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ETAP

PowerStation 4.0

User Guide
Copyright 2001
Operation Technology, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
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Chapter 17
Transient Stability Analysis
The PowerStation Transient Stability Analysis program is designed to investigate the stability limits of a
power system before, during, and after system changes or disturbances. The program models dynamic
characteristics of a power system, implements the user-defined events and actions, solves the system
network equation and machine differential equations interactively to find out system and machine
responses in time domain. From these responses, users can determine the system transient behavior,
make stability assessment, find protective device settings, and apply the necessary remedy or
enhancement to improve the system stability.
This chapter describes different tools to assist you in running transient stability studies. An overview on
the basics of transient stability study is also provided.
This chapter is organized into 8 sections. The Transient Stability Toolbar section explains how you can
launch a transient stability calculation, open and view an output report, select display options, and view
plots. The Study Case Editor section explains how to create a new study case, to define parameters for a
study case, to create a sequence of switching events and disturbances, to globally define machine
dynamical modeling method, to select plot/tabulation devices, etc. The Display Options section explains
what options are available for displaying some key system parameters and the output results on the oneline diagram, and how to set them. The Calculation Methods section provides some theoretical
backgrounds and quick reference for the fundamentals on transient stability study, which are very helpful
for users who do not have extensive experience on running transient stability studies. The Required Data
section is a very good reference for you to check if you have prepared all necessary data for transient
stability calculations. These data range from the system side, such as bus and branch information, to the
machine side, such as machine model and parameters, exciter model and parameters, and governor model
and parameters. The Output Reports section explains and demonstrates the format and organization of the
transient stability text reports. The One-Line Diagram Displayed Results section explains the available
one-line displaying results and provides one example. The Plots section explains what plots for transient
stability are available and how to select and view them.

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Toolbar

17.1 Transient Stability Toolbar


The Transient Stability Toolbar will appear on the screen when you are in the Transient Stability Study
mode.

Run Transient Stability


Display Options
Report Manager
Transient Stability Plots
Halt Current Calculation
Get On-Line Data
Get Archived Data

Run Transient Stability


Select a study case from the Study Case Toolbar. Then click on the Run Transient Stability button to
perform a transient stability study. A dialog box will appear to ask you to specify the output report name
if the output file name is set to Prompt. When the calculation completes, the transient stability study
results will appear on the one-line diagram and are stored in the output report, as well as in the plot file.

Display Options
Click the Display Options button to customize the one-line diagram annotation options under the
transient stability study mode. Also to edit the one-line diagram display for transient stability calculation
results. See Display Options for more information.

Report Manager
Click on Report Manager button to select a format and view transient stability output report. Transient
stability analysis reports are current provided in ASCII formats only, which can be accessed from the
Report Manager.

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Toolbar

You can also select output files from the Output Report list box.
This list contains all the output files in the current project folder with the same file extension specified.
To change output file extensions, you can click on the List Output Reports button next to the Output
Report list box, which will allow you to select a different output file extension.

The output reports for transient stability studies have a .tsr extension.
PowerStation text output reports can be viewed by any word processor such as Notepad, WordPad, and
Microsoft Word. Currently, by default, the output reports are viewed by Notepad. You can change the
default viewer in the ETAPS.INI file to the viewer of your preference. Refer to Chapter 1, Product
Description, or Chapter 7, Printing & Plotting for more details.

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Toolbar

The output reports are 132 characters wide with 66 lines per page. For the correct formatting and
pagination of output reports, you MUST modify the default settings of your word processor application.
For Notepad, WordPad, and Microsoft Word applications we have recommend settings that are explained
in Chapter 7, Printing & Plotting.

Transient Stability Plots


Click on the Transient Stability Plots button to select and plot the curves of the last plot file. The plot
file name is displayed on the Study Case Toolbar. The transient stability plot files have the following
extension: .tsp. For more information see Plots section.

Halt Current Calculation


The Stop Sign button is normally disabled. When a transient stability calculation has been initiated, this
button becomes enabled and shows a red stop sign. Clicking on this button will terminate the current
calculation. One-line diagram display will not be available if you terminate the calculation before it
completes; but the text output report and plots do store the calculation results up to the time instant when
you terminate the calculation.

Get On-Line Data


If the ETAP key installed on your computer has the on-line feature, you can copy the on-line data from
the on-line presentation to the current presentation.

Get Archived Data


If the ETAP key installed on your computer has the on-line feature, you can copy the archived data to the
current presentation.

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Study Case Editor

17.2 Study Case Editor


The Transient Stability Study Case Editor contains solution control variables, loading conditions, event
and action specifications, machine modeling selections and a variety of options for output reports and
plots. PowerStation allows you to create and save an unlimited number of study cases. Transient stability
calculations are conducted and reported in accordance to the settings of the study case selected in the
Study Case Toolbar. You can easily switch between study cases without the trouble of resetting the study
case options each time. This feature is designed to organize your study efforts and save you time.
As a part of the multi-dimensional database concept of PowerStation, study cases can be used for any
combination of the three major system toolbar components, i.e. for any configuration status, one-line
diagram presentation, and Base/Revision Data.
When you are in the Transient Stability Analysis mode, you can access the Transient Stability Study Case
Editor by clicking on the Study Case button on the Transient Stability Toolbar. You can also access this
editor from the Project View by clicking on the Transient Stability subfolder under the Study Cases
folder.

To create a new study case, go to the Project View, right-click on the Transient Stability Study Case
folder, and select Create New. The program will then create a new study case, which is a copy of the
default study case, and adds it to the Transient Stability Study Case folder.

The Transient Stability Study Case Editor consists of four pages: Info Page, Events Page, Dyn Model
Page, and Plot Page.
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Study Case Editor

17.2.1 Info Page


This page is provided for you to specify some general solution parameters and study case information.

Study Case ID
Study case ID is shown in this entry field. You can rename a study case by simply deleting the old ID
and entering a new ID. Study case ID can be up to 12 alphanumeric characters. Use the Navigator button
at the bottom of the editor to go from one study case to another.

Initial Load Flow


In this section you can specify the solution parameters for initial load flow calculation in transient
stability analysis.

Max Iteration
Enter the maximum number of iterations. If the solution has not converged at the specified number of
iterations, the program will stop and inform the user. The recommended and default value is 2000.

Solution Precision
Enter the value for the solution precision that is used to check for convergence. This value determines
how precise you want the final solution to be. The default (and recommended) value is 0.000001.

Accel. Factor
Enter the convergence acceleration factor to be used between iterations. Typical values are between 1.2
and 1.7. The default value is 1.45.
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Study Case Editor

Solution Parameters
Simulation Time Step
This is the integration time step in seconds in transient stability simulation. You should set this number
smaller than the smallest time constant in the system so you can see all the exciter and governor
responses. Note that the smaller this number is, the more calculations are required, so the calculation time
increases. The recommended value is 0.001 seconds. If you feel you need higher resolution, decrease
this number. However, if the integration time step is too small, accumulated round up errors may
increase.

Plot Time Step


This value determines how often PowerStation should record the results of the simulation for plotting.
For instance, if you specify 20 steps, PowerStation will plot points at every 20 simulation time step, i.e.,
for a simulation time step of 0.001, the plot time step will be .02 seconds. The smaller this number is, the
smoother your plots will look, but also remember that the plot files on your hard disk may grow quite
large. Keep in mind that PowerStation records plot information at this interval throughout the simulation.
For example, if you specified a simulation time step of 0.001 seconds, plot time step of 10, and a total
time of 20 seconds, PowerStation will write 20 / (0.001*10)= 2000 points to disk, which may be a very
large plot file, depending on the number of machines and buses being plotted.

