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Pega Evans i facie ie Wile: oui Publishing Bo CONTENTS &] Ei Modals Consolidation 1 tre intinitive/-ing form/Participles Consolidation 2 Practice test 1 Eitense Forms Consolidation 3 Li ciauses/Linking Words Consolidation 4 Practice test 2 Revision 1 [Bh Adiectives/adverbs/Comparisons Consolidation 5 i Passive Voice/Causative Form Consolidation 6 Practice test 3 Reported speech Consolidation 7 i conaitionais/wish Consolidation 8 Practice test 4 Revision 2 * Unreal Past 119 122 137 Nouns/articies Consolidation 9 Emphatic Structures/Inversion Consolidation 10 Practice test 5 Determiners/Pronouns Consolidation 11 Bh Questions/Short Answers Consolidation 12 Practice test 6 3 sr 47 Further Practice Sections Appendix 1 Verb, Adjectives, Nouns with Prepositions ‘Appendix 2 Prepositional Phrases Appendix 3 Word Formation Irregular Verbs 205 221 224 231 BSVSHESRISemvausenas Modals The modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, will, would, shall, should, They take no -s in the third person singular. She can sing well. They come before the subject in questions and are followed by “not” in negations. “May | use your phone?" “I’m alraid you can't”. The modal verbs, except for “ought, are followed by an infinitive without to, You ought to be there on time. Certain verbs and expressions have virtually the same ‘meaning as some modals. These are: need (= must), had better (= should), have to/have got to (= must), be able to (= can), used to (= would) ete. You'd better go. Modal verbs are used to express: ability, advice, criticism, logical assumptions, necessity, offers, obligation/duty, permission, possibility, prohibition, requests or suggestions. Identity tt yf 1rbs in bold, then write a synonymous expression. She can't have left yet. Her coat's stillhere. logical assumption. Ihave got to meet my boss for lunch. 2 May | have a glass of water? Shalll we go and see Andrea tonight? We should be home before midnight. She can speak four languages fluently. Can | leave early today? ‘You should stop spending so much money. ‘They must have got married recently. You needn't buy a present, Peter might be able to come tonight. He could have at least phoned me last night. Would you like me to make the arrangements? You can’t leave your bags here, sir. All employees had to work overtime. ‘You don't need to book in advance. Can you give Cathy a message? ‘She should phone to confirm her appointment. Shalll we go shopping at the weekend? sul don’t think.. Fill in the blanks as in tt campl eS asco She could swim before she could walk... ability. ..She was able to ewim before she was able to walk. He .. an actor. 5 I'm sure he's an actor. Shall we have a barbecue tonight? suggestion r Perhaps he's busy. polite request Would you like me to show you the way? exercise regularly. It's a good idea to exercise regularly. Children mustn't play on the grass. . told him the truth, tt would have been better if you hac told him the truth, smmew WAI @ SCHOO! uniform. obligation ‘You are expected to wear a school uniform. tonight. logical assumption | don't think he’s coming tonight. ‘You may board the plane now. permission (formal) -snme BOTFOW your book, please? polite request It's urgent that I send the letter today. 'm sure she hasn't lost it. Modals a ‘Summary of Functions of Modal Verbs USE | PRESENT / FUTURE PAST “ability “He can speak Japanese. = "He could/was able to speak Japanese. i : (repeated action - ably inthe past) | She's able to make people laugh. | We were able to go on a three-month tour of ; Australia. (single action) meee is cI : possibility He can stil be at work. (90% certain) laa ‘She could be angry. (50% certain; it's possible she | We could have had an accident. (luckily we didn't) 's angy) | Sally may be teaching. (60% certain; i's possible John may have broken that vase. (perhaps he cid it) | that she is teaching) ‘You might need to come tomorrow. (40% certain; Jane might have lost our telephone number. perhaps you need to come tomorrow) {perhaps she has lost i) | It is likely that Sue will give up working. It was likely that she had taken the last train. ‘Sue Is likely to give up working. ‘She was likely to have taken the last train. They will be in Spain tomorrow. - (100% certain; prediction) : should see him there. (90% certain; future only; He should have finished by now. «its probable) | (He has probably finished.) | She ought to be in Canada by now. (90% certain; They ought to have started the course by now. ‘she will probably be in Canada) (They have probably started the course) logical _ He must be exhausted. (90% certain - positive; He must have won the pools. (positive; I'm sure assumptions. I'm sure he's exhausted) he has won the pools) She can't be serious. (negative; 'm sure she's not She can't have married Ted. (negative; 'm sure | serous) she didn't marry Ted) | They couldn't be on holiday. (negative; | They couldn't have been friends. | don't think they are on holiday) (negative; | don’ think they were friends) permission ‘i ‘You can/can't have a party. (giving or refusing wasn't allowed to/couldn't board the plane. ‘permission; informal) He was allowed to see the patient. (NOT: could) Could | be excused? (more polite; asking for - | permission) “You may be excused. (formal; ving permission) | Might | bring a friend to the wedding? (more - _ormal asking for permission) | I'm afraid you can'tmustn't have visitors. - “informal; refusing permission) | Guests may not smoke in their rooms. - ‘ (lormal; reusing permission — writen notice) | I must return these books soon. (| say so) | had to return the books to the library. (I was i obliged to) “ ghe has to find a new job. (necessity coming tom She had to find @ new job after she was | outside the speaker) dismissed. _ They've got to sell their caravan. (ntrma) "They had to sell their caravan. “The plants need watering. or The plants | The plants needed watering. or The plants | need to be watered. (i's necessary) needed to be watered. (t was necessary) | She doesn't have to/doesn't need to/ She didn’t have to/didn’t need to work as hard | needn't leave when they do. (isnt necessary aS me. (it wasn't necessary for her to work as j sboenoe of necosety) hard as me and she didn't - absence of necessity) We ought to reply to the invitation. (i's necessary) She needn't have got a taxi. (it wasn't necessary i for her to get a taxi but she did) \4 Modals = | Summary of Functions of Modal Verbs USE PRESENT / FUTURE PAST advice You should try to make more of an "You should have paid more attention. effort. (general advice; | advise you) (but you didn’t) You ought to keep to the speed limit. ‘She ought to have reserved a table. (| advise you; most people believe this) (but she didn’t) You had better not keep her waiting. (It's not It would have been better if you hadn't a good idea; advice on a specific situation) ‘kept her waiting. (but you did) Shall | apply for the job? (asking for advice) criticism She could at least wait until 5 o'clock. ‘She could at least have waited until 5 o'clock. They should warn us. They should have warned us. (but they didn’t) You ought to be more polite to her. You ought to have been more polite to her. (It _ asthe right thing to do, but you dnt do it) ‘obligation | must get more exercise. (I need to; | say 50) | had to get more exercise because | was unfit. have to get more exercise. ('m obliged | had to get more exercise because | was unfit. to; the doctor says so) We ought to give more money to charity We ought to have given more money to (isthe right thing to do, but we don't Charity. (twas the ight thing to do but we always do it) | didn't doit) requests Can | use your phone? (informal) i = Could | use your phone? (pole) | = ‘May I make a phone call, please? (formal) - Might | borrow your pen? (very formal) | ne Will you give me a hand? (very rienaiy) | - _ Would you mind helping me? (ptt) i - otters Can we do anything o hep? (era) i = ‘Shall I/we help you tidy up? (informal) | = Would you like me to do it for you? | - suggestions. Shall we stop for acrink? i - \Vwe can always leave early. | ‘We could eat out tonight if you want. | He could have asked for advice. Prohibition You can't wear jeans at work. (you aren't | They couldnt wear jeans at work (hey allowed to) | weren't allowed to) ‘You mustn't walk on the grass. (i's forbidden) a ‘You may not tak during the test. (rma) - duty ‘Al members must follow the rules. |All members had to foliow the rules. People ought to live in peace. (I's the right hing She ought to have treated us more fairly. (t was 10 do, but people don't doit) ‘the right thing to do but she didn't always do it) Rephrase the following in as y ways as possible. 1 She might have misunderstood you. 2 I'm sure they are tied. 3 They ought to pay more attention. 4 | don't think she’s sold her house. 5 It's likely that he'll object. 6 We may have to wait for them 7 I'm sure she isn't Australian. 8 I'm sure he is terrified. 9 We ought to offer to help. 10 They'll probably want something to eat. 11 You can't park here. 12 He should have wamed us about the dog. Modals oy — Mustn’t - Needn't @ mustn't (it's forbidden) You mustn't cross the street when the light is red. @ needn't / don't have to (it isn’t necessary) You needn't worry about it. do it in a minute, 4 | Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1. Soldiers are forbidden to leave the camp unless they get special permission. not Soldiers ....must not leave the camp... unless they get special permission. 2 Unauthorised personnel are not allowed to go beyond this point. must Unauthorised personnel sa pe 3. Itisn’t necessary for Jim to get up early tomorrow as itis a holiday, have Jim ... pie .. Up early tomorrow as it is a holiday. 