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Combustion

Part IIB
LT 2005
Dr. Clemens Kaminski
Laser Analytics Group
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
University of Cambridge
clemens_kaminski@cheng.cam.ac.uk
http://www.cheng.cam.ac.uk/research/groups/laser/

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

The Internal Combustion Engine (IC engines)

By this one almost universally refers to piston engines. Although in gas turbines (GT) the
combustion also takes place internally their operating principle is fundamentally different
and will be dealt with in a later section. Some definitions:
working fluid: fuel- air mixture and combustion products.
work transfers: Between working fluid and mechanical parts of the engine.
There are two main types of engine (although they come in many variants):
spark ignition: Otto engine or petrol engine
compression ignition: Diesel engine
The great success of IC engines is due to their simplicity and their high power to weight
ratio, rendering them ideal devices for transport and (small scale) power generation.

4 stroke engines

Figure 1: Operating principle of a 4 stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. (TC = top centre,
BC = bottom centre, Vc =clearance volume, Vd =displacement volume, Vt =total cylinder
volume
Fig. 1 shows the operating principle of the 4 stroke cycle of an Otto (spark ignition)
engine:
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The IC engine

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

intake stroke Starts at TC, ends at BC. Draws fresh mixture into cylinder. Inlet valves
open just before stroke starts.
compression stroke Valves closed. Ignition near maximum compression.
expansion stroke Power stroke. Work done (WD) typically 5 times larger than that
required for compression. Close to BC exhaust valves open.
exhaust stroke Exhausts leave chamber due to overpressure and piston movement.
To get maximum efficiency we want:
largest cylinder volume, minimum boundary surface (minimise heat losses)
greatest working speed (minimise heat losses)
greatest compression ratio rc = Vt /Vc (extracts maximum work)
greatest pressure at beginning of combustion (allows greater expansion, i.e. more
work to be done)
Early problems: Large compression ratios produce engine knock (autoignition). Early
Otto engines only had compression ratios of around 4.
Early Developments:
Diesel engine(=compression ignition (CI) engine, 1892) Inject fuel spray into air
at high pressure and ignite by compression only: Autoignition not a problem!
Achieve much higher rc for CI engine than for SI engine (12-24 compared with
8-12)
Fuels Addition of tetraethyl lead reduced proneness to engine knock in SI
engines. Health concerns have reversed this and we are back to unleaded fuel
today requiring new methodologies to increase .
Problems with automotive combustion:
Smog: NOx + Cy Hz reactions in the presence of sunlight
Emissions:
pollutant
NO, NO2
CO
unburnt HCs
particulates

impact
smog; toxic
toxic
toxic
asthma

% of tot. emissions
40-60
90
30-50
50

SI engines g/km
0.65
3
1
0.2

trucks g/km
7
17
3
0.5

Noise: (from exhaust system, intake system, cooling fan noise, etc.) Are both
aerodynamic and combustion generated.
Current Developments:
Novel materials (reduce weight, heat loss)
Novel types: stratified charge (GDI - gasoline direct injection), HCCI (homogeneous compressed charge ignition) - these combine advantages of SI engine
combustion with those of CI engine combustion.
turbocharging (CI and SI engines)
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The IC engine

2.1 SI engines

2.1

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

SI engines

Figure 2: 4 stroke SI engine operating cycle. IVO=inlet valve open, IVC=inlet valve
close, EVO = exhaust valve open, EVC=exhaust valve close, xb =burnt mass fraction.
Fig. 2 shows the valve timings and volume relationships versus crank angle for a cycle
such as shown in fig. 1. Several points are noteworthy:
IV opens before TC and closes after BC to maximise mixture flow rates into cylinder
even at high engine speeds. The inducted fuel/air mixes with residual burnt gases
in the cylinder which are left over from the previous cycle.
EVO starts before BC: Overpressure in cylinder forces gases out towards end of
expansion stroke (blowdown). This results in some loss of useful expansion work
done, but this is less than what would be lost by blowdown during the exhaust
stroke.
Spark ignition: Ususally 10 to 40 degrees before TC. MBT (maximum brake torque)
obtained only for one precise ignition timing. Modern engines control this electronically and adjust this according to load / speed.
After SI: Turbulent flame propagation. Flame grows until it hits cylinder walls.
Combustion lasts for about 40 to 60 degrees c.a.
dashed line in fig. 2 corresponds to pressure rise due to compression alone (no
combustion).
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The IC engine

2.1 SI engines

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

Fig. 3 shows a cutout drawing of a commercial 4 stroke SI engine.

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The IC engine

2.1 SI engines

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

Figure 3: Cutaway of a 2.2l, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine. Bore 87 mm, Stroke 92 mm,
rc = 9, 65 kW at 5000 rpm.

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The IC engine

2.2 CI engines

2.2

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

CI engines

Fig. 4 shows a CI cycle:


Air alone is inducted into cylinder at 1 atm and compressed to 40 bar, 800 K.
near TC fuel is injected directly into cylinder as a spray near maximum compression.
The fuel is atomised into drops, entraining air with the ensuing mixture above the
ignition point: After a short interval (=ignition delay) the mixture ignites.
Combustion phase: Flame spreads through the mixed parts of the charge, as the
expansion progresses there is continued mixing and ensuing combustion until the
entire charge is consumed (see graph for m
f b ).
Both the SI and CI engines can be turbocharged: Compressing (and often cooling)
the air on intake increases mass flow rate into cylinder, thus more fuel can be admitted
and more power can be obtained.