Apply XFMR Phase-Shift


Select this option to include transformer phase-shift specified in the transformer editors in both transient
stability initial load flow calculation and time simulation calculation. Otherwise transformer phase-shift
will be ignored (i.e., 0 degree phase-shift regardless of the transformer winding connections).

Initial Loading
In the Initial Loading block of the Transient Stability Study Case Editor, you can specify the system
initial operating loads by selecting a loading. The initial loading conditions will establish an initial
normal operation condition for the transient stability studies.

Loading Category
Select one of the ten loading categories for this study case. With the selection of any category,
PowerStation uses the percent loading of individual motors and other loads as specified for the selected
category. Note that you can assign loading to each one of the ten categories in the Nameplate page,
Loading page, or Rating page for most load components. Harmonic Filter loading is calculated from its
parameters.

Operating Load
Check this option to operate P and Q as specified in the relevant component editors.

Charger Loading
Load Category
Select this option to use the P and Q specified in the Loading Category section of the Charger Editor for
chargers.

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Study Case Editor

Operating Load
Select this option to use the P and Q as specified in the Operating Load section of the Charger Editor. If
this option is selected, a DC load flow calculation is required to run first in order to estimate the charger
load.

Load Diversity Factor


Apply appropriate load diversity factor(s) for transient stability initial load flow calculation. The choices
are:

None
Select None to use the percent loading of each load as entered for the selected Loading Category, i.e., no
diversity factor is considered.

Bus Maximum
When the Bus Maximum option is selected, the loading of all motors and other loads will be multiplied
by the maximum diversity factor of the bus, which they are directly connected to. Using this option, you
can define the initial loading for transient stability studies with each bus having a different maximum
diversity factor.
This study option is helpful when the future loading of the electrical system has to be considered and each
bus may have a different maximum diversity factor.

Bus Minimum
When the Bus Minimum option is selected, the loading of all motors and other loads will be multiplied by
the bus minimum diversity factor of the bus that they are directly connected to. Using this option, you
can define the initial loading for transient stability studies with each bus having a different minimum
diversity factor.
This study option may be used to see the effect of transformer taps and capacitors (if any) on the system
voltages under a minimum (light) loading condition.

Global
When this option is selected, PowerStation will ask you to enter global diversity factors for constant kVA
and constant Z loads, respectively. When you select this option, PowerStation will globally multiply all
constant kVA and constant Z loads of the selected loading category with the entered values. When using
this option, you can define the initial loading for transient stability analysis studies with fixed diversity
factors for all loads.
Note that a constant kVA load diversity factor of 125% implies that the constant kVA loads of all buses
are increased 25% above their values as specified by the selected loading category. This value can be
smaller or greater than 100%.

Remarks 2nd Line


You can enter up to 120 alphanumeric characters in the Remarks box. Information entered in this
location will be printed on the second line of the header information in every page of the output report.
These remarks can provide specific information and conditions for each study case. Note that the first
line of the header information is global for all study cases and is entered in the Project Information Editor.

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Study Case Editor

17.2.2 Events Page


This page is provided for you to design and store transient stability study scenarios and events.

Events
In this list, all events are displayed in their time order to give you a clear picture of the event sequence in
this study. The active events are marked by '*' and are listed first, followed by those which are inactive.

Event ID
The Event ID is a unique name with a maximum length of 12 alphanumeric characters.

Time
This is the time when the associated event occurs. The unit is in second.

Add (Event)
A new event can be added by clicking on the Add (Event) button and opening the Event Editor.

Active
Select this option to make an event active. Clicking on the box again will make the event inactive. Only
active events will be included in the study.

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Study Case Editor

Edit (Event)
Click on the Edit (Event) button to open the Event Editor and edit an existing event. You can also
double-click on an event in the Event list to activate the Event Editor.

Delete (Event)
Delete an existing event from the list.

Actions
Each event can encapsulate a number of actions (system changes or disturbances). When you select an
event by highlighting that event in the Event list, the actions associated with that event will be displayed
in the Action list. Each action is composed of the information of the Device Type, the Device ID, and an
Action. Note that the event ID is displayed on top of the Action list for your reference.

Device Type
The type of device that is going to take an action.

Device ID
The ID of the device that is going to take an action.

Action
The action to be taken by the specified device and the device type. The following is a table showing
device types and their associated actions:
Device Type
Bus
Cable
Line
Impedance
Circuit Breaker
SPST Switch
Fuse
Generator
Utility
Syn. Motor
Ind. Motor
MOV
None

Actions
Fault / Clear Fault
Fault at /Fault at / Fault at / Clear Fault
Fault at /Fault at / Fault at / Clear Fault
Fault at /Fault at / Fault at / Clear Fault
Open / Close
Open / Close
Open / Close
Ref. Machine / Delete / Droop / Isoch / Start / Loss Excitation
Ref. Machine / Delete
Delete
Accelerate / Delete
Start
Load Flow (no action, print load flow at the event time)

Add (Action)
A new action can be added by clicking on the Add (Action) button and opening the Action Editor. Select
a device type from the Device Type drop-down list. Select the device ID from the Device ID drop-down
list. Select an action from the Action drop-down list.

Edit (Action)
Click on the Edit (Action) button to edit an existing action. You can also double-click on a listed action
to bring up the Action Editor.

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Study Case Editor

Delete (Action)
Delete an existing action.

Total Simulation Time


The total simulation time for a transient stability study. The unit is in seconds.

17.2.3 Dyn Model Page


This page is provided to globally specify if you want to dynamically model synchronous and induction
motors in the system. Motors are subdivided into medium voltage (above 1.0 kV) and low voltage (less
than or equal to 1.0kV) synchronous motor and induction machine groups.

A machine will be dynamically modeled if you have specified a dynamic model in its editor and you
select to globally model that motor group from this page.
Note that all synchronous generators are dynamically modeled.

Machine Type
Syn. Motors, MV
The machine group consisting of all synchronous motors, which are medium voltage (rated above 1.0
kV).
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Study Case Editor

Syn. Motors, LV
The machine group consisting of all synchronous motors that are low voltage (rated less than or equal to
1.0 kV).

Ind. Machines, MV
The machine group consisting of all induction machines that are medium voltage (above 1.0 kV).

Ind. Machines, LV
The machine group consisting of all induction machines that are low voltage (rated less than or equal to
1.0 kV).

Dynamic Modeling
Do Not Model
If selected, the corresponding machine group will not be dynamically modeled in the transient stability
study for this study case, regardless of dynamic models specified for individual machines.

Model Machines Larger or Equal To


If selected, machines that are in the corresponding machine group and rated larger than the size specified
in the HP/kW field will be dynamically modeled, and machines in the same group that are rated less than
the size specified will not be dynamically modeled.
Note that for the machine to be dynamically modeled, it should also have a dynamic model specified for it
from its editor.

HP/kW
Specify the size of machines (in HP or kW) for the selected machine group to be dynamically modeled.

Starting Load for Accelerating Motors


Specify the base for load torque vs. slip models used for accelerating motors.

Based on Motor Electrical Rating


Load torque vs. slip curve is defined based on the motor electrical rating, i.e., the load torque vs. slip
curve will be scaled to reach 100% at the synchronous speed, corresponding to 100% of the motor
electrical rating.

Based on Motor Mechanical Load


Load torque vs. slip curve is defined based on the motor mechanical load, i.e., the load torque vs. slip
curve will not be scaled.

Generator Start-Up
Specify special frequency dependent models for generator start-up studies here.

Frequency Dependent Models for Network, Motors, & Generators


The network, motors, and generators will be modeled as frequency dependent. This option has to be
checked in order to perform the generator start-up study.

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Study Case Editor

17.2.4 Plot Page


This page is provided for you to select devices to be plotted for viewing transient stability study results.

Device Type
Select a device type.