4 Readers are not allowed to take books out of the library without first filing in a form. not Readers ... : ut of the library without first filing in a form. 5 Itisn’t necessary for Julie to work today; she can have the day off. have Julie .. Beets FE_ frit the gaps with must, mustn't or needn't. this point. .. today; she can have the day off. Aan erg feeb ker Brey srr tke ‘you with some rules and regulations. Fist ofall, you 1) ..ust:.. wear the uniforms which are supplied, ond you 2) keop {your hair covered otal times, You 3)... wear gloves unless you choose fo, except in a few "smoke anywhere in the factory opar from the canteen, and you forget to wash your hands after breaks. You 6) stay inthe factory during your breoks, but ou 7) su dock in and out i you do leave the premises. You 8) work overtime, but we do encourage our workers fo do so if hey wish to. Last but not lea, if you have any problems, yOu 9)... Go 10 YOUr supervisor who will help you fo sort them out es ‘Needhn’t - Didn't need to ~ Needn't have ‘© don’t have to/don’t need to/needn't + present infinitive (It is not necessary in the present or future) You con't have to/don’t need to/needn’t wear an evening dress. i's an informal party. (ts not necessary to wear ..) © didn’t need to/didn’t have to (It was not necessary in the past and we may not know if the action happened or not) She didn't need to/didn’t have to wear an evening dress as it was an informal party. (it wasn't necessary for her to wear an evening dress, and we don't know if she did or not) © needn't + bare perfect infinitive (We know that something happened in the past although it was not necessary.) You needn't have cooked as much food as you did last night. (You ald, although it was not necessary.) a Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1. Itwasn't necessary for him to write to his mum because she rang him. need He ...didn’t need to write... to his mum because she rang him. 2 We took more luggage than was necessary on our holiday taken We: 3. There's no need for you to water the plants this morning. have You é sesso the plants this morning. 4 Itwasn't necessary for Arthur to get the train because his brother offered to give him a lift ... Much luggage on our holiday. need Arthur the train because his brother offered to give him a lift, 5 She came early last night, which wasn't necessary because the party didn't start til ten. come She .... vnnsstsnnsne @atty last night because the party didn’t star tll ten, 6 f Present Cont nfiitve sues sty. fen Perfect Infinitive _ I'm sure he didn't study. 'm sure he hasn't studied. __.._ {im sure he hadn't studied, “Perfect Cont. Infinitive | Perhaps he was studying __ He maylmight have been studying. | Perhaps he has been studying. He may/might have been studying, [El_compiete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1. I'm sure she has given up smoking, have She ...rnust have given up... smoking. 2: Um eure abe ft fot sick now. be She ee 3. Perhaps they were erking for the enemy. have They 4 Perhaps he will be on time. me Me na 5 Perhaps he was too ilo take part inthe race. been He .. 8 Tin ie ty Fred ta es aba Ina eo .- to take part in the race. have They ..... : about the robbery. 77 Perhaps Harry willbe sunbathing this time tomorrow. be Harry é tomorrow. 8 I'm sure he had warned the soldiers about the coming danger. have He . about the coming danger. 9 Imm sure Jenny hasr't been working there that tong. have Jenny ... 40. Perhaps she was telling you the truth. been She 11 Perhaps she's been working hard. been She 12 Perhaps she'll come with us. may She wen 13. I'm sure she hadn't prepared her speech, have She wn 14, Perhaps he was asleep when we rang. been He 15 ethece faa lig Wace e get there. may He ae when we get there. 16 I'm sure she didn't know about. known She 8 about it 17m certain ithas stopped raining now. have It a . faining now. 18. We posable lone hen rat have Jane .. sone already. 7 Modals © Be supposed to + infinitive means “should” but it expresses the idea thal someone else expects something to be done. You're supposed to wear a suit to work. (Your employer expects you to.) You should wear a sult. (It is a good idea because it makes a better impression.) © Be to + infinitive means “must” but it expresses the idea that someone else demands something. Tam to report for miltary training. (ls the law so | must obey.) | must report for military training. (M1 don't, the ‘army will look for me.) Be supposed to and be to are used to express what someone expects about a previously arranged event. Recruits are supposed tojare fo hiave a haircut when they arrive. (It ls scheduled.) Be likely to means “may” (possibilty). To express possibilty in questions we don't use “may", we use: Is he likely to .?, Is it likely that he ...2, Can he ...?, Could he ...2, Might he ...?. 1s he likely to understand my feelings? Is it likely that he will understand my feelings? Could he understand my feelings? © Would you mind is used to express polite, formal requests. Would you mind holding this for a moment? © Let’s.../How about...2/Why don't we...?/What about...? are used to make suggestions. Let’s stay n fonight. How about staying in tonight? Why don’t we stay in tonight? What about staying in tonight? . . Would you like to/Would you like me to...? (= Shall |.) are used when we offer to do something. Would you like me to read you a story? (Shall | read you a story?) Be allowed to is used to express permission, to say what the rule is. He was allowed to visit the prisoner. (NOT: Geule-he-vie#) Was he allowed to visit the prisoner? FE_How else can we say the following? 1. Itis likely that she has got lost. ...She is likely to have got lost... 2. Shall | book a ticket for you as Well? nme 3 How about inviting Paul and Helen? 0. Z 4 [1am to welcome the guests and show them to their rooms. .. Might he have forgotten all about it? You have to wait until dark before you leave. 5 6 o Fill in a modal or a synonymous expression and the appropriate form of the verb in brackets. 4. There's no reply when Iring him. He ...1must have left... (leave) the office already. 2 Don't give up so easily. You ....... (do) it if you tried a little harder. 3. That's no excuse! You know you - - .... (finish) this report by today. 4 He... . (mention) his plans on the phone last night but | really can’t remember. 5 Since she crashed the car, she . Me sovcon - (walk) to work every day. 6 7 8 Mfyou find something valuable, you .. Passengers .. You (take) it to the nearest police station “ (not/walk) across the lines. They should use the footbridge. (know) better than to tell her all your secrets. (destroy) the letter as soon as you receive it. (enter) the building if you have a special pass. (find out) what time the London train arrives. i a (wait) for ages. (take) the library books back yesterday but 41 Can you help me? 12. He looks very annoyed. He .. BV a sins | forgot and now I'll have to pay a fine. 14 Increased sales mean that all employees - (be given) an extra Christmas bonus. .. (you/take) grandma to the cinema tonight as | have to go out? : = one. (not/wear) jewellery. (bring) the map with you so we wouldn't have to ask people the way. : (carry) some of them for you? 46 When | was at school we 17 You ... Z 18 Those bags look heavy. 19 Don't pretend you don't know 20 You rr : (have) a valid ticket on the bus. (ring) me to let me know you'd be late. | was worried. 10 1" 2 13 4 15 16 Modals Perhaps he is working now. © He is likely to buy a sports car. He may be working now. itis likely that he will buy @ sports car. I'm sure he hasn't got the letter yet. He'll probably buy a sports car. He can't have got the letter yet. © Itisn’t necessary for him to work today. {'m sure she understood. He doesn't have to/doesn't need toineedn't work Perhaps the bridge collapsed because of the storm. have The bridge ...may/might have collapsed... because of the storm. Hel probably com fhe pay likely He : You mustn't photograph any ofthe paintings. allowed You .. It's forbidden to touch the statues in the museum. touch You 1'm sure he didn't cheat in the exam. cheated He ..... Was it necessary for you to call a doctor? the party. wu any of the paintings, in the museum, .. in the exam. need Did a doctor? Shall | carry your srepping sor yOu me Would ... tt .- your shopping for you? 