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S2.75/CAN. S3.25 FES.

1986

AUTO-EXEC C
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Dish drive alignment problems? Read What Computers Gazelle DETECTED
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you can align Ihe drive you rsell inanhourorso-Nol
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• EASY TO USE — NO COMPLICATED
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INSTRUCTIONS—EVEN A CHILD CAN DO IT
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SS4.95 plus shipping can do it RESUMED WHILE STILL IN MEMORY!!

Software update only (call for details) — • Peitecl companion lor the PROMENADE and other
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• NO PARAMETERS NEEDED — AS OFTEN
$14.00 plus shipping • Create your own autostart cartridges, custom REQUIRED BY OTHER UTILITIES
KEPNAL modified DOS and specialized EPROMs
• Put many programs on a single cartridge tilth • COMPLETE AND THOROUGH MANUAL IS
PROGRAM PROTECTION MANUAL MENU MAKER. INCLUDED
FOR THE C-64 VOLUME II • Disk Includes raady-to-use lOtilmes and tielplul
utilities. ' SOLD FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY
Not |ual a Ihird edition — a new and up-to-date
manual covering the latest advances in program $32.95 plus shipping • RAVE REVIEWS IN: INFO 64,
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lion, Topics Include: PROGRAM PROTECTION MANUAL PROGRAM PROTECTION NEWSLETTER
• ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION
FOR THE C-64 VOLUME I
■ UNDOCUMENTED OPCODES
• GCR RECORDING ■ A MUST FOR BEGINNERS
• CUSTOM DOS ROUTINES • THE PERFECT INTRODUCTION SNAPSHOT 64™
■ CARTRIDGES AND EPROMS TO PROGRAM PROTECTION
■DISK INCLUDED
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VISA AND MASTERCARD ACCEPTED t= Is a registered trademark ol
S34.9S plus shipping Shipping S3.50 per item in U.S.; loreign orders extra Commodore Business Machines, Inc.

Available through your local software dealer or call:

CSM SOFTWARE, INC.


POST OFFICE BOX 563, CROWN POINT IN. 46307, PHONE (219) 663-4335
Header Service No. 165
Publisher
Michael Schneider
Editor
David Allikas
Art Director
JoAnn Case
Managing Editor
Michael Da vita

Senior Editor
Tim Moriarty

Technical Editors
David Barron
Bob Uorct

CONTENTS Consulting Editor.


Ben Bova
Morton Kevelson

DEPARTMENTS Date Rupert


Entertainment Editor
A View from the Bridge. ..of the February- issue of Ahoy! 7 Arnie Katz
Scuttlebutt. ..new products for the 64. 128, Amiga, VIC. 8 Production Director
Melissa Held
Art Gallery. ..(j chiaroscuro collection of reader graphics. 15
Art Production
Reviews...software, hardware, firmware, and s'morc. 57 Christopher Carter

Commodores...programming posers for the plucky. 79 Mark Hammerer


Victoria Green
Tips Ahoyl.../mi/.v, tips, and complete short utilities. 87 Bulletin Board STSOP

Flotsam...it's the Great Adventure Game Debate —round one? 93 B.W.

Editorial Assistant
Program Listings... an assortment of ready-to-enter software. 97
Tim Little
Circulation Director
W. Charles Squires
FEATURES Advertising Director
Little Windows by Orson Scott Card* 18 Lynne Dominick
Director of Promotion
ELMAC: The Computer Teaches Itself by Dale Rupert** 34 Joyce K. I'uchs
Entertainment Software Section 41 Controller
Dan Tunick
Turnkey 64: Build an AUTO-EXEC Cartridge by Don Lewis- 53
Managing Director
Commodore Roots: Memory Magic by Mark Audit ws' 73 Richard Stevens
Advertising Representative
Cadet's Column: Structured Programming by Cheryl Petcrson*****77 JE Publishers' Representative
Aligning the 154! Disk Drive by Greg Gnmville****** 83 6855 Santa Monica Bfirf.. Suite 200
Los Angeles, CA 90038
♦Includes programs: Extended Background and Windows for the C-64 (213)467-2266
■"•Includes program: ELMAC Plays NIM for the C-64 Boston (617)437-7628
:**IncludL*s program: Turnkey 64 for the C-64 Dallas (214)660-2253
♦•♦•Includes program: MOVECHRS for the C-64 New York (212)724-7767

**Ineliides program: Compuphobia for the C-64 Chicago (312)445-2489

["^Includes program: 1541 Alignment Check for the C-64 Denver (303)595-4331
San Francisco (415)864-3252

PROGRAMS ISSUE NO. 26 FEBRUARY l9Kft


Ahoy! tffiSQ-4383) i- published ninniJtli b) l»n In
Treasure Wheel for the C-64 by Boh Blackmer 31 ternational Inc.. 45 \V. 34lh St., Suite 407, Nni Vurk.
NY, niOOI. Subscription rale: 12 i«ues for $21.95,
24 issues fut $41.75 (C'aiiadu S29JS and %5J,25 n-
Character Dump for the C-64 by James C. Sanders 46 EpcctJnly). Second dan pnstnue puid nt Ne» Mirk.
NY Mum in; addHJonal nuillliiu officei, ; liHh h>
Crabfight for the C-64 by Buck Childress 69 Ecm IntcmatlanfJ Ine. All ri|iht<i rtterni, ' undtr
UiiIxtmiI Internal in mi I mid I'm Armrlcim C'npi-
Head to Head for the C-64 by Doug Smoak 72 ri»;hl coarenllonf, Itcprnduniun tif nliinriul or pic
torial content In anj manner i\ prohibited, Nn n-
Arena for the C-64 by Bob Tedesco 92 iponsibllll) tan be accepted liir iiiisnlicll.'if mutvri-
fll. liBtmaster, send addraa changes lo Ahoy:, 4S H'.
Bug Repellents for the VIC & 64 by Kleiner/ and Barron 98 J4th Street, Suite 407, New lork. NY 101)1)1. Dirtcl
.ill address i h.ni^. . or m.tf1.1, concernlnji >our siih-
Flankspeed for the C-64 by Gordon F. Wheat 98 SCription to Altoy!, I'.IX Box #.141. Mt. MnrTl*. II.
fiW54, All Mliinrinl Inquiries mill software and luinl-
Cover art by Jomet Ragan; art Inside screens by Tom Cujhwn, Javier Romero mire in bit reviewed iheuld !»■ Mill to Alwy!, 45 W.
Mth St., Suite 4(17, Nttt Vwk. NY MOIIl!
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Number
One in
Commodore Coverage! *
Ahoy!
Ion International
S2.5O •*••-
Monthly publication devoted to Commodore computing. Ahoy! seems to fluctuate from issue to issue,
but seems recently to be pulling ahead of Run and Computers Gazette in content and style. Of the
3 'big names,' I would recommend this one most. (—B.D.)

Compute!'! Gazette
Compute Publications
S2.95 ••* +
for: C-64
Slick monthly publication with coverage of Commodore's VIC-20, 64, Plus/4, and newer computers.
Emphasis is on type-in games and occasional utilities. Reviews are generally candy-coated but rea
sonably current. Well-illustrated and laid-out. Goes with the flow, avoiding controversy and originality.
Features a good selection of advertising. (—B.D.)

RUN
CW Communications
S2.95 ••• +
for: C-64, C-128
This slick monthly Commodore magazine is chock-full of ads, lots of color and photos, occasional
decent articles. Reviews are often out of date and, worse, not to be trusted. What can you say about
a supposedly knowledgeable publication that prints shameless gushing praise for a turkey like the
PLUS/4 month after month. Best features: MAGIC column, and STRASMA's 'Commodore Clinic' (—B.D.)

In its September-October '85 issue, INFO (formerly INFO 64) Magazine reviewed all the major Commodore-spe
cific publications. None received a higher rating than Ahoy!
Our review is reprinted here. In the interest of fairness, we've also reprinted the reviews of the other two
members of the 'Big Three^alf three reviews word-for-word, exactly as they appeared in INFO Magazine.
We thank INFO Publisher Benn Dunnington for covering our segment of the marketplace in his usual hard-hit
ting style. And we'll try to stop fluctuating]

"Source; INFO Magazine, September-October '85


HEW I=ROM TI-IIE \l\l\DG\Z
y now the ad on the facing page has snagged an Elementary Learning Machine-£LM.4C lor short.
your eye, and you know the story behind the (Turn to page 34.)
banner headline on this month's cover. We in In an expanded installment of Commodore Roots, Mark
vite our readers to share our joy in being Andrews tutors assembly language students on Memory
rated number one by INFO Magazine, the highly-respec Magic—including how to copy your 64's built-in char
ted Consumer Reports of the Commodore marketplace. acter set from ROM into RAM. Why, you ask? So that
But gloating didn't get us where we are-and it won't next month you can turn the character sei into custom-de
keep us there. Let's get on to what we're doing to re signed text or graphics! {Turn to page 73.)
main the leading independent Commodore magazine. Beginning BASIC programmers are directed to this
By now many of you have dropped in on Ahoy! s Port month's Cadet's Column for one of the more valuable
of Call, our program on the PlayNET system. Each lessons they'll ever learn-on structured programming.
Thursday night at 10 p.m., Commodore users around the Additionally, Cheryl Peterson provides Compuphobla,
country gather to talk about their favorite subject. B.W. a program you'll learn from and have fun wiih at the same
Behling chairs the weekly sessions, usually with one or time. (Turn to page 77.)
more Ahoy! writers or editors as guests. You must be a We're especially proud of this month's complement of
PlayNET subscriber to attend. If you're no!, the adver ready-to-cntcr games - four of the finest ever to share an
tisements on pages 58 and 59 will tell you how to become issue of Ahoy!:
one free with a subscription to Altoy! [f you don't have Treasure Wheel by regular contributor Bob Blackmer
a modem, you'll find out on those same pages how to simulates the TV game show of almost-the-same name.
obtain one free! (Turn to page 31.)
Speaking of subscribing to Ahoy!, you'll note that the Head to Head provides true two-player aclion as you
rates listed in our contents page indicia have gone up. and your opponent race to solve twin computer-genera
But the insert card elsewhere in this issue reflects the old ted mazes. (Turn to page 72.)
prices. Fact is, we printed hundreds of thousands of those In Arena you wield a propcllerlikc spinner against fast-
cards before we knew our subscription prices would be ris moving geometric shapes. (Turn to page 92.)
ing. You can take advantage of our mistake by subscribing Crabfight combines two Crustacea, a clam, and a pair
now at the old rate. We must emphasize the word "now." of octopi in one of the wittiest games we've seen in some
And wnv-thc contents of the February "86 issue of Alloy!: time. (Turn to page 69.)
One of our mosl original construction projects to date, There's much more inside, including Reviews of Card-
Don Lewis' Turnkey 64 teaches you to build an AUTO co's S'MORE cartridge. InfoDcsign's Edge scries, and
EXEC cartridge for instant execution of a specified pro other hardware and soliwarc (turn to page 57): a mega-
gram upon power-up. A program for use with the cart dose of frustration in Commodores (turn to page 77): Tips
ridge is also provided. (Turn lo page 53.) Ahoy!, providing the best programming hints and short
And while you're in a hardware hacking mood, Greg routines available from the Commodore community (turn
Granvillc's Aligning she 1541 Disk Drive will enable you to page 87): and the Scuttlebutt on all the latest releases
to deal with the universal malady of Commodore users. for Commodore computers (turn to page 8).
Greg also provides a program for determining if your A number of readers have called or written to ask what
1541 is out of kilter. (Turn to page 83.) the extent of Ahoy!'s Amiga coverage will be. Our an
Arnie Katz and crew present not one but two complete swer: it depends on the extent of Amiga's success. We're
software surveys in this month's Entertainment Software far more interested in servicing the readers we have now
Section — of flight simulators and individual sports com than in running the risk of losing them by courting new
petitions. Also provided are fuil-length reviews of The ones-which is what would happen if we diluted our pres
Fourth Protocol, Decision in the Desert, Lode Runner's ent Commodore 64. 128, and VIC 20 coverage to include
Rescue, On Track Mode! Car Racing, Law of the West, the Amiga. While we will he reporting on Amiga releas
and Dave Winfield's Bauer Up! (Turn to page 41.) es in Scuttlebutt, we won't lie publishing Amiga programs
Orson Scott Card's Creating Your Own Games returns or articles until we're convinced that a reasonable por
with an explanation of Little Windows, or how to incor tion of our audience and potential audience are using them.
porate multiple windows into your C-64 game screens. As we write these words in early December, it's clear
(Turn to page 18.) that that's nol yet the case.
You never know what Dale Rupert will cover next- Until it is, we hope you enjoy the undiluted Commo
and, frankly, neither do we until the Rupert Report lands dore 64. 128. and VIC 20 coverage in this issue of the
on our desk each month. This time he turns your 64 into leading independent Commodore magazine!
CCUTTMEBUTT
1WI ill
1541 CONTROLLER • CUSTOM CIRCUIT BOARDS • GAMES FROM FIRST
STARf SUBLOGIC, ELECTRONIC ARTS • C-128 BOOKS • INVOICER •
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ORGANIZER • FREEWARE AND PD LIBRARIES • TALKING TERMINAL
SPOILS OF VICTORY is located at Suite E-104. 11221 N.
Victory Software is distributing its 28th Drive. Phoenix. AZ 85029
entire software line as freeware, en (phone: 602-863-1404): the Washing
couraging user groups to copy ami ton office at Suite 700. 1655 N. Fort
distribute the programs among mem Meyer Drive. Arlington, VA (phone:
bers and non-members. Those who 703-528-3393).
like wliai they get arc asked to send
a small donation to help perpetuate NEW GAME RELEASES
ihe service. Volumes I, II, and III, Ultimately, you knew there would
each containing 8-10 game and home be an Ultima IV: Quest of the Ava
utility programs, should be coming tar, made available through Electron
to a user group near you. or else may ic Arts. The program, which fills
be purchased from Victory for $7.00 gffi both sides of two disks, incorporates
per disk ($5.00 without instructions). a terrain 16 times larger than prior
Victory Software. 50 South Valley- games in the series, interaction with
Road B-2. Paoli. PA 19301. hundreds of non-player characters,
new monsters, spells, and challenges,
HOLY SCROLLER and an improved user interface with
Sunday School Master Writer holds data silently or verbally. numerous menu-driven sections, in
800 people records on a single disk. READER SERVICE NO. 201 cluding automatic help features for
enabling church record keepers to in player status, weapons, armor, and
put attendance and visit data and print strings, change colors, or perform magic. The Commodore 64/128 ver
basic people data, quarter roll sheets, other functions, autologon. automa sion, scheduled for release in the first
birthday reports, address labels, and tic formatting, and other features. quarter of'86. will retail for $64.00.
attendance reports. Attendance can be The program is compatible with se Electronic Arts. 2755 Campus
added up and averaged over consec quential word processors, and can be Drive. San Matco. CA 94403 (phone:
utive Sundays. The documentation in customized to suit the user's needs. 415-571-7171).
cludes suggested forms to be used for Welwyn Currah. 104 W. Fourth Superman—Fiie Game, the llrsl re
communication between the church Street. Royal Oak. MI 48067 (phone: lease in First Star's Super Powers
school office and the class. For ihe 617-353-1143). Software Collection, pits the Man of
64: $99.95. CompuServe has opened branch Steel against Darkseid. a villain with
UHL Research Associates, Inc.. offices in Phoenix and Washington, powers that threaten the entire uni
7926 Berner St., Long Beach. CA DC. bringing to 30 its number of of verse. The archfiend employs the
90808 (phone: 213-493-1955). fices nationwide. The Phoenix office Omega Effect to leleport citizens of

TELECOM NEWS Superman—Tin1


Wclwyn Ciirrah's Intelligent Talk
Game divides
ing 'terminal ($29.95). used in com Metropolis into
bination with the Voice Messenger sections. Play
(sec December '85 Ahoy!>. lets C-64 ers must quali
users receive modem-transmitted data fy to travel
verbally. Used alone, it serves as a from screen to
silent telecommunications program
screen.
that offers 80-coiumn operation, cap
READER
ture and display ofhi-res characters, SERVICENO, 202
redefinition of all keys to send text

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P.O. BOX 1758, STATEN ISLAND, NY 10314 FREE 1541 Disk Drive Cleaning Program
PHONE ORDERS 718-351-1864 With Every Order

Ordering Info: In stock items shipped within 24 hrs. for prepaid orders (cert. chk. - visa SUPER HARDWARE PACKAGE
- m/c). C.O.D. orders accepted please add S4.00 must be cash or cert. chk. only. NYS resi C-128 Computer
dents add 8'/4% sales tax. Visa & Master Card add 4%. Afl orders add 3.50 shipping and
1571 Disk Drive
handling. International Orders add S5.00 $ S & H, School inquiries invited. Personal checks
Super Epson Compatible
allow 2 wks. for clearance. Availability and pricing subject to change without notice. Orders
NLQ PRINTER
over $150.00 receive free shipping in continental U.S. Make all checks payable to: American
International Computer Products, Defective Mdse: Handled by authorized Warranty Ser $685.00 S a H Included
vice Center in your area. Hardware special subject to availability. PRINTER INTERFACE ADD. $44.95
Metropolis to his underground lair
where he can try to wrest the secret SubLOGIC's
of the Anti-Life formula from them. 68000-based
Against him, Superman pits bis pow software develop
ers of Hight. super strength, heat vi ment team lakes
sion, and super breath. Players can time out from
assume the rolCS of hero and villain their work on
and compete against each other or third-genera
play solo against the artificial intel tion flight sim
ligence-aided computer. For the ulators to pose
C-64; $29.95. for the camera.
If you purchase tlie program and Bless you boys.
send in the pmof-of-purchase along
with the coupon available at your wood. NJ 07456 (phones: 201- Folsom Street. San Francisco, CA
dealer and S2.99, you'll receive a Su 835-7300). 94110 (phone: 800-431-6249; in CA
per Powers Digital Watch valued at Epyx Sports Preview enables C-64 415-550-0512).
more than S10XX). owners to sample Tiie World's Great
First Star Software Inc., 18 East est Baseball Game, Winter Games, BOOKS
41st Street, New York, NY 10017 The World's Creates! Football Game, The Command Post reprint book
(phone: 212-532-4666). Summer Games, and Summer Games let combines all the material that ran
Battle for Midway puts the C-64 II for $3.50 ($4.00 in Canada). A in Commander magazine's Commo
user in command of the United States S3.50 rebalc is offered for any Epyx dore ham radio communications col
Pacific Fleet just following the De Sports game purchased before Febru umn of ihu same name from Septem
cember 7. 1941 attack on Pearl Har ary 15. 1986. ber 1983 through June 1984. Besides
bor, Previously available in Europe, Epyx Computer Software. 1043 teaching basic interlacing techniques
it Ls now available in the US from Kiel Court. Sunnyvale. CA 94089 for amateur radio applications and
BCI for $9.99. (phone: 408-745-0700). other control situations and review
BC1 Software, P.O. Box 730, Ring- SubLOGIC has enhanced its Flight ing hardware and software, program
Simulator (see The Digital Blue Yon listings are provided for morse code
der, page 41) for 68000-based com send and receive, radio-teletype send
puters, including the Amiga. Im and receive, duplicate checking and
COMMODORE
provements include the choice of Hy program exchange over the air. Price
ing a Cessna 182 or a Lear Jet (by is S9.95 plus $2.50 shipping in US
mouse or keyboard), pull-down and Canada; overseas orders plus
menus iiir setting time or season and $5.00 (full amount by international
CP/M cloud layers by pointing a mouse- money order).
controlled cursor, multiple 3D win QSKY Publishing. P.O. Box 3042.
TUTOR dows for watching two or more views Springfield. IL 62708.
simultaneously, and control tower and More available details on C-I2H In
n*t Cfl'iV m LHH-RST'WD, UUECK I EACH! NCI spotter plane views in addition to the ternals ($19.95), preannounced in
rUrOflA- FOI II* NEH COHrtJDORE CVH
LJBEft. WQRK5 ON IK C-fe* CD C-128 original nine. Each window can be November's Scuttlebutt: the volume
Ih TriC CP'H HQDfc. ihTrHACUVE.BEL*" PflCED
LtfiftHlhG PACKfl« THAT CHVTRB l'« CP'H individually adjusted for the best includes information on using inter
STRLCHftt, HO* L^N iHrtWflCES
rue c-a*
OVER IHE
f«D a-tat,
PUTFNTlfiL
d-iBi "I"?
tr ■"!*. I rJ b*
viewing angle, from wide-angle (IX) rupts, assembly language program
to super-telcphoto (4000X). ming and Kernal routines, the Z-80
(■m c K/mit-r>
Nl M YQHH
Mtutit
In MIU Mil.
• tut} unifi'trfi
mill llfll I H "",
SubLOGIC Corporation, 713 Edge- processor anil Ihe boot ROM, peri
brook Drive. Champaign. IL 61820 pherals and the ports, programming
|SOFTWARE
P.O. BOX 32G (phone: 217-359-8482; orders 800- for sound and music, the various
CAMBRIBHTS.H.V.I14II1
637-4983 except in IL. AK, and HI)- graphics modes, and the memory
management unit, the input/output
PD SOFTWARE ports, and using the 80-column chip
64 GOLD, a library of public do for 640 X 200 point resolution,
main Commodore 64 programs en smooth .scrolling, copying blocks in
compassing games, word processing, screen memory, character length and
extended utilities, communications, width management, and getting more
and education has been made avail than 25 lines on the screen.
able for $5.00 each by the Blackship Abacus Software, P.O. Box 7211,
R»der Service No. 1B*
Group. A free catalog can be ob Grand Rapids, MI 49510 (phone: 616-
tained by writing 64 GOLD. 3219 241-5510).

