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DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION

A SUMMER INTERN PROJECT REPORT


Submitted by

VIVEK KUMAR PANDEY


ROLL NO. 03396402813
in partial fulfillment of Summer Internship for the award of the
degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
in

ELECTRONICS AND COMM ENGINEERING

Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology

Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha


University, Delhi
August 2016

DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION


BONAFIED CERTIFICATE

Certified that

the

summer

training

project

report

entitled

SIGNALLING AND

TELECOMMUNICATIONS is a bonafide record of the work done by Mr VIVEK


KUMAR PANDEY , at DMRC, New Delhi,

for

the

partial

fulfillment

of

the

requirements for the award of the four year degree of Bachelors in Technology in
Electronics and Communication Engineering, carried out under my supervision during
June19 ,2016 to July 31, 2016.

Dr. VIJAY
(TRAINING SUPERVISOR)
DMRC

Acknowledgement

Its a great pleasure to present this report of summer training in Delhi


Metro Rail Corporation (A Joint Venture of Govt. Of India and Govt. Of
Delhi)
in partial fulfillment of B.Tech Programmed under MAHARAJA
AGRASEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY at the outset, I would like to
express my immense gratitude to my training guide,
Mr. VIJAY KUMAR,
guiding me right from the inception till the successful completion of the
training.
I am falling short of words for expressing my feelings of gratitude towards
him for extending their valuable guidance, through critical reviews of
project and the report and above all the moral support he had provided
me with all stages of this training.

ABSTRACT
DELHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION IS A WORLDS LEADING RAPID
TRANSPORT SYSTEM BASED IN NEW DELHI AND NCR.THE SIGNAL AND
TELECOMMUNICATION DEPARTMENT AT THE HEART OF THE METRO
3

PROVIDES SIGNALLING SOLUTIONS AND SMOOTH FLOW OF THE METRO


AND ITS SAFE OPERATION. THE DELHI METRO USES CAB SIGNALLING AS
WELL AS SATION SIGNALLING FOR ALL ITS NORMAL AND EMERGENCY
SERVICES.
THE S&T DEPARTMENT HAS MAINLY TWO FOCUSES THAT IS SIGNALLING
AND AOUTOMATIC TICKET COLLECTION. SOON AS THE TECHNOLOGY HAS
BECOME ADVANCE, DELHI METRO IS GOING TO BEGIN FULLY AUTOMATIC
OPERATIONS.

TABLE OF CONTENT:-

S
NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

CHAPTER

PAGE NO

INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE COMPANY

DMRC NETWORK

SCADA

12

SIGNALLING SYSTEMIN DELHI METRO

19

OB COMMUNICATIONS

27

ATC/ATO

30

APENDIX

37

LIST OF FIGURES
S.No. Figure No.

Figure Description

Page Number

01

Fig.1

DMRC NETWORK

05

02

Fig.2

B CHOP

07

03

Fig.3

STRAY CURRENT MONITORING

10

04

Fig.4

CENTRAL MONITORING SYSTEM

11

05

Fig.5

ATC

12

06

Fig.6

MULTI SYSTEM RUN IN

19

07

FIG 7

ATO

24

08

FIG 8

COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

28

09

FIG 9

CCTV MONITORING SYSTEM

31

LIST OF TABLES
S.NO

TABLE NAME

PAGE NO

TRAIN RADIO SYSTEM

22

OB COMMUNICATION

22

SCADA

12

ATP

30

CHAPTER 1
ABOUT THE COMPANY

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) was established by the


Government of India and the Government of Delhi in March 1995 to
build a metro system in the capital.
The metro network consists five lines with total length of
125.67kms.
The metro has 80 stations and 28 are underground.
Construction work in progress for the phase-IV.

Finances and Funding


From government of India and government of Delhi contribute equal
shares, trough soft loan from Japan bank for international cooperation.
Revenue and Profits
Revenue from advertisements and property development, leasing out
trains stations for film shoots.
Security

Central industrial security force (CISF)


Closed circuit cameras
Dog squads
Emergency communication b/w passengers and driver.

CHAPTER 2
DMRC NETWORK:-

SYSTEM OVERVIEW OF METRO


Braking system in Delhi Metro Train

Its normal braking actuated by train operator using TBC during


normal train operation.
Its a mixture of regenerative braking and electro pneumatic friction
brake
Traction Power supply to Delhi Metro Train

Power is supplied by 25 kv, 50 Hz ac through overhead catenary.

