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Mahdi Mokhberi

Islamic Azad University

Hemsley (2000)

Coduto (2001)

Non-rigid Methods

Nonrigid methods consider the deformation of

the mat and their influence of bearing pressure

distribution.

These methods produce more accurate values of

mat deformations and stresses

These methods are more difficult to implement

than rigid methods, because of soil-structure

interaction

Non-rigid Methods

Winkler Methods

Coupled Method

Pseudo-Coupled Method

Multiple-Parameter Method

both the soil and the foundation have deformation

characteristics.

These

or non-linear (especially in the case of the soils)

quantifier in the coefficient of subgrade reaction,

or subgrade modulus, which is similar to the

modulus of elasticity for unidirectional

deformation

Non-rigid Methods

the mat and their influence of bearing pressure

distribution.

These methods produce more accurate values of

mat deformations and stresses

These methods are more difficult to implement

than rigid methods because of soil-structure

interaction

p

k

1

k

Nonlinear

Dependent on size of plate

Typicalk values based ona plate size of 300mm

Reduction needed fora largely loaded area

Soil

ks

lb/in3

kN/m3

Loose

6.5- 8.0

1800- 2200

Medium

20- 25

5500- 7000

Dense

55- 65

15,000- 18,000

Loose

3.5- 5.0

1000- 1400

Medium

12- 18

3500- 4500

Dense

32- 45

9000- 12,000

Submerged sand

Plate load test for coefficient of subgrade

reaction

larger mats

Coefficient of

Subgrade

Reaction

settlement produce more compression in the

springs

Sum of these springs must equal the applied

structural loads plus the weight of the mat

Winkler Methods

The earliest use of these "springs" to represent

the interaction between soil and foundation was

done by Winkler in 1867; the model is thus

referred to as the Winkler method

The one-dimensional representation of this is a

"beam on elastic foundation," thus sometimes it

is called the "beam on elastic foundation" method

Mat foundations representa two-dimensional

application of the Winkler method

By combining results (1) and (2), we obtain the

equilibrium equation of a beam element on an

elastic foundation:

Q= - q+ r

(1)

Q= M

(2)

M = q + r

elastic beams. The most essential other equations are

then the relationship between rotation and deflection:

= v

(4)

the relationship between curvature and deflection:

= v

(5 )

the relationship between bending moment and

curvature:

M = EI

(6)

and the relationship between shear force and bending

moment

Q = M

(7)

deflection follows from expressions (5) and (6).

(11)

By inserting this relationship and the relationship (8) between the

deflection and the foundation pressure into equilibrium equation

we get

(12)

This is the differential equation of the beam on elastic foundation. In the case of

a uniform (EI = constant) beam, it gets the form

(13)

This can be expressed as

(14)

Where

(15)

Beam on Springs

P

Deflection,

Moment,M

Shear force,T

haviour

Non-Linear Characteristics of

Soil Deformation

must make a linear approximation to use the

Winkler model

mat underlain by a perfectly uniform soil will

uniformly settle into the soil.

mat-soil interaction will

deflect in the centre more than the edges

Schmertmann's) to determine settlement

Soil springs do not act independently. Bearing

pressure on one part of the mat influences both

the "spring" under it and those surrounding it

(due to leteral earth pressure)

No single value of ks truly represents the

interaction between the soil and the mat

The independent spring problem is in reality the

largest problem with the Winkler model

Coupled Method

additional springs as shown below, is more

accurate then the Winkler method

The problem with the coupled method comes in

selecting the values

of k for the coupling springs

s

Pseudo-Coupled Method

An attempt to overcome both the lack of coupling

in the Winkler method and the difficulties of the

coupling springs

Does so by using sprinns that act independently

(like Winkler springs), but have different

k

s

values depending upon their location on the mat

Most commertial mat design software uses the

Winkler method; thus, pseudo-coupled methods

can be used with these packages for more

conservative and accurate results

Pseudo-Coupled Method

Implementation

Divide the mat into two or more concentric zones

long as the mat

Assign a kvalue

to each zone

s

the centre

innermost zone

the Winklermethod

Adjust mat thickness and reinforcement to satisfy

strength and serviceability requirements

Pseudo-Coupled Method

Multiple-Parameter Method

This method replaces the independently-acting

linear springs of the Winkler method with sprinns

and other mechanical elements

The additionalelements define the coupling effects

Method bypasses the guesswork involved in

distributing the k values in the pseudo-coupled

s

method; should be more accurate

Method has not been implemented into software

packages and thus is not routinely used on design

projects

Models the entire soil-mat systemin a threedimensional

way

In theory, should be the most accurate methode

Methed is not yet practical because

Difficult to determine soil properties in such a way as

to justify the ptecision of the analysis, espetially when

soil parameters are highly variable

addressed

Finite element method is used for structural

analysis

Mat is modelled in a similar way to other plate

structures with springs connected at the nodes of

the elements

Mat is loaded with column loads, apllied line

loads, applied area loads, and mat weight

Usually superstructure stiffness is not considered

(conservative)

Subgrade Reaction

Not a straightforward process due to:

wide mat

Subgrade Reaction

Not a

straightforward

process due to:

Shape of the

Loaded area:

stresses beneath

long, narrow

loaded area is

different from

those below

square loaded

areas

Subgrade Reaction

Not a

Straight forward

process due to:

Depth of the

loaded area

below the

ground surface

Change in stress

in the soil due to

q in a smaller

percentage of the

initial stress at

greater depths

Subgrade Reaction

Not a straightforward process due to:

s

edges ofthe mat and smaller near

the centre

Time

soils) mat seetlement in a process which mat take several

years

Non-linear nature of soil deformation makes unique

value of k

non-existent

s

Subgrade Reaction

loading plate and the actual shape of the foundation

the size of the plate vs.

the side of the foundation, and the influence of size on the

depth of soil stress

successful to dane

possibilities

Subgrade Reaction

Methods used to determine coeffitient

Use settlement techniques such as Terzaghies

consolidation theory, Schmertmann's method, etc., and

express the results in a k

value

s

If using a pseudo-coupled value, use valees of k in the centre

s

of the mat which are half those along the perimeter

This methodology has the potential of eliminating the

problems described earlier while at the same time yielding

values of k which then can be used in astructural analysis of

s

the mat with some degree of confidence

Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction

Given

long mat foundation

Average settlement determined = 30 mm

settlement analysis method

using

Find

Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction

Solution

Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction

Solution

Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction

Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction

Solution

Structural design requires two analyses

Strength

design methods

safety resist these loads

required

Servicability

places of concentrated loads, such as columns, soil nonuniformities, mat non-uniformities, etc.

closed form solutions

Have fallen out of favour

Finite element methods

used in finite element analysis

the

foundation to

sag in the centre, which is what we

actually see in foundations

Total settlement

compute total settlement; this should be done using

othermethods

Bearing

capacity

capacity probleme

With undrained silts and clays, bearing capacity needs

to be watched

Methods for spread footings can be used

with mat

foundations, including presumptive

bearing capacities

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