10 AHOY!
NEWS
The Commodore 128 Mode: Ail In achieve them, tracking and managing
side View explores the computer's 16 Understanding project costs, and more. Price of the
memory banks, wilh information on Computer Science complete C-64 package is $99.95
bank switching, programming with Applications plus $10.00 shipping, $29.95 plus
the built-in monitor, BASIC 7.0 to $10.00 for the documentation only, or
kens and graphic and sound com $79.95 plus $5.00 for the disks only.
mands, and disk storage on the 1541 Lawco Ltd., P.O. Box 2009, Man-
and 1571. Also included are demon teca, CA 95336 (phone: 209-
stration programs and an instructive 239-6006).
memory map.

Microcomscribe, 8982 Stimson PROBLEM PROGRAM


Ct., San Diego, CA 92129 (phone: Everyone you know butts into your
619-484-3884 or 578-4588). affairs anyway. So why not let your
Locating Computer Programs 64 do it? Creative Problem Solving
($17.00) guides the micro user to over ($29.95) evaluates personal, finan
300 sources of software information, cial, and business problems by
including directories, books of pro weighing user-entered input and pro
grams, reviews, databases, and na A self-paced, textbook-style course. ducing a printed analysis of the fac
tional software-sharing organizations. READER SERVICE NO. 204 tors involved. The output shows the
Garland Publishing, 136 Madison best solution to the problem, but can
Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (phone: PLANNING CODE also be utilized as a list of pros and
212-686-7492). Zip helps managers plan projects cons. A printer is necessary.
Understanding Computer Science by selecting the best mix of objectives Harvsoft, Box 725, Kenmore, NY
Applications ($14.95) provides a self- that can be accomplished with the re 14217 (phone: 716-877-3510).
paced course on how computers are sources available, asking "what if
used to solve problems. Covered are questions and determining their effect MOVIE MAKER REMAKE
serial, parallel, and network com on a project, defining objectives and Electronic Arts has reintroduced
munications, distributed processing, the activities and resources needed to Movie Maker (formerly available
modeling and simulation of systems,
graphics, and future applications.
Each chapter ends with a summary BACKUP
and quiz.
Texas Instruments Incorporated, PROTECTED SOFTWARE
P.O. Box 225474, MS/8218, Dallas,
FAST
TX 75265 (phone: 214-997-3955).

with COPY II 64/128


TM

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS
Tigers Tales teaches kindergarten
From the team who brought you COPY II PLUS (Apple), COPY II PC (IBM)
ers through second graders reading
and COPY I! MAC (Macintosh) comes a revolutionary new copy program for
comprehension, vocabulary, and
the Commodore 6>1 and 128 computers.
problem-solving skills as they join
tabby on a series of adventures, help • Copies most* protected software — automatically.
ing to decide how each story will pro • Copies even protected disks in just 2 minutes (single drive).
ceed. The Words section that accom
• Copies even protected disks in just 1 minute (dual drive).
panies each of the five stories lets
• Maximum of four disk swaps on a single drive.
children match up unfamiliar words
used in die stories with pictures. The • Includes fast loader, 12 second format.
C-64 program can be used in con Requires a Commodore 64 or 128 computer wilh one or two 1541 or 1571 drives.
junction with Koala's Muppet Learn
ing Keys. Price of the disk plus one
CENTRAL POINT 503/244-5782
backup and teacher's guide is $59; lab Software, Inc. M-F. 8-5:30, W. Coast 1W
package (10 disks plus teacher's ffTQOSWCapllolHwy., 'KID CHECK COD WELCOME
[fenland, OR 97219
guide) is $177.
Sunburst Communications, Inc.,
*Vft update Copy [[ (>-i regularly id handle new protections; you us s registered owner nhiv updates] any ifmo at fl
39 Washington Ave., Pleasantville, reduced price
NY IO57O (phone: 800-431-1934; in 77m iHiKfittfbt QmVttfedtm ihepurptife tyt {'itahftnq ytw '" tut tin1 tjuhn tili'-fi-iiinlv
NY, AK, and Canada call 914-
769-5030 collect for orders). Header Servfco No. 160

AHOY! 1)
from Reston Publishing), enhanced Static Buster
with over 100 new drawings ;ind three Anti-Stat Wipes
animated movies by Gahan Wilson. are treated, lint-
These and the other seven built-in free cloths used
movies can be customized or studied to apply Static
as tutorials. The program permits us Buster Anti-Stat
ers to create animated tracks, or char Cleaner or for
acters, of up to 300 frames in length, even-day dusting.
and to combine up to six such tracks Both work with
in a single animated sequence. The the Static Poten
sequences can be chained together for tial Equalizer
automatic playback, or a VCR can be as a total system.
used to combine them into feature- READER
length animated productions. A li SERVICE NO. 205
brary of built-in tones and sound ef
fects is included, allowing the crea The cartridge plugs into the expan The G.A.S.S. Company, 970 Cope-
tion of different sound tracks lor each sion port of cither machine and may land. North Bay, ONT P1B 3E4
movie. For the C-64; $32.95. be left in at all times. Upon power (phone: 705-474-9602).
Electronic Arts, 2755 Campus up, ihe cartridge senses whether a
Drive, San Mateo, CA 94403 (phone: 1541 or 1571 drive is connected to the TAX PROGRAMS
415-571-7171). system and which mode the computer Two programs for taxpayers from
is in, then engages or disengages the Northland Accounting:
ANTI-STATIC PRODUCTS drive speed routines dependent on the Bookkeeper's Aid complies with all
The Static Busier line of static con hardware configuration. IRS record keeping requirements in
trol products has been expanded to in Included in the package is a disk keeping the small business tax rec
clude Ami-Slat Cleaner (reduces glare. containing a BASIC +4K program, ords straight. The program is menu-
Static, and dust buildup while leaving Iwo monitors, a disk organizers and driven, with all data input assisted by
an invisible conductive Him) and Anti- catalog program, and other utilities. screen prompts. 300 user-defined ac
Stat Wipes, both designed to work with Access Software. Inc.. 2561 South count classifications are available,
the Static Potential Equalizer, 1560 West. Woods Cross, UT 84087 and all sorting and calculating is per
Lamb's Information Systems, 301 {phone: 801-298-9077). formed independent of the disk or
N. Main St., Pueblo."CO 81003 tape drive. The program will work
(phone: l-800-STATIC-l). DISKORGANIZER with most serial printers to generate
Diskorganizer (S29.95) allows a complete report of all records by
NEW DISK MARKERS C-64 users to sort and rearrange the record number and sorted by account.
Red. blue, and green Diskribc disk directory of any unprotected disk On disk or tape for the VIC 20 with
markers have been added to the or to meet specifications, and write the IfiK. the C-64, or the Plus/4; $34.95.
iginal gold and silver, allowing users new directory to the disk. A screen Revised once again to incorporate all
to color-code a broader range of disks. editor permits changing the header, the latest tax laws. Tuxaid will prepare
The markers are designed to write di scratching, scratchproofing, and re any IRS form 1040 and print the results
rectly on the disk jacket. Price is naming files, writing files to another to screen or paper. The user can make
S2.5O each. disk, marking off sections of the disk changes and revisions at any time dur
Sanford Corporation, 2740 Wash for easy reading and independent ing data untry. Calculations are auto
ington Blvd.. Bellwood. IL 60104. sorting, positioning individual files matic and all tax tables, including in
anywhere in the directory, and print come tax averaging, are built-in. On
MACH 128 ing copies of revised directories. disk or tape for the VIC 20 with 16K.
Designed for use with the C-128 or The G.A.S.S. Company, 970 Cope- the C-64, or the Plus/4; 539.95.
C-64, the Much 128 Enhancement land. North Bay. ONT P1B 3E4 Northland Accounting, Inc., 606
Package (S49.95) will speed 1541 or (phone: 705-474-9602). Second Avenue. Two Harbors, MN
1571 loads by up to five times, provide 55616 (phone: 218-834-3600).
40- and 80-column screen dumps, and SENTENCE GENERATOR
make DOS enhancements available on Sort of a computerized Mad-Lib CUSTOM BOARDS
the C-64 and in all three 128 modes: book. Creative Writer ($29.95) gen New custom circuit boards for the
40-column, 80-COlumn, and C-64. erates an infinite number of random, C-64 and 128 from Micro R & D:
A mode selection switch on the car gramatically correct sentences. Sug The MW-611 universal I/O board
tridge allows the user to choose cither gested uses are simulation of famous plugs into the C-64/128 expansion
native 128 or C-64 emulation mode. authors and tailor-made abuse for port, providing for 16 channels of
A resei switch allows for warm starts. politicians and friends. analog inupt and from 14 to 16 dis-

12 AHOY!
NEWS
crete outputs as well as an addition Creekridse Circle, Minneapolis, MN
al analog output. All outputs are pro 55435 (phone: 612-944-3915).
grammable through BASIC, individu
ally or in groups. Diode suppression 1541 CONTROL
is provided to pretext the ouiput from The 1541 Control ($34.95) mounts
inductive kickbacks. Other features on top of the drive, allowing ihe us
include an EPROM socket for cus er to change the device number, in
tom programs, A/D and D/A con crease disk storage by 100 %. and re
verters, and a 16-pin footprint for ex set the computer, disk drive, or en
perimental circuits. tire system. Installation is facilitated
1541 Control: change device ft, reset.
The MW-150 is a terminal break by an illustrated manual.
READER SERVICE NO. 206
out board for any analog/digital con Micro Fabrication Systems, P.O.
version board, featuring circuitry for Box 1114. Delaware, OH 43015.
using a thermocouple amplifier with cording and playing back on any or
cold junction compensation to pro INVOICING PROGRAM all of the 16 MIDI channels. Includ
duce an amplified output signal from Vie Invoicer (S59.95), which lets ed is a flexible set of options for
a thermocouple input. The device C-64 owners produce bills on blank pa structuring music, real-time control
senses the junction temperature on per or preprinted forms, features batch of up to 35 Independent sequences
the board using a temperature-sensi or real time processing, user- defined from the computer keyboard, and an
tive amplifier and provides internal smart keys, automatic letterhead for editing system lhai displays up to 22
compensation. AJso included are cir matting, sales tax calculation, line ex notes onscreen at a time and lets the
cuits for RC noise filtering and scal tension and totaling, built-in audit con composer change the timing, dynam
ing voltages down using a voltage div trols, and daily sales reporting with op ics, pitch, or MIDI channel. Music
ider circuit. tional user-defined item subtotals. Tax, can be recorded in three ways: in
Micro R&D has enhanced their taxable sales, and nomaxable sales are real-time from the synthesizer key
MW-350 Graphics Printer Interface automatically tracked. Statistical data board, one note at a time from the
(see February '85 Ahoy!) to include such as average invoice amount can computer keyboard, or as sequences
a 4K buffer and a revised operating also be generated. of evenly spaced notes entered from
ROM that provides for switch settings MiccaSoft, 406 Windsor Lane, the synthesizer keyboard using the
for cighl popular printer brands. New Braunfcls, TX 78130 (phone: STEP-TIME function.
Micro R&D Inc., 3333 S. Wads- 512-629-4341). The DX Patch Librarian ($75.00),
worth A-104, Lakewood. CO 80227 originally intended for creating and
(phone: 303-9854077 or 1473). FUNCTION KEY DEFINER storing patches for Yamaha DX7 syn
Screen Dump, Etc. (S24.95) defines thesizers, has been modified to per
GRAPHICS DISKS the C-64's eight function keys for dif mit programming of TX and 8-16 ex
Broderbund and Springboard have ferent tasks. Besides enabling you to pansion modules without a DX7. It
enhanced their popular C-64 graph print a C-64 screen of any resolution allows the C-64 user to attach a key
ics programs with new supplemen or combination of resolutions to a board controller or external sequen
tary art disks. dot-addressable printer, the program cer to the MIDl-in of the computer
77i<? Print Shop Graphics Library will let you save screens to and load to easily hear his TX sounds.
Disk 3 ($24.95) provides 120 new de screens from disk, display screen mem Dr. T's Music Software, 66 Lou
signs, symbols, and pictures, includ ory allocations, perform decimal/hex ise Road, Chestnut Hill. MA 02167
ing international symbols, dozens of conversion, and get HELP One key is (phone: 617-244-6954).
business icons, 15 new Christmas user-definable. All function key rou
graphics, and graphics representing tines can be performed at any time, TALKING TYPING TUTOR
myth and fantasy, the seasons of the even during program execution. The latest of the Tymac Talkies,
year, animals, and miscellaneous de IRQ, Inc., P.O. Box457, St. Char software-generated talking games,
signs. les. MO 63302. Type-Snyper teaches typing through
Broderbund Software. Inc., 17 Paul 16 different exercises, with lessons
Drive, San Rafael. CA 94903-2101 MIDI SEQUENCER ranging from proper finger placement
(phone: 415-479-1170). Two C-64 MIDI products from Dr. to increasing speed and accuracy.
Vic Clip Art Collection, Volume 1 Ts Music Software (requiring a Gameplay consists of an attack heli
($29.95) adds 600 pieces of an to the Model-T, Sequential 242 or 64-com copter dropping bundles of words and
600 original pieces provided with Vie patible, Passport, or Passport-com letters that must be "destroyed" by
Newsroom, Springboard's $49.95 patible MIDI interface): typing them before they reach the city.
newspaper-making program for the The Keyboard Controlled Sequen Exercises are auiomatically adjusted
Commodore 64 and 128. cer ($125.00) can be used as a 16- to emphasize areas needing extra
Springboard Software, Inc., 7808 track tape recorder, capable of re- help. For the 64; $39.95.

AHOY! 13
NEWS
Tymac Controls Corporation, 127 cated printing utilities, as well as for graphics programs not currently sup
Main Street, Franklin, NJ O74i6 incorporating joystick functions into porting printer drivers.
{phone: 201-827-4050). programs. Inkwell Systems. P.O. Box 85152
Special graphics commands facili MB290, San Diego. CA 92138
COMMODORE PRINTER tate the development of application (phone: 619-268-8792).
Hattori Seiko's SP-I0O0VC dot ma programs for home or business-use
trix printer (S27O.OO) offers Commo graphics. Graphics like those found PRINTER ACCESSORIES
dore compatibility, bidirectional prim in many commercially available Via its two casy-io-install ROM
ing with logic-seeking, adjustable trac games arc made possible for users chips, the Special Edition Kit for the
tor and friction Iced, a variety of print with artistic talent. Star Micronics SG-10C printer elim
character sets, automatic paper loading, Each command is documented in a inates hardware selection of print
and right/left margin set functions. loolkil manual that includes demo and functions and offers software acces
Hattori Seiko Computer Peripher utility programs plus a command ref sibility of print modes such as near
als. 1111 MacArthur Boulevard. Mah- erence card. Retail price of the program letter quality, italic, super- and sub
wah. NJ 07430 (phone: 201- will range from S34.95 to S44.95. script, density bit image graphics,
529-5730). Epyx, Inc.. 104.1 Kiel Court. Sun and underlining. Star distributors will

nyvale, CA 94089 (phone: 408- offer the kit free of charge to all SG-
BASIC TOOLKIT 745-0700). 10C owners and purchasers.
The BASIC Toolkit provides more Star Micronics Inc.. 200 Park Ave
than 100 new BASIC commands, al GRAPHICS INTEGRATOR nue, Suite 3510. New York. NY 10166
lowing Commodore 64 and 128 pro From the makers of Flexkimw, the (phone: 212-986-6770).

grammers to add high-speed assembly Graphics Integrator will convert pic A Plug 'N Print Kit designed for
language operations to their application ture files from one graphics package the Amiga will allow users to print
programs. Ir. addition to enhancing all 4096 of the Amiga's screen col
for use in another. Conversion can be
BASIC, the Toolkit boosts the Commo ors with the Okimate 20 printer. In
made from hi-res to hi-rcs. hi-res to
cluded is interface module, data ca
dore operating system, with features Fiexidmw format, multicolor to mul
like a directory listing command, ble, color and black ribbons, and pa
ticolor, or multicolor to hi-res (with
straightforward disk command syntax, some conversion loss). Word proces per. For a limited time, kits will in
clude a disk that demonstrates the
and a LOAD/SAVE function for graph sor compatible output with packag
picture capabilities of the Amiga's
ics, sprites, and character sets. Built in es having an external file input ca
is the Vorpal Fas! Loader, Epyx's own pability allows the integration of text
512K model, as well as the Okimatc's
text font and the Amiga's graphics tout
rapid disk-loading enhancement for the and pictures. The program can also
1541 and 1571 disk drives. be used to create self-running slide capabilities. The kit will retail for $99.
Users may print disk catalogs, text shows in hi-rcs. generate stand-alone
(The Okimate 20 sells for $169.)
Okidata, 532 Fellowship Road. Mt.
files, and paigram listings in BASIC. picture files that can be entered as
Laurel, NJ 08054 (phone: 609-
Commands are provided for .sophisti BASIC, and print pictures from
235-2600).

SUNCOM PRODUCTS
Two new computer accessories
from Suncom:
The Notcher (S9.95) punches a
hole on jackets of single-sided disk
ettes in the place occupied by the
write-protect notcli on a double-sided
disk. While not inlended to render the
disk's second side useful for primary
data storage, it will provide the user
with a means of manufacturing back
up or duplicate copies of important
data disks.
The Wet System Disk Head Clean
er ($7.95) removes particle matter,
smoke residue, dust, and corrosion
that build up on disk heads after ex
tended periods of use.
The SP-1000VC, Hattori Seiko's first entry in the North American printer Suncom Incorporated, 260 Hol-
market, has a built-in Commodore interface and a two-year warranty. brook Drive. Wheeling, IL 60090
(phone: 312-459-8000).
14 AHOY!
New toll free number:
KEYMASTER
1-800-541-1541
The easiest-to-use. most-powerful disk backup program ever,
written for the 64.

With one 1541 drive:


• FAST FILE COPIER — up to 5 times faster!
• FAST full protected — disk GCR nibble copier
• FAST full unprotected — disk copier
■ KEYMASTER protected — disk unlocking kit"
• FAST 10 second disk formatter

With two 1541 drives (NO disk swapping required during co


pying):
■ FAST lile copier — up to 6 times faster!
■ FAST full prelected — disk GCR nibble copier
• FAST lull unprotected — disk copier

■• KEYMASTER unlocks protected disks by ELIMINATING


the protection scheme originally written on the disk.
•• Once one of KEYMASTER's KEYS has
unlocked a disk, the program can generally
be RLE COPIED onto another disk
(also making the program compatible with
non-1541 drives). II it is not lile copyable, it
can be fast nibble copied.
•• SO KEYS (or popular programs will be provid
ded on lhe first KEYMASTER disk.
Frequent updates of 25 to 50 additional KEYS will be
available (no original disk return required for updates!).

ALL OF THIS AT THE RIGHT PRICE! ONLY -


$29.95 for KEYMASTER
SiO.OO for update disks
KEYMASTER created by Jim Drew.