'm sure Ann didn’t do it on purpose. have Ann... on purpose. Might | take some photos? it Would some photos? Let’s go and see “The Blob” tonight. we Shall ‘The Blob” tonight? Itisn't necessary for you to do that exercise. need You . that exercise. It would be a good idea to eat less high-cholesterol food should You vas ecemeey ba rao snecem na high-cholesterol food taken HE nnn a coat {im sure Ann spends all her money on clothes. spend Ann ..on clothes. Was it necessary for you to say that? have Did ow that? ''m sure he knew what he was doing. known He os he was doing, Modals in the space in the same line. FEI_Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in CELEBRITY CHEF ] Becoming @) ...2uccessful.. in your career is often a SUCCESS , a) of hard work, the right background and luck. COMBINE Top chef, Jamie Oliver, is a good example, His parents were restaurant (2) .. $0 from an early age OWN Oliver had the chance to develop his (3) . skills in the CREATE kitchen. He attended colleges in London and France, and gained several years’ (4) ssn experience in London restaurants. PRACTISE In the famous River Café, in particular, Oliver made his TV debut when a (5) .. about the restaurant was being filmed DOCUMENT there. From there, he has never looked back. His own © programme, The Naked Chef, became a cooK a favourite. He has also published many NATION @) : popular cook books. nich ‘Two things have made Oliver stand out as a chef. The first is his ~ chain of restaurants, Fifteen, that (9) in training SPECIAL young people from poor backgrounds in the catering business. The second is his campaign to ban (10) junk food from being HEALTH served in British schools, replacing it with more nutritional meals. Oral Development 1 Make speculations for the following pictures as in the example. He is a disabled man. He can't walk. He may have had a car accident The lady may be his wife. etc Consolidation GB Fill in the correct particle(s } 1. After months of preparation, the director is ...about be after: go after; chase ‘0.x start shooting his new film. be against: be opposed to | 2 Therm youto decide what todo. be away: be absent | 3 I thought the match Would be wn. BY NOW. bbe back: return; come back 4 I'mafraid we're ‘a bumpy flight. be in: be at home/in one’s office ete 5 Your work isn't your normal standard, bbe in for: be about to experience (usu bad) 6 My washing machine is being repaired as it broke tbe on: be shown in cinemas, theatres etc yesterday. bbe over: be finished 7 The waiter brOKE -sann.neu Our conversation to ‘be up to: 1) be equal to, 2) depend on take our order. svvsseen 8 She broke ......... their engagement because break down: 1) (of machinery) stop working, she realised she didn't love him. 2) (of a person) lose:control of feelings 9 School breaks .......... for the Christmas break in: 1) (intr) enter by force, 2) (on) interrupt, holidays on 23rd December. 3) (horses etc) train 40. He broke .. . after hearing the news of his wife's death. 11 Robbers broke the bank yesterday. 12. Two dangerous criminals have broken... jail. 13. Their marriage broke ........ after five years. 14 Mr Jones broke the interview to answer break into: 1) (tr) enter by force, 2) burst into (song, laughter etc) ‘break off: 1) stop temporarily, 2) (tr) end a relationship ‘break out: 1) begin suddenly (war, disease, fire etc), 2) (of) escape from a place the phone. break up: 1) (int) separate; spit up, 2) stop for 15 The horse must be Broken... before anyone holidays (schools etc) can ride it. [Ei_t00k at Appendix 1, then fil in the correct preposition. 1. Catherine was absent ...from... school yesterday. | 10 Do you believe............. ghosts? 2 Mr King received fifty letters in answer .. 11 He Was Angry weno ANA .nmmnee h@t behaviour. his advertisement. 12 The antique dealer took advantage the 3 She was amazed...» the fantastic view. customer's ignorance and sold him a fake. 4 He is very attached his parents. 13. She was very anxious him to arrive. 5. She isn't accustomed ... drinking 44 She was so anxious ~ her exams that she champagne. couldn't sleep. 6 She decided to apply Jones Lid 15 He agreed..........his boss that the office needed = the job advertised in the local paper. reorganising and agreed ........ do it himself, 7 She accused her son taking some 16 Her latest novel is based ... the life of Joan money from her purse. Collins. 8 My doctor doesn't approve ‘smoking 17 [can see no basis... changing our plans now. 9 He argues: - his wife everything. 18 He enjoys betting the horses. [Zi_complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1. L advise you to check the details before you sign the contract. had You ...ad better check the details... belore you sign the contract. 2 Itisn't necessary for you to drive me to the station. have You : : sue M@ to the station. 3 There’s no milk left. run We .. milk. 4 Don't blame me if there's no food in the house. fault Mt. ... there's no food in the house. iT Consolidation 5 Diana moved to London after finishing her degree. since Diana 6 Our house is an hour's walk from the vilage. takes It 7 She should be told the truth. better It. 8 | should wash the curtains. need — Thecurtains .. 9. Im sure he read about tin the newspaper. have He .. .. she finished her degree. ... to our house from the village. . her the truth. s» Washed. .. in the newspaper. = | How to treat Open Cloze Texts: ‘@ Read the whole passage at least once to become acquainted with the general meaning. © Try tofind out what kind of word is missing (noun, adjective, advert, modal, article, preposition etc). Look at the words which are close to each blank or in the same sentenoe but consider other words as well. a) They were tired ...... they decided to have a rest for a couple of hours. (The second clause is @ result of the frst clause, therefore we need “so”) b) He has got... fastest car I've ever seen. (The adjective is a superlative - it needs “the".) 9) ‘awful weather! (The exclamation mark shows that this sentence is an exclamatory one, so we need either “what” or “how” — in this case “what” because there is an uncountable noun after the gap.) ) He was........ absorbed in the book that he didn’t notice that someone had entered the room. (There is a “that” in the sentence, therefore we need to use either “so” or “such” — in this case “so” because there is an adjective but no noun after the blank.) ) He didn't have ...... money to go on holiday. (The infinitive construction shows that we need either “too” or “enough” to fil the gap. The word “money” determines that the appropriate word is “enough” because “too” can only be used with adjectives or adverbs.) ‘© One area that needs particular care is constructions with modal verbs. You needn't. left so early. (the missing word is “have” ~ needn't + have + past participle) @ Another area which needs particular care is constructions with relative pronouns/adverbs. Chair, .. ‘has been in the USA for three years, has come back. (correct answer: who — that cannot be used after a comma.) The man... house belongs to is in Paris. (correct answer: the/this/that) © When you have completed the cloze text, read the passage carefully to see itt makes sense and is ‘grammatically correct. B Choose the correct item. 1. She has got ...C.. loudest voice I've ever heard. | 6 Jane, .... has just passed her driving test, is A this Ba Cthe having a party to celebrate. Awhich Bwho — C that 2 There were not....... chairs for everyone. Aenough Bquite Cso 7 Thad... litte time to go to the shops. A too B such C enough 3. [was ...... interested in what the teacher was saying that | didn't notice the time. 8 The woman ...... Gat belongs to has gone away for A too Bas C0 aweek. A this B which € of ‘some I've seen in 4 These cars are not as big .. America. 9 This is the beach ...... we go every weekend. Athan Bas Cto Awhich — B where that 5 If cars weren't so expensive, we ....buyanewone. 10 ...... tasty food! Asha —B did C would AWhat — B So C How Consolidation 11 twas... cold to go for a swim in the sea. 16 They were late...... they decided to take a taxi, Aas B enough C too Aso as C that 12 You shouldn't... drunk all the milk 17 She was much....... after she had changed her job. Ahave Bhad Chas A happiest B happy — C happier 13 After you had given me the money, I put....in the 18 1 Was... fired to watch television, so | went bank, straight to bed, Athy Bthem Cit A quite — B so € too 14 Heis....... a good athlete that he is certain tomake 19 if only we....... left earlier, we would have been the team. there by now. Aso Bsuch CC too Adid Bhad were 15... lovely you look in that dress! __ 20) The weather in Greece is hot... n England ASuch = BHow —C What | Ag Bhan C tke. GB Think of the word which best fits each gap. Write only one word in each one. Today English is, without doubt, the world’s (0) ..1"i0st.. important language. One (1) srssmone ton people speak it as their mother tongue and it has a larger vocabulary (2) .- any other language. English belongs to the Indo- European family of languages, (3) .. developed from a parent language first spoken about five thousand years ago in central-northem Europe. From there, it spread to the (4) of Europe and the Middle East, and over time it developed into a series of new language groups. One of (6) . Was Germanic, which later spit into old English, Dutch, German and the Scandinavian languages. Old English was later heavily influenced by French following the Norman invasion in the eleventh century. Then, in the sitteenth century, due ©). the invention of printing, the increase (7) opportunities for education and the growth of international trade and communication, this form of The English, which is known (8) ‘Middle English, changed into the language ‘spoken nowadays, Modern English. Language change continues (8) English present day, although since 1800 the major area of change has been in vocabulaty rather (10) .......» grammar. Events (11). a the Industrial Revolution and the two world wars are among the reasons for the expansion of Language vocabulary. (12). factor is the growing influence of the media. E_Fitlin the following collocation grid ‘an invitation aaying sth an accusation help anoffer knowledge towork responsibilty refuse oa deny pasepore hand teeth lighte flowers promise alarm statement’ faloe v artificial ky hhands voice house view clothes record conscience clean clear Consolidation a oO Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. When it comes to choosing a (0) ...relaxing... holiday away from it all, the RELAX possibilities are (1) ... . Stroll into any travel agent's office and you will END find a huge range of glossy holiday brochures offering a wide choice from @) . Fesorts to campsites. ‘LUXURY, WARM ‘PEACE You can choose from the (3) .. of a Caribbean island during the dreary winter months to a (4) .....