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The IC engine

2.2 CI engines

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

Figure 4: Operating cycle of a 4 stroke CI engine (only compression, expansion and


exhaust processes are shown. SOI=start of injection, EOI=end of injection, m
f i =mass
flow rate of injected fuel, m
f b =mass rate of fuel burning.

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The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Operating parameters

3.1

geometrical properties

Figure 5: Geometry of piston/cylinder assembly: B=bore; L=stroke; l=conecting rod


length; a=crank radius; =crank angle.
Refer to fig. 5. Compression ratio:
rc =

Vd + Vc
max cyl volume
=
min cyl volume
Vc

(1)

cylinder bore to piston stroke ratio:


B
L
The ratio between connecting rod to crank radius is:
Rbs =

(2)

l
a

(3)

L = 2a

(4)

V
1
= 1 + (rc 1)[R + 1 cos (R2 sin2 )1/2 ]
Vc
2

(5)

R=
Also:
Hence (prove yourself):

Mean piston speed:


Sp = 2LN

(6)

where N is the crankshaft rotational speed (in revs/sec). The instant piston speed is
given by:
ds
Sp =
(7)
dt
The maximum for this lies between 8 and 15 msec1 (limited by gas flow rates, mechanical
stress)
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The IC engine

3.2 brake torque and power

3.2

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

brake torque and power

Brake power:
p(kW) = 2N (rev/s) T ((Nm) 103

(8)

The torque T is usually measured with a dynamometer (the stator of which is kept steady
by applying a brake force, hence the name brake power). Brake power is the power that
can be usefully delivered to a load. Brake horse power:
p(hp) =

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N (rev/min)T (lbf ft)


5252

(9)

The IC engine

3.3 indicated work and pressure per cycle

3.3

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

indicated work and pressure per cycle

Obtained from pressure data (see fig. 6), plotted against cylinder volume. The indicated
work output per cycle is then:
I
Wc,i = pdV
(10)
The gross indicated work per cycle, Wi,g is the work delivered to the piston during

Figure 6: Indicated work diagrams. imep=indicated mean effective pressure


compression and expansion only. The net indicated work per cycle, Wi,n is the work
delivered to the piston during the entire cycle. Pumping work:
Wp = Wg,i Wn,i

(11)

Indicated power is:


Wi N
(12)
nR
where nR is the number of strokes per power cycle. The indicated mean effective pressure
imep is the mean pressure, which, if acting on the piston during the working stroke, would
give the indicated work in the cycle:
Pi =

Wi
Pi n R
=
Vd
N Vd

(13)

Wp
= imepg imepn
Vd

(14)

imep =
The pumping mean effective pressure:
pmep =

A friction mean effective pressure f mep can be introduced in the same way. The brake
mean effective pressure (obtained from dynamometer measurements) is essentially constant for good engine designs, independent of their size. Actual designs can be compared
against these norms. For a typical SI engines this is 850 - 1050 kPa at the speed where
maximum torque is obtained ( 300 rev/min)

3.4
3.4.1

Thermochemistry and engine efficiency


Definitions

Combustion in engines:
working fluids: need to consider both pre and post combustion species
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The IC engine

3.4 Thermochemistry and engine efficiency

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

reaction zone: Flamefront very thin compared to dimensions of chamber (sub mm


vs 10 cm)
Supply of fresh reactants and speed of conversion govern output power (as well as
losses)
Turbulence: Wrinkles flame front, flame surface area increases, reactants are consumed more quickly as a result
SI engine: Turbulent premixed flame
CI engine: Turbulent diffusion flame
fuels: 86 % carbons and 14% hydrogen by weight typical
Fuel composition:
Alkyl components
Paraffins (alkanes): Cn H2n+2 , single bonded open chain, saturated hydrocarbons. Eg methane, ethane, propane, iso-octane.
cycloparaffins (cyclanes): Cn H2n , single bond ring HCs, unsaturated. Eg cyclopropane
olefins (alkenes): Cn H2n , open chain, double bond, unsaturated. E.g. ethene,
propene, butene.
acetylenes: Cn H2n2
Aromatics: Cn H2n6 , eg benzene, toluene, xylene
Alcohols: Cn H2n+1 OH: Methanol, ethanol, etc
Stoichiometric combustion:
b
b
b
Ca Hb + (a + )(O2 + 3.773N2 ) = aCO2 + H2 O + 3.773(a + )N2
4
2
4

(15)

(from a balance of Cs, Hs, and Ns). Air fuel ratio:


 
A
(1 + y/ 4 )(32 + 3.773 28.16)
=
F s
12.011 + 1.008y

(16)

y = b/a

(17)

where
as only the ratios of the species moles are required to set up a stoichiometric balance.
Fuel/air equivalence ratio:
(F/A)actual
=
(18)
(F/A)s
Air/fuel ratio:
= 1

(19)

Lean combustion: > 1, < 1


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The IC engine

3.4 Thermochemistry and engine efficiency

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Figure 7: Combustion efficiency as a function of equivalence ratio .