New toll free number:


MAGNUM LOAD BtOWS ME OTHERS AWAY!

AiTENTIQN lilt AKU USD OWNERS'

1-800-541-1541 ■.'.■.■■ . ■ ■ ._ . , . . 6 TIMES FASTER Itisn M'ore It >s 1 iww


■ ■ "."■ .:..■■.■,--- ■ ■'.' . ■ . . . - ■ - ■-.;>iikr
1 . ■ ■ Mq'1 speed «rtfy [teh ;v «i n i taad ranie rouurw (1M1 Orivcj and a BASIC
UNNfWniWliM (MBDdnve)Tav8ieplacMi'»Ea'as«ieta|>ercnitrne!
'hr!iirsi[]iu<ir.inoii adisfc*may£etorKffld antf run by pressing QftEyiwo keys fStlin/AUN)
Un tii .1 i .-irntiK style last loMB'5, fhi poih, ,v i en .i,i al iht'Mfol Vom mmpatcr
:ll|. .1 ' ii.i- I i' i|. I- 1.1 ■ I r ■ n r| l..i,!ini,.in:' I'.T.' i, ii:j WrMr ;mil-!o.lr .lilllli'i;.!!!^ JJ'lrl
n'lt.inj nniorm MAI 'ith LOADu intiJDed DWrCflV n liie

..r" Tif' .■■ '

-: ..

STAR REGULAR MAW FAST MAGNUM


PRO CHAM DOS LOAD 5 1(1 .Ml LOAD

ociiiiiAi ■I M1..U A2sec :i ,■ 31 sst


Mum ■.N./i'iH'iiil I.HBUNO) -> Ui , . 1 llii sec ■ lif'i'.'n:- .■' ..

1 ' i -.. i>r,ltrtoi» I.B'.HL'

[INFOCOM1
U STAB) 1 ■
..... . 1.1"-

.■.■'■ - _ 'Ml tMC>( 10 iDyuMf 1SJ13

f/V£ VLIISHIttSOf MKNUMIMOMIFAWIASIITORI ANYNUIt.

VEHS1QM APPLICATION PRICE

■ :' .1 •■'■'■ '■


rHianGoaeUSOU'Lvei , I . •■ ■
1441 arneMU 129 M
-:j..>- ind : ■■ I <1 .'■ ■■ """ 1
. ..■man""

1 ■■■■ «S; IS* Cf'M mM CiiiuJiic jersems MUSI t» ii'iK uGC£O lu

ORDER THE VERSION YOU NEED NOWI

M«llKUH[llf.!lrrf,llr.el,v Ur::lht»

11.: i .. i .■. :■ ..■[■■■■ A i '.' " :,' Syi.il m Dtvalopmeni


'.■■■ H -1 ■ AM1OADTUEPV) 'jTARDOSTMSiwPglil
THE SHADOW $89.95 * HACKER PACKAGE $39.95 *GT PACKAGE $44.95
Shadow is a new and revolutionary piece a! Shadow a disk while it toads, then read an Highly sophisticated and integrated piece of
hardware that is used to duplicate even the exact list of: hardware that turns you 1541 into something
most protected software. Fitting inside the Track, sector, ID. check sum, drive status you've always wanted.
disk drive (no soldering required). SHADOW High and low track limits Track and sector display
lakes complete control of all functions giving Density use on each (rack Drive reset switch
near 100% copies. Half tracks that are used Device number change
Command recorder shows commands that Hall Irack indicator
Being the best utility available today, It will were sent to 1541 white program was Abnormal bit density indicator
even copy the other copy programs. loading • Shadow on-olf indicator
• RAM recorder records custom DOS The Shadow display will give you an accurate
Because of the Shadow's unique abilities, we Shadow-scan any disk, then read exact !is! of: display of precisely what track you are
leel DOS protection is a thing ol the past. • Valid tracks, half tracks, partial tracks and accessing during a normal load even if the
segments program does a road past track 35.
• Sync mark link, header block links and 'Requires Shadow
data block links
• Track to (rack synchronization
Exclusive snap shot recorder will give you an
exact copy of the 1541 RAM and can be
viewed, saved or printed. Plus many more
features included.
'Requires Shadow

Order by phone 24 hrs.<7 days or send cashier's


check/money order payable lo MegasolI. Visa,

MeqaSoH:
MasterCard include card numbsr and expiration
P.O. Boi 1OBO • Battle Ground, Washington 9B604 date. Add S3.5Oshlpplnn.lhandHng lor
1-800-541-1541 conlinental U.S., S5.50 lor UPS sir. CODs odd
S7.S0, Canada add $10.00. Othor foreign orders
Canadian/Foreign Orders Call add $15.00 and remit certified U.S. funds only.
^J LTD (206)637-5205 Distributors Invited and supported.
S\VNGAMI=«i
CNTHIE CCMMCIXJRI:

How to use Exfended


Background Color Mode ffo give
a readable format

f the game you're creating relies heavily on text, the esting is to change the foreground and background colors
screen can get pretty boring. Of course, Infocom -and gel rid of that boring light blue on dark blue. The
has shown us that if the story of the game is inter foreground color (the color of the letters) can be changed
esting enough, even plain vanilla text-only screens by PRINTing one of the color-change characters
can keep our interest. (QUOTE, then SHIFT-I through SHIFT-8 or COMMO
Remember, though, that the screen display isn't de DORE-! through C0MM0D0RE-8). The background
signed merely for entertainment. It is also your chief tool color is changed by POKEing a value from 0 to 15 into
for communicating with the player. location 53281. And to change the border color, POKE
By carefully designing the screen format, you can en a number from 0 to 15 into location 53280.
hance the screen's ability to convey information clearly Another way to snazz up the display is to design a new
and quickly. If it also makes the screen more interesting- character font, so we don't have to look at the same old
well, who can complain about that? letter shapes. We've gone through that process in detail
in earlier columns-a year ago, if I remember correctly.
DEFINING WINDOWS The trouble with both these changes is that as often
The most obvious way to make the screen more inter- as not they interfere with communication. Most char-
18 AHOY!
acter fonts don't improve the clarity of the letters; nine torn, for instance—that constantly displayed the elapsed
times out often, they make the letters even harder to read, time, the character's strength and health, and how much
which very quickly becomes far more annoying than the electricity his flashlight had left. The player could glance
boredom of the regular character set. at that screen line any time he wanted the information,
And changing the colors is interesting for the first few without having to use up a command finding it out.
moments—but there aren't many foreground-background %u could use another window to give the name of
color combinations that have the right contrast to be read the room he is in and any other characters who arc in
able for the long hours that the player will want to play there with him. A third window could contain a constant
your game. list of what he's carrying. The fourth-and largest-win
What will make your screen more interesting and im dow would then contain the traditional command-and-re-
prove its usefulness is to divide the screen into "windows" sponse information that all adventures seem to have.
—sections of the screen used for the same purpose ail The result would be a very pleasing visual design: four
through the game. distinct screen areas, each used to convey a particular
For instance, if you were creating an adventure game, kind of information, so the player could look at the same
you might reserve a small area—a single line at the bot- place every time.

AHOY! 19
NEWFORC-64andC-128

THE KEEPER
Revolutionary now lechnology enables virtual slorjig<Mil 8102ijyliss at tilQh speed RAM
With write protect and In/out switches, trie KEEPER adds new dlmnnoicinB lo you'
computing capflcllity Designed Tor I he? Commodore C 64 and C 128

MaKo Aulo-SlartCarlnfloflEOl Vnur Own Programs Insianl Program Recall


BuiH-in Sollwwe Mkss Uso EASY May Bo Used Over and Over
S3995 Copy BASIC or Machine Language Proflrams Guaranteed loi 1 Yoai
ONLY

MASTER LOCK GRAPHIC LABEL MAKER


Here, at last, is 9 program lhal will orolecr. your software p'OQfflrnis from unaulhoMred Give your IsDela the professional touch With Hi Ro: Qrnohica mako your own do»iQn or use
duplicating T to i minion copies can Qe protected, fast and easy oneour copremade lapels with easy lo use on screen editor You can mrjnrT up lolhroo lines
of le*l (hen choose the pldure you *anl to put an tne loft hand side of 11io latiai Thon you
■ Specially designed for the C-G1 and 1^41 Dish Onva
can print out as many Libels as yOi. want This has ijot lo te the neatest label program out
• Completely encrypts and piDtects your programs.
there and il's only grt A 95
■ Fully compatible wt\h almost all machine language and basic programs — can even
support chained programs
■ Contains a special feature which protects youi program lidm being 'broken.
• IncorpQiales all tha laieal techniques rn program encryption anil protection.
• Each system has bi*pn specially prepared and is unique Irom all other systems — only
you |f| atiin lo inaVp working duplicates oT your own protected programs

• Simple and easy to use — entirely menu drive with prompts


• Will slop virtually all software copie'S from duplicating your programs
• Fast and reliable protection routine 3dps noi lake away any useable space Irom your
disk — all G6* blocks are available lor use

■ Easy to (dIIqw step oy step instructions are included on the disk


• A must lor all programmers wno do rot want their programs to tie <n public domain*

Even the "mbbiers" ean'l copy them Not even ' Disk Maker. 'Mister Nibbles "Copy II "Ultra
B/te or 'Fa.51 Hackam The timr? Inprorncl yim disk is only & if ivrjj seconds and iNich Wastrr
'No** worn fift Prm
Locv maves a different protection scheme Only

SO>195
"Dish Maker™.
"Mister Nibbles™. Full Circre
95 'Also iiuD'tab'v — me * fated Giaphtc package lo' itw $4 ana
vow print snap Tort's 60 Mi He* picrwti J24
"Copy II™. Central Point Solr
Ultra Byte™. Ultra Byte
"Fas! Hacfcem™. Baf i Boys 1541 M.A.S.H.
Now you can service your own 1541 disk rjnve u5inrj '541 MASH Save Dig bucks on repair
bills Rate the performance ot your drrvo Tost and adjust RPM's Teal ant? ad|USl heaO Align
TOOL BOX ment Step by step instructions that anyonn can follow
it lo adjust a misbehaving drive
Pays lor ilsell Ihe firsl lime you use
No knowledge of rlnceonms in nncrsr.ary All you needs is a

This drs* has over 100 "autmps. seme of them arn routines fo' prnlectton. smooth scroihng screwdriver and 20 minutes

modem routines, and sound and color routines. booimsKer. flflfJdfe flnd joyStiGfe. 'efii! tn>
NOW ONLY
mmai auto dial aulo answer They cfln easil> &D incorporated into all Of you; programi II is
also 1 Lilly Qocumenied v^iin tnis. disk alone you Could build your own piogram This Ot-sk has
a lot oi tricks mat arp used m commercial software
DISK TRACKER
S19 95 Now you can log all of your disks into a n«al liNng system Automatically record disk names
and program tiUeS Allows you: lo quickly scan what you've got Sorts lilies prints iflchel

SWIFTERM AND MODEM


covers, storn up is i&oO disk directories on one duk Search Qmckty througri your entire disk
collec I ion for a misplaced program VJorlfs wilh onn driver or two Fast, nasy operation This

This is the best package anywhere! program is a must lor everyone1 <. . *-. n r

SWIFTERM
ONLYS1995
is absolutely the eaueai terminal program available anywhere
- Work? with trio i«C. and WeVnrjgfl Modem • Auto drai (Wilh auto radial)
THE XXXXXXXXXX
• Hew printer and miflweslern pro local • 29K storage Dufler

• Printer dump • Save lo disk X^RATED GRAPHICS LIBRARY


■ DOS commands access Irom menu • Standard ASCII uptown loadmfl
• Phone oool< • 300*1200 Baud
Your Print Show May Never Be The Same!
This is an excellent easy to use program for a very reasonable puce XRa led Graphics guaranteed TO spice up your specrai ••':<• •'•'•;> :■- greelmg carcJs signs and
banners' Everything from mild Id Look Oul Nelly' 60 EfOliC additions to heat up your print
THE MODEM: shop graphics library, plus 5 ribald Screen Magic adrJilions1
Auto dial aulo answer, 300 Baud modem mat it W» compatible wun Commadors 1650
modern, 50 all our software rtill run with it Pi ml Snop is a trademark ol BrOderbund

ALL THIS FOR ONLY OO


So *nv buy jus! j/ro when you can gel a modem, loo'1"
GRAPHICS & GAME DISK
300/1200 BAUD x-Rated adventure like you nave never seen before Complete with graphic simulations

Voaem lot me C-6J


S169 00 Plus: X-Rated Cartoons S2495
HAVE WE GOT A MESSAGE . . . FOR YOU!
Mtaiirj*... it a unique praties integration package which allows you to continuously display hirtsalution .m.i mu^COiOf hies Up 10 if files' may bp atoretl in memory and ditpirlyetl Irom 110 69
seconas each
Mtiais* 1 - - can use Print Snap'Screen Magic1 fires. Fiemflraw files. DoMJeV Koafa Painter, ana more1 Mssiag* , . , even comes witn a Sctdvi Maker program to create your own rnmsage iiios'
Use Message ...for advertising displays, titles for home vrceas a'[ shows etc . ■ ■ Masiigi... even plays background music 10 accompany display*. an<] you can create you' own mumc lnos with
the 'Music Makef program

Also Included are 'Graphic Aids' utilities for conversion of different file types. Including conversion ol KojIj Pjlnitr Illti to Pood 111 or Print Shop1

The price for all this? Just S19 95.including shipping and handling
'Actual number Of l"es e^; on Me complenty
MAGNUM LOAD
Programed try Jim
Sim Reg. Much Fan! MAGNUM
Program Dos Load 5 tond LOAD
MAGNUM LOAD is a new replacement KERrJAL {operating system) ROW chip lor yaui Com-
modor 65 or 128 computer that will load and verily pragiams up lo 6 limes las ter lhan before. PitslopN „, ? 144 3ec 43 sec. 41 3oc 31 sec.
The tape routines have oeen removed tiom Ihe old chip and in their place have bnnn put a ? 105 sec. 105 sec ' 105' 21 sec.
Music Shop
high-speed loader, high-sp^ed vanly. and disk driver no-ho ad-fat tie roulinn. Unlike the older
Hitcnhiker'aGulctototheGalany . ' 70 sec 70 sac ' NG." Msec.
cartridge fast loaders, no ports am tied up at tha rear of (he computer, the screen is not
blanked durr-ng loading and there is no wear-and^tririr on ir.0 expansion port, Fo* manlmum On-field Football ? 149 soc. 68 aec 63 sec. 56 me.
convenience and performance, trie chip is mstalied direciiy m the circuit toard. Generally a EASY FINANCE I ?
? 58 sec. 13 sec. 13 sec. none.
socket has already bean provided to make the operation easy, but occasionally some solder-
S3995
in g may tie required. Mow you can givo your 1541 disk drive "T571 speed."
S2495
Ralher than give you more exageraled claims aboul hovn many times faster our ROM chip is
FtM 1541 or MSD Version for Combo Vofs<on
compared lo the slower cartridge versions, a comparison chart is supplied listing
MEASURED loading limes 'Will not !asl load. dalauired backfo'egular lo ' 'Failed lo load ai all

D-CODER Top Secret Stuff f and Top Secret Stuff II


• Translates any machine fanguage proginm mlo caay-to ready English di-scriptlons with
complete explanations of each, command. Are both coHoctions of 20 programs per diskette* (thai works oul to aboul 41 00 per program1)
» Makeg complete notations al all Important memory locations accessed by The pjogram that help you enpioreand enhance your Commodore 94 andfor 12fl and 1541 disk rj^ve. Now
{SID, VIC. MOS, KEflNAL. Bit} you can unlock many secels lormeMy known only tc top machinn fangjage programrnfirs by
using ihose sophisticated "tools " If you have ever been curious about Tha inner worhmgaoi
■ Give? you three ways ol accessing programs
your computer system, now is your chance to dig in an<J find answers wMh Ihe help oi these
1. WIN rcnii and Hal programs Irom DISK programs These coHecllons ol programs hpie gotten rave reviews from actual use's, and
2. WM1 'sad and llsl programs Iron MEMORY we are surn that your too. will be pleased
3. Direct user Input (from magazines, ate)
Tha programs include on Bach diskfilte are lisiad below
■ Can be used lo locate and examine any machine language program's protection
routines1 TOP SECRET STUFF I TOP SECRET STUFF
• Can be used lo sasl'y brea* apart machine language programs lor study and Thfl Dock [vlew^repjilr disk contenlsl HAM Tett (test Computer
examination! Sync Chftckor (disholte) Copy JAOOCMFFFF (under ROMS)
Imbeddad Track Number Craalor Display Q.C.R. {AM noclor data)

S19 95
■ Printer option fot complete hard copy listings'
Oksk Minlpulbilon Syel#m Un Write Proteci fdi^KeElol
You no longtr na*d to tie an EGGHEAD to read Machine Language. 3 Minute Copy ibachup orngram] Unnsw Program
OlakaMa Matcher (compare sectors) Wedge • 18000

N-CODER Unscraich A File (recover file)


View BAM (block allocation map)
Smoolh Scroll (messages up screen)
Koala Dump (Koala paC screen dump)
THE PERFECT COMPANION PROGRAM TO D-CODER! 1541 RuBdWritB Tesl Disk Manipulation Syaiem
Vi Track Header Disk Eresar (20 second clean wlpei
Allows you lo easily make changes In machlna language* programs . . . right on Ihe disk! Hinder Reader ^fsplay disk headon SpElt Screen (TWO screen colors)
Sync Maker Disk Protection System (stops copies)
• Rewrite abifily allows code to be allered and Ihen rewritten dpredly lo thn rJlsk1
Device Number Change idisk drive) Write Pfoiecl (Qisketlel
• Features aeclor-bysector scrolling assembly language display of machine Iflngungn Electronic Arii Backup Bool Maker (autobooh BASIC programs)
programs!
!'■,,■■ Vi n (disk drJvo m/i monitor) Wedge • SCOOO
• Notation ol ASCH fe*t equivalents for easy spotHng ol embedded |e>1 airings1 DhkaMs File Log [&tflri*&nd acldr?ssl □lifcmatcf*er II (high speed version)
• Handy reference display ol all assembly language commands and their ML numerical Write Protect Sensor Test No Drive Ratil* ion reading errO'Si
equivalents' Repair A Track irecovpr rJBtS) 3 Times Disk Drlva Head Speed
Fast Formal iiO seconds) Monitor Teal (check video monitor)
• Byte splitter for easy splitting ol decimal SH •QtfO '■j Tiack Formarter
addresses into low byte-high byte formal! I W

SOFTWARE PROTECTION HANDBOOK S19 95 S19 95


Third Edition! Now Available!
If you're Ilrtd ol being harassed by protoclad aahwBre and loo many copy program*). thor> WAR GAMES AUTODIALER
this Is Ihe book I01 you1 This 22A page manual cover? the gamut Irom legalities to protechon
1 Auto Dial will automatically dial a S£l of numbers you choose.
rrethods [0 step-by-slep back up procedures. Hqw you can learn tiolh how to protect and
unprotect ■ I'ware1 Tha techniques covered include copying cartridges to lane or disk, lape 2. Review Numbers will review numbers that wprr> answered by a
protection, and disk protection. Disk prelection covers error numbers 30, 21.22. 23. 27 and 29 compuler.

plui single track formatling. header modiNcaliois. header swapping, half track leading: and 3. Save Numbers will save numbers where a computer answered
vmling, readmg and modified bit densities, formalting illegal [rack/sectors, gync wrrting and
4. Hsrdcopy of Numbers wrll print oul list of numbers where a com
more! The Third ed^tlon explains leHs how lo delect anu how lo write them with Included
puler answered
so it ware.
5. LOAD Numbers will load rn numbers lo Continue whore It left alf
ooh Only.... s19 95 uS 8, Coniinuft wNI pick up dialing where it was Interruptad S29 95
Book & Disk ol all Programs
This :.MHUflf tic\ not contSana pltMC
BBS
'TRACK TRAP' The 1541 Disk Expander! - 300/1200 Band
■ Remote access for sysop
• Supplement to the Software Protection Handbook • • 2 levels ol security for up and rto^n load
• 7 rooms (read and writef with A security levels
The most unusual and innovative protection analysis lool lor the Commodore yet* - hoi For • Secret highest fevel
Baglnnera — Thus system expands your 15* 1 drive glvJng capability drier wise only ponsiblfi ■ Opqn cJialk board
for proftulontt dish duplication equipment Now you can create or analyze n'Ohc formg ol • Aulo message cycling1
disk protection 4D.O.S. Klngt' Tik* HoW — Entire iracks of dain can de road and wMtien • Pome* option
without regard lo siandard' sync and format You are noi longer ^mlted lo sector by aecloj
searches Whole track readouts reveal hlddan ctata even when all or most of me Seclors have Ptus |na Only BBS with alf [hree (3) pfotlcals X modem,
been erased. Uncovers and writes data under errors, pulse coded sync or daia. hidden data new printer and mhdwest Term, so anyone can up^d
and access codes, multiple Irack densities and morgf This supplemental manual covers ihe load
complele implemenlalion of Ihe [rack trap system including necessaiy soflwaie and
Don'l be looled by cheap Imilatrons. This f5 the most
hardware documentalion.
comprehensive system available anywhere Now at a
SQ95 new low price
Tracl* Trap dish expanded manual us

Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or


Personal Check. Allow 14 days for delivery.
2 to 7 days for phone orders, Canada orders
must be in U.S. Dollars. VISA — MASTER
CARD — CO.D.
MegaSoft Limited
P.O. Box 1080. Battle Ground. Washington 98604
Programs forC-64 12.00 55 H on all orders
Software Submissions Invited Phone 800-541-1541 • BBS 206-687-5205. After Hour. Compular lo Compuler O'Oe.mg

Reader Service No. 171


• • • ANNOUNCING * • •

SNflPSHDT
SNAPSHOT 64 is a unique and exciting utility that virtually takes a picture of your compJter's memory.
SNAPSHOT 64 Ihen saves that 'snapshot' to disk and automatically creates an auto-boot loader for the program.
Once saved to disk the program may be restarted at the exact same point at which it was interrupted!!!

