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MANE3300U Integrated Manufacturing Systems

Instructor: Dr. Sayyed Ali Hosseini


Lecture #4

Numerical Control
Todays lecture: (Not in book)

Overview of CNC Milling Programming


Overview of CNC Lathe Programming
G94 canned cycle for facing
G90 canned cycle for turning

1.0 A Brief Introduction to CNC Milling Programming


CNC milling programming (3 axes) is straight forward as all the coordinates are 3D Cartesian.

N0010
N0020
N0030
N0040
N0050
N0060
N0070
N0080

G90 G00 X-2.0 Y-1.0


G01 X0 Y0 F8.0
Y4.0
G02 X2.0 Y6.0 R2.0
G01 X8.0
G02 X9.0 Y2.268 R2.0
G01 X0 Y0
G00 X-2.0 Y-1.0

;
;
;
;
;
;

point
point
point
point
point
point

A
B
C
D
E
A

2.0 A Brief Introduction to CNC Turning Programming


G-code programming for the lathe is similar to the mill, but there are differences. For milling, we
use X, Y and Z-axis. For the lathe, we only use the X and Z-axis and C-axis.
Illustration of X-axis and Y-axis

Illustration of C-axis and H-axis


The C-axis is for the rotation movement of the chuck. For example, suppose you need to drill a
hole not in center of the work piece. Then you use the rotary drill on the turret, chuck does not
spin but simply rotates around to the different positions of the hole.

Holes
1
2
3
4

C (Absolute)
0
90
180
270

H (Incremental)
-90
-90
-90
-90

Incremental & Absolute Programming


Unlike milling where we use G90 and G91 to switch between incremental programming and
absolute programming, in lathe we use U, W and H.

Absolute
X
Incremental U

Y
V

Z
W

C
H

Constant surface speed control G96


For the lathe, it is common to use G96 to so that the chuck automatically adjusts the spindle
speed to maintain a constant surface speed of the tool relative for the part. Specifying a value
with G50 limits how fast the spindle can go.
3.0 G94 Canned Cycle for Facing

G94 is regularly used for end facing rough stock material, or whenever repetitive
machining of straight cuts in the X-axis are required.
Another G-code such as G00, G01, G02, G03 or G28 will cancel the cycle.
G94 generates the following movements:
1234-

The tool rapids from the start position to the specified Z position.
The tool feeds to the specified X position.
The tool feeds back in line with the original Z starting position.
The tool rapids back to the original X and Z starting position.

G94 End Facing Cycle Example


N0010
N0020
N0030
N0040
N0050
N0060
N0070
N0080
N0090
N0100
M0110
N0120

G20 G40 G99


G50 S3000
G00 T0101
G96 S500 M03
X8.0 Z4.0
X2.7 Z0.1
G94 X-0.1 Z0.06 F 0.004 M08
Z0.02
Z0.0 F0.002
G00 X8.0 Z4.0 M09
M05
M01

Please be noted that all of the above X and Y are diameters. It depends on the type of machine
controller or in some cases machine settings.

4.0 G90 Canned Cycle for Turning

G90 is used for repetitive machining of straight cuts in the Z axis.


Another G-code such as G00, G01, G02, G03 or G28 will cancel the cycle.
G90 can be used to reducing a part down to size outer diameter (O.D.) or Boring internal
diameter Boring (I.D.).
G90 generates the following movements:
1234-

The tool rapids from the start point to the specified X position.
The tool feeds to the specified Z position.
The tool feeds back in line with the original X starting position.
The tool rapids back to the original X and Z starting position.

Outer Diameter (O.D.) Turning Cycle Example

Inner Diameter (I.D.) Boring Cycle Example

N0060
N0070
N0080
N0090
N0100
N0110
N0120
N0130
N0140
N0150
N0160

N0060
N0070
N0080
N0090
N0100
N0110
N0120
N0130
N0140
N0150

. . . . . . . . . . . .
G00 X2.5 Z0.05
G90 X2.4 Z-3.74 F0.01 M08
X2.3
X2.2
X2.1
X2.02
X2.0 Z-3.75 F0.003
G00 X8.0 Z4.0 M09
M05
M01

. . . . . . . . . . . .
G00 X0.75 Z0.05
G90 X0.85 Z-2.995 F0.008 M08
X0.95
X1.05
X1.15
X1.175 Z-3.0 F0.003
G00 X8.0 Z4.0 M09
M05
M01

Please be noted that all of the above X and Y are diameters. It depends on the type of machine
controller or in some cases machine settings.