stoichiometric combustion: = = 1
rich: < 1, > 1
Fig. 7 shows the combustion efficiency of an engine as a function of fuel/air equivalence
ratio. For rich mixtures the exhaust will contain significant amounts of H2 and CO.
Burnt gases are at their equilibrium composition during cycle (except during end of expansion stroke where recombination reactions arent fast enough to maintain equilibrium).
For example adiabatic combustion of isooctane and air at = 1 produces species mole
fractions of N2 0.7; H2 O, CO2 0.1; CO, OH, NO, H2 0.01; H, O 0.001. Fig. 8
shows equilibrium compositions for isooctane air combustion products as a function of
for 3 different temperatures. At low temperature main species include N2 , H2 O, CO2 , O2
or CO, H2 . As the temperature increases, increasingly dissociative products are formed
(e.g. OH from H2 O and H). Note also the sensitive dependence of NO concentrations on
T and .
Reactions will tend to products if:
Gproducts < Greactants

(20)

as this corresponds to an increase in the entropy of the universe. For gas mixtures the
chemical potential:


G
i =
(21)
ni p,T,nj (j6=i)
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The IC engine

3.4 Thermochemistry and engine efficiency

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

quantifies how G changes as ni of component i is added to the mixture whilst keeping


the overall composition of all other species constant. JANAF tables list i (T ) from which
i at different pressures can be calculated. If all components are ideal gases then
P
X  p i v i
( i vi )
G
ln
= = ln Kp
(22)
= p0
RT
RT
where vi are the stoichiometric coefficients of species i and
Y  p i v i
Kp =
p0
i

(23)

is the equilibrium constant.


Non equilibrium chemistry: Problems occur where convective (turbulence) and chemical timescales are of similar magnitude chemistry not fast enough to maintain mixture
at equilibrium composition. In extreme cases the mixing timescales are so fast that the
flame extinguishes. Another example of where non equilibrium chemistry is significant is
autoignition (e.g. engine knock).
Fig. 8 shows mole fractions of equilibrium combustion products of isooctane and air
mixtures for different temperatures at 30 bar.

Figure 8: Mole fractions of equilibrium combustion products of isooctane and air mixtures
as a function of at 30 bar. a) 1750 k b) 2250 K, c) 2750 K.
The mixture compostion has a major bearing on thermodynamic efficiency as the
values for cp and cv are significantly different for reactant and product gases.
3.4.2

Combustion Efficiency

Control volume analysis: Engine can be seen as an open system which exchanges heat
and work with surroundings (atmosphere). Net chemical energy release is:

X
X


[HR (TA ) HP (TA )] = m
ni h
ni h
(24)
f,i
f,i
i, reactants
i, products
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The IC engine

3.4 Thermochemistry and engine efficiency

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Here
TP = TR = TA

(25)

pR = pP = pA

(26)

and
(atmospheric T and p). The amount of fuel energy supplied is given by
mf QHV

(27)

where mf is the fuel mass and QHV is the heating value (calorific value) of the fuel. Thus
the combustion efficiency is given by:
c =

HR (TA ) HP (TA )
mf QHV

(28)

The heating value of the fuel is established from calorimeter measurements and these are
performed either at constant pressure or at constant volume. Then:
QHVp = (H)p,T0

(29)

or
QHVV = (U )V,T0
(30)
For fuels containing H we need to know whether H2 O is formed in the gas or in the liquid
phase. The lower heating value QLHVp refers to the case where H2 O is in the vapour
phase, which is usually the case for exhausts from engine combustion. The higher heating
value can be related to this by:


mH2 O
hf g H2 O
(31)
QHHVp = QLHVp +
mf
3.4.3

Maximum Work Output

Open system: reactants enter at pA and products exhaust at pA into atmosphere at TA .


Control volume analysis surrounding the engine yields:
Q Wu = H

(32)

where Q is the heat transfer with the atmosphere, Wu is the useful work transfer to the
environment (i.e. non-pdV work) and

From the second law:

H = HP HR

(33)

Q
S
TA

(34)

Wu (H TA S) = B

(35)

B = (HP TA SP ) (HR TA SR )

(36)

TP = TR = TA

(37)

Hence
where
where again

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The IC engine

3.5 Ideal engine cycles

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

and
pR = pP = pA

(38)

B = (G)TA ,pA

(39)

Hence
This is the maximum useful work output which occurs upon complete conversion of reactants to products. The so called availability conversion efficiency is given by
a =

Wactual
Wactual
=
Wu,max
(G)TA ,pA

(40)

This is so called as it can be considered as the fractional availability of unburnt fuel and
air mixture. In practice G is difficult to measure. However we can use a measurement
of hTA and then use equation 36 to find g. Usually the two are not very different
for hydrocarbon fuels. Note that hTA is the heating value of the fuel at the stated
temperature. One can then (with the aid of eq. 29) define a very widely used quantity,
the fuel conversion efficiency:
Wc
(41)
f =
mf QHV
where Wc is the work per cycle. Usually we use the lower heating value in this equation
as previously discussed. Note that for hydrocarbon fuels the availability a and f are
close to each other in value.