Power supply equipments

1. (C- VIS)- Cubicle type Vacuum Insulated Switchgear


2. (HSVCB)- High Speed Vacuum Circuit Breaker
3. (B-CHOP)- Energy Storage for Traction Power Supply System
4. (SCMS)- Stray Current Monitoring System

SCADA system
surveillance.

for

power

supply

and

network

equipment

C-VIS (Cubicle type Vacuum Insulated Switchgear)

25 kV vacuum insulated switchgear in order to eliminate the risk of


greenhouse gas emission, to meet customer requirement such as
compact design and low maintenance.

CHARACTERISTIC

1. Dual Contact design (High reliability of interrupt and disconnect)


2. SF6 gas free -Vacuum Insulation
3. Compact design
4. Grease free

HSVCB (High speed vacuum circuit breaker)


Hitachi contributes the electric railroad system demanded to the
safer service through HSVCB which is unique to us.
Characteristics
1. Low noise
2. No arc emission
3. Very short time interruption

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4. Low maintenance
Stray Current Monitoring System (SCMS)
This system provides evaluation of the stray current conditions of the
track, which facilitates early detection of insulation deficiencies and allows
necessary measures to be taken to prevent potential damages caused by
stray current corrosion

B-Chop (Energy Storage for Traction Power Supply System)

11

12

CHAPTER 3
SCADA (Supervisory control $
data acquisition)

SCADA is a software system which is in charge of surveillance and


data collection by personal computers.

13

CHAPTER 4
14

Signaling system of Delhi


metro
Signaling used on high density metro (or subway) routes is based on the
same principles as main line signaling. The line is divided into blocks and
each block is protected by a signal but, for metros, the blocks are shorter
so that the number of trains using the line can be increased. They are also
usually provided with some sort of automatic supervision to prevent a
train passing a stop signal.

ATO
1. Control all operation from acceleration to stopping.
2. Realize driverless operation.

ATC
1. Used for making high speed operation.
2. It detect train position and transmit signal to control unit.

Figure 1: Diagram showing simple Metro-style two-aspect signaling.


Originally, metro signaling was based on the simple 2-aspect (red/green)
system as shown above. Speeds are not high, so three-aspect signals
were not necessary and yellow signals were only put in as repeaters
where sighting was restricted.
Many metro routes are in tunnels and it has long been the practice of
some operators to provide a form of enforcement of signal observation by
installing additional equipment. This became known as automatic train
protection (ATP). It can be either mechanical or electronic.
The older, mechanical version is the train stop; the latter, electronic
version depends on the manufacturer. The train stop consists of a steel
arm mounted alongside the track and which is linked to the signal. If the
signal shows a green or proceeds aspect, the train stop is lowered and the
15

train can pass freely. If the signal is red the train stop is raised and, if the
train attempts to pass it, the arm strikes a "trip cock" on the train,
applying the brakes and preventing motoring.
Electronic ATP involves track to train transmission of signal aspects and
(sometimes) their associated speed limits. On-board equipment will check
the train's actual speed against the allowed speed and will slow or stop
the train if any section is entered at more than the allowed speed.
The Overlap
If a line is equipped with a simple ATP which automatically stops a train if
it passes a red signal, it will not prevent a collision with a train in front if
this train is standing immediately beyond the signal.

Figure 2: Diagram showing the need for a safe braking distance


beyond a stop signal.
There must be room for the train to brake to a stop - see the diagram
above. This is known as a "safe braking distance" and space is provided
beyond each signal to accommodate it. In reality, the signal is placed in
rear of the entrance to the block and the distance between it and the
block is called the "overlap". Signal overlaps are calculated to allow for
the safe braking distance of the trains using this route. Of course, lengths
vary according to the site; gradient, maximum train speed and train brake
capacity are all used in the calculation.

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Figure 3: Diagram showing a signal provided with an overlap. The


overlap in this example is calculated from the emergency braking
distance required by the train at that location.
This diagram (Figure 3) shows the arrangement of signals on a metro
where signals are equipped with train stops (a form of mechanical ATP)
and each signal has an overlap whose length is calculated on the safe
braking distance for that location. Signals are placed a safe braking
distance in rear of the entrances to blocks. Signal A2 shows the condition
of Block A2, which is occupied by Train 1. If Train 2 was to overrun Signal
A2, the raised train stop (shown here as a "T" at the base of the signal)
would trip its emergency brake and bring it to a stand within the overlap
of Signal A2.