Syn. Generators
The machine group consisting of all synchronous generators.

Syn. Motors, MV
The machine group consisting of all dynamically modeled synchronous motors, which are rated above 1.0
kV.

Syn. Motors, LV
The machine group consisting of all dynamically modeled synchronous motors which are rated equal to
or less than 1.0 kV.

Ind. Machines, MV
The machine group consisting of all dynamically modeled induction machines, which are rated above 1.0
kV.

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Ind. Machines, LV
The machine group consisting of all dynamically modeled induction machines which are rated equal to or
less than 1.0 kV.

Buses
The device group consisting of all buses.

MOVs
The device group consisting of all MOVs with initially open or closed status.

Branches
The device group, consisting of all different types of branches, with the exception of tie circuit breakers
(protective devices).

Plot Options
Once a machine or device group is selected, all devices in that group will be displayed in the Plot Options
list for you to select.

Device ID
Device IDs for the selected machine or device group, excluding the non-dynamically modeled machines.

Plot/Tabulation (column)
You can click on this column to select or deselect the plot/tabulation option for a particular device. Once
this option is set, an X will show in this column next to the selected device. By selecting this option,
information for the selected device will be tabulated at the end of the transient stability output report and
stored in the plot file to be plotted.

Plot/Tabulation (check box)


This provides another way to set the plot/tabulation option for the highlight device.

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Display Options

17.3 Display Options


The Transient Stability Analysis Display Options consist of a Results page and three pages for AC, ACDC, and DC info annotations. Note that the colors and displayed annotations selected for each study are
specific to that study.

17.3.1 Results Page


The Results page allows you to define options for one-line diagram calculation results display. These
results can be displayed for each plot time step as selected from the Time Slider. The results include bus
voltage and frequency, synchronous machine power angle and frequency, induction motor speed, and
power flow to machines. The bus and machine data that are displayed on the one-line diagram are the
same data, which are stored in the plot file, i.e., to show a bus voltage and frequency on the one-line
diagram, you need to request a plot for that bus.

Color
Select the color for result annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.

Show Units
Select the check boxes under this heading to show units for the displayed results.

Bus
Display the calculated voltage and frequency of buses selected for plotting.

Voltage
Bus voltage in kV or in percent of the bus nominal kV.

Frequency
Bus frequency in hertz or in percent of system frequency.

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Display Options

Syn. Machines
Display the calculated power angle and frequency of synchronous generators and motors, which are
selected for plotting from the Study Case.

Power Angle
Machine power (rotor) angle in degrees or radians.

Frequency
Machine frequency in hertz or in percent of system frequency.

Ind. Machines
Speed
Display speed of induction machines (RPM or % Slip), which are selected for plotting from the Study
Case. % Slip = (s - m ) / s

Machine Flows
Specify how the flows will be displayed in (kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar), or (kVA or MVA), or Amp.

Transient Stability Study Results Displayed on the One-Line Diagram at Time 1.38 Seconds

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Display Options

17.3.2 AC Page
This page includes options for displaying info annotations for AC elements.

Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.

ID
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ID of the AC elements on the one-line diagram.

Rating
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ratings of the AC elements on the one-line
diagram.
Device Type
Gen. (Generator)
Power Grid (Utility)
Motor
Load
Panel
Transformer
Branch, Impedance
Branch, Reactor
Cable / Line
Bus
Node
CB
Fuse
Relay
PT & CT

Rating
kW / MW
MVAsc
HP / kW
kVA / MVA
Connection Type (# of Phases - # of Wires)
kVA / MVA
Base MVA
Continuous Amps
# of Cables - # of Conductor / Cable - Size
kA Bracing
Bus Bracing (kA)
Rated Interrupting (kA)
Interrupting (ka)
50/51 for Overcurrent Relays
Transformer Rated Turn Ratio

kV
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram.
For cables/lines, the kV check box is replaced by the
cable/line conductor type on the one-line diagram.

button. Click on this button to display the

A
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings (continuous or full-load ampere)
of the selected elements on the one-line diagram.
For cables/lines, the Amp check box is replaced by the
cable/line length on the one-line diagram.

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button. Click on this button to display the

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Display Options

Z
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the rated impedance of the selected AC elements on
the one-line diagram.
Device Type
Generator
Power Grid (Utility)
Motor
Transformer
Branch, Impedance
Branch, Reactor
Cable / Line

Impedance
Subtransient reactance Xd
Positive Sequence Impedance in % of 100 MVA (R + j X)
% LRC
Positive Sequence Impedance (R + j X per unit length)
Impedance in ohms or %
Impedance in ohms
Positive Sequence Impedance (R + j X in ohms or per unit length)

D-Y
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the connection types of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram. For transformers, the operating tap setting for primary, secondary, and tertiary
windings are also displayed. The operating tap setting consists of the fixed taps plus the tap position of
the LTC.

Composite Motor
Click on this check box to display the AC composite motor IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.

Use Default Options


Click on this check box to use PowerStations default display options.

17.3.3 AC-DC Page


This page includes options for displaying info annotations for AC-DC elements and composite networks.

Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.

ID
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the IDs of the selected AC-DC elements on the oneline diagram.

Rating
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ratings of the selected AC-DC elements on the
one-line diagram.
Device Type
Charger
Inverter
UPS
VFD

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Rating
AC kVA & DC kW (or MVA / MW)
DC kW & AC kVA (or MW / MVA)
kVA
HP / kW

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Display Options

kV
Click on the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram.

A
Click on the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram.
Device Type
Charger
Inverter
UPS

Amp
AC FLA & DC FLA
DC FLA & AC FLA
Input, output, & DC FLA

Composite Network
Click on this check box to display the composite network IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.

Use Default Options


Click on this check box to use PowerStations default display options.

17.3.4 DC Page
This page includes options for displaying info annotations for DC elements.

Color
Select the color for information annotations to be displayed on the one-line diagram.

ID
Select the check boxes to display the IDs of the selected DC elements on the one-line diagram.

Rating
Select the check boxes to display the ratings of the selected DC elements on the one-line diagram.
Device Type
Battery
Motor
Load
Elementary Diagram
Converter
Cable

Rating
Ampere Hour
HP / kW
kW / MW
kW / MW
kW / MW
# of Cables - # of Conductor / Cable - Size

kV
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the rated or nominal voltages of the selected
elements on the one-line diagram. For cables, the kV check box is replaced by the
button. Click on
this button to display the conductor type on the one-line diagram.

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Display Options

A
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the ampere ratings of the selected elements on the
one-line diagram. For cables, the Amp check box is replaced by the
button. Click on this button to
display the cable length (one way) on the one-line diagram.

Z
Select the check boxes under this heading to display the impedance values of the cables and impedance
branches on the one-line diagram.

Composite Motor
Click on this check box to display the DC composite motor IDs on the one-line diagram, then select the
color in which the IDs will be displayed.

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Calculation Methods

17.4 Calculation Methods


Performing the power system transient stability study is a very comprehensive task. It requires
knowledge of machine dynamic models, machine control unit models (such as excitation system and
automatic voltage regulators, governor and turbine/engine systems, and power system stabilizers),
numerical computations, and power system electromechanical equilibrium phenomena. The full
discussion on this topic is far beyond the scope of this manual. In this section, we will brief you with
some fundamentals and underlying principles on the power system transient stability study, with the focus
on applications with PowerStation.

Purpose for Performing Transient Stability Study


Dynamic performance of a power system is significant in the design and operation of the system. The
transient stability study determines the machine power angles and speed deviations, system electrical
frequency, real and reactive power flows of the machines, power flows of lines and transformers, as well
as the voltage levels of the buses in the system. These system conditions provide indications for system
stability assessments. The results are displayed on the one-line diagram, and also can be printed or
plotted. For transient stability studies, you should model particular groups of machines in the system that
are known to have important influences on the system operation. The total simulation time for each study
case should be sufficiently long to obtain a definite stability conclusion.