3.5

Ideal engine cycles

Standard air cycles: Only air used as a working fluid. A more useful approximation
to reality is the so called air/fuel ideal cycle. Here both the properties of combustion
products (taken as the equilibrium mixture composition) and air are taken into account.
The most critical assumption in this analysis is the combustion model: E.g. for the
constant volume combustion process assumed in the Otto-cycle combustion is assumed to
occur infinitely quickly at TC whereas in reality this process extends over 40 crank angle
degrees.
Fig. 9 shows pressure volume diagrams of ideal cycles. The assumptions in these
cycles are stated in table 3.5.
Process
Assumptions
compression (1-2) 1. Adiabatic, reversible (i.e. isentropic)
combustion (2-3) 1. Adiabatic
2. Combustion occurs at
a) Constant volume
b) constant pressure
c) limited pressure (part const. V , part const. p)
3. Combustion is complete (c = 1)
Expansion (3-4)
1. Adiabatic, reversible
Exhaust (4-5-6)
1. Adiabatic
and
2. Valve events at TC and BC
intake (6-7-1)
3. No change in V as p across the open valves go to zero
4. pi and pe are constant
5. Velocity effects negligible

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The IC engine

3.5 Ideal engine cycles

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Figure 9: Pressure-volume diagrams of ideal cycles. Unthrottled operation: a) constant


volume combustion b) constant pressure combustion c) limited-pressure combustion d)
Throttled constant-volume combustion (pi < pe ) and e) supercharged constant-volume
combustion pi > pe .

The (gross) indicated work per cycle is:


Wc,i = WC + WE

(42)

where WC and WE are the compression and expansion work, respectively. The indicated
fuel conversion efficiency is
Wc,i
f,i =
(43)
mf QLHV
then
imep =

mf QLHV f,i
Vd

(44)

Lets briefly analyse the Otto cycle (refer to fig. 9, analyse others in a simlar way):
v1
v4
=
= rc
v2
v3

(45)

s2 = s1 , s 4 = s3

(46)

and

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The IC engine

3.6 Novel Developments

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Combustion is at constant volume (no expansion work done). For the compression we
have:
WC = m(u1 u2 )
(47)
and for the expansion
WE = m(u3 u4 )

(48)

Hence for the constant volume cycle:


f,i =

m[(u3 u4 ) (u2 u1 )]
mf QLHV

(49)

Similar analysis yields for the constant pressure cycle:


f,i =

m[(h3 h4 ) (u2 u1 ) + p4 v4 p2 v2 ]
mf QLHV

(50)

and for the limited-pressure cycle


f,i =

m[(h3b h4 ) (u2 u1 ) + p4 v4 p3 v3a ]


mf QLHV

(51)

Net efficiencies are lower than that because of pumping work during intake and exhaust
strokes. The pumping work is given by:
Wp = (pi pe )(V1 V2 )

(52)

which can have different signs (e.g. throttled and supercharged). Thus the net indicated
fuel efficiency is given by:


pe pi
f, i, n = f, i, g 1
(53)
imepg
where pe pi is the pumping mean effective pressure.

3.6

Novel Developments

Various technologies exist or are being developed to increase the efficiency of IC engines
and to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions. All concepts require lean mixtures to burn but
this is associated with problems:
Stability: The flame temperature and speeds decrease, making it more susceptible
to transients.
Ignition of very lean mixtures is difficult
3.6.1

HCCI engines

HCCI stands for homogenous compressed charge ignition engines. There are various other
names for the same thing (e.g. ATAC - Active Thermo Atmosphere Combustion, or AR
- activated radical combustion, etc.). Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is
used by some researchers and this is in fact a better description of what is going on, as
combustion is in fact not homogenous throughout the mixture in these engines.
HCCI: Very lean burn combustion preceded by gasoline injection
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The IC engine

3.6 Novel Developments

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

operates on very lean mixtures of fuel/air and combustion products


mixture is not spark ignited but it autoigites towards end of compression stroke.
Need to heat mixture prior to compression to reach autoignition temperatures upon
compression (1050-1200K). Usually achieved via EGR (exhaust gas recirculation,
see fig. 10) and sometimes by heating of intake air or running a pilot ignition
towards end of exhaust stroke.
combustion proceeds spontaneously throughout mixture in those regions where autoignition conditions are reached (hot spots). Combustion is thought to proceed
without propagation of a flame front.
At part load the HCCI process is very efficient with low emissions (peak temperatures for lean mixtures in engines mean NOx is lower by 2 orders of magnitude
compared with SI combustion).
problems with HCCI:
variable load causes changes in autoignition characteristics: difficult to control!
Technical solutions to this problem (e.g. variable valve timing) currently to
complex to be feasible
lower power density c.f Diesel or SI engines: Limits HCCI to part load applications
process is chemistry controlled rather than turbulence controlled and variations in fuel quality have a much higher bearing on overall performance.

Figure 10: Valve timings for port injected HCCI combustion. EGR is achieved by closing
exhaust valves early compared to SI combustion

3.6.2

Gasoline Direct Injection

GDI engine technologies combines Diesel technology (high pressure injection) with SI
engine technology. Fuel is injected directly into the cylinder near maximum compression.
Advantages:

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The IC engine

4 THE GAS TURBINE

No throttling: Inherent inefficiencies if throttling at part load (throttling losses)


are not an issue here. Can combust in excess air, resulting in significant efficiency
improvements.
Efficiency near that of Diesel engine, both in fuel consumption and CO2 emission
Variable injection timings possible to adapt to variable load
The problem with GDI combustion (as with all lean combustion) is that at very lean
conditions the flame becomes difficult to ignite. One therefore resorts to Charge Stratification, (see ) a process shown in fig. 11. The fuel is injected in a well defined spray pattern
which bounces off a shaped piston head (piston bowl) to create a locally rich mixture
around the spark plug at the time of ignition. The established flame kernel subsequently
propagates through a very lean mixture.