Track-Circuited Overlaps

Figure 4: Diagram showing a train standing in the signal overlap.


Nothing in the railway business is as simple as it seems and so it is with
overlaps. A line which uses overlaps and has close headways could have a
situation as shown above where the train in the overlap of Signal A121
has a green signal showing behind it. Although it is protected by Signal
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A123 showing red, the driver of Train 2 may see the green signal A121
behind Train 1 and could "read through" or be confused under the "stop
and proceed" rule.

Figure 5: Diagram of the track circuited overlap, sometimes known as a


"replacing track circuit".
So, where there is a possibility of a green signal being visible behind a
train, overlaps are track circuited as shown in Fig. 5. Although there is no
train occupying the block protected by Signal A121, the signal is showing
a red aspect because the train is occupying the overlap track circuit or
"replacing" track circuit, as it is sometimes called.
This will give rise to two red signals showing behind a train whilst the train
is in the overlap. The block now has two track circuits, the "Berth" track
and the "replacing" track.
Absolute Block

Figure 6: Schematic showing the principle of the Absolute Block system.


Signal A127 is clear because two blocks in advance of it is clear. A125
shows a danger aspect because one of the blocks ahead of it is occupied
by a train.
Many railways use an "Absolute Block" system, where a vacant block is
always maintained behind a train in order to ensure there is enough room
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for the following train to be stopped if it passes the first stop (red) signal.
In Figure 6, in order for Signal A125 to show a proceed aspect (green), the
two blocks ahead of it must be clear, with Train 1 completely inside the
block protected by Signal A121.
ROLLING STOCK
The first wave of rolling stock was manufactured by a consortium
comprising Hyundai Rotem, Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Electric
Corporation. Initial sets were built by ROTEM in South Korea, with later
examples completed in India by public sector undertaking Bharat Earth
Movers Limited (BEML). BEML is also responsible for the manufacturing
coaches under technology transfer agreement.
The air-conditioned trains consist of four 3.2m-wide, stainless steel,
lightweight, although eight is possible. The trains have automatic doors,
secondary air suspension and brakes controlled by microprocessor.
Delhi Metro has a fleet of 280 coaches, which DMRC runs as 70 trains
every day. Each train can accommodate about 1,500 people, 240 seated.
Maximum speed is 80km/h (50mph), with a 20-second dwell time at
stations. Train depots are located at Khyber Pass, Najafgarh, Shastri Park
and Yamuna Bank.
In May 2011, BEML received a contract worth Rs9.2bn ($205m) from
DMRC to supply 136 intermediate metro cars. The delivery is expected to
be completed by December 2013.
In March 2008 Bombardier Transportation announced an 87m ($137m)
contract for 84 MOVIA metro cars, a follow-on to an order for 340 placed in
July 2007. The new vehicles are being deployed as part of the Phase II
expansion.
In September 2011, Bombardier received a $120m order for 76 additional
MOVIA metro cars. This was a follow-on contract to an order placed for
114 vehicles in the middle of 2010. Deliveries under the new order are
expected to be completed between the third quarter of 2012 and early
2013.
DMRC received the first MOVIA metro car from Germany in February
2009. The first 36 vehicles will be manufactured in Gorlitz, Germany, and
the remaining 388 cars will be built at Bombardier's Indian manufacturing
facility in Savli, South Gujarat.
A Phase I broad gauge train, supplied by Hyundai Rotem-BEML.
A Phase II broad gauge train, supplied by Bombardier.
The Metro uses rolling stock of two different gauges. Phase I lines use
1,676 mm (5.499 ft) broad gauge rolling stock, while three Phase II lines
19

