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Introduction

Gender norms are taught and reinforced by various social institutions.

Social institutions reinforce social values that boys and girls, men and
women; are not only different from each other, but also, they are not
equal.

Boys and men have more value than women.

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Gender roles in our


society are acquired via
the process of
socialization
rather than biologically
determined.

Oakley (1981)

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Philippine Commission on Women

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SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

Family

Workplace

Educational Institutions

Church

Media

State

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Social Institutions: Family


has the most influence because the
formative years of every individual
is almost always spent with and
developed by the family.

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4 Processes of Socialization
Manipulation
refers to ways where parents deter or
encourage behaviour on the basis of
appropriateness in regards to gender

Canalization
*refers to the way in which parents channel
the child's interests in activities in conjunction
with gender as deemed appropriate.
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Oakley (1981)

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4 Processes of Socialization
Verbal Appellations
use of language to label children in a way
that reinforces appropriate gender
identification.

Activity Exposures
activities conformity to norms and practices
that reinforces appropriate gender
identification.
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Oakley (1981)

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Social Institutions: Education/School


the formal

school system
promotes and
encourages
the different
gender roles
between men
and women.
Sex segregation system.
Gender stereotype roles in teaching materials and selection of courses
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Social Institutions: Religion


. Reinforcing gender stereotypes
through religious teachings,
doctrines and symbols

*Good women/wife as martyrs, self sacrificing and conservatives


Affecting reproductive choices
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Social Institutions: Work


gender discrimination in relation to
occupation and pay
Balance of family life and work
Question of power relations as well access
and control to resources

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Social Institutions: Mass


Media
reinforcing gender stereotypes and sex
based discrimination through media
portrayal of men and women

Commodification of womens bodies


docile homemakers macho men
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Social Institutions: The State


Creates laws
and policies that
ensure the
maintenance of
the system.

Instrumental in
passing laws that
are
discriminatory to
women and other
sexual
orientations.

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Did you know that


The Revised Penal Code gives different grounds for adultery and
concubinage an offense referred to in the Family Code as
sexual infidelity.
For the wife, sexual infidelity means one act of sexual intercourse
with other men.

For the husband, it is sexual intercourse under scandalous circumstances,


keeping another woman in the conjugal abode or cohabitation with her
in another dwelling.

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GENDER ROLES RESULT IN GENDER


BIASes

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Is it just women who can be


gender-sensitive?
No.
Anyone can be

gender-sensitive

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Being Gender Sensitive is


understanding that this:
means taking women and men seriously

SEEING women and men, what they actually do, rather


than relying on assumptions

HEARING women and men, their needs, priorities and


perspectives

COUNTING valuation of womens work

RESPECTING women and mens views and human rights

CARING about women and men and what happen to them


through development programs
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How then can you say that one is


gender sensitive?
You respect every person/individual, regardless

of age, ability (physical or mehtal),


belief/religion, educational attainment, race,
ethinic group, status in society, marital status,
region of origin, color, sexual orientation and
gender identity

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