Figure 11: Principle of charge stratification for GDI technology

The Gas turbine

The gas turbine (GT) is the highest technological achievement of all high-tech products
commercially available today. Real GT engine is open circuit (see fig. 13) but a closed
circuit approximation to GT combustion is a useful approximation (see fig. 12).
Operating principle: Compression of a working fluid (gas) before expansion in a
turbine. In a perfect GT (no loss) the power developed in the turbine just equals
the power absorbed during compression. To overcome these limitations and provide
extra expansion to produce useful shaft work or thrust heat is added to the working
fluid after the compressor and before the turbine.
GT has no reciprocating components / rubbing members: Lubrication demands and
friction losses are extremely low.
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Gas Turbines

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Figure 12: Schematic representation of a simple cycle gas turbine and corresponding T S
diagram (Joule or Brayton cycle).

Figure 13: The open circuit gas turbine

largest compression ratio produces maximum work. Increase fuel flow: increases T
(expansion): Problem: Turbine blades get very hot. To put things in perspective:
The combustor outlet temperature (COT) is around 2200 K in an aero engine,
2000 K for industrial GTs. The melting temperature of turbine blade materials
is 2050 K (!) with a safe working temperature around 1600 K (aero) or 1500 K
(industrial). Blade cooling is essential (as well as combustor chamber wall cooling).
A modified cycle to incorporate this cooling is shown in fig. 14.
Main performance factors:
component efficiencies (85-90 %)
turbine working T
rc (up to 40:1!)
Efficiency: The RR industrial TRENT engine achieves an overall efficiency of around
42% in a simple cycle design . Combined cycle power plants (combining a gas turbine
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Gas Turbines

4.1 The Joule cycle

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Figure 14: Gas turbine with blade cooling using air bled from the compressor

with a steam turbine cycle) can achieve efficiencies now in excess of 50 % (compared
with theoretical max efficiencies of around 60 %).
Combustion in the GT occurs at constant pressure which is theoretically less efficient than constant volume combustion but requires no moving valves to isolate the
combustion chamber from compressor and turbine and allows continuous operation.
In contrast to IC engines compression, combustion and expansion all occur in different compartments. This means that the GT is configurable in a multitude of configurations. For example, there can be several compressor and turbine stages which
may operate at different speeds (multi spool arrangements) and gas turbines can
easily be combined with other technologies, such as steam turbines (combined cycle
power plants).
intercooling: In multistage compressor arrangements the air can be cooled in between stages to reduce compressor work (used also in Diesel engine turbochargers!).
Compressors: Are driven from the turbine by a shaft. There are two types of
compressor: the centrifugal flow impeller type, and the axial flow type which consists
of several stages of alternating rotating and stationary aerofoil blades. Axial flow
compressors are more efficient but are prone to instabilities if operated away from
their optimal point (e.g. during engine start). Maximum single stage compression
achievable is around rc = 7, higher rc s require more stages. Rolls-Royce Trent 892:
overall rc of around 40:1 achieved. At full power its compressors rotate at 1600kph
and take in 1200kg of air per second.
GTs for aircraft use come in a variety of designs: Turbojets (gas jet is used for
propulsion, eg Olympus 593 used in Concorde), Turbofans (air bypassing the compressor is used for propulsion, quieter, more fuel efficient, used in most civil aircraft
today), turboprop (propeller motors), and turboshaft (helicopters). The term Industrial Gas Turbine very often refers to aeroengine designs which have been modified
for industrial use.

4.1

The Joule cycle

Simplest model of the open circuit CBT (compressor burner turbine) GT is the closed
air-standard Joule cycle (see fig. 12). Compression and expansion are isentropic and heat
is added and rejected at constant pressure.
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Gas Turbines

4.1 The Joule cycle

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Figure 15: Cut of a Rolls-Royce TRENT 800 type turbofan engine, one of the most widely
used engines in the airline industry today.

Easy to show then that the cycle efficiency is given by (prove yourself):
c = 1

1
rt

(54)

where the isentropic temperature ratio is given by


rt =

T2
T3
=
= rp(1/)
T1
T4

(55)

and

p2
p3
=
(56)
p1
p4
Hence for the idealised cycle the efficiency only depends on the pressure ratio rp . The
x is obtained from the steady flow energy equation (see Appendix A for
net work rate W
a revision of this):




1
1
2
2
x=m
Q W
hout + Vout + gzout m
hin + Vin + gzin
(57)
2
2
rp =

Neglecting the potential and kinetic energy changes in this allows one to obtain the specific
work wx
 


1
wx = cp T1 1
(rt 1)
(58)
rt
CFK, Combustion, LT05

22

Gas Turbines

4.2 Irreversible Joule cycles

4 THE GAS TURBINE

where = T3 /T1 (overall temperature ratio). For a fixed one obtains a maximum work
output at the optimal overall rt

rt, opt =
(59)
So for example for T1 = 300 K and T3 = 1700 K, rt, opt = 2.38 which for = 1.4
corresponds to rp = 20.8. The maximum work output corresponds to the situation when
the compressor outlet temperature corresponds to the turbine outlet temperature. The
work ratio is defined as:
wT wc
rt
wx
=
=1
(60)
Rw =
wT
wT

which compares the net work output to the turbine work. Thus for a high work ratio
(and less susceptibility to the irreversibilities in turbine and compressor) the overall temperature ratio should be high and the isentropic temperature ratio (i.e. pressure ratio)
low.