use 1,435 mm (4.708 ft) standard gauge rolling stock. Trains are
maintained at seven depots at Khyber Pass and Sultanpur for the Yellow
Line, Mundka for the Green Line, Najafgarh and Yamuna Bank for the Blue
Line, Shastri Park for the Red Line and Sarita Vihar for the Violet Line.
Broad gauge
The broad gauge rolling stock is manufactured by two major suppliers. For
the Phase I, the rolling stock was supplied by a consortium of companies
comprising Hyundai Rotem, Mitsubishi Corporation, and MELCO. The
coaches were initially built in South Korea by ROTEM,[116] then in Bangalore
by BEML through a technology transfer arrangement. These trains consist
of four 3.2-metre (10 ft) wide stainless steel lightweight coaches with
vestibules permitting movement throughout their length and can carry up
to 1500 passengers, with 50 seated and 330 standing passengers per
coach. The coaches are fully air conditioned, equipped with automatic
doors, microprocessor-controlled brakes and secondary air suspension,
and are capable of maintaining an average speed of 32 km/h (20 mph)
over a distance of 1.1 km (0.68 mi). The system is extensible up to eight
coaches, and platforms have been designed accordingly.
The rolling stock for Phase II is being supplied by Bombardier
Transportation, which has received an order for 614 cars worth
approximately US$ 1100 million. While initial trains were made in
Germany and Sweden, the remainder will be built at Bombardier's factory
in Savli, near Vadodara These trains are a mix of four-car and six-car
consists, capable of accommodating 1178 and 1792 commuters per train
respectively. The coaches possess several improved features like Closed
Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras with eight-hour backup for added
security, charging points in all coaches for cell phones and laptops,
improved air conditioning to provide a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius
even in packed conditions and heaters for winter.
Standard gauge
The standard gauge rolling stock is manufactured by BEML at its factory in
Bangalore. The trains are four-car consists with a capacity of 1506
commuters per train, accommodating 50 seated and 292 standing
passengers in each coach. These trains will have CCTV cameras in and
outside the coaches, power supply connections inside coaches to charge
mobiles and laptops, better humidity control, microprocessor-controlled
disc brakes, and will be capable of maintaining an average speed of
34 km/h (21 mph) over a distance of 1.1 km (0.68 mi)
position. This prevents any kick from the pipe as it is disengaged. Closing
the angle cocks also has the effect of bleeding off the air trapped in the
hose. The angle cock has a special bleed hole for this purpose.

20

CHAPTER 5
OB COMMUNICATION
Train radio system
The train radio system is the main link for non-safety critical vehicle
communication. The system can handle both voice and data
communication in order to
Allow operation control center (00C) to read status information
from the vehicle .Allow the driver to speak with OCC and/or
depot.
Allow OCC to perform remote operation of the vehicle PIS.
21

Allow OCC to passively supervise cab activities, i.e. the current


voice/sound of the active cab

Train radio system component


Components

DT car

hifT-car

19 Trainborne rack

Radio centre/ bead (RCF-1)

Train radio control panel (TRCP)

Speaker

Handset

Antenna

Fist microphone

Train radio system units in driving cab


The train driver will see five items, in the driving cab. that make up the
train

radio system:

19" sub-rack. located behind the co-driver's seat

Train radio control panel (1RCP) mounted on the left hand


sidewall of the driver.

Radio control head (RCN) mounted on the left hand


sidewall of the driver.

Handset mounted on the console in front of the driver seat


to be used as default option for voice input.

Train Control and Management System (TCMS):The function of TCMS is to control and monitor on
board systems and sub systems connected to the train
communication
network.
The
TCMS
system
incorporates unit and train level functionality for the
different systems that has interlaces with the TCMS
system. it is a distributed and modular system.
The following functions/systems are supervised
/controlled by TCMS:

Propulsion
Brakes
Auxiliary electric system
22

Train operation control


Doors
Passenger information

system

ATP/ATO
Train radio
Air supply

Carbody fittings

Interior

23

Coupler
HVAC
Line voltage
Battery
Fire detection
CCTV

Units in TCMS

Unit

CCU-0

C
D

DX2

DX3

DX4

CC;UMOBA
MIOMIOMIOAX
MCG
Anten
Dual-

Band

11M1

na

D
T
MCAR
CAR
Central computing unit
operational
Central
cornputing unit
comfort
Mode/Battery/Address
unit
Modular digital input/output
unit
Modular digital input/output
unit
Modular
digital input/output
ur.:
Analogue
input /output unit
Mobile communication
gateway

Human machine interface

1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

T
1

1
1

1
1

TCMS software

Train diagnostic system (TDS) - uploader: Offers the


user an interface for uploading or reading the information stored
in the diagnostic system.
Maintenance of vehicle information and
statistics (MAVIS): It enables the maintenance staff to view
and analyze the information uploaded from the on-board TDS
system.
Drivers control unit (DCU) term: It is a software tool for the m
pe
Software is used to view analog and logical signals in realtime in a graphical environment, to analyze the system status,
to analyze the operation-recording of signals, to enable test
procedures through buttons and scripts.
(MTVD):
personnel.