+-.. visit to the Alps in spring. The air there is so (5) .. that the oxygen levels in your blood will rise! On the other hand, POLLUTE you may want to visit a large bustling capital city like New York or Tokyo, where you will (6) ... be in the heart of a shopper’s paradise, even if the city atmosphere might seem a little (7) .. if you make an effort to mix with the local people. In the countryside, especially, the locals are noted for their (9) ...--.eceesss++:++» and this may be a factor in explaining the (10) .. of small family-run guest houses rather than large hotels. [Ei_complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 0 Akind woman told us how to get to the museum, directions We ....were given directions to... the museum by a kind woman. 1 It's not necessary to defrost this pie before cooking needn't — The pie .. 2. I'm sure you had a great time in the Bahamas. enjoyed — You . 3. The twins are so alike that you can't tell them apart. difference The twins are so alike that you can't 4 The worst time to go into town is in the rush hour. worse There : 5 Thieves entered the building by force. broken — The building .. 6 I have never had such an exciting holiday. ‘TRUE PERSONAL Whatever choice of holiday you make, you will find your stay more (8) oe ENJOY, HOSPITABLE POPULAR before cooking. .» the Bahamas. to go into town than the rush hour. Pe ... thieves. far This is holiday | have ever had. 7 You ought to have apologised. better It. you had apologised. 8 My brother said | could borrow his car. permission My brother borrow his car. The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles i Forms of the infinitive | Forms of the -ing form | Active Voice | Passive Voice | Active Voice | Passive Voice Present (to) play (to) be played playing _ being played Present Continuous ; ()beplying9 =—=Ss=CS*=“‘“‘S~*~*S yy so = Perfect “ (to) have played (to) have been played having played | having been played Perfect Continuous “ (to) have been playing Siamese | - i ‘ Pais 2 * Passive Present Continuous and Perfect Continuous Infinitives are rarely used. 4 1 Forms of the infinitive corresponding to verb tenses. Verb tenses | Forms of the Infinitive Present Simple/Future Simple Present she cleans/shi will clean = ares i _fto) clean Present Continucus/Future Continuous: Present Continuous. ‘she is cleaning/she will be cleaning (to) be cleaning wnone B Fill in the correct form of the infinitive. Cervonnens Past Simple/Present PertectPast PerfectFuture Perfect she cleaned/she has cleaned/she had cleaned/she will have cleaned _ Past Continuous/Present Perfect Continuous/Past Perfect | Continuous/Future Perfect Continuous she was cleaning/she has been cleaning/she had been cleaning/ (to) have been cleaning she will have been cleaning i she finished 6 itis brought he was driving 7 they are studying ithas been taught 8 twill be accepted they had come 9 it was written she tries 10 she has left tye looked everywhere, but the fle eppears..£0 have ben mieplaced.. (mlsplaca) He is not old enough f 2 {allow) to stay out late. Since her iliness, she seems .. 3 (find) work difficult Although Jane hopes . (Invite) to the embassy dinner, it is unlikely that she will be. The little dog seems. = .» (l08e) its master. {dort think 1 beable to make i tomar m supposed . (meet) Jane for lunch. Sho wae ony pretending . (read); she was really daydreaming. No one is, (admit) to the concert without a ticket The team is said .. a a wwe (win) the match through sheer luck. Ineed you . (help) me prepare the food for the party. The accident is believed . (cause) by reckless driving. The newspaper ecetved mary cals from people caning vn . (See) UFOs. He was the first British writer... Aren't you supposed .. (award) the Nobel prize for literature. (look after) your sister at the moment? uj The Inf i The to-infinitive is used i © to express purpose. You should take a few days off to recover. © after certain verbs (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse etc). He agreed to meet us tonight. © after certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry etc). Twas sorry to hear about your accident. €or | would likelwouldlove/would prefer to express _ specific preference. I'd love to visit India. ‘© aftr certain nouns. I's such a pleasure to be with you © ater too/enugh constructions. it's too early to leave the par He's rich enough to afford 2 Porsche. There's enough food to go roun © with: + be + adjective (+ of + nour/pronoun). was unkind of her to say that. © with: so + adjective + as. Would you be so kind as to pass the sauce? © with “only” to express an unsatisfactory result. He won in the lottery only to lose at the casino, =| © after: be + the first/second etc/next/last/best etc. ‘She was the first to congratulate him. @ in the expression: for + noun/pronoun + to -inf For John to lend you his car was very unusué © in expressions such as: to tell you the truth, to begin with, to be honest etc. To be honest, | cich’t know how to react ‘Note: If two infintives are joined by “and” or “or”, the “to” of the second infinitive can be omitted. prefer to go to a disco and dance or talk to my friends. e / -ing form / Participles The -ing form is used as anoun, Smoking is harmful. after certain verbs (admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, ‘escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, go (physical activities), imagine, involve, keep (= continue), ‘mention, mind, miss, object to, postpone, practise, prevent, quit, recall, recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, save, stand, suggest, tolerate, understand et). They have postponed moving house til next week. after: dislike, enjoy, hate, lke, love, prefer to express ‘general preference. / like swimming. (in general) * Note: like + to-inf = it's a good idea like to help people. after: 'm busy, I's no use, It's (no) good, it’s (not) worth, what's the use of, can't help, there's no point {in), can't stand, have difficulty (in), in addition to, as well as, have trouble, have a hard/dificult time. There's no point in arguing. What's the use of crying? it was your faut after: spend/waste (time, money etc). You waste too much time watching TV. atter prepositions. He became rich by working hard and without borrowing trom anyone: ater: look forward to, be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, object to, admit (to) etc object to being told what to do with my life. after: hear, listen, notice, see, watch, to express an incomplete action, an action in progress or a long action. | saw him throwing rubbish out of the window. (I Saw part of the action. didn't wait until he had finished. Perhaps he threw more rubbish.) BUT hear, listen, see, watch + infinitive without “to” express a complete action something that one saw (or heard from beginning to end. saw him throw rubbish out of the window. (I saw all of the rubbish being thrown out of the window:) = | The infinitive without to is used © after most modal verbs (can, could, may etc). He can go if he wants to © after had betteriwould ratherfwould sooner. You'd better go to bed. © after mako/let/see/hearffeel in the active. She made the baby eat all his soup. But in the passive: be made/be heard/be seen + to-inf. The baby was made to eat all his soup. Note that “let” turns into “was/were allowed to” in the passive. Her parents let her stay out til midnight. She was allowed to stay out till midnight. Note: The subject of the infinitive or the -ing form is omitted when its the same as the subject of the main verb. | would like to help with the preparations. When itis different, however, it is not omitted. The subject of the infinitive can be an object pronoun, a name or a noun. / would like her/Mary/my assistant to help with the preparations. The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles Write what each word is followed by: F.l. (full inf.), 8.1. (bare inf.) or -ing form. refuse + Fil. 7 promise finish + 8 be known dislike san 9 would like would rather + 10 it's no use WOU rsa 11 admit objectto + 12 let 13. hear + 14 it's no good + 15 decide + 16 deny + eet ees The police made the bank robbers ..give... (give) themselves up. He is not likely .. (return) before five o'clock. The criminals were forced (surrender) They might not... svsunesnevnes OMPHAIN) About the meal ifthe service hadn't been so dreadful Man is 88:0. (invent) the wheel about'ter thousand years ago. You must : .. (Starve) to have eaten such a big dinner last night. 1 2 3 4 6 6 [ZaL_Filin the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form. Mind the ten 1 2 3 4 5 6 q 8 She'd better ie (have) a good excuse for being so late. They hope (make) a lot of money in their new business. 9 The wind tends -.. (inerease) just before sunset 10 He should seve (tell) his parents the truth when they asked him. 11 IMAgINe ..nmnnnennnnnnnesnmne (HVE) iN a big house like that! 12 I'd rather not (visit) my parents this weekend. 13 She's too tired ... ‘sssnneee (BOMGNNtFate) On her work today. 14 You should (see) his face when she told him the news. 15. Itwas such a shock ssmmnnee (NOME) from her after all these years. 16 Ann would love .. - (lie) on a beach now, instead of typing reports. 17. The doctor worked for fifteen hours without swe (take) a break. 18. John's father let him «nu. (borrow) his car for the weekend 19. There's no point epee ee ore a ea 20 Jim doesn't have enough patience sn (Be) @ teacher. [E_Fittin the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form. No visit to China would be complete without 1) ..going... (go) to Shanghai, where you can expect 2) (find) a fresh, sophisticated new city awaiting you. While its sights may not 3) nsinsnne (U8) a8 grand oF historical as cities such as Beijing or Xi'an, there's certainly enough 4)... (keep) you enchanted during your visit to this rich and cosmopolitan city which is said DP (have) a shining future as Asia's major centre of economy and trade. No one anticipated the pace of change in Beijing 6) (be) quite as fast as it has been! In 1985, Shanghai had one skyscraper, now ithas around 3,000, in addition to 7) have) literally hundreds (of new air-conditioned shopping centres and convenience stores. ‘As well as 8) (drink) in the city’s vibrant atmosphere, don't forget 9) « (Spend) some time 10) (ook) around the Old City to the west of the Huang Pu River that divides Shanghai in two. ‘Above all, enjoy your trip! However, let me 11) (give) you a word of warning it is perhaps best 12) (avoid) Shanghai altogether during Chinese New Year, but if you do decide 13) ....