4.2

Irreversible Joule cycles

Differences to idealised cycle


turbomachinery is not isentropic
pressure loss in combustor
cp and vary with T
cp higher for combustion products than for air
combustion occurs internally instead of heat being supplied externally
fuel addition increases mass flow rate in turbine
turbine exhaust is released into atmosphere and there is no cooler
Irreversibilities can be modelled using the concept of isentropic efficiency can be used
(see fig. 16).
The effect of this is best assessed by considering a typical example. Consider a GT
with:
compressor entry temperature
compressor isentropic efficiency
Turbine entry temperature
Turbine isentropic efficiency
pressure ratio
mass flow rate of air

T1 = 300 K
c = 90%
T3 = 1500 K
T = 90%
rp = 25
m
= 120 kg/s

If we ignore pressure losses in combustor and the fuel mass flow rate we get:
Reversible Joule
Irreversible Joule
Isentropic Compressor
Actual Compressor
  1
1

T2s
h1
T1
= pp21
= rp = 2.508 c = hh2s2 h
= TT2s2 T
T1
1
1
i.e. T2s = 752.4K
i.e. T2 = 802.7K
Isentropic compressor work
Actual compressor work:
CFK, Combustion, LT05

23

Gas Turbines

4.2 Irreversible Joule cycles

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Figure 16: reversible and non reversible Joule cycles with 90% isentropic efficiencies in
compressor and turbine

C = m(h
W
2s h1 )
= mc
p (T2s T1 ) = 54831kW
heat addition
Q 23 = mc
p (T3 T2s ) = 90609kW
Isentropic turbine:
  1

p3
T3
= 2.508
=
T4s
p4
T4s = 598.1K
Isentropic Turbine work
T = m(h
W
3 h4s )
= mc
p (T3 T4s ) = 109310kW
Isentropic Net work
net = W
T W
C = 54479kW
W
Cycle efficiency

Joule = WQnet = 0.601


23

C = m(h
W
2 h1 )
= mc
p (T2 T1 ) = 60927kW
actual heat addition
Q 23 = mc
p (T3 T2 ) = 84513kW
Actual turbine:
T4
h4
= TT33T
T = hh33h
4s
4s
T4 = 688.3K
Actual Turbine work
T = m(h
W
3 h4 )
= mc
p (T3 T4 ) = 98378kW
Irreversible Joule cycle (c = T = 0.9)
net = 37451kW
W
Actual efficiency

cycle = WQnet = 0.443


23

Fig. 17 shows a jet engine and fig. 18 a corresponding analysis. The air intake nozzle
(leading to initial compression of the air due to the ram effect) and the propulsion
nozzle are modelled to be isentropic in this analysis.
There are disadvantages with using isentropic efficiencies: Consider the compression of
a gas from p1 , T1 to p2 , T2 with isentropic efficiency is,c . Next consider the compression
is spit into two sections:p1 to px and px to p2 . If the same isentropic efficiency is,c is used
for both processes we end up with a different outlet temperature T2 than previously. This
situation can be remedied using polytropic efficiencies (see appendix). For a perfect gas

CFK, Combustion, LT05

24

Gas Turbines

4.3 Analysis of Real Gas Turbines

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Figure 17: Aero-jet engine with intake and propelling nozzles

the T p relationships for a compression with polytropic efficiencies pc and pt are:


 (1/pc )
p2
T2
(61)
=
T1
p1
and:

 (pt 1/)
T3
p3
=
(62)
T4
p4
Polytropic efficiencies are now universally in use in the GT industry.
The modelling of real gas properties is essential for GT design (as for engines in general,
see discussion in IC engine section). Fig. 19 shows the thermodynamic data for typical
mixtures of air and fuel products at their equilibrium composition for different temperatures. A major consequence of non-isentropic turbomachinery and real gas properties are
that the overall efficiency ov increases with combustor outlet temperature (COT) which
is in contrast to the Joule cycle, the efficiency of which only depends on rp . Secondly
for a given COT there is a maximum in ov at a particular rp and the result is shown in
fig. 20.

