be grouped into similar categories
based on work requirements.
Custom is when the product and its components are all different and no
attempt is made to group the tasks or processes.
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (continued)


There are many other types of breakdown structures used in a
shipyard such as Labor Charging Structure and Cost Accounting
Structure.
Combining product and work in the same breakdown structure is
illogical and confusing.
However, there is normally a relationship between the product,
the work that is required to manufacture it and the stage in the
overall process at which it is done. If these standard
relationships are identified and documented in an Interim
Product Catalog, then only the product structure is required to
identify the work required to produce the product. The work
and stage naturally fall out of the system.
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (continued)


A WORK Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a hierarchical
representation of the work that is required to produce a product
or interim product.
A WBS divides the total work into all the tasks to be
accomplished in building a product. The tasks are arranged
showing their dependencies of the sequence in which they
should be performed.

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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (continued)


Block Erecting
On-Block Outfitting
Block Painting
Block Constructing
Assembling
Fabricating
Preparing
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

OTHER BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES


Product Breakdown Structures (PBS) is a graphic representation
of an indented bill of material, where the indentations reflect the
order in which the components are assembled.
The term Product-Oriented Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS)
refers to the specific case where the product, work and
organization are combined into a single system to address a
specific industrial product, like a ship.
Since the PWBS concept was introduced into U.S. shipbuilding
by the 1982 NSRP Report, most shipbuilders have adopted the
concept to some level, but not to the level suggested by the
NSRP report.
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

PRODUCT BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE


Ship
Grand Block or Construction Zone
Block or Outfitting Zone
Assembly or Unit
Sub-Assembly
Part
Material/Equipment
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

INTERIM PRODUCTS
Product

Any finished (company deliverable object).

Interim Product

An in process object which is the output of a


work stage (process) and is complete in and
of itself.

Interim Product
Catalog

A library of all interim products with


complete description of physical properties,
cost data, manufacturing process, task
duration, and resource requirements.

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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

PWBS/IPC REQUIREMENTS
Based on shipyard practices
Satisfy as many individual group needs as possible
Support computer-aided systems throughout company
Integrate all shipbuilding information
As simple as possible - easy to understand
At learning level of all users

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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

IDENTIFICATION IMPORTANCE
Identification system has a direct and SIGNIFICANT impact
on performance of any manufacturing company
Identification system must be the INTEGRATOR for
information management system

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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

IDENTIFICATION NEEDS
Estimating
Drawings
Manufactured and purchased parts
Bills of material
Purchase specifications
In process interim products
Design and production zones
Work packages
Work sequence
Material kitting
Labor planning
Activity scheduling
Material control
Production control
Budgeting
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

POTENTIAL APPROACHES
Product/Work Station Structure

Interim Product Catalog - Product based

Interim Product Catalog - Process based

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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

PRODUCTS/WS STRUCTURES
PRODUCT
Blocks-

Bottom
Bilge
Side
Bulkhead
Deck
Loopbelt Tower
Belt (M)
Lower Bow
Upper Bow
Lower Stern
Upper Stern
Mach Space Bottom
Mach Space Sides
Mach Space Flats
Mach Space Deck
Deckhouse

Outfitting Zones

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WORK STATION/PROCESS
PRODUCTION
SUPPORT
Stockyard
Engineering
Blast & Prime
Planning
Plate Plasma Cut
Purchasing
Plate Oxy Cut
Material Cont.
Profile Cut & Mark
Production Cont.
Plate Flange Transportation
Plate Form
Profile Form
Sub-Assembly
Robot Welder
Panel Line- Plate Butt Tack
Plate Butt Weld
Etc.
Block Construction
Block Hot Outfit
Block Clean and Pain
Block Cold Outfit
Dock Block Erection, Fit & Weld
Package Unit Assembly
Zone Outfit
System Test
Dock Trial
Sea Trial
Delivery
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MODERN SHIPBUILDING PRACTICE

INTERIM PRODUCT CATALOG


PRODUCT BASED
Design
Engineering
Purchase Equipment
Raw Material - Plate
Profiles
Castings
Forgings
Pipe
Insulation
Paint
Electric Cable
PartsStructure
Machinery
Electrical
Auxiliary
Hull Outfit
Sub-Assemblies

Assemblies
Blocks
Ship
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PROCESS BASED
Designing
Engineering
Planning
Controlling Material/Production
Handling Plate/Profiles/Pipe/Equipment
Blasting & Priming - Plate/Profile/Pipe
Flame Planing
Contour Cutting Profile Cutting Manual/Robotic
Plate Forming
Profile Bending
Sub-Assembling
Assembling
Block Constructing
Block Painting
Package Unit Outfitting
Block Outfitting
Block Erection
Block Erection Welding
Zone Outfitting
Testing
Dock Trialing
Sea Trialing
Delivering
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