Power System Stability Definition


Power system stability is the property of a power system that insures the system remains in
electromechanical equilibrium throughout any normal and abnormal operating conditions.
Because the power system stability is an electromechanical phenomenon, it is thus defined as the ability
of designated synchronous machines in the system to remain in synchronism with one another following
disturbances such as fault and fault removal at various locations in the system. It also indicates the ability
of induction motors in the system to maintain torque to carry load following these disturbances.

Synchronous Machine Rotor Angles


Synchronous machines play a decisive role in the power system stability because during and after
disturbances their rotor angles will oscillate to cause power flow oscillations in the system. Depending on
the level of these oscillations, the electromechanical equilibrium in the system could be destroyed and the
instability could occur. Therefore, power system stability is sometimes also referred to as synchronous
machine rotor angle stability.
The following two equations are often referenced in power system transient stability studies:
Torque Equation (Generator Case)

T=
where
T =
P =
air =
Fr =
=

P 2
8

F sin
air r

mechanical shaft torque


number of poles
air-gap flux
rotor field MMF
power (rotor) angle

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-21

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Calculation Methods

The torque equation defines the relationship between the mechanical shaft torque, the stator voltage, the
excitation system, and the rotor angle. Changes in any one of them will cause the rotor angle to readjust
itself to a new position.
Swing Equation (Generator Case)

M
where
M
D
Pmech
Pelec

=
=
=
=

d 2
dt 2

+D

d
dt

=P
P
mech
elec

inertia constant
damping constant
input mechanical power
output electrical power

The swing equation shows that the solution of the rotor angle is a function of balance between the
mechanical power and the electrical power. Any change in the system that breaks this balance will cause
the rotor angle to undergo a transient and reach a new position in an oscillatory manner. This oscillation
is usually called the rotor angle swing.

Stability Limits
There are two types of stability limit for a power system, namely steady-state stability limit and transient
stability limit.

Steady-State Stability Limit


The steady-state stability is defined as the stability of a system under conditions of gradual or small
changes in the system. This stability can be either found by the load flow calculation for a steady-state
operation, or determined by a transient stability study if there are system changes or disturbances
involved. The system is said to be steady-state stable if, following any small and/or gradual disturbances,
all synchronous machines reach their steady-state operating condition identical or close to the predisturbance operating conditions. The steady-state stability limit for any synchronous machine is when its
rotor angle is less than 90 degrees.

Transient Stability Limit


Transient or dynamic stability is defined as the stability of a system during and after sudden changes or
disturbances in the system, such as short-circuits, loss of generators, sudden changes in load, line tripping,
or any other similar impact. The system is said to be transient stable if following a severe disturbance, all
synchronous machines reach their steady-state operating condition without prolonged loss of synchronism
or going out of step with other machines.

Causes of Instability Problems


The major causes to industrial power system instability problems include, but are not limited to:

Short-circuits
Loss of a tie connection to a utility system
Loss of a portion of in-plant co-generation (generator rejection)
Starting a motor that is large relative to the system generating capacity
Switching operations of lines, capacitors, etc.
Impact loading (motors and static loads)
A sudden large step change of load or generation

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-22

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Calculation Methods

Consequences of Instability Problems


The consequences of power system instability problems usually are very severe and can range from
permanent damage on equipment and shutting down processes, all the way to causing a whole area power
outage. Some typical consequences are listed below:

Area-wide blackout
Interruption of loads
Low-voltage conditions
Damage to equipment
Relay and protective device malfunctions

Power System Transient Stability Enhancement


Depending on the causes of instability problems in a particular system, a number of enhancements can be
made to improve the system stability. Typical enhancements include:

Improve configuration and system design.


Increase synchronizing power
Design and selection of rotating equipment use induction motors, increase moment of inertia,
reduce transient reactance, improve voltage regulator and exciter characteristics
Application of Power System Stabilizers (PSS)
Add system protection fast fault clearance, system separation, etc.
Add load shedding scheme

However, note that each of the above remedies requires careful consideration and we recommend that you
re-run all system studies again, because changes brought by those remedies very likely will impact system
load flow, short-circuit, and motor starting results.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-23

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Calculation Methods

Simulation of Time Events and Actions


Transient Stability study is essentially an action driven time-domain simulation. Actions should be
specified at different time instants (events). There are two ways to specify events and actions. One way
is to use the Event Editor and Action Editor in the Transient Stability Study Case Editor. Another way is
to use relay-controlled dynamic actions.
When using actions specified in the Transient Stability Study Case Editor, Action List, the exact time
instant for the action to take place needs to be given. Type of actions in this category includes all the prescheduled operations such as generator start-up and shutdown, generator control mode change, load
addition and rejection, motor acceleration, MOV start and others. When to simulate the system response
for existing events, such as a recorded fault in the system, user also can use this type of action, because
the recorded fault occurring time and duration are known. To specify this type of actions, user first
creates a new event and the event occurring time in the Event Editor of the Transient Stability Study Case
Editor, Event page, as shown below.

Secondly, user can use the Action Editor in the same page to add as many actions as desired for this
event.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-24

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Calculation Methods

A complete list of devices in ETAP PowerStation that can be specified with actions and types of these
actions is given in section 2.2 Events Page, of this chapter, under subsection Actions.
However, in power systems, many actions occur without any pre-acknowledgment, instead, they are
controlled by sensors and relays. For instance, a current relay will trip off circuit breakers once the
measured current by relay exceeds a pre-set value. In another case, a voltage relay can be used to open or
close circuit breakers based on its monitored voltage and comparison with an upper and an lower settings.
These types of action do not have a definite time of happening and are solely depending on the system
dynamic responses and relay settings. They, therefore, have to be implemented using the second method,
i.e., relay controlled actions. To use relay-controlled actions, user need to add a relay and connect it to
the one-line diagram via a PT or CT, depending on type of the relay. Next in relay editor, user specifies
relay-controlled circuit breaker ID, control settings, time delay, and other data related to relay operations.
During the transient stability simulation in time-domain, if a relay setting is met, then its controlled circuit
breaker will take an automatic action. This method avoids requesting to give a pre-defined action time
and is a true resemblance to power system real operating conditions.
Following two pictures give an example of how to use relay-controlled actions. In the first picture,
assuming CB2 and/or CB11 are tripped off due to a fault in transformer T2, thus substation Sub2A-N
losses power. To make a bus transfer for Sub2A-N to the adjacent bus Sub2B, user can place a voltage
relay (27) on bus Sub2A-N to monitor the bus voltage magnitude and close a normally opened tie circuit
breaker Tie CB when it is necessary.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-25

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Calculation Methods

To do so, user can set the voltage relay to pick up under-voltage at 65% and close Tie CB after 0.1 relay
delaying time and what ever the closing cycle by Tie CB itself. Settings for the voltage relay is shown in
the second figure down below.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-26

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Required Data

17.5 Required Data


To run a transient stability study, you need to provide all the data required for load flow calculation. In
addition to that, you need to provide machine dynamic model data, load model data, and any control
units, such as exciter and governor data. Required data for transient stability calculations include:

Bus Data

Bus ID
Nominal kV
Load Diversity Factor (when Loading option is set to Maximum or Minimum diversity factor)

Branch Data
2-Winding and 3-Winding Transformers

Transform ID
Bus Connections
Rated kV and MVA
Impedance and tolerance
X/R ratio
Tap and LTC settings
Phase Shift as in Standard Positive or Negative Sequence connections, or Special configurations

Cable/Transmission Line

Cable or Transmission Line ID


Bus Connections
Type, size, rated kV, # of conductors per phase, and length
Use library data or enter cable's resistance, reactance, and susceptance values