4.3

Analysis of Real Gas Turbines

Land based or stationary: Atmospheric temperature and pressure are the stagnation
properties of the approaching air stream
Flight: Atmospheric temperature and pressure are the static properties of the approaching air stream
CFK, Combustion, LT05

25

Gas Turbines

4.3 Analysis of Real Gas Turbines

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Figure 18: Cycle analysis of aero-jet engine with intake and propelling nozzles

Intake: Pressure loss taken into account via an intake efficiency or an absolute
pressure loss. The stagnation temperature stays the same
compressor: allow for variation of cp and with temperature. Use same gas constant
R for air and combustion products. Three approaches:
use curves of cp vs temperature
use enthalpy / entropy tables
use mean cp based in stagnation temperature rise through components
combustion chamber: Allow for incomplete combustion
turbine: Similar approach as for compressor
power equation: compressor power plus shaft power = turbine power. Allow for
mechanical losses (bearings, gear box, etc)
specific fuel consumption:
m
f =
4.3.1

m
air
x
W

(63)

Example

Consider industrial gas turbine shown in fig. 21


Intake:
ambient pressure = 101.5 kPa
ambient temperature = 288 K
stagnation pressure loss in intake duct = 3.45 kPa (p0,1,t )
CFK, Combustion, LT05

26

Gas Turbines

4.3 Analysis of Real Gas Turbines

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Figure 19: cp and for ar and combustion product mixtures at 1 bar

Figure 20: Variation of ov as a function of compressor ration and COT values

compressor
air mass flow rate = 18.15 kg/s
stagnation pressure ratio = 5.5 (p2,t /p1,t )
isentropic efficiency = 85 %
Combustion chamber
stagnation pressure drop=3.8 of inlet stagnation pressure
combustion efficiency=98%
calorific value for fuel = 43.1 MJ/kg
Turbine
CFK, Combustion, LT05

27

Gas Turbines

4.3 Analysis of Real Gas Turbines

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Figure 21: Simple shaft cycle industrial turbine with pressure losses and irreversibilities

mechanical efficiency=99%
inlet stagnation pressure = 1000K
isentropic efficiency = 86%
exhaust duct stagnation pressure loss = 6.9 kPa
Ambient conditions for sea level static case are stagnation conditions since at a large
distance from the engine we have V0 = 0. Then
T0,t = TA +

V02
= Ta
2cp

(64)

and
p0,t = pA

(65)

3=m
Q W
A cp (T1,t T0,t )

(66)

T1,t = T0,t = 288 K

(67)

For intake
adiabatic flow, hence

i.e. stagnation temperature remains constant for adiabatic flow with zero shaft work.
Stagnation temperature at compressor entry:
CFK, Combustion, LT05

28

Gas Turbines

4.3 Analysis of Real Gas Turbines

4 THE GAS TURBINE

p1,t = p0,t p01,t = 101.5 3.45 = 98.05 kPa

(68)

Compressor:
0
T2,t
=
T1,t

p2,t
p1,t

 1

(69)

Variation of specific heat: For real gases over the normal working range of temperature
and pressure cp is a function of temperature only. Since
1
R
Rm
=
=

cp
mcp

(70)

this is also true of . Gas turbines use kerosene with formula Cn H2n For known the
gravimetric composition of the products of combustion can be calculated and hence mean
values for cp and for the mixture. As increases cp and increase (see fig. 19). The
mean molecular mass of the combustion products are however little different to those of
air, therefore we can take:
Rm
0.287
1
=
=

mcp
cp

(71)

where

Rm
(72)
m
is taken as the value for air. It is necessary to guess a value for mean to evaluate
T2,t
=
T1,t

p2,t
p1,t

 1

(73)

hence evaluate

T1,t + T2,t
(74)
2
find cp and and repeat until agreement is found for T2,t . For the present level of accuracy
it suffices to use tables of enthalpies and entropies and to use mean values of and cp for
different parts of the engine. For the compressor (air only) assume cp,12,t = 1.012 kJ/kgK.
Hence
R
0.287
1
=
=
= 0.2836
(75)

cp,12,t
1.012
Hence
0
T2,t
= 288 5.50.2836 = 467K

c =
T2,t = 288 +

0
T2,t
T1,t
T2,t T1,t

467 288
= 498.6K
0.85

(76)
(77)
(78)

Hence
p2,t = 5.5 0.98 105 = 5.393 105 Pa

(79)

wc = cp (T2,t T1,t ) = 1.012(498 288) = 213.1 kJ/kg

(80)

compressor work:

CFK, Combustion, LT05

29

Gas Turbines

4.3 Analysis of Real Gas Turbines

4 THE GAS TURBINE

Compressor power is
mw
c = 18.15 213.1 = 3868 kW

(81)

Combustion chamber: Require to find fuel / air ratio f which will transform unit mass
of air at T2,t and f kg of fuel at fuel temperature Tf to (1 + f ) kg of products at T3,t .
Assuming complete combustion and using SFEE:
0 = f cp,f (T0 Tf ) + 1 cp,a,02 (T0 T2,t ) + f h00 + (1 + f )cp,03 (T3,t T0 )

(82)

where T0 = 298 K is the reference temperature for h00 . Neglecting variations in h00 due
to the change in the reference temperature we recognise this as the calorific value. If we
neglect the f cp,f (T0 Tf ) term since f < 0.05 and cp,f = 2.0 kJ/kgK, we get:
0 = f QHVp + (1 + f )cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )

(83)

f
cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )
=
1+f
QHVp

(84)

Therefore

Usually combustion is not complete and we define a combustion efficiency:


c/c =

Actual stagnation T rise


Theoretical stag. T rise (complete combust.)