-n--- (Go) during this time, be prepared 14) (have) a hard time 15) (get) around in the crowds for most shops, businesses and tourist attractions will be closed 16). (make) shopping difficult The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles [Ei_Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive with or without “t When Gilbert decided 1)...'0 lve up... (give up) is job and 2). (ell all his, possessions, everyone thought he was mad. But, as it turned out, he was just the first ‘of many of my friends 3) cums (0) ths. in fact, escaping the pressures of everyday working life has become a priority for many people these days. They can't stand the idea of 4) .. (work) until they are 65, only 5) (retire) to some boring country village and 6)... (waste) their time 7) b (dig) the garden or 8). (gossip) with the neighbours. They would rather 9) onsen (Ue) life to the full now, before they are too old 10) g (enjoy) it. 11) (buy) a motorcycle and 12) (tout) the world i a popular option. Other, less adventurous types might prefer 13) x.n.nmmnn (OU) & small farmhouse and live off the land. Personally, | fancy 14) al) around the world in a yacht. As for Gilbert, he bought a house in alittle country village and spends his time 15) (walk) around the village and 16) with the neighbours. Boe the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive without “to”. 1 I watched her ...get up... (get up) and walk slowly out of the room. 2 [heard the phone oe (ring) twice and then stop. 3. Tim saw dil... uu (Stand) Outside the butcher's as he was driving to work. 4 Jane stopped to watch the river .. (low) down the mountainside 5. Listen to the wind... .. (blow) through the trees. 6 We heard the workmen .. (rill) in the road as we were eating breakfast. 7. The witness saw the burglar . (break into) the house and steal the television. 8 Listen to her .. juss (SING) the song and then tell us what you think of it. On “Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form without a change in meaning @ begin, continue, intend, start + to-inf or -ing form. We don't normally have two -ing forms together. He began speaking/to speak. NOT: He-e-beginning-speaking- © advise, allow, encourage, permit, require + object + to-inf. She doesn't allow them to talk in class. ‘advise, allow, encourage, permit, require + -ing form. She doesn't allow talking in class. be advised, be allowed, be encouraged, be permitted, be required + to-int. They aren't allowed to talk in class. @ need, require, want + to-int/-ing form/passive int. * You need to wash the car. Your car needs washing. Your car needs to be washed. a ‘Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five word: 1 We weren't advised to book in advance. advise They ...didn't advice us to... book in advance. 2. You really need to renew your passport before you go on holiday. needs Your passport before you go on holiday. 3. They require hotel guests to vacate their rooms by twel are Hotel Quests nnn e _.u their rooms by twelve noon. 4. The dietician advised us not to eat between meals. eating The dietician e between meals. 5 They need to consider the proposals more carefully. considered The proposals .. more carefully. ll 1 ‘She went on writing til the early hours of the moming. 4" The In forget + to-inf (= forget to do sth) He forgot to switch off the TV. forget + -ing form (= forget a past event) {never forget meeting Jane forthe first me. remember + to-inf (= remember to do sth) hope you'll remember to tidy your room. remember + -ing form (= recall a past event) don't remember him ever tying up his room. ‘mean + to-int (= intend to) ‘She means to start a new ite mean + -ing form (= involve) | won't take the job ft means moving to Scotand. go on + to-inf (= finish doing sth and start doing sth else; then; afterwards) ‘She finished one letter and went on to write another. | go on + -ing form (= continue) egret + to-int (= be sorry to) | regret to Inform {you that your services are no longer required. regret + -ing form (= have second thoughts about sth already done) Ho regrets misbehaving. would prefer + to-inf (specific preference) I'd prefer to see you in private. prefer + -ing form (in general) J prefer working on my own. prefer + to-inf + rather than + inf without to (say you like one thing instead of another) He prefers fo paint the flat on his own rather than hire a professional. e / -ing form / Participles \Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form with a change in meaning 12 7 try + to-inf (= do one's best; attempt) Try to eat less high-cholestero! food. try + -ing form (= do sth as an experiment) Try cutting down on fat. You might get thinner. 8 want + to-inf (= wish) ! want to stop smoking. ‘want + -ing form (= sth needs to be done) This room wants tidying up. 9 stop + tod (= pause temporary) He stopped at the garage to have the tank filed. ‘stop + -ing form (= finish; cease) He stopped behaving foolishly. be sorry + to-inf (= feel regret about sth) 1’'m sorry to tell you your flight has been cancelled. be sorry for + -ing form (= apologise for) He was sorry for hurting her feelings. 10 hhate + to-inf (= hate what one is about to do) hate to cut in, but you must see the manager. hate + -ing form (= feel sorry for what one is doing) "hate causing you so much inconvenience. be afraid + todint (= be too tightened todo sth; hesitate) She was afraid to climb the tree. be atraid of + -ing form (= be afraid that what is referred to by the -ing form may happen) When she goes swimming, she's always afraid of being stung by jelifish. 19 form or the infinitive. ‘A: Oh, Mum, this programme's nearly finished. Can't | go on B: No, I want you to do your maths homework and then go on ... essay. You haven't even started it yet and it's due in tomorrow. ‘A: Your dress is fithy. it wants .. sve (WASH), B: | know. | wanted = (take) it to the cleaner’s yesterday, but they were closed. A: Don't you hate .... (notiknow) anyone here? B: Yes, | get very lonely, but | hate .. csosue (WOFFY) My parents, SO | tell them I've made lots of friends. A: Hil never forget on (visit) Thailand for the first time. B: Yes, it was such a wonderful holy. only I hadn't forgotten A B: A B: A B: vatching... (watch) TV for a while? (write) your English 2 svn (take) my camera, Why don't we stop .. (get) something to eat on the way home? : OK, but we should really stop spend) money on junk food. I'm sorry for .. (Spoil) your plans last weekend. That's OK. | was sorry . (hear) you weren't feeling very well Jane doesn't know how to work the computer, but she's afraid... - But isn’t she afraid of... s- (@8k) for help. .. (Get) into trouble if she breaks it? 10 " 2 The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles A: Did you remember .. (tell) Tim about the party? B: | don't remember... (tell) him, but I'm sure I did. A: Do you regret .. _ (offer) him the job? B: Yes, | regret (say) he's not a reliable employee. A: | think I'd prefer . . (go) on holiday to Greece this year and spend some time visiting ancient sites. B: Y08, | preter nnn (80) something interesting to just _ (sit) on a beach all day. And I'd prefer -~ (go) somewhere warm rather than ... (Stay) in England. A: Did you mean .- (park) so far away? B: Yes. Otherwise, it would mean (pay) to got into a car park A: I've been trying (contact) Mr Isaacs all morning B: Why don't you try... ~ (phone) his club? oD ‘Complete the sentences using the infinitive or the -ing form of the verb in brackets. 1 His lawyer advised him ...z0 take... the journalist to court. (take) 2 IWOUIMA’t AMVISE sree that dog - it might bite you. (touch) 3. The boss doesn't encourage in the office. He's a non-smoker. (smoke) 4 Why do you keep... ime such stupid questions? (ask) 5 | would offer ........ you with the housework, but I'm rather busy. (help) 6 Students are not allowed .. a .. during the exam. (tall) 7 They don't allow .. = ... in this park because some boys used to ride around too fast. (cycle) 8 | really hate senses Caught in the rain. (get) 9. Your chiish behaviour is beginning me. (annoy) 10 She is afraid .. ‘the lift, so st stairs. (take) 11 Remember ts the cat or she'll starve to death. (feed) 42 It's hot in here. Do you mind the window? (open) 13 The bank manager agreed me £5,000. (lend) 14. She put off few hours before her flight. (pack) 15 Our dog Timmy loves with his ball in the garden. (play) 16 She wrote him a note to remin his laundry at 2 o'clock. (pick up) 17 Steven is exhausted because he isn't used to .. 'so much exercise. (do) 18 She looked so funny in her new hat we couldn't help se (laugh) 19. You should practise ...... va this tune on the piano until you perfect it. (play) 20 I regret you that your bank account is overdrawn. (inform) a Participles Present participles (verb + ing) describe what Past participles (verb + ed) describe how someone feels. somebody or something is. They were bored by the lecture. (How did they fee! It was a boring lecture. (What kind of lecture? Boring.) _ during the lecture? Bored.) FL _vneent orrect participl i We were shocking/shocked by his behaviour. She told us a very entertaining/entertained story. He was encouraging/encouraged towards his children. ‘They found the film very excited/exciting They were all surprising/surprised when he He was exhausting/exhausted after the marathon. turned up at the party. ‘They were worrying/worried that they would be 9 That book is really interested/interesting. late. 10. They were fascinated/fascinating by the view. Her behaviour is extremely annoying/annoyed. exo The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles cotland was the perfect place 1) ..