Impedance

Impedance ID
Bus Connections
Resistance, reactance, and susceptance values

Current-Limiting Reactor

Current-Limiting Reactor ID
Bus Connections
X/R ratio, impedance, and tolerance

Protective Device Data

Protective Device ID
Bus and Branch Connections
Status

CT/PT Data

CT/PT ID
Bus or Branch or Source or Load Connections
Rating (Ratio)

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-27

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Required Data

Relay Data

Relay ID
CT/PT Connections
Device, CB ID, Action, Delay, Setting, Unit

Power Grid Data

Power Grid ID
Bus Connections
Operating mode (Swing, Voltage Control, or Mvar Control)
Nominal kV
%V and Angle for Swing mode
%V, MW loading, and Mvar limits (Qmax & Qmin) for Voltage Control mode
MW and Mvar loading for Mvar Control mode
3-Phase MVAsc and X/R values

Synchronous Generator Data

Synchronous generator ID
Bus Connections
Operating mode (Swing, Voltage Control or Mvar Control)
Rated kV
%V and Vangle for Swing mode of operation
%V, MW loading, and Mvar limits (Qmax & Qmin) for Voltage Control mode of operation
MW and Mvar loading for Mvar Control mode of operation
Rated MVA
Model type (None, Equivalent, Transient, or Subtransient)
Machine type (Round-Rotor or Salient-Pole)
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Equivalent model
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tqo for Transient model Round-Rotor machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tdo, Tqo, Tqo for Subtransient model Round-Rotor
machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq (= Xq), Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Transient model Salient-Pole machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq (= Xq), Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tdo, Tqo for Subtransient model Salient-Pole
machine type
S100, S120, H, and Damping
Sbreak for Generator Start-up Study
Exciter Type and all associated parameters or fixed excitation
Governor Type and all associated parameters or no governor action
Power System Stabilizer (PSS) Type and all associated parameters or no PSS control

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-28

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Required Data

Synchronous Motor Data

Synchronous motor ID
Bus Connections
Quantity
Rated kW/hp and kV
Power factors and efficiencies at 100%, 75%, and 50% loadings
Loading Category ID and % Loading
Equipment cable data
Model type (None, Equivalent, Transient or Subtransient)
Machine type (Round-Rotor or Salient-Pole)
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Equivalent model
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Transient model Round-Rotor machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq, Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tdo, Tqo, Tqo for Subtransient model Round-Rotor
machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq (= Xq), Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo for Transient model Salient-Pole machine type
Xd, Xd, Xd, Xq, Xq (= Xq), Xq, Xl, X/R, Tdo, Tdo, Tqo for Subtransient model Salient-Pole
machine type
S100, S120, H and Damping
Exciter Type and all associated parameters or fixed excitation
H
Load model

Induction Machine Data

Induction machine ID
Bus Connections
Application type (motor or generator)
Quantity
Rated kW/hp and kV
Power factors and efficiencies at 100%, 75%, and 50% loadings
Loading Category ID and % Loading
Equipment cable data
Model type (None, Single1, Single2, DBL1, or DBL2)
Xlr, Xoc, X/R, and Tdo for Single1 model
Rs, Xs, Xm, Rr,fl, Rr,lr, Xr,fl, and Xr,lr for Single2 model
Rs, Xs, Xm, Rrl, Rr2, Xr1, and Xr2 for DBL1 and DBL2 model
H
Load model
% Start Loading for the First Starting Category (defines the motor start loading percent)

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-29

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Required Data

MOV Data

MOV ID
Bus Connection
Quantity
Initial Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kW/hp & kV
Power Factor & Efficiency
Rated Torque
Hammer Blow & Micro Switch Flags
Locked Rotor (LR), No Load (NL), Normal, & Rated Torque (Rated T) Time Duration
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data
% Voltage Limit

Static Load Data

Static Load ID
Bus Connection
Quantity
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kVA/MVA & kV
Power Factor
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data

Lumped Load Data

Lumped Load ID
Bus Connection
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kVA/MVA & kV

Power Factor

% Motor Load & % Static Load


Loading Category ID & % Loading

Capacitor Data

Capacitor ID
Bus Connection
Status & Associated Demand Factor
Rated kV
Mvar/Band and # of Bank
Loading Category ID & % Loading
Equipment Cable Data

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-30

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Required Data

Harmonic Filter

Harmonic Filter ID
Filter Type
Rated kV & 3-Phase kvar for Capacitors
Xl & Q for Reactors
R, if applicable
Grounding Connection
Grounding Type

UPS Data

UPS ID
Bus Connection
AC Connections
Rated kW/MW & kV
AC Input & Output Rated kV
Power Factor & Efficiency
Loading Category ID & % Loading

VFD Data

VFD ID
Bus Connection

VFD is Modeled as a Transparent Device in the Transient Stability Study

Charger Data

Charger ID
Bus Connections
Status & Associated Demand Factor
AC Ratings
Loading Category ID & % Loading

Inverter Data
Inverter is not Modeled in the Transient Stability Study

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-31

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Required Data

Study Case Parameters

Study Case ID
Max. Number of Iterations
Solution Precision
Acceleration Factor
Simulation Time Step
Plot Time Step
Initial Loading Category
Initial Loading Condition (Loading Category, Operating Load)
Load Diversity Factor (None, Bus Maximum, Bus Minimum, or Global)
Charger Loading Condition (loading Category, Operating Load)
Total Simulation Time
Events & Actions
Dynamic Modeling Information
Starting Load Modeling Method
Plots/Tabulated Selection

Study Case parameters are entered into the Transient Stability Study Case Editor.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-32

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Output Reports

17.6 Output Reports


PowerStation provides transient stability study results at all different levels of detail, depending on your
requirements. The results are reported in three different formats: a text output report, a one-line view
display, and plots.

17.6.1 Transient Stability Report Manager


Click on the View Output File button on the Transient Stability Toolbar to open the Transient Stability
Report Manager. The Transient Stability Report Manager provides the format for text and consists of
four pages.

Complete Page
From this page you can select the report format that gives you the complete output report. Currently, only
the TextRept format is available.

Input Page
This page provides the formats for different input data. Currently, the formats in this page are not
available for the transient stability study.

Result Page
This page provides the formats for different calculation results. Currently, the formats in this page are not
available for the transient stability study.

Summary Page
This page provides the formats for different summaries from both input data and calculation results.
Currently, the formats in this page are not available for the transient stability study.
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ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Output Reports

17.6.2 Transient Stability Text Report


The text output report can be viewed by clicking on the View Output File button in the Study Case
Toolbar or from the Transient Stability Report Manager by selecting TextRept and clicking on OK. The
transient stability analysis output report consists of several sections, as summarized below.

Cover Page
This is the first page of the output report. It includes information on the number of different types of
buses, the number of different types of branches, the number of different types of machines; system
parameters such as initial loading category, frequency, and unit system; solution parameters such as
maximum iterations and solution precision; study parameters such as integration time step and plot time
step, as well as output and plot file names.
DYNAMIC STABILITY ANALYSIS
-------------------------Swing

Gen.

----1

Number of Buses:

Load

Total

-----

-----

-----

XFRM

XFRM3

React.

Line

Imp.

C.B.

SPDT

Total

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

Number of Branches:

Synch.

Synch.

Ind.

Uti-

Gen.