SNAPSHOT 64 is the perfect answer for those looking for the ultimate backup utility. Think of it, being able
to stop most any program after the protection check and then being able to resume the program at the same
point, totally bypassing the protection check.

• MOST EFFECTIVE UTILITY OF ITS KIND - EVEN MORE EFFECTIVE THAN


THOSE UTILITIES THAT CLAIM TO -COPY ALL MEMORY-RESIDENT SOFTWARE"

• INVISIBLE TO SOFTWARE — CANNOT BE DETECTED

• SNAPSHOT FILES RUN BY THEMSELVES — THE BACKUP COPY


WILL RUN AS-IS, WITHOUT THE SNAPSHOT CARTRIDGE

• WORKS MUCH FASTER THAN OTHER SIMILAR UTILITIES

• EASY TO USE —NO COMPLICATED INSTRUCTIONS — EVEN A CHILD


CAN DO IT

• SNAPSHOT FILES ARE COMPATIBLE WITH FAST LOAD UTILITIES

• SNAPSHOT FILES WILL LOAD FROM ALL COMMODORE COMPATIBLE


DISK DRIVES

• STORE MANY DIFFERENT SNAPSHOTed FILES ON A SINGLE DISK

• FULLY SELF-CONTAINED ON CARTRIDGE — NO DISK TO HASSLE WITH

• EXCLUSIVE FEATURE: THE CODE INSPECTOR — ALLOWS MOST


PROGRAMS TO BE STOPPED, EXAMINED, MODIFIED AND RESUMED
WHILE STILL IN MEMORY!!

• WO PARAMETERS NEEDED — AS OFTEN REQUIRED BY OTHER UTILITIES

• COMPLETE AND THOROUGH MANUAL IS INCLUDED

• SOLD FOR ARCHIVAL PURPOSES ONLY

• RAVE REVIEWS IN: INFO 64, MIDNIGHT GAZETTE &


PROGRAM PROTECTION NEWSLETTER

SNAPSHOT 64™
REASONABLY PRICED AT $49.95 + $3.50 SHIPPING
U.S. ONLY

IN STOCK NOW — FOR IMMEDIATE DELIVERY CALL OR WRITE:

CSM SOFTWARE, INC.


POST OFFICE BOX 563, CROWN POINT IN. 46307, PHONE (219) 663-4335
Visa and Master Cards Accepted Dealer Inquires Invited

All CSM products are available from your local dealer

Flpadef Service No. IGti


HOW TO CREATE WINDOWS ground Color Mode built into the VIC-II video chip.
On big computers with window-oriented operating sys
tems, the windows are used to show what's going on in EXTENDED BACKGROUND
several different programs running at the same time. Each COLOR MODE
program has its own video output, which it PRINTs into In regular text mode, the character set consists of 2K of
its own screen memory. Then the operating system copies ROM. The first 512 bytes contain the shapes of all the regular
that screen memory into that program's window in ihe capital letters, the numbers, and the punctuation marks. The
main video memory. second 512 bytes contain all the graphics characters. The
It is possible on the 64 to do much the same thing. third 512 bytes contain exactly the same letters, numbers,
\ou couki reserve 4K of memory, each K a separate pseu and punctuation marks as the first block-only reversed,
do-screen display. Then an interrupt routine would con with the letter taking the background color and (he back
stantly copy the information from each pseudo-screen ground taking the foreground color. The fourth 512-byte
memory into a particular portion of regular screen mem block is identical to the second, with its graphics characters,
ory at 1024. except that it is also reversed.
When you POKE location 648 with the page number In other words, all the letters, numbers, and punctua
of one of the pseudo-screen memories, BASIC writes to tion marks you use to communicate with the player dur
that page. The interrupt program automatically copies ing an all-text game are contained in the first quarter of
what it finds there and puts it into a particular area of character memory.
real screen memory at 1024. When BASIC is writing to That means that with only 64 different screen charac
screen t, the CLEAR character will clear the whole IK ter codes, screen memory could point to every single one
pseudo-screen memory; but in real screen memory, only of the letters, numbers, and punctuation marks you need.
screen 1 window will be cleared. BASIC never knows Yet there are four times that many possible screen codes -
the difference. 256 of them.
But this uses up an awful lot of 6510 processing lime, Ordinarily, screen codes (not ASCII codes) 0 to 63 point
jusi copying one portion of memory into another portion, to the alphanumeric characters; screen codes 64 to 127 point
over and over. There are simpler ways. to the graphics characters; screen codes 128 to 191 point
For instance, as long as your windows are nothing but to the reversed alphanumeric characters; and screen codes
horizontal strips across the screen, with no vertical win 192 to 255 point to the reversed graphics characters.
dow boundaries, you could separate the windows by us In bitwise terms, that means that the two high bits of
ing scanline interrupts. You'll remember from las! month each screen code decide which 512-bytc block of charac
that a scanline interrupt is a machine language program ter memory that shape will be drawn from.
that executes whenever the TV raster scan reaches a par In Extended Background Color Mode, however, alt
ticular line of the screen display. During that interrupt, the character shapes are taken from the first 512-byte
your routine tells the computer to start finding screen block-from the alphanumeric characters. An A, a re
memory in a different location. versed A, a shifted A, and a reversed-and-shifted A all
You can do that as many times as you like on the screen. have exactly the same shape: A.
Furthermore, you can also make other changes-the Now that those two high bits don't have anything to
background can be different, for instance, or the border do with choosing which block of character memory will
can change colors—and those changes will also slay in be used, the VIC-II chip uses those high bits for some
effect until the next scanline interrupt. thing else: choosing a different background color.
That's what I did with the Gypsy Pilot program in the A regular, unshifted, unreversed A will have the nor
December Ahoy! Most of the screen showed screen mem mal background color wherever you PRINT it on the
ory located at 32K, which contained a field of stars (pe screen. Its background color is selected by the number
riods and asterisks). But the last two lines of the screen (from 0 to 15) at location 53281. (This is background
showed screen memory located at 35K, which held the color 0, and the A in screen memory has its two high
strings showing fuel and supply levels. bits set to 00.)
(What 1 was really after, however, was a side effect: Since A shifted A, however, gets its background color from
the sprite shape pointers are the last eight bytes of the IK the number in location 53282. (This is background color
block that contains screen memory, when that scanline in I, and the A in screen memory has its two high bits set
terrupt changed screen memory, it also allowed me to have to 01, for a value of 64 added to the screen code for A,
the sprite shape pointers point to different shapes. In other which is 1.)
words, below that scan line, my sprites changed shape, ll A reversed but unshifted A gets its background color
happened that the shape block that those pointers pointed from the number in location 53283. (This is background
to consisted of nothing but zeroes. The result? The sprites color 2, and Ihc A in screen- memory has its two high
all disappeared from that scanline on down!} bits set to 10, for a value of 128 added to the screen code
There is. however, another way to have many of the for A.)
benefits of windows without all the machine language And a reversed and shifted A gets its background col-
programming. And that is by using the Extended Back Continued on page 95

AHOY! 23
COMMODORE 64 COMMODORE 64 C128 COMMODORE
COMPUTER SYSTEM SALE COMPUTER
Deal i Deal 3 (Order Now)
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OO
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Com. 1541 Disk Drive Com. 1541 Disk Drive
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•C128 Disks 79' en.*


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iovmgi applied your nni tcmpuTp' co*i i% 539 9S1' (Examples!

PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE
■ C1Z! DOUBLE SIDED DISKS 7«' EA. COMMODORE 64 340K 1571 COMMODORE DISK DRIVE $259.00
Get Ihese 5V Double Sided floppy DuVs speciolly Double Sided Single Disk Drtve <or C 1 28 albw^ you
dekigned far Ihe Commodore I?BCompuler (1571 Drsl< Nam* LI 11 Sale
Po u« C-I2B mode plui CPM mode 17 Time* lostpr
DiivpI 100*. Cerlilied lUatlmt Warranty ippibaifc Wrilflf f>a s«y 1). S30 3* i?9 -■
Phon 15^1 plus runt all I5JI lorrnois.
Aulornatii lint Cleori.rig Liner included 1 Box o! 10 ''n iperbath Dfi'oba^t'OJ St9 00 S3 4 ib 5Ji ,

Pi iprrbuih D,f Pionary s;j '■ Sit °'i jig 00


11.90 IW eo.). 5 BoJ.os ol 10 ■ IJ4 50 (89' ea,). 10
r, II.. Pi nil Slirjn 111 '5 %ri /'. SJd ■■■
Bo.oiof 10. S79OO(?1' oo.).
Hnllny ■ PPO1»£I S3i vS 15 57>i 91
Pf otinalc liprmrt -tn.i'1 S^y ''I S1 = in 9b SUPER AUTO DIAL MODEM IM.M
Pi ogram FN'f.'.i'ntr =5 ill, 1b SI3 50 Iflly to use Juil plug 'n'o /our Commodore 6'
13" ZENITH COLOR MONITOR 1134.4S (QinpuipT a^d you lit i^ody lo TrommiT and receive
■■ ,".t- Pr.o'c* ,n Ambi'i ijj 'IS s;j 15 JVi 15
You poy only S139 9S when you ordsr Phil 13 ZENITH messages Easier to uie Thon dialirnj your Telephano.
Si hppp Bn*l iundoy SDOOO »:> ■0
COLOR MONITOR LESS the volue ol the SPECIAL Fl id a. nlc n,.t Frit.
|uiT push one key on youi compute'1 fncludei
in 05 $ i j SI? 45
5OFTWABE DISCOUNT COUPON «« potk w>Ph your D >'u"f- Inpii' Cav^oiJ1 ■ piii- 50 SJJ 95 S3J »5
e'dutivB easy To use program for up find down
monito" Phol allows you 10 save over 5250 olf soltware loading lo printer and disk drivel. 3*ft in US'A,
sole prices' ' With only 1100 of savings applied, your Pi Q Joy^lKk 51" 95 SJJ 95 SIO OC List S^ 00 SALE \MM . Coupon $24 s*5
c JrOpulC ff]Pn Mil S?v 95 95
net color monitor casl il only 139 95 (16 Colon)
o jb' Cq.it s a S (, 95 S d ■■
1. |urad l"g-r*#- SI'* S?7 '5 til .'
VOICE 5YNTHE5IZER 134,45
pi l>ug II li>,. S3' • ■ 95 519 95
for Commadore bi fompuTeri JgsT plug »' m O"d you
:>n COLUMN 1»K Coir 15« in *S tl? '■
fan program words ond senTcntes ad|uM volume and
COMMODORE GRAPHICS PRINTER 199.95 IflWflltl l>y S3« «s 9i r
piKh moke tolking ad^onTure gomHS. iound othon
You pay only 199 95 when you oidui Irie 803 games and cusiorhirod Talkie^f! FOR ONLY $19.95 you
Coiflmodoro Grophid Printer 60 CPS Dot Matn*. 6i [Sec over 100 coupon itfms in our caralocj" con odd TEXT TO SPEECH |u*T lype a word and hear
DiretPionol Prints fl1 , lull sue poper Plug in di'ecl your computer Talk ADDSOUNDTO ZOflK SCOTT
Write or call far
.nierloce induded' LESS the volue ol the SPECIAL ADAMS AND OTHEfT ADVENTURE GAMES'
Sample SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON!
SOFTWARE DISCOUNT COUPON we pock wilh iour ■Disk or iape.: mt
printer Ihot allows you 10 SAVE OVEB 1350 otl
soFlworq sale prices11 With only i 100 O+ savings
applied your nsi pflntflr cosi is ZERO1 12" AUBER MONITOR 159.V5
Your thoice ol green ot amber screen momiof 'op
qualiiy 60 columns ■ ?A lines rosy To read nnfi

ATTENTION
I SLOT EXPANDER & 10 COLUMN BOARD JS9.95 glore' PLUS J1) ?b For tonnecTmg table Com b* or
No* you progrom 80 COLUMNS an ihu screen at one VIO0 L.sl$lS9 0O SAL! tiVIJ.

timo1 Converts your Commodore bi to B0 COLUMNS


whtn you plug in Ihe SO COLUMN EXPANSION
BOARD1 ' PLUS 4 slot «■ pain'i limited Ouanlllloi
Computer Clubs PRINTER/TYPEWRITER COMBINATION iW.il
JUKI Superb loTler quality, daisy wheel
We Offer Big Volume Discounts pnnTer lypewnier cornbmaTion Two machines m one
lusi a fPick of ihe swiTch 13" e»iro lorge cornoge
ID COLUMNS IN COLOR
CALL TODAY! lypewnPer Weyboord automatic margpn tonfrol and
PAPEBBACKWRITEBMWORDPROCESSORI39.il rplotoTe key drop m cassette ribbon1 [90 day
This PAPER-BACK WRITER 6* WORD PROCESSOR is the wor'Onfy) cenTronns parallel or RS237 venal porT b
linost available for Ihe COMMODORE ti* compjlcr i rn (Spetlfy). Llli 134? Do. SALi tUIM. |Lld. Qty.|
The ULTIMATE FOR PROFESSIONAL Word Processing PROTECTO WARRANTY
DISPIAY5 40 or 80 COLUMNS IN COIOB or bbek ond AH Pr f>ih>( ins picxlifdi tot't a minimum °0 '('iy v.n< rnniy
whito1 Simple to operole powerlul tp*1 edihng 1+ anvlltiT>C| IohIs nilhin 90 dejy* 'iDrn ihe dQTl> ol i>u<thn\O 13M RGB & COMPOSITE COLOR MONITOR IHQ.
camplele cursor and insert delete key controls line simply *#nd yo^r produ£< 10 u^ via United Pattr\ Sotviep Musi be used lo gel BO columr* in fofor
and paragraph insertion aulomalic delelion n-ppaid W«' will iMiViEDiAlFL* Hnd yokro ri-platupnom ar column campuTeri C 1 IS IBM - Apple).
no charge via Uruled Parcel SbttIcB p'cpoid Ihi^. ^tirrnnfy
renlermg margin setlings and output to ol] printers! {Add $14 50 shippirigl
[iioves pnrBOgoin ihoi We lovp Our Cuifoceci.
Li5i S99.00 SALI139.9J Coupon 139 95.

• LOWEST PRICES * 15 DAY FREE TRIAL PHONE ORDERS • 40 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY
d i> rn Wi-i>kdn/->
■ BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. - ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL 9 n 1 'J Tionn riril l.' ■ (iny ■,
> OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS

Add S1G 00 lor shipping handling ond nsurorite Illinois re^idpnls


nleo%e odd 6". io» Add S70 00 tor CANADA PUERTO RICO HAWAII
AIA5KA APO FPO ordori Canadmn olden must bp .n U S dotlori
Wt DO NOT EXPORT TOOTHER COUNTRIES EXCIfl CANADA We Love Our Customers
Enrloie Ca^hiorv C^^r■(k Mnnfy Order at Personal Chpck Allow 14
day* fordoJlvHry ?io7davvlop[jhorn>arrfpr\ I jjoy r»npruss mo**' Box 550. Barringlan, Illinois 60010
VliA MASTER CARD COD NcCOC lo Canada APO TPO
312/382-5244 to order
GIANT PRINTER SALE!!
List $399.00 10" Printer I Yoor Warranty
List $599.00 lSYa" Printer

$
$169
5 5

E
10" Comstar 10X - This Bi-directional
00 120-140 CPS
Premium Qualify

15i/;"
239
Comstar iflX -
00
Has all
E
the
Tractor/Friction Printer prints features of the 10" Comstar 10X plus a
standard sheet BW'xll" paper and wider lS1^" carriage and more powerful
continuous forms or labels. High electronics to handle large ledger
resolution bit Image graphics, business forms! (Better than FX-1001.
underlining, horizontal tab setting, true The 151&" Comstar 15X also prints on
lower descenders, with super scripts and standard size paper and continuous
subscripts, prints standard pica, forms and labels. Fantastic value.
compressed, expanded, block graphics, (Centronics parallel interface.)
etc. Fantastic value. (Centronics List $599.00, Sale S239.0II.
parallel interface.)
List S30U.cn Bale ■ i (i'Miii.

List S499.00 10" Printer I Yoar Warranty List$699,00 15V* " Printer

$I99 $289
s
00 150-170 CPS 00
High Speed
E E E E
10" Comstar l«O+ High Speed - This IBi/*" Comstar 160 + High Speed - This
Bi-directional Tractor/Friction Printer Bi-directional Tractor/Friction Printer
combines the above features of the 10" has all the features of the 10" Comstar
Comstar 10X with speed (150-170 cps) 160+ High Speed plus a wider 15Ji"
and durability. Plus you get a 2K buffer, carriage and the heavy duty electronics
96 user definable characters, super required for today's business loads. You
density bit image graphics, and square can use large ledger business forms as
print pins for clearer, more legible print well as standard sheets and continuous
(near letter quality). This is the best forms and labels. This Is the best wide
value for a rugged dependable printer. carriage printer in the U.S.A.
(Centronics parallel interface.) (Centronics parallel interface.)
List $499,00. Sale S199.00. List $699.00. Sale $2«9.0O.

Lifetime warranty*
List S599.00 10" Printer List $599.00 10" Printer

$ 165-185 CPS S

$
259 00
$
00
10" Comstar 2000 - The ultimate printer
E
High Speed & Letter Quality
E 259
With the flip of a switch you can go Into
E

has arrived! This Bi-directional the letter quality mode which makes all
Tractor/Friction Printer gives you all your printing look like It came off a
the features of the Comstar 160 plus typewriter. Turn in term papers, do
higher speed (165-185 cps), 256 articles or just print programs. Have the
downloadable characters, proportional best of letter quality and speed in one
setting, external dark printing mode and package. Fantastic printer (Centronics
a 'lifetime printhead warranty. PLUS ... parallel interface.)
List $599.00. Sale$2fl9.0().