%0 grow up.. (grow up). My parents had spent years 2) (save up) because they wanted 3) (buy) 2 small farmhouse in the Scottish Highlands. Shortly after | was born, their dream came true and our new life in the country began. To begin with, | was probably too young 4)... (appreciate) the fresh air and breathtaking views, but as | grew up, | began 5) : (enjoy) exploring the unspoilt countryside. | soon got sed 80 6) nn (have) to walk miles to the shops, and since it was too far 7) nw» (travel) to the nearest primary school, my parents did their best 8) (educate) me at home. However, never felt lonely and was usually too busy 9) sons (help) my father on the land to worry about 10)... « (not/have) any friends. My brothers and sisters were also starting 11). (grow up) fast and we had no difficulty 12) .nccnsnnnnen (MUSE) ‘ourselves for hours on end, When I reached the age of eleven, my parents decided it was time 13) env (SNA) Me to Secondary school as they didn’t feel they were capable of 14)... sme (provide) me with the range of skills | would need for my future life. This would involve 15) (travel) twenty miles to the nearest town and ‘twenty miles back. | was sorry 16). ay) goodbye to my old way of life, but at the same time | looked forward to 17) (mix) with new people. After 18) . (inish) school, | was forced 19) snnmennmanes (MOVE) tO Edinburgh to look for work and | have now made the city my home. Although | love the cosmopolitan lifestyle, 1 Sometimes can't Help 20) nn Wish) | was back in the Highlands. ual In Other Words {tis exciting to watch a football match. © We were bored by the film. * Watching a football match is exciting, We found the film boring. N © It's too cold for him to go swimming, The film bored us. Itisn’t warm enough for him to go swimming. © He had difficulty (in) hearing the music. itis so cold that he can't go swimming. It was difficult for him to hear the music. © They made her tell the truth. He found it difficult to hear the music. ‘She was made to tell the truth. He could hardly hear the music. © I prefer walking to riding a bike. © They allowed him to attend the meeting. | preter to walk rather than ride a bike. He was allowed to attend the meeting. © Could you open the door? © Ittook her an hour to reach the station. Would you mind opening the door? She took an hour to reach the station. Reaching the station took her an hour. Use two to five words. ing the words in bo! B Complete the senteni 1 He arrived too late to catch the 9.30 train. arrive He ...didn’t arrive early enough... to catch the 9.30 train. 2 Preparing the meal took her three hours. prepare She ... ors . the meal. 2 10 " 12 13 14 15 16 7 18 19 21 22 24 25 26 27 The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles These trousers are too small for me. enough These trousers ... Poltcians found the results ofthe local election surprising. were Politicians ... ..- for me. of the local election. Could you pass me the cheese, please? mind WOUIA the cheese? ‘They made her pay £2,000 tax. to She .. es +» £2,000 tax. She was allowed to stay at her friend's house. her ..at her friend's house. They... He wasn't tall enough to become a policeman short He ... @ policeman. He had difficulty seeing in the dark room. hardly He ... ..- in the dark room. It took her six months to learn how to drive. took She ... how to drive. | prefer going out to staying at home. than I prefer to ts at home. Would you mind keeping quiet while she's taking keep Could .. she's talking? The runner could hardly keep up with the others. had The runner .. ... up with the others. I think it's interesting to visi visiting I think interesting. She prefers taking the train to traveling by coach. take She prefers than travel by coach. Could you run through the details once more? mind ‘Would 5 They took ages to reach a decision. the details once more? them It. .a decision. The police let the suspect make one phone cal was The suspect .... ‘one phone call The tourists found the carnival fascinating. were The tourists .. the camival. it was dificult forthe jury to reach a verdict difficulty The jury .. a verdict. ‘The 17-year-olds weren't old enough to get into the club. too The 17-year-olds .. : .- into the clu, She prefers speaking French to writing it. ‘than She prefers... write it. Lsaring abot other nities le ipaviant earn It They made him work overtime. about other cultures. was He .... . overtime. During the rush hour it takes me aver an hour to get to work. getting During the rush hour, .. Over an hour. ‘The instructions were so complicated that | couldn't follow them, too ‘The instructions were .. sabe follow. It was dificult for me to hear what he was saying. hardly Is . Could you keep the noise down? what he was saying. mind Would ..... .. the noise down? They made the passengers wait atthe airport for hours. were The passengers at the airport for hours. Ihave eeu in understaning his accent find es his accent. The Infinitive / -ing form / Participles es using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 0 John was late for work because his train was delayed. time Ht the train ..had been on time... John would not have been late for work. 1 Both James and Bill dislike football keen Neither on football. 2. Mother made us clean our rooms on Saturday. made We... 3. Hind it difficult to stick to a diet. .. ur fooms on Saturday by our mother. difficulty Venn . to a diet 4 Let's eat out tonight. going How .. 5. She would rather not drive to London. feel She ... 6 People say learning a new language is difficult. supposed — Learning a new language .. 7 The boy wouldn't apologise for breaking the window. sorry The boy refused 8 Mary telephoned the secretary to say she would be late. received The secretary .... Anthea .». breaking the window. Mary to say she would be late. Oral Development 2 The Smiths went on an excursion last Sunday. Use the list below and your own ideas to tell the story. Use infinitives or -ing forms. look forward to, enjoy, spend time, discuss, would rather, expect, decide, easy, involve, stop, surprised, want, see, too frightened, suggest The Smiths had been looking forward to Consolidation [ ml Laatste) bring about: cause to happen | ring back: 1) recall, 2) reintroduce bring down: 1) cause to fall, 2) reduce prices bring forward: suggest an idea bring on: cause, usu sth unpleasant | bring out: publish, release sth to the public bring round: 1) help sb regain consciousness; bring to, 2) persuade sb to change opinion bring up: 1) raise a child, 2) vomit, 3) introduce a ‘subject, 4) mention be/get carried away: be/get excited carry off: do sth successfully carry on (with): continue esp despite difficulties 2) help sb survive during troubled times B Fill in the correct particle(s). 1 The corruption scandal brought ...dow.. government. The cold weather probably brought .. illness. Stephen King's publisher is bringing . his new book next month, Awet cloth helped to bring the unconscious man, the her She's brought... five children on her own, My father didn’t want to let me buy a car, but in the end, | managed to bring him vane carried ..her part in the play without difficulty. “Carry . your work please,” said the teacher. Tom got carried . by the music and wouldn't stop sin if we don't pay the ransom, the kidnappers will carry their threats, B k at Appendix 1, then fill in the correct preposition. 1 They congratulated him degree. 2 The airport was crowded holidaymakers. 3. She keeps boasting her new house. 4 The Prime Minister refused to comment... the rumours about his resignation. on... getting his 5 He's very clever solving crosswords. 6 She's capable answering all the questions herself. The cause .. the fire was never discovered. Don't put the biam« .- him. i's not his fault. He blamed John .. stealing the money. They were astonished ......... the number of candidates who had succeeded. 11 Which political party do you belong... Seon Concentrate what you're doing. He charged me £10 the repairs. She was charged murder. The police are holding three suspects . the bombing in Brighton last Is there any connection . skin cancer? More money is needed to help care ..... homeless. He cares deeply... the welfare of his students. Italian is frequently compared ....... Frerich as they are from the same language family. The standard of education at Mount Carmel College compares favourably the standards elsewhere. sunbathing and the a Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words. 1. I'm sure he didn’t steal the money. stolen He 2 tis likely that he will travel to Europe. probably He. 3. He didn’t manage to catch any fish. succeed = He 4 Whatever you say to Julie, she doesn't listen. matter Julie doesn't listen, 5 The car was so expensive that we couldn't buy it. for The car .. oy ant have stolen... the money. travel to Europe. Consolidation wl 6 Please turn the lights off before you leave. forget Before you leave, : .