Motor

Motor

lity

Total

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

Number of Machines:
Initial Loading:

Design

Maximum Number of Iterations:

2000

Solution Precision for the Initial LF:

0.00000100

Acceleration Factor for the Initial LF:

1.45

Time Increment for Integration Steps:

0.0010

Time Increment for Plots:

0.0200

System Frequency:

60.0

Unit System:

English

Data Filename:

EXAMPLE

Sec.
Sec.
Hz

Bus Input Data


This section contains information for all the buses in the system, including bus ID, bus type (swing,
generator, or load), nominal voltage, initial voltage magnitude and angle, MW and Mvar generation,
Mvar limits, MW and Mvar motor load, MW and Mvar static load, etc.
These data are the same as those in load flow output report and thus a sample printout is omitted.

Branch Input Data


This section contains the information for all branches in the system, including branch ID, R, X, Y, X/R,
transformer tap and LTC, and all the related information on branch impedance. Branch connections are
also reported.
These data are the same as those in load flow output report, thus a sample printout is omitted.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-34

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Output Reports

Power Grid, Synchronous Machine Data


This section contains the information for all utility equivalent machines, synchronous generators, and the
dynamically modeled synchronous motors in the system, including machine ID, connected bus ID,
machine type and model type, rated kV and MVA, impedance data, time constants, inertia, damping, and
saturation factors. For synchronous motors, it also contains the information on the load model and
parameters.
Conned Bus
============

Synch. GEN./MTR

Rating (base)

======================

===============

Machine Impedance ( % )
==============================================================

Bus ID

Machine ID

TYP

MDL

kV

MVA

Ra

Xq

Xl

------------

------------

---

---

------

-------

------

------

------

------

------

------

------

------

Sub 2B

Gen1

GEN

13.800

8.824

1.00

24.00

37.00

115.00

34.00

75.00

75.00

15.00

Main Bus

Utility

UTL

34.500 1500.000

2.22

Sub 2B

Syn1

MTR

13.200

1.170

0.56

15.38

23.00

110.00

12.00

23.00

108.00

11.00

Bus3

Syn4

MTR

13.200

2.982

0.33

15.38

23.00

110.00

12.00

23.00

108.00

11.00

Synch. GEN./MTR

Xd"

Xd'

Xq"

Xq'

99.98

Time Constant (sec)

======================

Xd

H(sec), D(MWpu/Hz) & Sat.

==============================

Gen./Loading

==========================

==============

Machine ID

TYP

MDL

Tdo"

Tdo'

Tqo"

Tqo'

% D

S100

S120

MW

Mvar

------------

---

---

------

------

------

------

-----

-----

-----

-----

------

------

Gen1

GEN

0.030

5.000

0.050

3.700

1.200

5.00

1.070

1.180

6.300

0.000

Syn1

MTR

0.002

5.600

0.002

3.700

1.000

2.00

1.070

1.180

0.995

-0.617

Syn4

MTR

0.002

5.600

0.002

3.700

1.000

2.00

1.070

1.180

2.770

1.105

Synch. MTR

Load Model

======================

================================================

Machine ID

TYP

MDL

Model ID

A0

A1

A2

A3

------------

---

---

------------

------

------

------

------

Syn1

MTR

COMP CENT

10.00

-91.00

321.00

-147.00

Syn4

MTR

Centr. Comp

10.00

-91.00

328.00

-147.00

Exciter/AVR Data
This section contains the information for all exciters installed in the system, including the generator ID to
which the exciter is installed, exciter type, gains, time constants, and other parameters.
Generator
==============

Type

Time Constants (Sec.) and Parameters

========

==================================================================================================

1,2,3&1S

KA

KE

KF

TR

TA

TE

TF/TF1

DC1 &DC2

KA

KE

KF

TA

TB

TC

TE

KE

KV

TE

TR

TRH

KA

KC

DC3
ST1, ST2

KE/KG

KF/KJ

& ST3
AC1 &AC4

KI
XL

KA

KC

KD

KE

KF

KP

TA
VAmax

AC2 &AC3

SR8F
HPC 840

AC5A

JEUM

KA

KB/KR

KA

KF

KA

Gen1

Operation Technology, Inc.

KF

VLR

VLV

VImax
TB

TC

TA
VImin
TE
VImin

SEmax

SE75

Efd

VRmax VRmin

SEmax

SE75

Efd

TB

TC

VRmax VRmin
TF

VAmin

VImax

KH/KN

KL(V)

Efdn

VAmax

VAmin

VRmax

TA

VRmax
TB

TC
VRmin

TA

TB

TF1

TF2

VRmax

VRmin

KE

Bmax

Bmin

Amax

Amin

VRmax

VRmin

Te

T4

TI

TD

TF

Tdsty

TE

TF1

TF2

TF3

TR

KF

TP

VRmax VRmin
TA3

TE
SEmax

TF

SEmax
TE

SE75
TF

SEmax

SE75

Efd

TQ
SEmax

CtlBus
SE75

Ku1

Ku2

Kif

Kae

Ke

Vres

Vsup

SEm

SE7

Max2

Min2

Max3

Min3

Max4

Min4

Max5

Min5

Max6

Av1

Av2

Av3

Av4

Av5

Av6

Av7

Av8

Av9

Av10

Av11

Ai2

Ai3

Ai4

Ai5

Ai6

Ai7

Ai8

Ai9

Ai10

KF

KVF

KVL

TA

TB

TC

TD

TH

TF

TR

TVL

VRmin

RC

XC

VVLR

Vdc

Rf

VHZ

Vfb

Ifb

VRmax

TR
Efd

Ar2

VImin

Efd

SE75

Min1

KC

Efdmax

SEmax

Max1

KA

TR

SE75

TR
VRmin

KQ

TA2

SEm/KP SE7/KI Efd/VB

VRmax VRmin

TR

TA1

VImax
--------

KE

KPimg

VRmax VRmin
TR

Ar1

ID
--------------

KD

TF

Kpow

KE

Ai1
ST1D

KC

KPreal

VGmax

TF2/XL

Efdmax

Te

Min6

Max7

Ai11

Ai12

Efd

Min7

Vref

------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ -----250.00

1.000

0.060

0.005

0.030

1.250

17-35

1.000

17.50 -15.50

1.650

1.130

6.600

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Output Reports

Governor/Turbine Data
This section contains the information for all governors installed in the system, including generator ID to
which the governor is installed, governor type, mode, gains, time constants, and other parameters.
Type

Operation

Limits

======

=============

==============

All ST

%Droop

Mode

Pmax

Pmin

Tsr

Tc

Tch

Trh1

Trh2

GT&GP

%Droop

Mode

Pmax

Pmin

Tsr

Tc

Tt

Tdrp

Ta

DT,GTF

%Droop

Mode

Pmax

Pmin

&STM

%Droop

Mode

Pmax

Pmin

Mode

Pmax

Pmin

A1

A2

A3

Mode

Max.

Min.