• 15 Day Free Trial — I Year Immediate Replacement Warranty


■^^—^^^—^^^—^^^^^———^— Parallel Interfaces
Commodore-64, VIC20 - $39.00 Atari - $59.00 Apple II, II + , He - $59.00
Add S1Q.00 (SIS.50 lor 15'i" Printers) lor shipping, handling and
Injuronco Illinois reside nit plooie odd 6°. ia.. Add S50.0O lor
CANADA PUERTO RICO HAWAII. ALASKA. APOFPO ordsirs.
Conndian ordnrs mull he in U.S. dollars. WE DO NOT EXPORT IO
OTHER COIJNTRIE5. EXCEPT CANADA.
We Zjovs Our Customers
Enclose Cashiors Chock. Monuy Ordor or I'orsorid Chpck. Allow Id
doyi lor (lollvury 7 (o 7 days lui [)h(jni' oidupy I doy oi;hgs* mail!
22292 N. Pepper Rd., Barrington, Illinois 60010
VISA MASH R CARD C.O.O, NoC.O.D. to Canada. AF'O Ft'Q
312/382-5244 to order
Render Service No. 176
Commodore 64
MODEM
Commodore 64

List $99.00 ListS99.00

Sale Sale
telecommunications $299*
coupon $24.95 Lowesfr-Pric^ liythe Coupon $24.95

FOR CHILDREN ADULTS- BUSINESS

Complete Auto Dial


unications Package
'The only telecommunications package you will ever need.
(Exclusive Easy To Use Features)

VIEWTRON MEMBERSHIP
* Only Good Color Graphic Database Service in the U.S.A. (C-64)
Viewtron Software Plus First Hour FREE (See the Protecto Software Catalog On-Line} S9.95 value

* 300 Baud Modem • Auto Dial * Auto Answer * Upload & Download
Reach Out and Access Someone
• Educational courses News Updates and Information
• Financial Information Popular Games Electronic Shopping
• Banking at Home Research and Reference Materials

The Complete Telecommunications Package offers you all this plus ...
Auto Log-on • Stores on Disk Downloaded Files
Dialing from Keyboard • Reads Files from Disk and Uploads Text or Progrom Files
On-line Clock • Select Any Protocol (access almost ony computer or modem)
Capture and Display High Resolution Characters • Plus Much, Much More
Download Text. Program or Data Files ^m ^^^ ^^^^ __ ^^
_ 5 ^^ m m 95 Coupon $24.95
ListS99.00 Sale 4m jF
We are so sure this is the only telecommunications package you will need we will give you IS days free Trial.
Viewtron Membership sold separately — $9.95.

Add S3 00 lor thippmg handling and insurance IILnoiv resident


pleait> add fi', to. Add So 00 <O' CAN ADA PUERTO BlCO HAWAII
AlASKA APO IPO orders Caiodion oideii muil he in U S dollars
WE DONOI EXPORT TOOTHER COUNTRIES ExCEPt CANADA Wr LjOvg Our Customers
fcrnlove Ca^ieri Oet*< Money Order or Personoi Check Allow la
22192 N Pepper Rd Harrington Illinois 60010
dny* TO1 ddi'P'y 2 'o 1 doyl lor phone o'deri I do/ o«preib mail'
y^f. MASTEBCARO COD
312/382-5244 to order
MdCOO loConodo APOIPO

Render Semci No. 176


• Composite • RGB • Sound
Home Computers VCRs Modular TV Tuners Video Games
Excellent Color Reproduction
TheZVM 131
& Special "Green Screen
Sound Of Quality
Only" Option
The output sound level is
True color reproduction is
LIMITED externally regulated by a
achieved by a Zenith
QUANTITIES user-adjustment volume
designed state-of-the-art
control. Use the Zenith
integrated circuit chip thot quality sound system to
processes the composite
monitor the modern audio
video signal, A custom
capabilities of the computer
Zenith analog RGB direct
generation.
drive gain control integrated
circuit allows user- Eosy-To-Reach Front Access
preference for the Controls
adjustment of picture drive ZVM 131s 13rdiagonal
ond black level. Zenith's display screen can exhibit
unique "Green Screen Only" impressive graphics and
feature eliminates all other intensely clear copy. Easy-
colors so thot to-reach front access user
monochromatic text controls (picture, black
material may be easily level, color level, tin!,
displayed in green on the shorpness, audio volume,
black face screen. background noise control)
Constant Intensity Character make display adjustment
Definition Quality simple and fast. An LED
Quality circuitry design generates power on indicator notifies
the user when the monitor is
crisp lines, pure colors, and sharp
operable.
character definition for easy-to-
read displays. DC-coupling Multiple Monitors On
permits the video display to Compatibility Chart A Single Computer
retain its color balance from ZVM13T-Aceessibleby
Computer Interfaces Via The composite video "loop-thru"
a single dot to a full screen Many Popular Systems
Apple II Composite
feature permits a single
of data. Even when room TheZVM 131 is designed Apluj 3000 composite video source to drive
RGB
lighting changes, o "special to interface with most Apple III RGB several monitors at the same
light sensor" automatically personal computers, IBM PC RGB
time. This allows easy display
adjusts the display VCRs, videodiscs, video Commodore 128 RGB Composite
Commodore 64 possibilities for multiple
brightness. gomes and modular TV
Composite
Commodore Vic 20 Composite viewers in business and
List $499.00 tuners that have either Tl °°/fl Composito educotional applications. No
composite video or RGB Atari 800 Composite
Sale $139.95 direct drive outputs. Atari 1200
Atari 1400
Composile
more crowding around a single
terminal. Everyone enjoys a
Composite
clear, unobstructed view of
Connection Cables RGB Cable — $19.95 Composite — S9.95 important data.
Cl 28. Aplus 3000 (Specify) Commodore. Aplus 3000. Atari [Specify)

This Is The Best Value Of The Century


Add S17 50 lor shipping, handling ond insurance Illinois residents
please odd 6"'. tai Add $35 00 lor CANADA. PUERTO RICO. HAWAII.
ALASKA APOTPO orders Canadion orders musl be in U.S dollars
WE DO NOT EXPORT TOOTHER COUNTRIES EXCEPT CANADA
Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Ordei or Personal Check. Allow 14 We Lone Our Customers
days lor delivery 2 to 7 days lor phone orders I day express mail1
22293 N. Pepper Rd.. Barrington, Illinois 600)0
VISA MASTERCARD C.O.D.
NaC O D. loConoda. APOFPO
312/382-5244 to order
Rendor Service No. 176
FLOPPY DISKS SALE *59* ea.
Economy Model or C-l 28 Cadillac Quality
We have the lowest prices!

^ECONOMY DISKS For use with Commodore 64 Atori, Apple.

Good quality 5'/*' single sided double density with hub rings.
Bulk Pac 100 Qty. 59 ' eo Total Price SS9.00
Box w sleeves 10 Qty. 79 ' ea Total Price 7.90

C-l 28 Computer Disks


CADILLAC QUALITY (Double Sided, Double Density) Specifically designed for use with C-128
• Each disk certified * Free replacement lifetime warranty ' Automatic dust remover • Works with IBM PC
For ihose who want Cadillac quality we hove the C-128 Floppy Disk. Used by professionals because Ihey can rely on C-128 Disks lo store
important da to ond programs without fear of loss! Each C-128 disk is 100% certified [on exclusive process) plus each disk carries an
exclusive FREE REPLACEMENT LIFETIME WARRANTY. Wilh C-128 disks you can have the peace of mind without Ihe frustration of progrom
loss ofler hours spenl in program development.

100% CERTIFICATION TEST


Some floppy disk manufactures only sample tost ori o batch basis I he disk* They sell, and then claim Ihey ore cerlrfied. Each C-128 disk is
individually checked so you will never experience doto or program loss during your lifetime1

FREE REPLACEMENT LIFETIME WARRANTY


We are so sure of C-128 Disks thot wo give you a free replacement warranty against failure lo perform due lo faulty materials or
workmanship for as long as you own your C-128 drsk,

AUTOMATIC DUST REMOVER


Just like o record needle, disk drive heads must trovel hundreds of miles aver disk surfaces. Unlike other floppy disks the C-128 smooih
surface finish saves disk drive head wear during Ihe life of the disk. (A rough surface will grind your disk drive heod like sandpaper).
The lint free automatic CLEANING LINER mokes sure the disk-killers (dust S dirt) are being constantly cleaned while ihe disk is being
operated c_ J28 Disks are definitely the Cadillac disk in the world
Just to prove it even further, we are offering these super LOW INTRODUCTORY PRICES
1 Box of 10 - $9.90 {99q ea.} 5 Boxes of 10 - S44.50 {89' ea.) 10 Boxes of 10 - 579.00 (79< ea.)
All disks come with hub rings ond sleeves in an attractive package.

DISK DRIVE CLEANER $19.95


Everyone Needs A Disk Drive Doctor
FACTS
• 60% of all drive downlime is directly reloted lo poorly
maintained drives.
' Drives should be cleaned each woek regardless of use.

■ Drives ore sensitive to smoke, dust B all micro panicles,


• Syslemolic operator performed maintenance is the best
way of ensuring error free use of your compuler system.

NEW RSI-SMARTCARE HEAD CLEANING KIT


WITH FREE LIBRARY CASE!
Improper maintenance can cause costly
read write errors on your disk drive. Regular
RSI-COMPLETE PERSONAL COMPUTER CARE KIT!
cleaning ol heads is essential lor maintaining
high quality operation and eliminating expensive The RSI Complete Porsonnl Computer Core Kit contains everything you need to
properly maintain your computer system. This eosy lo use kit makes necessary
downtime ond repairs. The RSI-Smaricaro Dry
compuler care quick ond inexpensive. In one convenient package you will get all
Process Head Cleoning Kit provides proper
the necessary products: 51/." Dry Process Head Cleaning Disk (Good for 15
maintenance without the mess. Simply insert the
thorough cleanings): Anti-Static Sproy (Eliminates static build-up. For use on
cleaning disk into Ihe drive and oclivate for 30
carpets, clothes, paper, glass, hard surfoces, and other motericl): Screen-
seconds. This kit contains I-open ended disk
Teiminol Cleaner (Removes smoke, dust, and other contaminants on compuler
jacket and 2 cleaning pods, good lor a total of 30
screens and keyboards); Lint-FrcG Cloths (Non-scratch, non-obrosive. used for
cleanings. Applicable far both single and double cleaning and opplying sproys to computers): Foom-Coverod Swabs (use lo clean
sided drives. those hord to reach places such as keyboards. etc.). GREAT VALUE FOR THE
List S29.95. Sale S19.«. Coupon SI2.95. MONEY!! Lisi S-14.95. Sola 129.«. Coupon S24.95.

Add 13 DO far shipping handling and insurance. Illmai* r»iid*nT*


please add f. to. Add 16 00 lor CANADA PUERTO RICO HAWAII
ALASKA APO-FPO orderL. Canadian ordtri musi be in U-5 dollar*
WE DO NOT EXPOS'TO OTHER COUN1RIES EXCEPT CANADA We L,o\ig Our Customers
Ent(n*p Ca»h»pr* ChEtk. AAancy Order or Personal chpjk Allow M 22292 N. Popper Rd.. Barrington. Illinois 60010
dayt tor delivery 1 rn 7 dayi lor phonr- order v 1 dDyi"prei% mail'
VISA- MASK K CARD COD 312/382-5244 to order
NoCOD loCanada APO FPO

Rrndcr Service No. 176


COMMODORE 64 $ 1 30"
COMPUTER ■ w W

COMMODORE
COMPUTER
128 $9fiO00
JIV#
PLUS FREEStf
Word i'i ocoi

COMMODORE 64
SYSTEM SALE
IIMITID OLJANT11II1

Deal 1 Deal 3
Commodore
Commodore 64 Commodore 64 C128 Computer
Com. 1541 Dish Drive 1541 Disk Drive 5289,00 *
Cora. 803 Printer 13" ZenMh Color Monilor

407 $457 C128 1571


Disk Drive
PIUS FREE 14995 Oil PIUS FREE 149.95 Oil
Birr on! Adi en I me Borons IdvenUire $259.00 *

SUPER OFFER C128 COMPUTER SUPER OFFER

FREE WORD PROCESSOR COUPON


(Expires 4-1-86} Ci*Ab

To Introduce you to the C128 computer we ore offering you the finest word processor mode, Word
Writer II with Spell Checker by Timeworks. When you apply the S69.95 value word processor to
your purchase price of the CJ 28 at $289.00 your net coit is only S219.05. (1 coupon per fomriv)

Word Wrllor with £5,000 word Spoil Checker — An 80 column ^rofossionol word proct-s&ing $y$iom ihat includes a
spoiling chockor and q buih in colculnlor. Easy lo use because of tht full scruon formal, you can vi^w iho docurnonl on your screen
as il wil! oppnar when printed. Pull down menus moan I hat Trip u*er- dousn'l have to memorize totnmondi, You pruss a key lo
activale a Word Wriier toolure ond iho program guides you through its propor ust» with logical ond easy-Io-follow prompts. The
program has been designed to interface with Timowork's, Oa'o Manager 2. a dalabase program and Switltolc. a sproad^hoct
Contains all iho fcalure^ you'll need for everyday word processing. plu$ more 5Ophi5iicaTed feolures such as dotumeni chaining
tnim leller printout, page separations, horizontal and verlieol strolling and much more, {Disk) Lisi S69.95.

&P® «w?adBU^iW wB*Hjfli» m

Commodore C128 Computer $189.00. This ail-now reuoluiionory 128K computer uses Commodore bi compuier software.
CPM Software, plus new advanced C-128 software. You pay only S2Q9 for the CI28 computer! Leu Ihe volue of the Special
Software Discount Coupon (see page 14 of our 64 page catalog) we pack with your computer that allows you to Save
Over $250 off software sale prices! i With only SIOO of savings applied your net computer cost is $189.00. PLUS FREE
S69.95 Word Procnuor. "

340K 1571 Commodore Disk Drive $259.00. Double Sided, Single Disk Drive for C-128 allows you to use C-128 mode plus
CPM mode. 17 times faster than the 154), plus runs Commodore 6-1 software. You pay only 3259.00 for the 340K 1571

L
Commodore Disk Drive. Le« the value of Ihe Special Software Dlicount Coupon (see page 1 A of our 64 poge catalog]
we pack with your Disk Drive that allows you to Save Over J25Q off software sole prices! With only 5'00 of savings
opplied your net Disk Drive cost is only SI 59.00.

Add SI0 00 lor shipping handling and insurancn, Illinois rflltdvntl


please odd 6°, lo> Add S!0.00 loi CANADA PUERTO RtCO liAWAII
ALASKA APO-ri'O orders. Canadian order* must he in U.S. dollars.
WE DO NOT EXPORT TO O1HLR COUNTRIES IXCEPT CANADA.
Enclose Cashie'S Chetk Mon«y Order or Personal Check Allow Ij We L/ove Our Customers
days +oi delivery 2 Fo 7 day. lor nhone orders. 1 day cxpff^s moil i
22292 N. Pepper Rd.. Barrington Illinois 60010
VISA MASTER CARD COD.
No COD Id Canada APO f PO 312/382-5244 to order
Reader Service Ho. 176
Factory Reconditioned with
Factory Warranty!

Carries easily
as a suitcase!
GREAT GIFT IDEA!
Plugs into 115V outlet!

Sorry, we're not permitted to PRINT the famous brand-name.


BUT, we CAN "tell all" if you call us TOLL FREE: 1-800-328-0609!
THE COMPUTER THE PRINTER THE SOFTWARE
Snap-on computer keyboard! 64K HAM. 20K ROM. Full- Print method: Bi-ilirectional impact dot matrix. "Easj Script" One ol the mast powerful word pro
size typewriter keyboard. Upper and lower case Character matrix: 6 i 7 dot matrix cessors at any puce' Cut re-lyping. create docii'
letters, numerals, symbols, reverse characters 2 Characlen: Upper and lower case letters, numerals ments from standard paragraphs, do personalized
cursor control keys, 4 function keys, programma and symbols, fill PET graphic characters. letters, see and change a document before it is print
ble lo 8. Music synthesizer with 3 independent ed. Instruction manual has extensive training sec
Graphics: 7 vertical dots — maximum 480columns.
voices, each with 9 octave range. Inpjl/output ports tion that simplifies use ... even for someone who
Dot addressaole.
accommodate ... user, serial, ROM cartridge, joy- has never used a computer or word processor before1
Character codes: CBM ASCII code.
slicks, external monilor. phone modem. Trie Manager" A sophisticated database manager
Prlnl speed: 60 characters per second.
Built-in disk drivel Intelligent high speed unit tvilli lor business or home use. Business uses: accounts
Maiimum columns: 80 columns.
5 V floppy disk recorder 170K formatted data stor payable/receivable, inventory, appointments, task
Character spicing: 10 characters per Inch.
age: 35 tracks. 1SK HOM. Uses single sided, single manager. Home uses: mailing lists, home invcnioiy,
density disk. Serial interface Second serial port lo Line feed spacing: 6 lines per inch in character mode recipes, collection organizer, investment tracking.
or 8 lines per inch selectable. 9 lines per inch in checkbook balancing. School uses: research arii-
chain second drive or printer.
graphics mode. cle index, gradebook.
Built-in color monitor I Displays 40 columns x25 lines

$24
Line leed speed; 5 lines per second in character mode.
ol text on 5" screen. High resolution. 320 x 200 pix
els 16 background, character colors.
7.5 lines per second in graphics mode. Mfr. Sug. Retail: $73.98
Paper feed: Frictron feed
Liquidation Price
Built-in HUM cartridge port! Insert MOM program car Paper width: 4 5" to 6 5" width. Hem H-91B-84O11-D3 Ship, h,in.lli-"i ■ "ii
tridge- Multitude ol subjects available in stores
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Reader Service No. IB?


TREASURE WHEEL
For the C-64
By Bob Blackmer
Treasure Wheel is an entertaining two-player A TURN, the turn also goes to ihe other player. If your
game loosely based on a popular television spin lands on TILT you lose more than just your turn:
game show. Players take turns spinning ihe all points scored in the current game are wiped out.
wheel for point values, then guessing letters, If you opt to solve the puzzle by pressing 13, the cursor
while trying to solve the puzzle. The puzzle can be from will appear just below the puzzle. You must type the puz
five different categories: person, place, thing, phrase, or title. zle exactly, including spaces, to be correct. If you are
All information pertinent to the game is displayed on correct you get 100 points plus your point total and the
the game screen. At the top of the screen is the puzzle other player scores zero.
which uses dashes to show the blank puzzle. Near the Running totals of games won and total points is seen
lower left the category for the current puzzle is displayed. after each game. The program keeps track of games in
At the lower right is the total points each player has ac ten game sets. You also have the option of quitting after
cumulated in the current game. Ai the upper right is the each game. The winner of the last game played goes first
used letter board that shows all letters that have been se- in the following game.
letled in the game. Be sure to turn the volume up. as sound is used for
When your turn begins you press f I to spin the wneel the spin of the wheel, when you TILT or LOSE A
or f3 to solve the puzzle. If you select f 1 the wheel will TURN, and for correct or incorrect responses.
spin and come to rest on a point value (if you're lucky!). After playing tor awhile, your familiarity with the puz
You then select a letter. If the letter is in the puzzle you zles will justify changing them. Replace data statements
receive the point value each time it appears in the puzzle with your own puzzles under each category. But remem
and you take another turn, with the option of spinning ber to have a total of 20 puzzles per category, so use the
or solving. If the letter you select is not the puzzle, play REM statements to assist in organizing them.
goes to the other player. If your spin results in LOSE SEE PROGRAM LISTING ON PAGE 107

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Reader Service No 157


pypi=!i
L

The Computer Teaches Itself


BY DALE RUPERT

After a few thousand quick games with itself, Each move that ELMAC makes is chosen randomly.
ELMAC had become a fairly competent Some moves are more likely to be randomly selected than
NIM player. ELMAC is certainly not the others. The probability of a particular move being se
world's fastest learner. Perhaps after study lected depends upon the current board layout and the
ing the structure of ELMAC you will be able to modify number of times in which [hat move has been rewarded
its cerebral organization to improve its playing habits and or punished in the past. After playing enough games,
its learning ability. ELMAC's probability of randomly choosing a good move
ELMAC is an acronym for Elementary Learning Ma is very high and its probability of picking a poor move
chine. The program of which ELMAC is comprised plays is very low or zero.
a simple game called NIM. ELMAC keeps track of each At first this concept of learning by modifying proba
of its moves throughout (he game. At the end of the game, bilities may seem almost trivial. Further thought may con
if ELMAC won, each move is rewarded, and if ELMAC vince you that perhaps this is indeed somewhat analo
lost, the last move ELMAC made is punished. gous to the way that you learn something new.