-oo tur the lights off. 7 She tends to get very excited at office parties. Cartted SHO snr es . at office parties. How to treat Multiple Choice Cloze Texts © Read the whole passage at least once to understand as much of the general meaning as possible. © Look at the four choices given for each gap and try to reduce the choices you have to make by eliminating the ‘obviously incorrect ones. He nes the world record for the long jump in 1992. A did B broke C made —D reached The word “record” is not used with “do or “make”. Also we do not say “reach” a record - you “reach” a destination. Therefore B: broke is the correct answer. © When you have finished, read the text again to see if it makes sense and is grammatically correct. Read the text below and decide which word A, B, C or D best fits each space. There's an example at the beginning (0). The Lost Art of Old Masters The three (0) ..C... spaces along the wall of the Frankfurt Schimn Gallery have probably been photographed more than the old paintings which (1) ..... there until last Thursday. That was the day when thieves (2)... tWo paintings by JMW Turner, which were on (3)...... from London’s Tate Gallery In fact, as art theft increases, empty walls are becoming an increasingly familiar (4)... in Europe's galleries. The thieves are usually members of professional (5)... who study the layout of their target beforehand. They are becoming better at overcoming the tightest security. The thieves in Frankfurt (7)... until the gallery closed at 10 pm, overpowered the security guard before he could (8)... on the alarm system and escaped with the paintings to a (9)...... car. The paintings are valued at £37.7 million and, since they are too famous to sel, police suspect that the thieves will hold them to ransom. A £62,800 reward is being (10)...... for information. Unfortunately, European Union policy has made it easier for thieves to (11)... borders and harder for police to follow them. To discourage thieves, galleries may have to (12)...... themselves into high security fortresses. 0 A vacant —B open ©empty OD free 1 A hung B waited —C held D fixed 2 A robbed B stole burgled —_D_ borrowed 3A advance B trial C credit Doan 4 A sight B scene —€ site D look : 5 A groups B gangs © C teams —D_ bands 6 A fact B addition C detail general 7 A stayed B remained © hung waited 8 A tum B go ¢ rely D set 9 A lingering B resting waiting pausing 10 A given —_B offered provided presented 11 A enter B break © pass D cross 12 A become B continue C turn D move 25; Consolidation B Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. Paying an (0) ...inourance... premium may seem like a waste of money, but INSURE ‘on the other hand, it can also be an (1) . wise investment, EXTREME. difficulties in the future. FINANCE ‘There are various kinds of insurance policies covering such things as houses, cars, personal (3)... . and healthcare. Some forms of insurance are POSSESS compulsory and others are (4) . = OPTION ‘One example of insurance which many people have a (5) . TEND to bother with is holiday and travel insurance. They feel that spending ‘extra money to cover themselves in the (6). sone EVENT OF uKELY something going wrong while on holiday is not an (7) ATTRACT They prefer to risk it and hope that all will be well while they are away. So, @®).. they avoid this kind of insurance, but more UNDERSTAND ©). types will be willing to pay the premium to feel covered in any (10) . that may arise. a Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five word: © | had never met John's sister before. first It ..was the first time... | had ever met John’s sister. 1. Please don't mention the subject of food when I'm on a diet! rather td .~. the subject of food when I'm on a diet! 2 Alter being out therein, Sly caught a ook down Sally .. a cold after being out in the rain. 3. Mary called me when she got home, call | received ... ss ...when she got home. 4 Michael is very sorry he bought a second-hand car. regrets Michael .. 5 This washing machine is inefficient and expensive. only This washing machine i 1... 6 It's your duty to deal with clients, responsible You .. 7. Although we worked iate, we stil didn't finish the project. fact In. 8 You will ind Jimmy very different from the last difference You will find .. 24 Fill in the following collocation gris abus a sailing boat. © a.car ahoree acamel abike a yacht arive v e you saw him. sail % ‘a second-hand car. expensive. ...with clients. we worked late, we stil didn't finish the project. . Jimmy from the last time you saw him. alimo eco | Part 1 | For questions 1 - 12, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). Traditionally, the British have always been very (0) ..c.. of their eccentrics, Even today, British eccentrics are considered to be the strangest, (I) .»-» 10 American psychologist, David Weeks. Q) sun the Leopard Man, for example. He lives alone in a cave on the Isle of Skye. He is tattooed from (3) ...« 10 toe with leopard spots, and (4) living selling seafood. But is this bizarre behaviour a type of mental illness? It has long been believed that creativity and insanity are (8) .... . In the last 30 years or so, psychologists have tried to find evidence to support this belief. One study found, that creative people have a lot in (6)... with eccentrics, and also, that they are more (7) nm.» to suffer from extreme depression, which is often associated with ‘mental illness. But during David Weeks’ detailed (8)..... into the personali eecentries, he found that they are (9) .... the happiest and healthiest of people. Not only do they visit their doctors much less often than the (10)... of us, but they are also usually (11) . several things at one time, so they always have a(n) (12) on. in life, © A loving B caring © fond D warm 1A concerning B considering € responding according 2 A Take B See C Watch D Look 3 A head B hair © skull D top 4 A creates B_makes © gets D has 5 A joined B connected € combined —_D attached 6 A same B alike © common similar 7 7 A likely B probable possible ~—D available 8 A search B research © check D look 9 A among B between = with D apart 10 A least B most © remainder Dest 11 A excited B attracted interested ~—D. invested 12 A goal B reason © score D aim uy 28 For questions 13 - 24, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). MIGHFMARES Nightmares, like most dreams, occur during the stage of sleep (0) ...vhen... the brain is very ‘active and sorting through experiences and new information for learning and memory. The vivid images the brain is processing can seem (13) real as the emotions they (14) . trigger. This part of sleep (15) known as the rapid eye movement or REM stage because the eyes are rapidly moving beneath closed eyelids. Nightmares tend to happen during the second half of a night’s sleep, (16) .. .~. REM intervals are longer. No one knows exactly (17) nnn Causes nightmares. Dreams and nightmares seem to be one way kids process thoughts and feelings (18) situations they face, and to work through worries and concerns. Most times nightmares occur (19) no apparent reason. At other times, they happen when a child is experiencing stress (20)... change. Events or situations that might fee! unsettling - such as moving, attending a new school, the birth of a sibling, or family tensions ~ might also (21) nnn» Feflected in unsetting dreams. For some kids, (22) .. those with @ good imagination, reading scary books or watching scary movies or TV shows just (23) sss Bedtime can cause nightmares. Parents can't prevent nightmares, but can help kids (24) . ...€.good night's sleep, by soothing them before bedtime. Ee Part 3 | For questions 25 - 34, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). Teens Go Without Meat The (0) ...decision... to become a vegetarian is a DECIDE (25)... ‘one, made for any number of PERSON reasons, There are many different (28) ... EXPLAIN that teens in particular give for choosing a meatless lifestyle. ‘One group claims that their choice is based on certain 100d (27) .ernnnenmns they simply don't LIKE enjoy the taste of meat. Others are concerned about animal rights and the way animals are treated in the meat (28) nn process. Yet more young PRODUCE people may be influenced by (29) ... su Of RELIGION cultural beliefs which prohibit the consumption of meat. A further reason is that teenagers feel that it is (30) oon not to eat meat and that they can HEALTHY Control their weight More (31) snc as EASE vegetarians. In many cases, too, it may be a (32). family decision in order to reduce JOIN food bills! However, it is important to note that in some cases, teens who adopt a strictly vegetarian diet may be in danger of developing an eating (33) see ORDER such as anorexia. If parents have any (34) ‘SUSPECT of this kind, they should contact their child's doctor. Practice Test [ll Part 4 | For questions 35 - 42, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must u between two and five words including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0). © They worked hard on the project. effort They ...put 4 lot of effort... into the project. 35. You'll have no difficulty getting out of the country. easy You'll find .e.0 36 He did the same job as his father, as it was expected of him. footsteps He followed ones sauna @S it was expected of him. 37 They should have told him the truth. better they had told him the truth. 38. I'm afraid there's no milk left. run I'm afraid we ... milk. 38. She spent ages planting the new flowers. took tt 40 | prefer watching westerns to watching romances. preference Thave 41. They made him work overtime. was He ‘overtime. 