UG8
Generator

GTH&

Ki

Time Constants(Sec.) and Parameters


====================================================================

T1

T2

K1/Kr

GTS

Tf/R

505E

Mode

ID

%Droop

Mode

MARS

%Droop

Mode

eMax

eMin

SDr1

HPa

HPb

HPc

I2

Alpha
T1

%Droop

Mode

Pmax

Pmin

HYDR

Beta
T2
MaxGv

K1

GHH

Tcd/T

I1

Kl
DDEC

Tcr/S

T4

K3/KD

P1

P2
2301A

T3

K2/Kf

K2

Tco

Fhp

T5

T6

T7

T8

K5

K6

K7

DB

B1

B2

C1

K1

Ad

A/a

B/b

C/c

Kf

Tt

Tr

K4/Ff

Ttd
L1
HPmax

T
L2

Ta1

Tm1

Sa

Sb

Sc

SDr2

L3

L4

Ta2

Tm2

Rho

K1

Tao

T1

T2

T3

T5

T6

T7

Ks

Maxo

Mino

Max2

Min2

MinGv
R1

Fvhp

Ts

T1

T2

Fip

T9
UO/VU
T7

UC/VL
T8

T.Ctl

A.Ctl

Ts

Prior

Ramp

Smax

EFmax

EP

EF

LS GP

Pmax

Pmin

Kt

Ko

Ku

Max3

Min3

PLmin

PMmax

T3

VLmax

VLmin

VMmax

VMmin

VHmax

VHmin

PLmax

PHmax

PHmin

Kp1

Kp2

Kp3

Kp4

GL

GM

GH

PMmin

MP

Pa

Pb

Pc

LFV2

LFV3

LF1

Tn1

Tn2

m1

m2

m3

e1

e2

HP

Pe

Pf

LFa

LFc

LFd

EX2f

LFV1

LF2

LF3

FL0

KFL0

FL1

FM0

KFM0

FM1

Tn3

Tn5

Tn6

TL

TM

TH

Esf1

Esf2

VO

VC1

VC2

TP

TG

TR

Zt

Damp

QNL

Q2

T2

T3

TP

TL

TQ

TLD

TLG

TA

TC

TD

TV

TPL

TPG

TC1

TC2

TX1

TX2

TX3

TX4

TX5

KL

KI

Gmax1

Pd

Gmax2

Gmin

GC

RP

RT

Zp1

ft

fp1

Tt

Tp1

At1

RPM1

RPM2

RPM3

Wref

Href

T4

T5

T6

K1

K2

GBUFF

B
SGT

Mode

Pmax

Pmin

T1

TR

K3

Pref
PL-A

Fuel

KA
============
Gen1

------

------

ST1

5.0

KC

KT

DL

-----

------

------

-----

-----

-----

-----

Droop

8.33

0.00

0.100

0.100

0.150

5.000

JRL1

JRL2

TFLD

Tref

-----

-----

-----

-----

Plimit GOVBase
-----

-----

0.700

PSS Data
This section contains the information for all PSS installed in the system, including generator ID to which
the PSS is installed, PSS type, and all PSS parameters.
Generator
==============

Type

Time Constants (Sec.) and Parameters

========

==================================================================================================

PSS1A

KS

PSS2A

KS1

KS2

KS3

T2

T3

T4

ID
-------------Gen1

Operation Technology, Inc.

-------PSS1A

VSTmax VSTmin VTmin

TDR

VSTmax VSTmin
T5

T6

A1
VTmin
T7

A2

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

TDR

Tw1

Tw2

Tw3

Tw4

T1

T8

------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ -----3.150

0.900 -0.900

0.000

0.200

0.000

17-36

0.000

0.760

0.100

0.760

0.100

1.000

0.100

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Output Reports

Induction Machine Data


This section contains the information for all dynamically modeled induction machines in the system,
including machine ID, connected bus ID, rated kV and MVA, model type and model parameters, load
model and model parameters, inertia, initial MW and Mvar loading, and slip.
Conned Bus

Ind. Motor

============

================

Bus ID
------------

Machine ID

Rating (base)

Eqiv. Model (%Z

==============

===========================

MDL

kV

MVA

------------ ---

------ -------

Bus3

Mtr2

CKT2

13.200

0.649

Sub3 Swgr

Pump 1

CKT1

4.000

0.434

Conned Bus

Ind. Motor

H(sec)

============

============

======

Bus ID

Machine ID

------------

------------

Xlr

Xoc

Tdo'

------ ------ ------ ------

CKT or Double Cage Models (% impedance)


================================================
Rs

3.83
3.83

19.36 375.50

Xs

Xm

Rrfl,1 Rrlr,2 Xrfl,1 Xrlr,2

------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ -----10.29 365.20

1.52

1.23

11.67

Load Model

Normal Loading
==============================

Model ID

A0

A1

A2

A3

% Slip

MW

Mvar

% Load

------------

------

------

------

------

------

------

------

------

Bus3

Mtr2

0.310

a k***3

Sub3 Swgr

Pump 1

0.200

FAN

9.30

0.81

================================================

H
------

Ra

& seconds)

0.00

0.00

100.00

0.00

1.41

0.599

0.297

0.0

10.00

-91.00

321.00

-147.00

1.18

0.400

0.188

30.0

Initial Load Flow Report


An initial load flow study is performed to determine all initial settings for machines, exciters/AVRs, and
governors/turbines with the specified initial loading condition. The initial load flow result is printed for
you to inspect the system pre-event operating conditions.
The format for the initial load flow report is similar to those of the load flow output report and thus a
sample printout is omitted.

Load Flow Report @ T=*.*


This is the load flow report prior to the occurrence of a specified event. Following this section should be
a detailed list of actions for the event. Note that for each event, there will be a corresponding pre-event
load flow report. The format of this section is similar to those of the load flow output report and thus a
sample printout is omitted.

Event/Action Data
This section lists detailed information on each action included in an event. This section appears right
after a load flow report performed before this event and its associated actions occur.
Bus / Machine Revision (Modification)
=====================================
Bus/Mach ID

Existing Type

New Type

------------ ------------- ---------Main Bus

Swing Bus

Faulted

This page indicates bus/machine revisions occurring at simulation time T = 0.1000 seconds.

Final Load Flow Report


This is the load flow reported for the time at the end of the simulation. Formats of this section are similar
to those of the load flow output report and thus a sample printout is omitted.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-37

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Output Reports

Tabulated Simulation Result


This section tabulates, for each device that is selected for tabulation in the study case, the simulation
results as functions of time at the specified plot time step. The type of tabulated results is the same as the
plot curves, as defined in Plot Options.
Gen.
======
Time
(Sec.)

(Gen1

Syn. MT

==================================
Ang.
(deg)

(Syn1

Syn. MT

==================================

Freq.

Mech.

Elec.

Term.

Ang.

(Hz)

(MW)

(MW)

I (A)

(deg)

(Syn4

==================================

Freq.

Mech.

Elec.

Term.

Ang.

(Hz)

(MW)

(MW)

I (A)

(deg)

Freq.

Mech.

Elec.

Term.

(Hz)

(MW)

(MW)

I (A)

