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3.1 Flatbed Scanner
3.2 Sheetfed Scanner
3.3 Handheld scanner
3.4 Drum Scanner
3.5 Photo Scanner
3.6 Film Scanner
3.7 Portable Scanners
4. Advantages OF sCANNER
5. Disadvantages OF sCANNER




Scanner :
This is a device that converts printed pictures, documents or photographs into digital codes
which can be processed by the computer to produce the exact replica of the scanned object. It
has a processor, a scan head and output. The scan head reads the images which are then
transferred to a computer. Using scanning software, it reads the images as thousands of
individual pixels or dots.

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The number of these dots per inch (DPI) defines the scanning capacity of the scanner and
indicates the ability of sharp and elaborated reading. The principle is to transform a limitless
number of analogue voltage levels into advanced digital values. Other specialized scanners
use optical character recognition (OCR), these have the ability to read text as printed or
Modern scanners typically use a charge-coupled device (CCD) or a contact image
sensor (CIS) as the image sensor, whereas drum scanners, developed earlier and still used for
the highest possible image quality, use a photomultiplier tube (PMT) as the image sensor.
Arotary scanner, used for high-speed document scanning, is a type of drum scanner that uses
a CCD array instead of a photomultiplier.
Non-contact planetary scanners essentially photograph delicate books and documents.
All these scanners produce two-dimensional images of subjects that are usually flat, but
sometimes solid; 3D scanners produce information on the three-dimensional structure of solid

Historical back ground

It was in the year 1957 that the first image scanner was developed under the
leadership of Russel Kirsch at the National Bureau of Standards in the United States. And the
first image scanned was that of Russel Kirschs son called Walden. This image had a
resolution of 176 pixels and had a size of 5 square cm. furthermore; the device borrowed its
principle of operation from telephotography.
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Telephotography was used by newspaper companies between the period 1920s-1990s

to transfer images from one place to other from where they were printed. These signals were
analog AM signals and transmitted over the telephone line.
Modern scanners are considered the successors of early telephotography and fax input
The pantelegraph was an early form of facsimile machine transmitting over normal
telegraph lines developed by Giovanni Caselli, used commercially in the 1860s, that was the
first such device to enter practical service. It used electromagnets to drive and synchronize
movement of pendulums at the source and the distant location, to scan and reproduce images.
It could transmit handwriting, signatures, or drawings within an area of up to 150 x 100mm.
douard Belin's Belinograph of 1913, scanned using a photocell and transmitted over
ordinary phone lines, formed the basis for the AT&T Wirephoto service. In Europe, services
similar to a wirephoto were called a Belino. It was used by news agencies from the 1920s to
the mid-1990s, and consisted of a rotating drum with a single photodetector at a standard
speed of 60 or 120 rpm (later models up to 240 rpm).
They send a linear analog AM signal through standard telephone voice lines to
receptors, which synchronously print the proportional intensity on special paper. Color photos
were sent as three separated RGB filtered images consecutively, but only for special events
due to transmission costs.


Flatbed Scanner :

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A flatbed scanner is made up of a glass pane and a moving optical CIS or CCD array. The
pane is illuminated with the help of bright light planted underneath it. The imagethe one
that is to be scannedis then placed on the glass pane. The sensor and source of light move
across the glass pane to scan the document and produce its digital copy. If you want to scan
transparent slides on your flatbed scanner, you will require a transparency adapter. Flatbed
scanners derive their name from the fact that their glass plane or bed, where the object to be
scanned is placed, is flat.

Sheetfed Scanner :
As its name suggests, in this type of scanner, the document is fed into the horizontal or
vertical slot provided in it. The prominent components of a sheetfed scanner include the
sheet-feeder, scanning module, and calibration sheet. While the sensor and source of light
move across the glass pane in flatbed scanners, in sheetfed scanners, they are stationary.
Instead, the document moves through the scanner. Ideal for scanning single page documents,
these scanners cannot scan thick objects, like books, and that, perhaps, is their major

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Handheld scanner :
A handheld scanner is a small manual scanning device which is moved over the object
that needs to be scanned. In flatback and sheetfed scanners, you put the document that is to be
scanned inside the device. In contrast, in the case of heldheld scanner, you have to drag it
over the document that is to be scanned.
Using a handheld scanner can be a cumbersome task as the hand needs to be steady all
the time. Even a slight movement of hand can lead to distortion of the image. One of the
most-utilized handheld scanner is the barcode scanner, typically used in shopping stores to
valuate goods.

Drum Scanner:
A drum scanner is the one which uses a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to scan images
instead of the charge-coupled device that is typically used in a flatbed scanner.
Photomultiplier tubes are vacuum tubes which are extremely sensitive to light. In drum
scanners, the image is mounted on the glass tube.

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When the beam of light moves across the image, its reflection is picked up by the
PMT and processed. Drum scanners are known for their high resolution, which makes them
apt for detailed scans. If they are not as popular as flatbed scanners, it is because of their cost
and large size.