Version control arid download tool


MTVD is a tool mainly for the maintenance

CCTV System (Closed-Circuit Television):The main function of CCTV system is to record the events in the
saloon area & Platform.
Cameras are directly connected to the DVRs in the DT-car
It, other cars cameras are connected to remote units.
All images are streamed to the DVRs where they are stored.
The DVRs and remote units are connected to the TCMS via IP
backbone.
The CCTV system via DVF-i will communicate with the TCMS via IP
backbone.
Live camera images can be viewed on monitors in both cabs.
System activation:
When the vehicle is activated, it performs a system start-up and
supplies power to the CCTV system.
After the system start-up, tile video system starts recording images.

System de-activation:
When there is no power, the CCTV system de-activates.

CHAPTER 6

AUTOMATIC TRAIN PROTECTION (ATP)/AUTOMATIC


TRAIN
OPERATION (ATO):
Functions of AT0

To drive trains between stations and slop them with high precision.
To give consistent speed profile for at trains to improve both traffic
regularity and Line capacity.
ATO

ATP is the safety system which ensures that trains remain a safe
distance a part and have sufficient warning to allow them to stop
without colliding with another train. ATO (Automatic Train
Operation) is the non-safety part of train operation related to station
stops and starts.

The basic requirement of ATO is to tell the train approaching a


station where to stop so that the complete train is in the platform.
This is assuming that the ATP has confirmed that the line is clear.
The sequence operates as shown below.

The train approaches the station under clear signals so it can do a


normal run in. When it reaches the first beacon - originally a looped
cable, now usually a fixed transponder - a station brake command is
received by the train. The on board computer calculates the braking
curve to enable it to stop at the correct point and, as the train runs
in towards the platform, the curve is updated a number of times (it
varies from system to system) to ensure accuracy.

Modern systems require less wayside checking because of the


dynamic and more accurate on-board braking curve calculations.
Now, modern installations can achieve 0.15 meters stopping
accuracy - 14 times better.

Metro Station Stops

ATO works well when the line is clear and station run-ins and runouts are unimpeded by the train ahead. However, ATO has to be
capable of adapting to congested conditions, so it has to be
combined with ATP at stations when trains are closely following each
other. Metro operation at stations has always been a particular
challenge and, long before ATO appeared in the late 1960s, systems
were developed to minimize the impact when a train delayed too
long at a station.

To provide a frequent train service on a metro, dwell times at


stations must be kept to a minimum. In spite of the best endeavors
of staff, trains sometimes overstay their time at stations, so
signaling was been developed to reduce the impact on following
trains. To see how this works, we begin with an example (left) of a
conventionally signaled station with a starting Signal A1 (green) and
a home Signal A2 (red) protecting a train (Train 1) standing in the
station. We can assume mechanical ATP (train stops) is provided so
the overlap of Signal A2 is a full speed braking distance in advance
of the platform.

As Train 2 approaches, it slows when the driver sees the home


Signal A2 at danger. Even if Train 1 then starts and begins to leave
the station, Signal A2 will remain at danger until Train 1 has cleared
the overlap of Signal A1. Train 2 will have to stop at A2 but will then
restart almost immediately when Signal A2 clears. This causes a
delay to Train 2 and it requires more energy to restart the train. A
way was found to allow the second train to keep moving. It is called
multi-home signaling.

Multi Home Signaling - Approach

Where multi-home signaling is installed at a station (left), it involves


the provision of more but shorter blocks, each with its own signal.
The original home signal in our example has become Signal A2A
and, while Train 1 is in the platform, it will remain at danger.
However, Block A2 is broken up into three smaller sub-blocks, A2A,
A2B and A2C, each with its own signal. They will also be at danger
while Train 1 is in the platform. Train 2 is approaching and
beginning to brake so as to stop at Signal A2A.

When Train 1 begins to leave the station, it will clear sub-block A2A
first and signal A2A will then show green. Train 2 will have reduced
speed somewhat but can now begin its run in towards the platform.