(85)

cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )act


cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )th

(86)

For a given f we have


c/c =
Then

f
cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )act
=
1+f
c/c QHVp

(87)

It is also possible to use curves to determine the theoretical temperature rise.


p23,t = 3.8%

(88)

of inlet stagnation pressure


p23,t =

3.8 5.393 105


= 0.2049 105 N m2
100

(89)

hence
p3,t = (5.393 0.2049) 105 = 5.188 105 Pa

(90)

For QHVp = 4.31 104 kJ/kg and cp,23 = 1.12 kJ/kgK we obtain f = 0.01349 or an
air/fuel ratio of 74.7/1 c.f. stoichiometric of 14.7/1. Turbine: loss of stagnation pressure
in exhaust duct = 0.069 105 Pa.
p4t = pA + p45,t = (1.015 + 0.069) 105 = 1.084 105 N/m2

(91)

and cp,34 = 1.131 kJ/kgK.


Expansion ratio:
p3,t
5.188 105
=
= 4.7859
p4,t
1.084 105
CFK, Combustion, LT05

30

(92)
Gas Turbines

4.4 Intercooling

4 THE GAS TURBINE

T3,t
=
0
T4,t

p3,t
p4,t

 1

(93)

1
R
Rm
287
1
=
=
=
=

cp
mcp
1131
3.95
0
T4,t
=

(94)

1000

= 672.75 K
1
4.7859 3.95
0
T4t = T3,t T (T3,t T4,t
) = 1000 0.86(1000 672.7) = 718.5 K

(95)
(96)

Turbine power
T =m
W
g cp,34 (T3,t T4,t ) = 18.15(1 + 0.01349)1.131 (1000 718.5)

(97)

Power equation:
c+W
x=W
T
W

(98)

if mechanical loss due to bearing friction and windage between turbine and compressor is
1%, i.e. mechanical efficiency=99% then
3868
x = 18.15 1.01349 1.131 (1000 672.7)
+W
0.99

(99)

x = 2902 kW. Specific fuel consumption


hence W
18.15 0.01349
3600 = 0.3037kg/kWh
2902

(100)

2902
= 159.89kJ/kg
18.15

(101)

specific output

4.4

Intercooling

Shown in fig. 22.

Figure 22: Principle of intercooling using a CICBT (compressor intercooler compressor


burner turbine) circuit

increases power output


isothermal compression would require minimum compressor work (in contrast to
isentropic compression), but this is not achievable in practice. Intercooling is partially achieving this.
CFK, Combustion, LT05

31

Gas Turbines

4.4 Intercooling

4 THE GAS TURBINE

work output (reversible) consists of sum of two Joule cycles. Cycle 2,3,4,4 thus
represents the extra work output gained. The efficiency of this cycle is less than that
for the original cycle 1,2, 4,5,6 (smaller rp ) hence the efficiency of the intercooled
cycle is always less that that of the original Joule cycle.
advantages
more work output
cooler air available for cooling turbine blades (hence less air is required for
cooling)
disadvantages
less efficient

CFK, Combustion, LT05

32

Gas Turbines

5 APPENDIX A

Appendix A

5.1

Review of Thermodynamics and Compressible Flow

SFEE (Steady Flow Energy Equation)






1 2
1 2

Q Wx = m
hout + Vout m
hin + Vin
2
2

(102)

(neglecting potential energy terms). Stagnation enthalpy:


ht = h +

V2
2

(103)

Hence
x=m
Q W
(hout,t hin,t )

(104)

ht = cp Tt

(105)

x = mc
Q W
p (Tout,t Tin,t )

(106)

x = mc
W
p (Tout,t Tin,t )

(107)

For a gas:
and
for adiabatic processes
i.e. shaft power for turbines and compressors.
Stagnation temperature:
Tin,t = Tin +

Vin2
2cp

(108)

stagnation / static properties:


pin,t
=
pin

Tin,t
Tin

Velocity of sound for a gas is

 1

(109)
1

a = (RT ) 2
Mach number
Ma =

V
a

(110)
(111)

Alternatively

and

CFK, Combustion, LT05

Tin,t
1 2
=1+
Main
Tin
2

(112)



pin,t
1 2 1
= 1+
Main
pin
2

(113)

33

Gas Turbines

6 APPENDIX B

Appendix B

CFK, Combustion, LT05

34

Gas Turbines

6 APPENDIX B

Figure 23:

CFK, Combustion, LT05

35

Gas Turbines

6 APPENDIX B

CFK, Combustion, LT05

Figure 24:
36

Gas Turbines

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Contents
1 The Internal Combustion Engine (IC engines)

2 4 stroke engines
2.1 SI engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 CI engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
3
6

3 Operating parameters
3.1 geometrical properties . . . . . . . . .
3.2 brake torque and power . . . . . . . . .
3.3 indicated work and pressure per cycle .
3.4 Thermochemistry and engine efficiency
3.4.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Combustion Efficiency . . . . .
3.4.3 Maximum Work Output . . . .
3.5 Ideal engine cycles . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6 Novel Developments . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.1 HCCI engines . . . . . . . . . .
3.6.2 Gasoline Direct Injection . . . .
4 The
4.1
4.2
4.3

Gas turbine
The Joule cycle . . . . . . . .
Irreversible Joule cycles . . . .
Analysis of Real Gas Turbines
4.3.1 Example . . . . . . . .
4.4 Intercooling . . . . . . . . . .

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25
26
31

5 Appendix A
33
5.1 Review of Thermodynamics and Compressible Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6 Appendix B

CFK, Combustion, LT05

34

37

Gas Turbines