Photo Scanner :
As the name itself suggests, a photo scanner is mostly used to scan photographs. It
boasts of high resolution and color depth, both of which are necessary for scanning
photographs. If you want to buy a scanner to digitize film negatives and slides, then the photo
scanner is your best bet.
While flatbed scanners can also scan your photographs for you, they are not as fast as
dedicated photo scanners. It's also worth noting that the in-built software in some photo
scanners helps in cleaning and restoring old photographs.

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Film Scanner :
A film scanner is utilized to scan photographic films directly into a computer. The
photographer has direct control over certain aspects, such as cropping, ratio of original image
on the film, etc.
Some film scanners available today have specialized software through which it is
possible to minimize scratches and improve color quality.
Low-end film scanners most often accept 35 mm film strips, while high-end
scannersarmed with interchangeable film loaderscan accept 35 mm or 120 mm strips and
even individual slides.

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Portable Scanners :
Being small in size, portable scanners can be easily carried around. Some of these are
as small as your PDAs, hence, can be carried in the pockets. They are of great help when it
comes to text document scanning. Their drawback though, is their limitation in terms of
resolution. They cannot be used for scanning photographs or for applications which require


With the advent of a whole lot of apps that turn your smartphone into a pocket-sized
scanner, now you don't even need to desktop to get your work done. You can use these apps
to scan documents and covert them into PDFs, scan pictures and edit them, and even to scan
bar codes.
However, if crisp, detailed images are what you seek, we would recommend you to go
for a flatbed or drum scanner. Otherwise, these productivity apps will be more than sufficient.

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The Advantages of Scanners :

There are many advantages to using scanners, whether you are looking for added
efficiency around the office or added functionality around the home. Today's multifunction
printers commonly come equipped with capable scanners that allow you to make use of these
devices without having to buy anything separately and without needing to take up more
space, making them more useful and valuable than ever before.


Scanners today provide high quality in terms of resolution for both color and black
and white documents. They also provide enough detail and resolution to handle images,
photographs, graphics and designs. This sets them apart from a fax machine, which will
typically struggle to reproduce color graphics and pictures. Resolution for scanners is listed in
dpi, or dots per inch.

Scanners don't depend on the use of a phone line like a fax does. Additionally, there is
no other end that needs to receive your scanned document in order to complete a successful
transfer. With a fax, you're dependent upon your own successful transmission through a
phone connection and the recipient's successful reception of that fax through their own phone
line. Without needing either of these, a scanner is much more reliable and dependable. The
only thing you need to have working is the machine itself, and then you can store the file to
view or use later, send it to a recipient via email or share it over a network.

Using a scanner can also be environmentally friendly. Scanners create digital copies
of documents, photos and files on your computer that you can email to other people or store
and view on your own. Fax machines require hard copies and then reproduce more hard
copies on more paper when they are received.

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Additionally, creating hard copies with a copy machine wastes both paper and energy..
Scanners reduce the amount of paper that is used and therefore are an environmentally
friendly way to conduct business.

Scanners are very easy to use and the ones that are built into multifunction printers today can
be used essentially without instruction or worry. Most settings are automatically adjusted and
fine-tuned, leaving a user to only select basic options such as photograph or document, or
color versus black and white.
Once scanning is completed, the files can be sent straight to a computer or straight to an
email account. Additionally, scanned files can be saved in a variety of formats, including
images and PDF documents.

The Disadvantages of Scanners

A desktop scanner can be a valuable tool for home and office use, and both desktop
and high-volume scanners can be excellent tools for business use as well. Even so, scanners
have their disadvantages as well, and it is important for both home users and business owners
to look at all of the available options before implementing a costly scanning solution.


The quality of the scanned output can vary quite a bit, depending on a number of
factors. Some of these factors include the quality of the lens inside the scanner, how clean the
scanner glass is and the condition of the original documents.
If the original documents are available in electronic format, it is often better to use a
program such Adobe Acrobat to convert them to a PDF format that anyone with Internet
access can read.

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Many companies uses high-volume scanners to deal with large quantities of
paperwork. While these high-volume scanners can be good tools, many business owners do
not realize how costly supplies and scheduled maintenance can be.
To keep a high volume scanner running at peak performance, owners will need to
replace the lamps regularly and perform maintenance on the camera and lens as well. This
maintenance can be quite costly, so it is important for business owners to weigh these costs
against the price of other document imaging solutions.


Scanners are also relatively slow, so companies and individuals users will need to consider
the time involved in scanning all of their paperwork. Automatic feeders can help to speed
production, but it can still take a great deal of time to scan a stack of documents.
In addition, scanner operators will need to carefully check the scanned documents to make
sure that all pages have been imaged. It is not unusual for pages to stick together when going
through the automatic document feeder, so operators will need to be trained to watch for
these problems.

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TeCH Store

I visited the Textstore showroom near Harsha complex, Hubli and gathered enough
information based on my survey, that is:
Study and prepare a comparative report about the make, model, configuration, etc, of
different types of computer systems/laptops etc.

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