------

-----

-----

-----

-----

------

-----

-----

-----

-----

------

-----

-----

-----

-----

------

0.000

30.92

60.00

6.34

6.30

265.1

-27.60

60.00

0.99

0.99

48.9

-55.88

60.00

2.76

2.77

123.6

0.020

30.92

60.00

6.34

6.30

265.1

-27.60

60.00

0.99

0.99

48.9

-55.88

60.00

2.76

2.77

123.6

0.040

30.91

60.00

6.34

6.30

265.0

-27.60

60.00

0.99

0.99

48.9

-55.88

60.00

2.76

2.77

123.6

0.060

30.91

60.00

6.34

6.30

265.0

-27.60

60.00

0.99

0.99

48.9

-55.88

60.00

2.76

2.77

123.6

0.080

30.91

60.00

6.34

6.30

265.0

-27.60

60.00

0.99

0.99

48.9

-55.88

60.00

2.76

2.77

123.6

0.100

30.90

60.00

6.34

6.30

264.9

-27.60

60.00

0.99

0.99

48.9

-55.88

60.00

2.76

2.77

123.6

0.101

30.90

60.01

6.34

0.53

1202.6

-27.60

59.99

0.99

0.37

328.9

-55.87

59.98

2.76

-0.79

834.8

0.121

31.92

60.28

6.34

0.48

998.3

-28.86

59.62

0.98

0.37

231.1

-58.01

59.35

2.73

-0.30

495.4

0.141

35.00

60.57

6.34

0.51

908.8

-32.82

59.26

0.97

0.42

233.1

-64.69

58.73

2.69

-0.31

491.0

0.161

40.15

60.86

6.33

0.56

877.5

-39.25

58.93

0.97

0.49

235.3

-75.83

58.12

2.65

-0.29

485.6

0.181

47.31

61.13

6.32

0.61

869.6

-47.87

58.65

0.96

0.55

239.0

-91.32

57.52

2.62

-0.26

479.2

0.201

56.39

61.38

6.30

12.44

756.5

-58.48

58.44

0.96

4.33

264.8

-111.07

56.99

2.58

9.23

837.0

0.221

64.76

60.91

6.26

15.28

756.7

-65.16

59.93

0.99

4.22

195.3

-127.85

58.58

2.67

11.12

689.2

0.241

69.21

60.32

6.21

16.48

769.4

-60.51

61.48

1.02

3.89

176.2

-132.76

60.20

2.77

10.88

706.9

0.261

69.32

59.72

6.16

16.13

732.8

-45.69

62.64

1.04

2.69

117.3

-126.29

61.73

2.85

10.58

656.7

0.281

65.30

59.19

6.10

14.40

639.6

-24.93

62.99

1.04

0.73

35.6

-109.13

63.14

2.93

9.59

533.6

0.301

57.95

58.80

6.05

11.67

508.4

-5.05

62.29

1.03

-1.25

54.2

-82.88

64.16

2.98

6.56

331.3

0.321

48.44

58.59

6.02

8.53

366.8

6.90

60.79

1.01

-2.35

99.7

-51.73

64.33

2.99

1.22

105.3

TS Action Summary
This section lists all the actions in the study, including both specified in the Transient Stability Study
Case Editor and those initiated by relay actions.

Operation Technology, Inc.

Device

Action

Time

============

==========

========

Main Bus

Faulted

0.100

Main Bus

Normal

0.200

17-38

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

17.7 One-Line Diagram Displayed Results


In addition to the text report, PowerStation displays the transient stability calculation results on the oneline diagram.

Transient Stability Time-Slider


Once a transient stability study is completed, a Transient Stability Time-Slider, as shown below, will
appear next to the Configuration & Mode Toolbar. The slider ranges from zero to the total simulation
time. Initially, the reference pointer is at the far left, corresponding to t = 0 seconds. You may click on
either end of the ruler to move the pointer one grid at a time, or hold the mouse button down to move the
pointer continuously. You may also click on the pointer, hold the mouse button down, and then drag the
pointer to the desired position. The time corresponding to the pointer position is also displayed next to
the ruler in units of seconds. As you move the pointer along the slider, the displayed results change
accordingly, providing you with a quick way to examine the calculation results.

The one-line diagram displays are only available for those devices that are selected for plot options.
Depending on the device type, different calculation results are displayed as defined below:

Buses

Voltage bus voltage magnitude in kV or percent


Frequency bus frequency in Hz or percent

Syn. Generators

Power Angle synchronous generator rotor angle in degree or radian


Frequency synchronous generator frequency in Hz or percent
Efd synchronous generator field voltage in per unit
Real and Reactive Power synchronous generator electrical power generation in kW+jkvar or
MW+jMvar
Apparent Power synchronous generator electrical power generation in kVA or MVA
Current synchronous generator terminal current in Amp

Syn. Motors, MV

Power Angle synchronous motor rotor angle in degree or radian


Frequency synchronous motor frequency in Hz or percent
Voltage synchronous motor terminal voltage in kV or percent
Real and Reactive Power induction machine electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power induction machine electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-39

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

Syn. Motors, LV

Power Angle synchronous motor rotor angle in degree or radian


Frequency synchronous motor frequency in Hz or percent
Voltage synchronous motor terminal voltage in kV or percent
Real and Reactive Power induction machine electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power induction machine electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp

Ind. Machines, MV

Speed induction machine speed in RPM or percent slip


Voltage induction machine terminal voltage in kV or percent
Real and Reactive Power induction machine electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power induction machine electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp

Ind. Machines, LV

Speed induction machine speed in RPM or percent slip


Voltage induction machine terminal voltage in kV or percent
Real and Reactive Power induction machine electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power induction machine electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp

MOV

Real and Reactive Power mov electrical power loading in kW+jkvar or MW+jMvar
Apparent Power mov electrical power loading in kVA or MVA
Current mov terminal current in Amp

The units for the displayed results are defined in the Results Page of the Transient Stability Display
Options.
The following is a sample of one-line diagram display from the Transient Stability study.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-40

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Operation Technology, Inc.

One-Line Diagram Displayed Results

17-41

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Plots

17.8 Plots
PowerStation also provides simulation plots for you to examine Transient Stability calculation results in a
graphic form. To view the plots, click on the Transient Stability Plots button on the Transient Stability
Toolbar. It will bring up a dialog box for the Transient Stability Plot Selection, as shown below, from
which you can specify the devices and types of plots to view.

Device Type
Select a device type for plotting.

Device ID
From this list, select the devices (up to 16 devices at a time) to be plotted. This list contains the devices
that have been selected for plots from the study case editors.

Plot Type
Check plot type(s) for plot. Different device types have different plot types.

Syn. Generators

Power Angle synchronous generator power angle in degree


Frequency synchronous generator frequency in Hz
MWm synchronous generator shaft mechanical power generator in MW
MWe synchronous generator electrical power generation in MW
Current synchronous generator terminal current in Amp
Efd synchronous generator field voltage in per unit
Ifd synchronous generator field current in Amp
Machine Z synchronous generator terminal impedance in % on machine base

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-42

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Plots

Syn. Motors, MV (medium voltage motors)

Power Angle synchronous motor power angle in degree


Frequency synchronous motor frequency in Hz
MWm synchronous motor mechanical power in MW
MWe synchronous motor electrical power in MW
Current synchronous motor terminal current in Amp
Voltage synchronous motor connected bus voltage in % of the bus nominal kV
Machine Z synchronous motor terminal impedance in % on machine base

Syn. Motors, LV (low voltage motors)

Power Angle synchronous motor power angle in degree


Frequency synchronous motor frequency in Hz
MWm synchronous motor mechanical power in MW
MWe synchronous motor electrical power in MW
Current synchronous motor terminal current in Amp
Voltage synchronous motor connected bus voltage in % of the bus nominal kV
Machine Z synchronous motor terminal impedance in % on machine base

Ind. Machine, MV (medium voltage machines)

Slip induction machine slip in %


Accel Torque induction machine acceleration power in MW
MWm induction machine mechanical power in MW
MWe induction machine electrical power in MW
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp
Voltage induction machine connected bus voltage in % of the bus nominal kV
Machine Z induction motor terminal impedance in % on machine base

Ind. Machine, LV (low voltage machines)

Slip induction machine slip in %


Accel Torque induction machine acceleration power in MW
MWm induction machine mechanical power in MW
MWe induction machine electrical power in MW
Current induction machine terminal current in Amp
Voltage induction machine connected bus voltage in % of the bus nominal kV
Machine Z induction motor terminal impedance in % on machine base

Buses

Voltage Angle bus voltage angle in degree


Frequency bus frequency in % of system frequency
MW bus real power loading in MW
Mvar bus reactive power loading in Mvar
Voltage/Hz bus voltage per Hz in volt/Hz
Voltage bus voltage magnitude in % of the bus nominal kV

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-43

ETAP PowerStation 4.0

Transient Stability Analysis

Plots

MOVs

Slip MOV slip in percent


Acce l Power MOV acceleration power in kvar
kvar MOV reactive power loading in kvar
kW MOV real power loading in kW
Current MOV current in Amp
Voltage MOV terminal voltage in % of the connected bus nominal kV base

Note that for synchronous motors and induction machines, terminal voltages are also displayed on the
one-line diagram.
The following is a set of sample plots from the Transient Stability study:

Combine Plots
Curves for the selected item will be plotted on the same graph. Multiple scales will be used.

Operation Technology, Inc.

17-44

ETAP PowerStation 4.0