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Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

TUTORIAL 3 Transformers
1.

Name the principal parts of a transformer.

2.

Which winding is connected to the load, the primary or secondary?

3.

Explain how a voltage is induced in the secondary winding of a transformer.

4.

Based on the first principle of Faradays Law, prove that the effective (rms)
induced electromotive force (emf) of a transformer can be written as:

Emf induced = 4.44 fN

Where
f = supply frequency of the transformer
N = number of turns of the transformer
5.

Name the losses produced in a transformer.

6.

The primary of a transformer is connected to a 600 V, 60 Hz source. If the


primary has 1200 turns and the secondary has 240, calculate the secondary
voltage.
[120 V]

7.

The windings of a transformer respectively have 300 and 7500 turns. If the lowvoltage winding is excited by a 2400 V source, calculate the voltage across the
HV winding.
[60 kV]

8.

A 6.9kV transmission line is connected to a transformer having 1500 turns on the


primary and 24 on the secondary. If the load across the secondary has an
impedance of 5, calculate the following:
a) The secondary voltage
b) The primary and secondary current
[110.4 V, 0.353 A]

9.

A 100 kVA, 2400/240 V, 60 Hz transformer has 60 turns on the secondary


winding Calculate
a)
the approximate value of primary and secondary currents
b)
the number of primary turns
c)
the maximum flux in the core
[41.6 A, 416.7 A, 600, 0.015 Wb]

10.

A 20 kVA, 2400/240 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following resistance and


reactance values: R1 = 0.8 , X1 = 3 , R2 = 0.0084 and X2 = 0.028 .
Calculate the equivalent transformer values:
a)
in primary terms
b)
in secondary terms
[0.84 , 2.8 , 1.64 , 5.8 , 8 m, 0.03 , 0.0164 , 0.058 ]

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

Calculate also the equivalent resistive and reactive voltage drops:


c)
in primary terms
d)
in secondary terms
[13.66 V, 48. 31 V, 1.37 V, 4.83 V]
11.

A 20 kVA, 2400/240 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following resistance and


reactance values:
Rp = 0.8
Rs = 0.0084
Xp = 3
Xs = 0.028
Calculate the equivalent impedance of this transformer in secondary term.

12.

A 1, 100 kVA, 11000/2200 V, 60 Hz transformer has the following parameters.


R1 = 6
R2 = 0.28
Rc = 125 k
L1 = 0.08 H
L2 = 0.0032 H
Lm = 160 H
Find the equivalent circuit of the transformer referred to the low-voltage side.
[0.52 , 2.42 ]

13.

A 15 kVA 8000/230 V distribution transformer has impedance referred to the


primary of 80 + j300 . The components of the excitation branch referred to the
primary side are Rc = 350 k and Xm = 70 k. If the primary voltage is 7967 V
and the load impedance is ZL = 3.2 + j1.5, what is the secondary voltage of the
transformer? What is the voltage regulation of the transformer?
[218.8 3.1 V, 4.7 %]

14.

A 100 kVA, 1000/100 V transformer gave the following test results:


Open-circuit test (high-voltage side open) 100 V, 6 A, 400 W
Short-circuit test (low-voltage side open) 50 V, 100 A, 1800 W
a) Derive an approximate equivalent circuit referred to the high-voltage side.
b) Determine the voltage regulation at full load, 0.6 PF leading.
[2.56 %]

15.

A 2000-VA 230/115-V transformer has been tested to determine its equivalent


circuit. The results of the tests are shown below.
Open-circuit test
Voc = 230 V
Ioc = 0.95 A
Poc = 80 W

Short-circuit test
Vsc = 11.2 V
Isc = 5 A
Psc = 20.1 W

All data given were taken from the primary side of the transformer.
a) Find the equivalent circuit of this transformer referred to the low-voltage side
of the transformer.
b) Find the transformers voltage regulation at rated condition 0.8 PF lagging.
c) Determine the transformers efficiency at rated conditions and 0.8 PF lagging.
[Zeq = 0.201 +j 0.52 , XM = 65.04 , Rc = 165.31 , 1.8%, 82.19%]

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

16.

The secondary winding of a transformer has a terminal voltage of vs (t) = 282.8


sin 377t V. The turns ratio of the transformer is 50:200 (a = 0.25). If the
secondary current of the transformer is is (t) = 7.07 sin 377 36.87 A, what is
the primary current of this transformer? What are its voltage regulation and
efficiency? The impedances of this transformer referred to the primary side are
Req = 0.05
Xeq = 0.225

RC = 75
XM = 20
[22.3-41.0 A, VR= 7.2%, = 93.4%]

17.

A single-phase, 10KVA, 400/1100V, 50Hz transformer has the following circuit


parameters:
ZLV = 0.82 + j0.95

ZHV = 1.2 + j1.5

ZLV = Low Voltage Impedance


ZHV = High Voltage Impedance
a) Determine the rated currents for both sides of the transformer.
b) Draw the equivalent circuit with the parameters referred to the low-voltage
side.
c) The high-voltage side is now supplying full-load current at 1000 V and 0.82
power factor lagging. Determine the voltage regulation and efficiency of the
transformer. Neglect the effect of the core.
[25 A, 9.091 A, 0.159 , 0.199 , 11.06 %, 91.75 %]

D. Johari, FKE UiTM