42. People say this is the best film ever made. supposed This. .. the best film ever made. Tense Forms u Present Forms Present Simple _—_—Present Continuous Present Perfect | Present Perf. Continuous permanent situations or temporary situations recently completed actions actions started in the past slates She works ina bank He is spending the week She has dyed her hair black. . and continuing up to the permanent truths or laws _ with his mother. (The action is complete -her | present. She has been of nature changing or developing hair is now dyed black - | doing her homework for an The sun rises in the east. situations She is getting evidence in the presen) __ hour. (She started an hour more and more impatient. ago and she's stil doing it) repeated/habitual actions frequently repeated actions complete past actions past actions of certain (especially with frequency with always, constantly, connected to the present | duration having visible adverbs: often, usually, continually, expressing with stated or unstated | results or effects in the always etc) He alyays annoyance or criticism time reference present goes o bed at 17 o'clock. He's always getting into He has bought a house. | He has been running. (Here “always” means rouble. (Here “always” (Now he owns ahouse.) That's why he's out of every day.) ‘means constantly.) He has just retumed from | breath. Paris. (stated time reference) reviews/sports actions happening at or personal experiences/ to express anger, irritation, ‘commentaries! around the moment of | changes which have ‘annoyance, explanation or dramatic narrative speaking | happened criticism ‘Smythe serves the ball | The suns shining now. | Ihave lost weight recently. She has been using my and Lanyon misses it... He is studying forthe exams. ‘make-up. (annoyance) timetables/programmes fixed arrangements in the emphasis on number Present Perfect Continuous (future reference) near future He has seen three films is normally used with for, The train leaves at 8.00. , I'm going to the theatre this ' this week. since or how long to put in exclamatory sentences _ evening. She has had four cups of emphasis on duration There goes the bus! coffee since she woke up. _ He has been feeling unwell for days. = | Time expressions usually used with Present Forms Present Simple | Present Continuous | Present Perfect & Present Perfect Continuous every day/week/month/ now, at the moment, at just, ever, never, already, yet (negations & questions), year, usually, sometimes, present, nowadays, always, how long, so far, recently, since (= from a always, rarely, never, today, tonight, always, starting point in the past), for (= over a period of often, in the morning/ still ete: time), today, this week/month ete ‘eveningjafternoon, For and since are usually used with Present Perfect at night, on Mondays etc Continuous to emphasise the duration of an action. [E_Put the verts in brackets into the correct present forms. “Well, | 1) ...have never won... (never/win) anything like this before! I 2) ...... sue (only/enter) a few ‘competitions in my life, so this is a big surprise. Of course, | 3) sssenes (Watch) TV quiz shows for years, but now | 4) ” ... (think) of taking part in more. The prize is wonderful. We 5) ou _.. (Stay) here in Hawaii for ten days now, and we 6) ... (have) a great time. We " (already/see) all the sights and my wife 8) ...... . (buy) lots of souvenirs. We 9) vos (send) Posteards to all our friends to show them how we 10). .... . (spend) our time. Yes, we really 11) .. ‘wun (@RJOy) Ourselves. In fact, we 12) (want) to stay forever.” 3) Tense Forms Stative verbs express a permanent state rather than an action and are not used in the continuous forms. These are: verbs of the senses used to express involuntary actions (feel, hear, see, smell, taste etc), verbs of feelings and emotions (adore, detest, dislike, enjoy, forgive, hate, like etc), verbs of opinion (agree, believe, suppose, Lnderstand etc) and other verbs (belong, concern, depend, know, mean, own, possess, need, prefer, want etc) I see someone coming. She hates pop music. | don't agree with you. He knows a lot about computers. Note: feel and hurt can be used in either continuous or simple forms. She feels/is feeling better. Look, watch and listen express deliberate actions and can be used in continuous forms. He is listening to some records. dl ‘Some stative verbs (be, love, see, smell taste, think etc) have continuous forms but there is a difference in meaning, il ‘STATE L ACTION @ | see them coming towards us. (= I have the ability) @ She's seeing her doctor today. (= she's visiting) @ These flowers smell nice. (= they have a nice @ Why are you smelling the food? Has it gone off? smell) why are you checking the smell of) @ This soup tastes delicious. (= its flavour is good) @ She's tasting the soup. (= she's testing the flavour) It feels like velvet. (= it has the texture of) He's feeling the cloth. (= he's touching the cloth) @ He has a house. 1e possesses) @ We're having a nice time. (= we're enjoying @ Do you like his new car? (= Is it nice?) ourselves) @ | think he has left. (= | suppose, | believe) @ How are they liking the party? (= are they enjoying) © Annis polite, (= her character is) @ I'm thinking about his suggestion. (= I'm considering) @ It looks as if i's going to snow. (= it appears) @ Tom is being very impolite. (= he is behaving impolitely) @ They are looking at the statue. (= they're viewing it) 1 A 1)...see. (200) th there's a great film on at the cinema tonight. Would you like to go? B: No, | 2) - sevens ve (see) the dentist about my toothache. £419 a .. (think) about going on a picnic this afternoon. B: | wouldn't bother. | 2) (think) it’s going to rain. 3 A: Is John feeling OK? He 9 .. (look) very red in the face. B: Yes, I know. | 2) - ... (look) for the doctor's telephone number now. 4 A: How 1) .. .. sss (yourlike) your stay in Budapest? B: | am really enjoying myselt.| particularly 2). (like) the Hungarian food 5 A: Why 1) (yourtaste) the stew? B: | think you need to add some spices: it a .. (taste) a bit bland, 6 A: Why 4)... (you/feel) the radiator, Dad? B: | don't think it's working it a) (feel) very cold in here. 7 A: Tom 1) " (be) usually a very quiet boy. B: Yes, but he 2) (be) very noisy today. 8 A: 1)... (you/have) a car? B: Yes, but | 2) .. = have) ‘some problems with i, so i's at the garage. 9A: Why 1) esos {you/smell) the roses? B: They always 2) .. (smell) so wonderful at this time of year. a Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present form: Jane, Thanks for agreeing to look after my flat while I'm away. | 1) ...have cleaned... (clean) the flat thoroughly, but as | 2) sass (Work) late all week, | 3) .. (not/have) time to cook any food for you. My dog, Rover, 4) . cnn (at) atin of dog fod every ight, and the plants 5) vonssue (Reed) watering once a week. Tonight, | 6) . Gtay) at the Hutton Hotel so you can contact me there if you need me. Donna 32 Tense Forms i Have gone to / Have been to / Have been in He has gone to Scotian. (He's on his way to Scotland or he's there now. He hasn't come back yet.) He has been fo Munich once. (He has visited Munich, but he isn’t there now. He has come back.) He has been in Rotterdam for two years. (He lives in Rotterdam now.) [Ei Fitlin has/nave been to/in, has/have gone to. 1. Bertha’s not here. She ...hae gone to... the library 21 me Mac, But | only spent a few cays there 3 “How long . you Birmingham?" “For nearly two years.” 4 Tom is alone because his parents . the seaside for the weekend. 5 Julia. the supermarket - she'll be back in about an hour. ‘Since expresses a starting point. /'ve been here since March. For expresses the duration of an action. We ve been here for three months. a Fill in since or for. Sue Wilson has been involved in sports 1) ...for... more than 25 years. Her fist interest was gymnastics, which she has been actively involved in 2) . she was ten, but she has also been interested in other forms of SPOT 3) ennsnns Many Years. She has been a keen cyclist 4)...» 1980, when she made her first bicycle tour of Europe, and 5) ... her marriage to all-round sportsman Tom Wilson in 1985, she has tried her hand at climbing, sailing and skydiving. Her talent as a writer has kept her busy 6)... the past ten years, and she has become familiar to TV viewers as a sports commentator 7) her first TV appearance in 1988. Her plans for the future? “I've been interested in the role of women in sports ever 8) Iwas a teenager. Now, after being so busy 9) all these years, I've decided to take some time off so I can write a book about it.” Since Sue has been part of the sporting world 10) 's0 long, her book should be fascinating, [iL_book at the notes below, then write an article using the appropriate present forms. For many years researchers — try - determine whether animals - share with humans the ability to use language/One particular researcher in America - spend — sixteen years exploring the degree to which a parrot = understand ~ what he - say/He — find that the bird ~ be able to - answer questions about objects and also - understand numbers/At the moment the researcher - try - to determine whether the bird actually ~ know what it- say — or whether it — simply imitate - a collection of sounds. ..For many yeare, researchers have been trying to determine whether animals Put verbs in brack it form: to the correct pre Dear John, First of all, sony | 1) ...haven't written... (notiwrite) for so long, but | was « 2) (you/get) your exam results yet? I'm sure you 3) .. all since you always 4) wm. (Study) so hard. 1 5). "moment, and | 6) (try) not to worry! Well, 17) ‘Yes, /8) (move) house! Now, we 9) . the place to make it look nice. When it's finished, | am going to have @ p Tense Forms Put the verbs in bracké 1 Alan ...i6 flying... (ly) to Barcelona tonight. He (alreadypack) his SuitaSe, DUE RE ..n.n-nonsn (NOLCall) a taxi yet. His plane ... (leave) at & pm. 2 Ann and Sally cnsnnm (BQ) flatmates. They sometimes ... se (argue) because Sally... (alwaysimake) a mess in the kitchen. 3. “Look over there! it's John Cooper.” “Oh yes! BUt Ae (look) so