34 AHOY!
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Reader Service No. 168


HEURISTIC OR ALGORITHMIC? randomly selects its moves from lists of moves which
It should be dear from the outset that ELMAC is not have been weighted by rewards and punishments. EL-
programmed lo be a good NIM player. It is possible to write MAC's opponent simply picks a move at random, with
;i program which is a perfect NIM player. Thai is not the each legal move equally likely to be selected.
intent of this article or of the accompanying program. The statistics displayed al the lop of the screen show EL-
ELMAC is a heuristic NIM player as opposed to an MAC's win/loss record, as well us its current and longest
algorithmic NIM player. The heuristic player is able to winning streaks. After a few hundred games. ELMAC us
adapt and to improve. In essence it learns from its mis ually has a winning average significantly greater than 50%.
takes. The algorithmic player uses a prescribed formula Once ELMAC has become smart enough, you might
(or algorithm) for determining its moves. The two con enjoy playing against it. Press any key to interrupt the
cepts are certainly not mutually exclusive. A playing al current mode of play, and the opening menu appears.
gorithm for example might include some heuristic rules, Press P when you are ready to play against ELMAC. The
and the heuristic player's moves are generally rewarded first player is chosen at random. If ELMAC went first,
or punished according to some algorithm. the screen displays the current board layout after its move,
The game of NIM involves two players who take turns otherwise the initial rows of three, four, and five are
removing sticks (or other objects) from the playing board. shown. You are prompted to select the row and the num
Initially there are three rows containing three, four, and ber of items to be removed from that row. Only legal
five sticks respectively. Each player in turn takes one or moves are accepted.
more sticks from any one row. The last player to fake At the end of the game, the winner is announced. You
a stick is (he winner. A game might look like this; may press any key and ELMAC's statistics will be up
dated before proceeding into the next game. If you want
hirst player: 0 4 5 to allow ELMAC to pick up some more intelligence on
Second player: 0 4 I its own. simply press M instead of a row number or an
First player: 0 1 I item number. You will be returned lo the menu where
Second player: 0 1 0 you may select C,
First player: 0 0 0 ELMAC's intelligence consists of an array of valid
moves for every possible board configuration called the
Initially the board configuration is 3 4 5. The first play "move array." You may save the move array to disk at any
er removed three sticks from the first row, leaving the time during the game by pressing a key to stop the game
board with none in the first row, four in the second row. and then selecting S. You must specify a filename. It must
and five in the third row (0 4 5). Each board display shows be different from any other filename on the disk.
the number of sticks in each row after the named player You may also load a move array from disk at any time.
has made a move. Essentially ihis provides a brain transplant for ELMAC.
The second player took four sticks from the third row Press any key to interrupt the game then select L. You
leaving 0 4 1. The first player then removed three sticks must specify the filename of a move array which was
from the second row. The second player took the remain previously saved with the S command.
ing slick rrom the third row. The first player then removed ELMAC creates a move army initially with all legal moves
the last stick on the board, thereby winning the game. having equal probabilities. You may look at the move array
There are many variations on this game, including dif at any time by pressing any key to slop the game and then
fering numbers of sticks and rows and even whether the selecting D. Each board configuration and the associated
last stick drawn belongs to the winner or the loser. Martin move probabilities are scrolled. We will discuss the for
Gardner discusses the game of NIM and algorithms for mat of this array shortly. Pressing any key during the scroll
winning it in The Scientific American Beak of Mathe ing causes it to stop. You are asked if you want to save this
matical Pusdes & Diversions (Simon & Schuster, 1959). array, just as if the S key had been selected.
Martin Gardner also describes elementary learning ma Do not be discouraged by the length of the program.
chines in The Unexpected Hanging and Other Mathe There are many comments throughout the program. Any
matical Diversions (Simon and Schuster. 1969). The ma REM statement which is preceded by a colon need not
chines which Mr. Gardner describes were built by read be typed (although REMarks will be very useful if you
ers of Scientific American in the early 1960s from match make any modifications lo this program!). The program
boxes and colored beads. Both books are high recom is written in a reasonably modular form so that you may
mended reading. easily understand and change- it,

HERE'S ELMAC! ELMAC'S STRUCTURE


The program which implements ELMAC may be used The data structure to implement ELMAC is somewhat
in several different ways. (Refer to ELMAC Plays NIM complex. Perhaps the easiest way to understand it is to
on page 105). The easiest way to begin is to select the look at some specific examples.
mode in which the computer plays against itself. Simply The move array is dimensioned with DIM AI3.4.5.12).
press C at the opening screen. In this mode, ELMAC The first three subscripts correspond lo the numbers of

36 AHOY!
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sticks in each row for every board layout. The fourth sub will be incremented. Now A(1,3,2,P) for P equal to 0
script represents the probability of each move being made through 12 has values:
from that board configuration.
Consider the iniiial values of A(l,3,2,l) through 7-100-1120-11000
A(t ,3,2,12):
The next time that ELMAC makes a move from this board
1 0 0 - 1 1 1 0 - X 1 0 0 0 configuration, it will pick a random number from one to
seven. Ii ihen steps through the twelve moves, tallying prob
(The -'8 are placed between A{1,3,2,3) and A(1.3.2,4) abilities until it reaches a count of seven. Ii should be clear
as we!! as between A(l,3,2,7) and A(l,3-2.8) to help with that if ELMAC selects a random value of four or five, it
this discussion.) When ihc board has one stick in ihe will make the same move it made last lime- In other words,
first row. ihrce slicks in ihc second row, and two sticks ELMAC is twice as likely to choose move A(l,3,2,6) as
in the third row (1,3,2), ELMAC chooses its next move it is to choose any of ihe other possible moves. That is ex
from the values listed above. actly how ELMAC leams through rewards.
The first three elements of the array correspond to re To see how bad moves are punished, consider the board
moving one. two, and three sticks respectively from ihc configuration 2 0 0, that is, only two sticks remain in
first row. The next four elements of the array correspond Ihe first row. If this is the first time ELMAC has seen
to the probability of taking one. two, three, and lour sticks ihis particular board, the move array A(2.(),0,P) for P
from the second row. Similarly. Ihc probabilities of re equal to 0 through 12 appears as
moving one through five sticks from the third row are
represented by the last five elements of the move array. 2-1 1 0-0 0 0 0-0 o 0 0 0
The first element, A(l ,3,2,1), has a value of one. indi
cating that it is possible to remove one slick from the ELMAC can remove either one or iwo slicks from the
first row. Notice that the second and third elements, first row. and both moves are equally likely.
A(l,3,2,2) and A(l,3,2,3), are zero. This means that the Obviously taking both sticks is ihe only Intelligent move,
probability of taking Iwo or three slicks from ihc first but ELMAC isn't very bright yet. [f ELMAC takes only
row is zero. That's to be expected since there is current
ly only one stick in the first row.
RENT BUY
The next group of four elements (1110) shows that it
is possible to remove eilher one. Iwo. or llirec sticks, but
not four, from the second row. The final group (1 10 0 0)
f c commodore
indicates that ihcre is an equal probability of removing ei
lher one or two slicks from the third row, and no probabil IBM Him Book
Apple — Aiari EXCITEMENT 75 Adventures
ity of taking three, four, or five sticks. Again this is rea Software S19.95

sonable, since these array elements correspond to a board


with only two sticks left in the third row.
Diskey (D) s 10.88
One other element of the move array tallies the total
number of move probabilities for each particular board Scafox (D) s 8.98
layout. In the example above, that element is A(1,3,2,O).
Supcrbase (D) $ 36.95
Drclbs(D) s 7.98
Its value is initially six, which is the sum of ihe twelve
Protector II (D) $ 7.98
probabilities listed above lor this board configuration.
Sentinel (D) $ 7,98
Let's assume the board configuration is 1 3 2, and thai
Zeppelin (D) $ 7.98
it is ELMAC's move. ELMAC looks at the total move
Adventure Master (D) $ 18.95
count in A(l.3,2,0) which is six (refer to line 560 of the
Letter Wizard/Spell (D) $ 28.95
program). ELMAC selects a random number between
one and six, say four. Lines 620 through 660 determine
+ MUC1I MORE
what type of move that is.
Recall that the twelve elements of A(l,3.2.P) for P equal
1 through 12 are
All titles new and have manufacturers
warranty. Limited quantities.
Add S3.00 shipping and handling
10 0-1110-11000

ELMAC picked four, and the fourth value of one in the Call mlJ-froe outside Texas: 1 300 - 433-2938

list is the third clement in the second group, A(l,3,2,6). ■ Inside Texas call; Bl 7 -292-739G

Consequently ELMAC removes three sticks from the sec WEDGWOOD RENTAL
ond row. (If you arc noi totally confused, you are a genius!) 2 5316Woodwdv Driwe
If ELMAC eventually wins this game, the value of Fort Worth, Texas 7G133
A(l,3,2,6) will be Incremented by one. Likewise A(1.3,2,O) Roaflor Service No. 1B5

AHOY! 39
one stick from the row. the other player removes the re to guarantee a win. Consequently A(3,4.5.2) should even
maining stick, and ELMAC loses the game. In that case, tually become the only allowable opening move for EL
such ;t foolish last move by ELMAC is punished by re MAC to make. The resulting board configuration is I 4 5.
ducing its probability to zero. That means that A(2,0.0.l) You might investigate other methods of reward and pun
is now set to zero. ishment. Perhaps later moves in a winning game should
The next lime ELMAC sees the board 2 0 0. its only be rewarded more (or less) than earlier moves. Perhaps
possible move is A(2,0,0,2). It takes both sticks from ihe more than just the last move should be punished.
first row. ELMAC wins the game and A(2,0,0.2) is incre It is possible to find a far more efficient data structure
mented. With the program as il is currently written, only than I have used here. Martin Gardner mentioned that
ELMACs final move of a losing game is punished. Once one of his readers buiil a NIM-playing machine from only
a move's probability has been reduced to zero, thai move 18 match boxes (for three rows of three objects each).
is never made again. That learning machine supposedly played an excellent
The array M( ) is updated with every move ELMAC game of NIM after only 30 games. ELMACs move array
makes. Its structure is fairly straightforward. M(MN.l). represents 120 match boxes, and it plays a lousy game
M(MN.2). and M(MN.3) represent rows one. two. and even after 300 rounds.
three at the time of ELMACs MNth move. M(MN,0) It would be handy to have a graphical display of EL
stores the type of mare (from 1 to 12) that ELMAC made. MACs winning record. When ELMAC plays the random
For example, assume the board hail two sticks in the computer, it is really a waste of time to show both play
first and third rows and three sticks in the second row ers' moves. A graph of number of games versus number
when ELMAC made its second move. M(2,l). M(2,2), of wins would probably be more informative.
and M(2,3) have values 2,3,2 respectively, representing ELMACs data structure should be readily adaptable
the board configuration. If ELMAC removed two sticks to other games such as tic-tac-toe or four-by-four check
from the third row, M(2.0) equals 9. (Recall that move ers. The Commodore 64 docs not have enough memory
values 1 to 3 correspond to taking I through 3 sticks from to store the move array for tic-lac-toe as implemented
the first row, values 4 through 7 represent the removal in ELMAC. Some clever programming, and taking advan
of 1 through 4 sticks from the second row, and values tage of the symmetries and rotations of the board, should
8 through 12 represent taking 1 through 5 sticks from make a tic-tac-toe program possible.
the third row, respectively.) If ELMAC has no valid moves for a particular board
At the end of each game, if ELMAC \«>n. M{ ) is used configuration, it resigns. After 15.000 games, it had no
in lines I1S0 through 1200 to reward each move. The last possible moves when faced with two sticks in each of
move made by ELMAC is always kept in the variable two rows. Indeed, a perfect player would beat ELMAC
MV, and the last board configuration is stored in X0. under these conditions, but since ELMAC doesn't nec
Y0, and Z0 for rows one, two, and three in lines 710. essarily play against perfect players, perhaps an element
Lines 1040 through 1060 punish ELMACs last move if of "oh what the heck" should be added to ELMAC. Let
it lost. ELMAC make a valid random move even if the move
array says there arc no winning moves available.
TODAY MM, TOMORROW THE WORLD The situation is similar to the old joke mentioned by
After you have learned to play NIM, see if the way Martin Gardner in which two chess-playing computers
you learned is not somewhat analogous to the way EL were face to lace. After the one computer moved its first
MAC learns. Typically you will first remember and avoid piece, the second computer furiously thought for a while,
moves near the end of the game which arc fatal, just as and then simply resigned. Eventually it seems that EL
ELMAC does. MAC would have just one valid opening move, and if
There are many possibilities for your own exploration its opponent made that move first, ELMAC would call
into this concept of learning machines. 1 suggest saving it quits.
ELMACs move arrays after various numbers of games. There arc many interesting, intriguing, and entertain
I saved the move array after one thousand and ten thou ing aspects to this idea of machines that teach themselves.
sand games, calling them ELMAC.1K and ELMAC 10K Hopefully ELMAC will encourage you to expiore. I
respectively. It is interesting to study the move array (use would enjoy hearing about what you discover. □
the D command) to sec how bad moves are eliminated SEE PROGRAM LISTING ON PAGE 105
and probabilities of good moves arc enhanced.
The D command scrolls all elements of the move ar KIDS AMERICA
ray. The first three numbers displayed in reverse video Ahoy! is pleased to congratulate
are the board configuration. The first number in the next Jens Palm (Croton-on-Hudson. NY)
line is the total count of move probabilities. The next Bhuv.incsh Frininison (Buffalo. NY)
twelve numbers are the individual move probabilities. Annise Winger (Henrietta, NY)
One interesting characteristic to look for in the move ar winners of subscriptions to Ahoy! courtesy of the Kids
ray is the opening move A(3.4.5.-). A perfect algorith America radio program. Check your local AM and FM
mic machine will remove two sticks from the first row lisiinus for time and station.

40 AHOY!
ENTERTAINMENT

SOFTWARE SECTION

THIS ISSUE-
TWO COMMODORE SOFTWARE

THE DIGITAL BLUE


YONDER

Flight Simulation
on the C-64
By Bill Kunkel and Amie Katz

"Flying by the seat of your pants" is


an old aviation expression. It refers to
situations in which circumstances force
a pilot to navigate by instinct alone,
without the aid of instruments. Today,
that phrase could just as easily refer to
the armchair aviators who regularly pa
trol the electronic skies in front of their No, we didnt print it upside down—it's Sierra's Stunt Flyer.
Commodore home computers. READER SERVICE NO. 143
Flight simulators have come into
their own over the past two years. Simulator replicates die physics of as far as they go, Solo Flight and
Such games satisfy the current taste flight, but not the experience of sit Flight Path 737 are primitive by cur
for strategy, while they provide the ting in the cockpit of a small plane. rent standards. However, the latter ti
type of real-time excitement which Solo Flight (MicroProse) and tle comes on cassette, which makes
once made action games so popular. Flight Path Z?7 (Artworx), two other it the only choice for Commodore
Users who drop in at the Commo early entries, are fun despite limited owners who do not have disk drives.
dore Aerodrome can earn their wings graphics. Both are simple take-off- If the boom in Commodore 64
in anytfiing from a Cessna to a Strike and-land simulations which empha flight simulators can be traced to one
Eagle. There are helicopters, bi size actually flying an aircraft. Good event, it's the publication of the C-64
planes, and even a space shuttle wait
ing for gamers with the will to take
the throttle. PERSONAL BEST Okay, sports fans, get out those
wrist bands, clean up that old pair of
Early Flights A Guide to track flats, and tie a rolled up ban
Flight simulation programs have Individual Sports dana around your head. It's time for
been available for the Commodore 64 some one-on-one sports action. Whe
Games on the C-64
from the very first. The pioneering ther played against another human
titles which are still on the market By Bill Kunkel and Amie Katz video athlete or versus the computer,
show their age, but may interest some events like track and field, golf, and
■ «&& u ■tan
ardent aviators. tennis offer some of the honest com

1
11111 III
1FR Flight Simulator (Academy) petition in computer gaming.
puts the user inside a Cessna 172RG.
■••t-trtj'-n WtifiJst/a] The Olympics have become this
Unfortunately, the design strikes a ., ■"■■■ r.
____
best-known arena for individual athlet
poor balance between instruments ics, thanks to satellite telecasts. Not
and scenery. The principle display is
almost entirely filled by gauges, the
=.
n =; surprisingly, the quadrennial event has
inspired several computer programs.
artificial horizon, and similar navi Decathlon (Activision) was die first
gational devices, while the pilot must title which simulated track and field.
squint through a window no larger It includes all of the 10 events which
Summer Games demands good timing.
than the airspeed indicator to see comprise the greatest challenge in the
READER SERVICE NO. 144
what's happening outside. IFR Flight world of sport: 100m dash, long jump,

AHOY! 41
PERSONAL BEST
A Guide to Individual Sports Games

Flight Simula 400m. shot put. 110m hurdles, 1500m.


tor II fea javelin, discus, pole vault and high jump.
tures full on The player manipulates the joystick
screen instru to direct the onscreen decathlcte.
mentation, var Most of the events require the gam
iable weather er to jiggle the stick rapidly to make
conditions, the character on the screen move fest
realistic avi- er. %u'll really need tliose wristbands
onic systems, with this disk.
and choice of Summer Games (Epyx) demands
day, dusk, or pinpoint timing rather than manic
night flying. joysticking. The user must execute a
READER precisely timed sequence of stick
SERVICE NO. 145 movements to put the onscreen ath
lete through his paces.
THE DIGITAL BLUE YONDER want to visit other places. Summer Games simulates swim
Flight Simulation on the C-64 As a bonus, Flight Simulator II in ming, diving, gymnastics, and skect
edition of Flight Simulator II (Sub- cludes a "World War I Ace" mode. shooting, as well as a trio of track and
LOGIC). Bruce Artwick's design, This variation streamlines the play- field contests. The electronic Olymp
based on a program developed for the mechanic of the primary program ian can practice single events or run
IBM PC, created a sensation when and applies it to biplane flight, circa the gauntlet of all eight. The disk re
it made its debut, and it's still a pret 1917. The changes reduce the accura tains a record of high scores which
ty fantastic disk. Flight Simulator II cy of the simulation, but provide a the player can access through the pro
is one of the all-time best-selling en lot more excitement. Skillful flying gram's main menu.
tertainment programs, and dominated is still crucial, but a would-be ace
the Billboard list for more than a year. must also demonstrate deadeye
Flight Simulator //'s biggest attrac marksmanship against the enemy. puterist in more intense scenarios
tion is its astonishing completeness. It The scenery disk adds familiar land than zipping through the friendly
features full on-screen instrumentation. marks such as the Statue of Liberty to skies from New York's LaGuardia to
a choice of day/dusk/night Hying, var the out-the-cockpit-window view. The Chicago's O'Hare.
iable weather conditions, realistic av- accurately placed landmarks are attrac The skies are considerably less
ionic systems and a flying range which tively rendered, and the overall graph friendly in F-15 Strike Eagle (Micro-
spans the entire continent. ics are surprisingly good for a program Prose). This solitaire program plac
The simulation is based on the Pi which must assign so much memory es the user in the cockpit of a mod
per 181 Cherokee Archer, a small sin to simulation elements. ern jet fighter which must complete
gle-engine plane with non-retractable Flight Simulator II docs a fine job missions right out of today's scariest
landing gear. The scenery disk pack of recreating the dynamics of pilot newspaper headlines.
aged with the program generates the ing on the home computer screen, but Although F-15 Strike Eagle makes
proper out-the-window visuals for land apart from the "World War I Ace" extensive use of the keyboard as an
ings and take offs at any of 80 airports mini-game, it is essentially a purist's input device, the joystick controls the
in the New York, Chicago, Seattle and approach to the subject. Following it most important functions. The com
Los Angeles areas. SubLOGIC prom onto computer store shelves are sev puter pilot can ciimb, descend, bank,
ises more scenery disks for those who eral titles which immerse the com- drop bombs, and fire the machine
gun without touching a key.
F-15 Strike Eagle casts the gamer as
a combat flyer. The missions send this
lightning-fast aircraft to places like the
Persian Gulf and Haiphong Harbor. In
variably, these strongholds arc pro
tected by hostile MIGs which are more
than willing to engage in combat.
The visuals are decent, if unexcep
tional. Several types of ground instal
lations are presented, which gives some
Jel Combat Simulator: four modes. Super Huey: ideal for two players. visual variety to the bombing runs.
READER SERVICE NO. 146 READER SERVICE NO. 147 F-15 Strike Eagle is more con
cerned with stimulation than siniu-