Multi Home Signaling - Run In

At this next stage in the sequence, we can see (left) that Train 1 has
now cleared two sub-blocks, A2A and A2B, so two of the multi-home
signals are now clear. Note that the starting signal is now red as the
train has entered the next block A1. Train 2 is running towards the
station at a reduced speed but it has not had to stop.

When Train 1 clears the overlap of signal A1, the whole of block A2
is clear and signal A2C clears to allow Train 2 an unobstructed run
into the platform.

ATO/ATP Multi Home Signalling

Fixed block metro systems use multi-home signalling with ATO and
ATP. A series of sub-blocks are provided in the platform area. These
impose reduced speed braking curves on the incoming train and
allow it to run towards the platform as the preceding train departs,
whilst keeping a safe braking distance between them. Each curve
represents a sub-block. Enforcement is carried out by the ATP
system monitoring the train speed. The station stop beacons still
give the train the data for the braking curve for the station stop but
the train will recalculate the curve to compensate for the lower
speed imposed by the ATP system.

ATO Docking and Starting

In addition to providing an automatic station stop, ATO will allow


"docking" for door operation and restarting from a station. If a
"driver", more often called a "train operator" nowadays, is provided,
he may be given the job of opening and closing the train doors at a
station and restarting the train when all doors are proved closed.
Some systems are designed to prevent doors being opened until the
train is "docked" in the right place. Some systems even take door
operation away from the operator and give it to the ATO system so
additional equipment is provided as shown left.

When the train has stopped, it verifies that its brakes are applied
and checks that it has stopped within the door enabling loops.
These loops verify the position of the train relative to the platform
and which side the doors should open. Once all this is complete, the
ATO will open the doors. After a set time, predetermined or varied
by the control centre as required, the ATO will close the doors and
automatically restart the train if the door closed proving circuit is
complete. Some systems have platform screen doors as well. ATO
will also provide a signal for these to open once it has completed the
on-board checking procedure. Although described here as an ATO
function, door enabling at stations is often incorporated as part of
the ATP equipment because it is regarded as a "vital" system and
requires the same safety validation processes as ATP.

Once door operation is completed, ATO will then accelerate the train
to its cruising speed, allow it to coast to the next station brake
command beacon and then brake into the next station, assuming no
intervention by the ATP system

Functions of ATP

To prevent trains from running too fast.

To prevent collisions between trains and buffer stops.


To safeguard the movement of trains through points.
To maintain a safe distance between following trains on the same
track.
Preventing the train to switch "mode" when not appropriate.

Automatic Train Protection

To adapt metro signaling to modern, electronic ATP, the overlaps are


incorporated into the block system. This is done by counting the
block behind an occupied block as the overlap. Thus, in a full, fixed
block ATP system, there will be two red signals and an unoccupied,
or overlap block between trains to provide the full safe braking
distance, as shown here (click for full size view). As an aside,
remember that, although I have shown signals here, many ATP
equipped systems do not have visible line side signals because the
signal indications are transmitted directly to the driver's cab console
(cab signaling).

On a line equipped with ATP as shown above, each block carries an


electronic speed code on top of its track circuit. If the train tries to
enter a zero speed block or an occupied block, or if it enters a
section at a speed higher than that authorized by the code, the onboard electronics will cause an emergency brake application. It was
a simple system with only three speed codes - normal, caution and
stop. Many systems built since are based on it but improvements
have been added.

ATP Speed Codes

A train on a line with a modern version of ATP needs two pieces of


information about the state of the line ahead - what speed can it do
in this block and what speed must it be doing by the time it enters
the next block. This speed data is picked up by antennae on the
train. The data is coded by the electronic equipment controlling the
track circuitry and transmitted from the rails. The code data consists
of two parts, the authorised speed code for this block and the target
speed code for the next block. The diagram below shows how this
works.

In this example (left), a train in Block A5 approaching Signal A4 will


receive a 40 over 40 code (40/40) to indicate a permitted speed of
40 km/h in this block and a target speed of 40 km/h for the next.
This is the normal speed data. However, when it enters Block A4,
the code will change to 40/25 because the target speed must be 25
km/h when the train enters the next Block A3. When the train enters
Block A3, the code changes again to 25/0 because the next block
(A2) is the overlap block and is forbidden territory, so the speed

must be zero by the time train reaches the end of Block A3. If the
train attempts to enter Block A2, the on-board equipment will detect
the zero speed code (0/0) and will cause an emergency brake
application. As mentioned above, Block A2 is acting as the overlap
or safe braking distance behind the train occupying Block A1.