42 AHOY!
ENTERTAINMENT

SOFTWARE SECTION

This solid simulation comes in very Summer Games


fancy dress. The graphics are outstand II con be
ing, and the animated torch-lighiing linked with
is one of the most impressive open its predeces
ings in entertainment software. sor to form
The success of Summer Games one 16-event
prompted Epyx to release a sequel. program. II 'v
Summer Games II. It features an ar events are
ray of eight somewhat more exotic more unusual
cvenis, including the difficult tppls ones, includ
jump, bicycling, kayaking, fencing, ing kayaking,
and even equestrian jumping. fencing, and
Each event has its own theme mu the triple jump.
sic, and the graphics are, if anything, READER

better than in the original. Judges' SERVICE NO. 148


scorecaids appear on the screen at Che
conclusion of each round of compe Are. NE, Belleview, WA 98005). In as HES'Cames. Crick led the original
tition to rate the performance. addition to the more conventional design team. 3-2-1 Software, which de
Summer Games I! can be linked to events—100m sprint, 110m hurdles. veloped the program, and he has up
its predecessor lo create a mammoth and diving— S-Games Includes a cou graded it intelligently and effectively.
16-event program. Its newly created ple of truly unique competitions While the track events use the joy
closing ceremony is the perfect ending. which arc not available on any other stick-jiggle play-mechanic, the ap
Fans of Olympic simulations might title: archery and weightlifting. proach to archery and pumping iron
like 10 augment the Epyx events with A new publisher lias updated and re- is more reminiscent of Summer
S-Games (Michael Crick, 2845 140th releused lliis contest, originally known Games' control system. In the archery

lation. Its exciting combat scenarios involves more than just preventing the but some designers have gone in
more than compensate for any tech craft from digging a hole in the run other directions. After all, there are
nical imperfections. way. The accent is on performing fan other types of flying machines.
Fans of this type of air action will cy aerobatics. Paul Norman's Super Huey (Cos-
also enjoy Jet Combat Simulator Stunt Flyer puts the pilot inside the mi), for example, attempts to repro
(Epyx). written by Digital Integra most maneuvcrable of all stunt planes, duce the experience of piloting a UH-
tion. This program, which utilizes the Pitts Special. Although the game IX, an ultra-modem surveillance and
joystick and keyboard input, focuses is quite detailed, it eschews factors reconnaissance helicopter. The pro
on realistically duplicating flight pro like "torque," which would do little gram concentrates heavily on pilot
cedures and problems. more than complicate ihe already de ing the chopper, although combat is
Jet Combat Simulator, like F-I5 manding test. The aerodynamics of a tangential element.
Strike Eagle, uses the McDonnell trick flying arc the main event. Super Huey is ideal for coopera
Douglas F-15 as its main aircraft. The Stunt Flyer has three separate pro tive play. Helicopters are much more
disk includes four separate modes: grams: airshow, training, and compe difficult to fly than airplanes, so
landing practice, flight training, air- tition. The airshow provides an exter there's plenty to do. The command
to-air combat practice and actual nal view of a computer-guided plane control system uses both the joystick
combat. The user can vary the diffi which performs any of 20 stunts on and the keyboard, which facilitates
culty by pie-program factors such as command. Training allows the user division between pilot and co-pilot.
blind landings, crosswinds-turbulence to fly freestyle or attempt a specific
and the skill level of the computer-di stunt, then view an external-perspec
rected enemy. tive replay. A digital wing-walker who
Several programs which nominally feels comfortable enough at the con
fit into this category stress action. trols can try the competition. Any
Mis A!le\' Ace (MicroProse) and high-flying Commodore owner who
Hellcat Ace (MicroProse) are short completes the compulsory sequence
on aeronautical verisimilitude, but are is eligible lo enter Sierra's nationwide
as exciting to play as any arcade game. competition.
Stunt Flyer (Sierra) represents a
third type of airplane simulation, the Other Flights Jet is just up the stream.
"air circus." This disk, a creation of The airplane has always been the READER SERVICE NO. 149
the French design group Nice Ideas, favorite subject for flight simulations,

AHOY! 43
S-Games allows participants to save
Winter Games great performances to a preformatted
offers skiing, disk for subsequent replay. The ani
skating, and mation and graphics are good, if not
bobsledding quite state-of-the-art.
events, in The most recent, and most visu
cluding the un ally spectacular, Olympic software
usual biath product is Winter Games (Epyx).
lon, which Players can now revel in simulations
combines of skiing, skating, and bobsledding,
cross-country
enhanced with the best sound and
skiing with graphics in the series so Car. Action
marksmanship. Graphics had a couple of tough acts
READER to follow, but the design team earned
SERVICE NO. 150 straight A's for its work on this one.
Winter Games begins with a real
PERSONAL BEST bullseye. Weightlifting is broken flash event, the hot dog aerial. As an
A Guide to Individual Sports Games down into two-hand snatch and clean onscreen skier takes off into the wild
competition, the video Robin Hood and jerk. The player lifts more blue yonder, the gamer executes a se

must consider wind speed and direc poundage by maintaining smooth tim ries of dazzling flips, kicks, and dives.
tion in addition while aiming for the ing and good rhythm. The biathlon, one of the most unusu
al events, combines cross-country
skiing with marksmanship. In speed
skating, the user determines the stride
of the onscreen athlete, who is paced
F-15 Strike by a computer-controlled rival. The
Eagle is more ski jump simulation presents two
concerned with views of the action. The main display
stimulation offers a long-range view, while a spe
than simula cial window shows a close-up.

tion, sending The most astonishing events are

players on figure skating and the bobsled. The


dangerous com musical accompaniment, a perfect
bat missions scene-setter for the onscreen Peggy
to MIG-defend- Fleming, gives the Commodore
ed enemy sound chip a brisk workout. Among
strongholds. the movements possible in the skat

READER ing competition are: camel spins, sit


SERVICE NO. 151 spins, double axels, triple axels, dou
ble lutzes, triple lutzes, and camels-
simulator on the artificial horizon is into-sit spins.
THE DIGITAL BLUE YONDER
the follow-up to Flight Simulator, Jet The bobsled race employs a split
Flight Simulation on the C-64
(SubLOGIC), from the Bruce Art- display to give an overview of the ac
The graphics in Super Huey are wick crew. Jet promises to be as revo tion as well as a quasi-first person
blocky, which makes the surveillance lutionary as its predecessor. The al perspective of the run. (The bobsled
scenarios seem pointless. Watching ready published IBM edition includes appears in the foreground as a guid
isn't much fun when there's nothing take-offs from an air strip or a carri ing device.) The sense of "being there"
worth looking at. er, choice of weapons, and a selec is intense as the sled whooshes
When you get tired of flying tion of dogfights and strike missions around turns and beneath the over
around this world, there's always out in either an F-16 Fighting Falcon or passes to the cheers of the spectators.
er space. Steve Kitchen's Space Shut F-18 Hornet. Winter Games has an opening
tle (Activision), although somewhat The introduction of the Commo ceremony, but no similarly ornate
dated, still has a lot to offer. Players dore 128 could be the prelude of a close. That's a sure sign that Epyx
manipulate three axis controls to take new generation of more exact flight will eventually delight computer
the shuttle into orbit, dock with a sat simulators. And considering the sports fans with a Winter Games II.
ellite, re-enter Earth atmosphere and steady improvement in the category
land her on the appropriate runway. so far, one might say the sky's the Go for the Green
The most eagerly awaited flight limit. □ Golf is a sport which has always

44 AHOY!
WHITEH0USE In PA: 1-717-322-7700
1-800-351-3442
P.O. BOX 4025, HOURS: Monday thru Friday 9:00 am
COMPUTER
6:00 pm
VISA and MC
WILLIAMSPORT, PA 17701 Accepted 4%

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SG1O 210 Color 710 539
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Connection/2K ... 62.95 MSP-15 479 SD15 450 MJ-10 175
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XT RON
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MD-1 15.95
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MD-2 21.95
8510 SR 429 1080 229
ELEPHANT 8510 SCP 459 1380 269
SS/SD 13.50 8510 SCR 477 1385 305
SS/DD 15.50 1550 BCD 485
DS/DD 19.50 1550 P 445 OK I DATA
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10 3.50 F10 Sheet Feeder 349 Imaflswritar 425.95
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C-1670 185.95 Tele CompuServe
lax. Defective products musi have Prior RA number.
300/1200 Band Learning 49.95 StarterKit...21.95 Schools net 1 5. Reader Service No. 186
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Reader Service Nn. 207

cravosTiia cravoania
awoania awoama
anvoanra QHVoaina
ENTERTAINMENT

SOFTWARE SECTION

adapted well to computer. Each "play"


is a distinct event, and the physics of A sheriff who
the flight of the ball are easy to ex can uphold the
press as mathematical formulas. Law of the
Computer "hackers" will quickly West without
get into the swing of Professional bloodshed
Tour Golf (Strategic Simulations), scores points
which incorporates elements of both and receives
strategy and stat replay. After select additional cred
ing a bagful of clubs, the user guides it on the
such links legends as Slammin' Sam evaluation
my Snead and Jack Nicklaus around screen at the
either of two courses, complete with game's end.
sand traps, trees, and water hazards. READER

A special option allows the com- SERVICE NO. 152


putcrist to generate a simulation of
any famous golfer or even fashion a LAW OF THE WEST of activity: role-playing and action.
model based on your own golfing Accolade Each scene begins with the hero, a
prowess. Strategic Simulations prom Commodore 64 large figure in the foreground of the
ises supplemental disks containing Disk; $29.95 display, looking up the street at a
new courses and golfers. It takes more than a fast draw to beautifully drawn western scene. The
On-Coun Tennis (Gamestar) ap keep peace in the town of Gold Gulch. view changes for each round of play,
plies a similar form of artificial in A successful lawman must show in and may include a bank, the stage de
telligence to net sports. Each gamer sight, tact, and just the right degree pot, a saloon, or the train station.
controls an electronic racqueteer who of firmness to keep the streets and al A computer-conlrolled character
plays with a distinctive style. Some leys safe. enters the scene to the strains of orig
hug the baseline, others charge the Gunfight programs predate the inal theme music and, in most cas
net at every opportunity, and still dawn of the home computer age. Ev es, saunters up to the sheriff. A line
others reply on a eannonball serve to ery videogame system had at least of text highlighted in red appears be
score points. one such cartridge. Stripped of mi low the picture. This is the opening
The program automatically moves nor differences, they all boil down to line of the conversation. The would-
the electronic athletes around the armed figures on opposite sides of the be law officer selects the desired re
court based on the styled selected pri display shooting at each other. Law sponse from an onscreen menu of
or to the opening serve. A joystick- of the West breaks the mold by fit four possibilities.
activated control system lets the cotn- ting the shoot-outs into an adventure What happens next depends on the
puterist call each shot, once the on game context. tone of the conversation. A hostile re
screen surrogate gets into the proper Law of the West is played as a se sponse may lead to more heated ex
position. This makes On-Coun Ten ries of encounters, each of which in changes which culminate in a show
nis more a test of strategy than hand- volves a meeting on the street be down. On the other hand, a good
eye coordination. Proper timing is tween the sheriff, controlled with the sheriff can talk seemingly violence-
important, but it's definitely subor joystick by the gamer, and a compu bent gunslingers into better behavior
dinate to selecting the right stroke for ter-directed character. by clever choice of comments. A
each situation. An encounter consists of two types non-player character can become
Space limitations have forced this
survey to neglect two major categor
ies: auto racing and martial arts. Rest
assured, both will receive their jus
tice in upcoming issues of Ahoy!
Meanwhile, these "personal best"
programs should keep solitaire and
head-to-head gainers at their compu
ters for many enjoyable hours of in
dividual competition. □

FEATURED NEXT MONTH:


Educational Games On Track: a long way from LeMans. Lode Runner's Rescue: 46 mazes.
for the Commodore 64 READER SERVICE NO. 153 READER SERVICE NO. 154

AHOY! 47
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Render Service No. 1


ENTERTAINMENT

SOFTWARE SECTION
your buddy or your dueling partner, missed the bullseye on this one. hand, the visuals are pretty tame com
depending on how he or she is han Accolade Software. 20863 Stevens pared to some other racing simulations.
dled. And a newly met friend may Creek Blvd., #E. Cupertino, CA The accent here is definitely on hcad-
warn you about the robbery which in 95014 (phone: 408-446-5757). to-head rivalry, not scenery.
variably becomes the next episode. —Arnie Katz A COmputerist steers the car with
Warnings frequently make the differ the joystick. Pushing the joystick to
ence between dropping the had guy ON TRACK MODEL CAR RACING the left causes the car to execute a
and taking a slug yourself. Gamestar similar turn, while moving the han
A sheriff who takes care of a situ Commodore 64 dle to the right produces the exact op
ation without artillery scores points Disk; $24.95 posite effect. Steering is done from
and receives additional credit on Ihe Pure competition is the local point the perspective of a driver riding in
evaluation screen at the end of the of this hard-driving contest for one the onscreen vehicle, but this be
game. This recap indicates how well or two armchair Andrettis. As the ti comes second nature after a few laps.
ihe gamer has performed during the tle indicates, this is model car rac A race car accelerates automatical
clay as a symbol of justice. Categor ing, not a replica of the 24 hours of ly, but the driver must press the ac
ies considered are: maintenance of Lc Mans. So despite the use of fa tion button to apply the brake. Man
authority, crooks captured, romantic mous courses, On Truck conjures up euverability improves markedly when
exploits, bad guys sent to boot hill, more images of radio-controlled ve a car really gets rolling; however, no-
recoveries from bullet wounds, inno hicles buzzing around a parking lot one can negotiate some of the crazy
cent people killed, and the number than of heavy tires squealing down turns on these tracks without using
of crimes committed. the Indy brickyard. the brake at least occasionally.
Sometimes, talking isn't enough. As in many Gamestar products, a se On-Track Computer Model Car
Pushing the joystick forward draws ries of option screens which define the Raring is no easier to master than
the gun and engages the aiming cur game precede actual play. After select other Gamestar titles, which means
sor. The hero must try to keep order ing one or two players, the contestants computerists won't wear it out in a
in Gold Gulch without blasting inno pick between manual and automatic hurry. Newcomers may at first tccl
cent civilians, and an itchy trigger fin shilling. Manual, which is recom like they're steering a bug on a block
ger gels static from townspeople and mended only for the experienced, re of ice, but liberal use of the "prac
a low rating. quires drivers to change between high tice" mode proves that keeping all
Alan Miller, who made quite a rep and low gears to coax maximum per four wheels on the road consistently
utation as a videogame designer for formance out of their automobiles. is possible.
Activision. returns to computer soft Next, each player picks one of Is On Thick too simple? Yes and
ware for the first lime since he crea three car/driver tandems. Artificial no. h is certainly not going to excite
ted Basketball for Atari in 1979. intelligence makes Mario Sandduni those who want a detailed simulation
Though he's lost none of his flair for a speed demon and gives AJ. Cac or flashy graphics. Yet it does offer
innovation, this program's limitations tus' machine the best handling char a chance for continuous, hcad-to-
suggcsl that Miller is still adjusting acteristics. A chart in the instruction head racing, and that's a rare and
to this latest turn in his career. De folder makes it simple to understand noteworthy feature.
spite (he outstanding artwork, per the differences. Gamestar, Inc.. 1302 State St..
haps the best found in any Commo The following screen lets the gam Santa Barbara, CA 93101 (phone:
dore 64 game. Law of the West tacks er choose from among 10 tracks. 805-963-34S7). -Steve Davidson
the depth of a good adventure. Most These range from Road America.
experienced computerists will exhaust with its hairpin turns, to the lengthy THE FOURTH PROTOCOL
its play-value within just a few games. straightaways of Fuji International. Bantam Software
The Trills arc very impressive, but Each course can be either paved or Commodore 64
they don't make Law of the West more dirt, with the latter producing more Disk; $34.95
challenging. Some of the memory de unpredictable handling. Frederick Forsyth's best seller of
voted to the undeniably superb audio The final screen establishes the the same name inspired this spy
visual effects might have been spent speed ("pro" or "amateur") and the thriller for computerists. Thanks to
more profitably on enlarging the victory conditions. Drivers can com its innovative p!ay-mcchanic and
scope of the menu-driven interaction. pete for time in five- or 10-lap con twisting, three-episode plotlinc. the
It's an inspired concent, but this pro tests or they can try to go the furthest adventure has the same urgency and
gram barely explores the possibilities. in 12 or 24 hours. excitement as the book. Gamers are
It's a shame to knock a game with Each course occupies one display swiftly drawn into a tale of interna
as many positive features as Law ofihe screen with no scrolling. Both cars arc tional intrigue, espionage, and nu
West, but its defects make it impossible always in sight, which eliminates the clear threat, as they become John
to recommend wholeheartedly, Man need to stop and reset the cars when Preston. British Intelligence Officer.
Miller took a good shot, but lie's one builds too big a lead. On the other The Nuclear Non-Proliferation