Operating with ATP

Trains operating over a line equipped with ATP can be manually or


automatically driven. To allow manual driving, the ATP codes are
displayed to the driver on a panel in his cab. In our example below,
he would begin braking somewhere around the brake initiation point
because he would see the 40/25 code on his display and would
know, from his knowledge of the line, where he will have to stop. If
signals are not provided, the signal positions will normally be
indicated by trackside block marker boards to show drivers the
entrances to blocks.

If the train is installed with automatic driving (ATO - Automatic Train


Operation), brake initiation for the reduced target speed can be by
either a track mounted electronic "patch" or "beacon" placed at the
brake initiation point or, more simply, by the change in the coded
track circuit. Both systems are used by different manufacturers but,
in both, the train passes through a series of "speed steps" to the
signaled stop.

When the first train clears Block A1, the codes in Blocks A2, A3 and
A4 will change to the next speed up and any train passing through

them will receive immediately a new permitted speed and a new


target speed for the next block. This allows an instant response to
changing conditions and helps to keep trains moving.

Distance-to-Go

The next stage of ATP development was an attempt to eliminate the


space lost by the empty overlap block behind each train. If this
could be eliminated, line capacity could be increased by up to 20%,
depending on block lengths and line speed. In this diagram, the
train in Block A1 causes a series of speed reduction steps behind it
so that, if a following train enters Block A6, it will get a reduced
target speed. As it continues towards the zero speed block A2, it
gets a further target speed reduction at each new block until it stops
at the end of Block A3. It will stop before entering Block A2, the
overlap block. The braking curve is shown here in brown as the
"standard" braking curve.

To remove the overlap section, it is simply a question of moving the


braking curve forward by one block. The train will now be able to
proceed a block closer (A5 instead of A6) to the occupied block,
before it gets a target speed reduction. However, to get this close to
the occupied block requires accurate and constant checking of the
braking by the train, so an on-board computer calculates the
braking curve required, based on the distance to go to the stopping

point and using a line map contained in the computer's memory.


The new curve is shown in blue in the diagram. A safety margin of
25 meters or so is allowed for error so that the train will always stop
before it reaches the critical boundary between Blocks A2 and A1.

Speed Monitoring

Both the older, speed step method of electronic ATP and "distanceto-go" require the train speed to be monitored. In Fig 8 above, we
can see the standard braking curve of the speed step system always
remains inside the profile of the speed steps. The train's ATP
equipment only monitors the train's speed against the permitted
speed limit within that block. If the train goes above that speed, an
emergency brake application will be invoked. The standard braking
curve made by the train is not monitored.

For the distance-to-go system, the development of modern


electronics has allowed the brake curve to be monitored
continuously so that the speed steps become unnecessary. When it
enters the first block with a speed restriction in the code, the train is
also told how far ahead the stopping point is. The on-board
computer knows where the train is now, using the line "map"
embedded in its memory, and it calculates the required braking
curve accordingly. As the train brakes, the computer checks the
progress down the curve to check the train never goes outside it. To
ensure that the wheel revolutions used to count the train's
progression along the line have not drifted due to wear, skidding or
sliding, the on-board map of the line is updated regularly during the
trip by fixed, track-mounted beacons laid between the rails.

Operation with Distance-to-Go

Distance-to-go ATP has a number of advantages over the speed step


system. As we have seen, it can increase line capacity but also it
can reduce the number of track circuits required, since you don't
need frequent changes of steps to keep adjusting the braking
distance.

The blocks are now just the spaces to be occupied by trains and are
not used as overlaps as well. Distance-to-go can be used for manual
driving or automatic operation.

Systems vary but often, several curves are provided for the train
braking profile. This example shows three: One is the normal curve
within which the train should brake, the second is a warning curve,
which provides a warning to the driver (an audio-visual alarm or a
service break application depending on the system) and the third is
the emergency curve which will force an emergency brake if the
driver does not reduce speed to within the normal curve.

REFERENCES

1 WWW.DELHIMETRO.COM

2 A SURVEY OF DELHI METRO

3 A DREAM REVISITED (BOOK ON DMRC)