AHOY! 49
Treaty signed by Britian, the U.S., short, final section features a free-for-
and the Soviet Union in 1968 forbade all battle between Special Air Service
these countries' dissemination of nu troops and KGB agents, as Preston tries
clear weapons technology to other to disarm the bomb.
nations. The Treaty contained four The first two game sections are
secret protocols. The liiurth protocol icon-driven. Instead of typing orders,
forbids the signatories from ever as in parser-driven adventures, the
smuggling nuclear weapons into an computerist activates the appropriate
other country for covert detonation. picture on the screen with the point
Russian Central Committee intel er. Game one. The Nalo Documents,
ligence officers have hatched up a puts Preston at the well-equipped The Fourth Protocols fast-paced
scheme to weaken NATO by desta desk of his office. Using the keyboard first two sections are icon-driven.
bilizing the Western Alliance. To do to move the cursor around a ring of characterize more primitive adventure
this, they plan a nuclear disaster in icons, the super-agent reads memos programs. The emphasis is on the ex
England, to be blamed on the Ameri and reports, uses the telephone, con perience of becoming a secret agent
can military presence in the U.K. tacts headquarters, and orders surveil on a life-or-death mission, and few
They figure this will result in En lance of suspicious characters. titles use role-playing more effective
gland's withdrawal from NATO and. A somcwhal different, more action- ly. The player must become John
subsequently, perhaps even a Soviet oriented set of icons is utilized in part Preston, at least for the space of a few
takeover of Western Europe. The two. The Bomb. They allow Preston enjoyable hours, to thwart the plot
computerist, as John Preston, counter- to pick up, use, or drop objects, ex and preserve world security. The
intelligence agent, stumbles upon this amine items, and listen to informants. weil-prepared documentation, which
plot and must track down the saboteurs The onscreen compass allows Pres thankfully includes an extensive glos
before they tire the nuclear device. ton to move through the city to gath sary, acclimates the player to the set
The game is divided into three sep er the facts he needs. Most of the ting and provides a few helpful clues.
arate episodes. In the first, Preston travel around London is via the Un Vie Fourth Protocol is more than an
must learn who stole the NATO doc derground, and some adventure gam- innovative design, it is a thoroughly en
uments, why, and to whom they ers will feel that the designers of 77k? joyable piece of adventure software.
leaked the information. Time passes Fourth Protocol have lavished entire Bantam Electronics. 666 Fifth Ave
quickly as Preston checks reports, ly too much detail on the intricacies nue. New York. NY 10103 (phone:
hunts through the files, assigns watch- of rapid transit. A wise agent will 212-765-6500). -Joyce Worley
era to suspects, and performs his rou hunt up the address of the places
tine duties. which he needs to visit and get lo LODE RUNNER'S RESCUE
If Preston digs up the mole in Brit them by cab whenever possible. Synapse
ish intelligence, he advances to the sec The SAS Assault, the final section, Commodore 64
ond part. In this phase. Preston lias to is more of an extended climax than Disk; $29.95
locate the bomb which the Soviets have a full-biown episode. It is based on It isn't always easy to be a devoted
already smuggled into England. The a small parser which lets the gamer daughter. This is especially true if
enter brief commands in an effort to your dad is that legendaiy leaping se
defuse the bomb and its associated cret agent known as the Lode Runner.
safeguards before the device ex The hero of Doug Smith's award-
plodes. This segment is much like winning Lode Runner (Broderbund)
traditional illustrated adventures with and Championship Lode Rwmer
a full-screen drawing of the room in (Brodcrbund) is sitting in a Bungeling
which the bomb is actually hidden. Empire jail. His daughter, the equal
The finale is fun, but it's the icon- ly high-flying Alexandra, must jump,
driven sections which make Tlw run, and dodge through 46 three-di
Fourth Protocol a unique game. Put mensional mazes to reach the cell
ting the options right at Preston's fin containing Lode Runner and liberate
gertips ends the principle frustration him. As in the earlier episodes of this
of parser-oriented adventures: ex series, guards patrol the labyrinths.
pressing what you want to do in Their touch costs one of the four pre
words the machine understands. This cious lives with which Alexandra
is a fast-paced adventure, not a head- starts her quest.
scratching word-hunt. Female computer gamers have
A twisting, three-episode plotline. Vie Fourth Protocol is not espe complained, and rightly, that there's
READER SERVICE NO. 150 cially difficult and is mercifully free a shortage of heroines in entertain
of the convoluted logic puzzles which ment software. Alexandra is an im-
50 AHOY!
ENTERTAINMENT
Easy Curves
SOFTWARE SECTION 1) Insert your COMAL disk in drive*.
portant step toward closing the gen and reach the exit square before the 2j Type LOAD "C64 COMAL*",8
3) Type RUN (fltarta COMAL)
der gap. Apart from a slight fear of bonus clock runs down to zero. Pick
4) Type AUTO (turn on auto ]ine#'s)
heights, which prevents her from ing up a key adds 50 points to the 5) Enter the program lines shown below
jumping more than two levels down score and a like amount to the bonus. (COMAL indents lines for you)
G) Hit RETURN key twice when done
under normal conditions. Alexandra When the computcrist completes a
7) Type RUN
is every bit as much a daredevil as round, the game adds all points re
her famous father. And she's got at maining on the bonus counter to the 0010 setup
0020 curve
least one trick up her sleeve which total score.
0030 paint'it
even her old man would envy. The three-dimensional perspective 0040 add'words
The rules folder suggests that the gives the format pioneered in Lode 0050 //
00SO proc Bclup
player turn the joystick diagonally Runner a new lease on life. Few en
0070 blukMO; yellow:=7
(clockwise) so stick directions cor tertainment programs boast a prettier 0080 background black
respond better to Alexandra's on batch of play fields. And in most cas 0090 pencolor yellow
0100 setgraphic 0 //hi res screen
screen movements. She can walk on es, they're as challenging as they are 0110 hiduturtle
level ground, climb up one step, or good-looking. 0120 endproc setup
jump down two without expiring. In the long run, the best thing about 0130 //
OMO proc curve
(The dauntless daughter can fall Lode Runner's Rescue is the screen ed
0150 moveto 110,0
greater distances safely if she lands itor mode. As in the original Uxk Run 0160 draw to 110,199
on an elevator, exit, or water square.) ner, the user can create customized 0170 for row:=0 to 10 step .03 do
0IS0 drawto 110+99"ain(row),row"20
Alexandra hops over the adjacent playfields when the regulation ones 0190 endfor row
square when the gamer presses the have been conquered. The process is 0200 endproc curve
action button while pointing the stick a little more difficult, since would-be 0210//
0220 proc paint'it
in the appropriate direction. She can designers must visualize in three di 0230 fill 120,20
leap over any space which is two mensions, but no special knowledge of 0240 fill 100,90
sleps high or less. Taller barriers programming is required. 0250 fill 120,180
0360 fill 100,198
cause the kidy rescuer to bounce back Il might be reaching to say thai 0270 endproc paint'it
to the square from which she began Lode Runner's Rescue surpasses the 02SO //
her leap. first Lode Runner, which is still a 0290 proc add'worda
0300 pencolor black
Lode Runner's pit-digging ability classic. Yet it is definitely a worthy 0310 background yellow
caused command control problems in successor and an entertaining gaming 0320 plottoxt I20,tE5,"comal is a"
the Commodore editions of the first experience in its own right. 0330 plottext 16,90,"programmers"
03-10 plottext 12O,30,"paradise"
two titles in the series. It proved hard Synapse. 17 Paul Drive, San Ra 0350 endproc add'worda
to implement the hero's ability to dig fael. CA "4903-2101 (phone: 415-
a trap for the guards either in front 479-1170). -A/me Katz
or behind with a conventional one-
button joystick. DECISION IN THE DESERT
Lode Runner's Rescue won't make MicroProse
Commodore owners feel like second- Commodore 64
class citizens. Designer Joshua Disk; $39.95
Scholar has dropped this feature and, The North African campaign of
instead, endowed Alexandra with the World War II has fascinated military Notice how easy graphics are in COMAL.
ability to temporarily change size by historians and wargamers alike for Lines 70-100 set up the screen colors.
eating one of the mushrooms scat more than 40 years. The sweeping Lines 150-100 draw on the screen.
Lines 230-2G0 fill (paint) whole parts.
tered around the playfields. movement of small armies over vast
Even putting text on the graphic screen
A snack turns Alexandra into a stretches of territory, punctuated by is easy. See lines 320-340. All this is
giantess who can leap across two intense periods of fighting, makes this standard and built in na part of COMAL.
Plus a full turtle graphics system. Now
squares or fall three height levels theater stand out in a war character
you know why there are 100,000 users.
without danger. A timer made of ized by a heavy concentration of forc
mushrooms in the upper right hand es clashing over restricted terrain. " If you don't have COMAL yet, order a
Programmer's Paradise Packaffe-jl9.95.
corner monitors the nine-second "tall" The "accelerated real-time" play-
It includes the complete COMAL system
period. When the heroine shrinks to routine is well-suited to the subject. plus over 400 pages of information. Add
normal size, a tone sounds to alert Decision in the Desen does not pro $5 more to get our 20 interactive lesson
the gamer. ceed in alternating turns like most Tutorial Disk. Add $2 shipping. Visa/MC
or US funds check accepted. Send to:
Lode Runner always scrounged for computer wargames. Commanders in
gold, but his daughter collects the this one- or two-piayer simulation is COMAL Users Croup USA
keys which are scattered around each 6041 Monona Drive, Room 111
sue a steady stream of orders, which
Madison, WI 53716
maze. To advance to the next screen. units execute as game time passes. phono R08-222-H32
Alexandra must scoop up all the keys Speed is not essential, since a divi-

AHOY! SI
sion can do only so much during each erl is not hard to learn. Playing well the swing. Simple illustrations focus
four-hour period, but the time pres takes practice, but an experienced on the proper way to grip the bat,
sure certainly builds excitement. computcrist can skim the first two while footprints indicate where the
Pressing the "F" key circumvents this sections of the instructions and im batter should plant his feet in the box.
feature by pausing the game. This is mediately start the conquest of North After mastering the basics of the
necessary if there are two human gen Africa. The rulcbook is packed with batsman's art, the student can try out
erals, hut solitaire players should prob examples of play and the kind of his newly acquired skills in two hitting
ably go easy on the "strategy breaks." torical commentary which breathes simulations. In "Batting Practice,"
Decision in the Desert contains five life into a screenful of unit symbols. players may bat from cither side of
basic scenarios. Included are Sidi If anything. Decision in the Desert the plate, against a pitcher of their
Barren! (the early British victories is even better than the first title in this choosing. The action is in slow mo-
against Italy). Operation Crusader scries. Crusade hi Europe. Military lion to give the user the chance to dis
(the Axis seigc of Tobruk). Gazulu simulation fans can only chortle in sect each swing.
(Rommel's victory at Tobruk). First anticipation of what the Mcier-Nevcr "Slugfesf pits the user against any
Battle of Alamein (Rommel's cam team will create next. one of a dozen pitchers, throwing
paign after Tobruk). and Alam Hal- MicroProsc. 120 Lakefront Dr., real-time stuff. Options available in
fa (Montgomery's defense of the Nile) Hunt Valley. MD 21030 (phone: 301- this version include updateablc statis
Most of the scenarios have "what 667-1151). -Amie Katz tics and a choice of stadiums. The
if?" variants which allow coinputer- difference among the various fields
ists to study these battles from new DAVE WINFIELD'S BATTER UP! seem minor, and the various parks
perspectives. Operation Crusader, for Avarrt- Garde have a negligible impact on the batter-
example, has an option which lets the Commodore 64 pitcher confrontation.
German general assault Tobruk be Dish; $34.95 "Batting Practice" and "Slugfesf de
fore the British arrive. Another in Warning: Bauer Up! is not a base pict the butler as seen from the on-deck
triguing variant gives military buffs ball simulation, but rather a high circle. When the ball is hit, a window
a chance to see if Rommel could have quality tutorial on the subject of hit appears in the upper left corner of the
beaten Field Marshal Montgomery ting a ball with a Louisville slugger. screen with an overview of the field.
had he received more supplies to The teacher is, to say the least, high The program tracks the path of the ball,
back his bold stroke. ly qualified-New York Yankee su and the result is displayed.
Solitaire garners will appreciate the perstar Dave Winfield. The obvious question is whether ap
excellent digital general incorporated Hiiting a small round ball thrown prentice Winfields will really stand, bat
into Decision in the Desert. It plays at great velocity with the curving sur in hand, in front of their Commodore
a strong game for either side and can face of a bat is universally acknowl computers and follow the master's
be adjusted to give novices and vet edged as the most difficult accom teachings. Those who are willing to try
erans alike a competitive tussle. plishment in sports. Batter lip! div such a radical method of instruction
Limited intelligence is available as ides this challenging feat into grip, will probably derive some benefit from
an option in both solitaire and head- stance, pitch, and swing. Drawings Batter Up! For safety's sake, however,
to-head games. A commander can and animations minutely analyze the it might be better for the compulerist
only see enemy units which are with phase under discussion, and provide to use a whiffle bat rather than a major
in line-of-sight of his or her own the pupil of hitting with many pos league stick...
mx)ps. It introduces a realistic degree sible options. Avant-Garde, 37B Commercial
of suspense and uncertainty and helps To facilitate study of fastballs and Blvd., Novato, CA 94947 (phone:
give this program the feel of the ac changeups. the program shows the 415-883-8083). -Bill Kiwkel
tual campaign. delivery from the batter's standpoint.
Although authors Sid Meier and Ed Other pitches, the slider for example,
Bcver have included the kind of sound are viewed from both overhead and NEXT MONTH'S
and graphics which greatly enhance the side perspectives to allow the user to ENTERTAINMENT
appeal of Decision in the Desert to sec how the ball breaks and drops at REVIEWS:
those whu don't ordinarily gravitate to the same time.
ward wurgaming, this is a very detailed • Kung Fui The Way of the
The flexibility of this tutorial is im
simulation. The basic strength of each Exploding Flit
pressive. The user picks the type of
• The Dolphin's Rune
unit varies during the course of play, pitch, the delivery (overhand, sub
• Richard Pctty's Tdlladega
depending on the weather, defensive marine, etc.), the stance, and other • Black Thunder
terrain, the experience of the soldiers factors by responding to a series of ■ Temple of Apshai Trilogy
in the unit, the formation, and the cur menu prompts. • The Little Computer
rent effectiveness rating. An animation, which the user can People Prefect
Although the documentation is a run at regular speed or frame by • Alice In Videoland
hefty 56 pages, Decision in the Dcs- frame, provides an overhead view of

52 AHOY!
TURNKEY 64 :
and replaces it with the external
ROM. This configuration was chosen
for the AUTO-EXEC cartridge.

AN AUTO-EXEC CARTRIDGE On power up or reset, the C-64 ex


ecutes several housekeeping routines

FOR THE C-64 built into the Kernal ROM. One of


these routines checks for the presence
of a unique sequence of bytes at lo
By Don Lewis cation S8OOO-S8OO8. If this unique
sequence is present, the C-64 stops
ue to its outstanding This article presents the code nec its normal reset routines and program
price/performance ratio essary to implement an AUTO control is transferred to the cartridge.
the C-64 is finding its EXEC cartridge for the 64. Once the Commodore calls this the "auto-start"
way into school and in cartridge is installed on the 64, on feature.
dustrial laboratories as a dedicated power up or reset, the computer will
computer system. As an example, load and begin executing the first file Table of Autostart
Brachman Associates recently used on the disk. Bulletin board systems, Recognition Code
a C-64 as a controller for an indus home security systems, and C-64-
Location Definition
trial process. The complete system based science projects could all bene
consisted of a 64, a 1541 disk drive, fit from the addition of an AUTO S8000, $8001 Low, High Byte of Cold
printer, color monitor, and some cus EXEC cartridge. Start Vector
tom circuitry. Most of the application I originally developed this tech S8002, $8003 Low, High Byte of Warm
program was written in BASIC and nique in 1983 for R.J. Brachman As Start Vector
then compiled. The application called sociates, Inc., and I wish to thank SS004-S8006 The ASCII sequence
for the computer to begin executing them for permission to share it with 'CBM; with bit 7=1
the program immediately upon power Ahoyfv, readers. $8007-$8008 The ASCII sequence '80'
up, without the presence on an op
erator to load the program from disk. THE AUTO-EXEC
A setup such as this is called a turn CARTRIDGE
key system. The AUTO-EXEC cartridge was
The advantages of a turnkey sys designed to load and execute the first
tem is that little or no operator in file on the disk. The necessary code
tervention is required to get the pro is reproduced here, and provided in
gram running. This means that any a Fkmkspeed listing on page 98.
one, with almost no instruction, can The comments explain how the code
use the computer to control the pro works. I built in several safeguards
cess. With proper design, ;in inexpen and a backdoor. If, while powering
sive timer can be used to power up Turnkey 64 uses readily available ROM up the C-64, the CBM logo key is
the system and automatically begin cartridge with control flip-flop added. held down, the AUTO-EXEC is
running the application program aborted and control returns to the
without any human intervention! SOME CARTRIDGE normal C-64 reset procedures. Any
Many computer systems have a FUNDAMENTALS disk errors, such as device not pres
turnkey feature built into the operat Information on the C-64 memory ent or an error reading the file, also
ing system. Typically, a specific file configurations can be found on pages aborts the AUTO-EXEC. A more so
name is reserved by the operating sys 260-267 of the Programmer's Refer phisticated AUTO-EXEC cartridge
tem for this purpose. When the com ence Guide. A discussion of ROMs might write an error message to the
puter is powered up, the operating and a review of EPROM program screen and sound an alarm. The bor
system checks for the presence of this mers for the C-64 can be found in the der, background, and character col
reserved file on the disk. If it is July 1985 Ahoy! The C-64 supports ors can all be changed according to
found, the file is loaded and execu 8 different memory configurations, individual taste.
ted. On the Apple, the reserved file of which 4 are for cartridge ROM. The AUTO-EXEC cartridge as
is the HELLO file. On the IBM it is The status of the EXROM and sumes that the program it loads is a
the AUTOEXECBAT file. Unfortun GAME lines (pins 8 and 9) of the ex BASIC program or a machine lan
ately, the C-64 does not have a turn pansion port determines the particu guage program started with a BASIC
key feature similar to the Apple or lar memory configuration the C-64 SYS call. The standard load address
IBM. However, such a feature can be assumes on power tip. When EX- for such a file is at $0801.
easily added by placing the turnkey ROM is tied low (to ground) the C-64 This code can be burned into a
code in a ROM cartridge. deselects the RAM at S8OOO-S9FFF 2732 EPROM with an EPROM burn-

AHOYl S3
er such as the Promenade. A schem
atic and instructions for building a
burner yourself can be found in Easy
Interfacing Projects for the C-64 by
Jim Downey, Don Rindsberg, and
William Isherwood (Prentice-Hall).
Figure I shows the necessary connec
tions for interfacing a 2732 EPROM
to the expansion bus. In order to map
the cartridge ROM into the C-64
memory space, EXROM (pin 9 on
D3
the expansion connector) must be tied
low (ground). A disadvantage of tying FIGURE 1;
EXROM permanently low is thai we 2732 EPROM pin out. Pin designations for the C-64 expansion connector are
give up 8K of RAM space which in blocks. In addition, EXROM (pin 9) must either be tied low (ground), or wired

would otherwise be available to as shown in Figure 2 or 3. See page 396, Programmer's Reference Guide.

BASIC. With the addition of some override any previous condition. If a to switch the cartridge on and off. An
extra circuitry the 8K of RAM can low is applied to CLR, the output of instruction such as STA SDEOO
be recovered. With a little additional Q is immediately set low. A low on (POKE 56832) will cause 1/01 to go
electronic wizardry we can effectively PRE sets Q high. When the C-64 low. When 1/01 is brought low, the
add 8K of ROM memory to the C-64. RESET line is brought low during high signal at D is transferred to Q
Figures 2 and 3 show the method. power up, Q is set low. This forces and the ROM is disabled. In this cir
By adding a 74LS74 D-type flip-flop EXROM low and maps the external cuit, once the ROM is disabled it
as a one bit memory cell we can un ROM into the C-64 memory space. cannot be reenabled.
der software control enable ihe cir The 1/01 line (pin 7) is a signal The circuit in Figure 3 shows a
cuit in Figure 2 first. The operating generated by the C-64 which is more flexible urragement to wire the
rule for a D-type flip-flop is that the brought low whenever an address in D flip-flop as a switch for the ROM.
logic level at D is transferred to Q, the range SDEOO-SDEFF is placed Instead of tying D permanently high
whenever diere is a high (+5 volts) on the address bus. Commodore uses (+5 volts)._we connect D to the in
to low (0 volts) transition on the CLK this line for their CP/M cartridge. In verse of Q (Q-read "not Q"). The first
input. The PRE and CLR inputs the AUTO-EXEC cartridge, it is used STA SDEOO would turn the cartridge

SOURCE CODE LISTING


;AUTO-EXEC CARTRIDGE EAL =SAE ;LOSD END ADDRESS ;EET BORDER, BACKGROUND S TEXT COLOR
;V10O5/85 (RV 0606/85. 0831/83) STATUS =$90 ;I/0 STATUS LI)A #12
jCHANGE TO 101 FOR ROM DISABLE HEMSZ1 -$37 iHIGHEST ADDRESS FOK BASIC STA BORDER
MEMSZ2 -$0283 ;TOP OF MEMORY FOR O.S. LDA #0
;COPYRIGHT 1983 BY COLOR -$0286 ;CURRENT CHAR COLOR STA BOHDER+1
;H. .). BRACHMAN ASSOCIATES INC. TBUFFR -SO33C ;TAPE BUFFER LDA 114
;P.O. BOX 1077, HAVEflTOWN, PA. 19083 ISTOP -$0328 iSTOP ROUTINE VECTOR STA COLOR
iPUT "0:AUTO-EXEC.A1005"
;64 I/O ;CHECK KEYBOARD FOR CBM KEY
KERNAL ROUTINES ViCCTR -$D016 VIC CONTROL REGISTER LDA IS7F
ilNIT 10 BOEDER =SD020 BORDER COLOR STA KBPROB
-$FF87 ;TEST RAM KBPROB SDCOO PROBE THE KEYBOARD LDA KBSENS
-$FF8A ;SET I/O VECTORS KBSENS SDC01 SENSE THE KEYBOARD CMP (SDF
■SFF81 ilNIT SCREEN EDITOR 101 SDEOO EXTERNAL I/O SELECT BNE C0LD1 ;NOT CBM
-$FFBA ;SET LOGICAL FILE
.$FFBD ;SET FILE NAME ;CIA #1 TIMER REGISTERS ;CBM KEY, ABORT AUTO-EXEC
■SFFD5 ;LOAD RAM CIATA "$DDO-<. ;TIMER A BASIC LDX (32
-JFFE7 ;CLOSE ALL FILES CIAICR =$DDOD ;IRQ CONTROL REGISTER BASIC1 LDA C0DE1.X
SETMSG -JFF90 ;SET KEKNAI. MESSAGE CIACRA -SDDOE ;C0NTHOL REGISTER A STA TBUFFR,X
OUTCHR -$E719 ;0UTPUT CHAR TO SCREEN DEX
LISTEN -$FFB1 ;COMMAND DISK TO LISTEN *=$8OO0 BPL BAS1C1
SECOND -SFF93 ;SEND SA TO DISK .WORD COLD JMP TBUFFR
CIOUT -$FFA8 ;CHAR TO DISK
UNLSN -$FFAE ICOMMAND DISK TO UNLISTEN ;SET NMKRESTORE KEY) C0LD1 JSR BASVEC
;FOE REGULAR ENTRY POINT JSR BASICI
;BASIC ROUTINES .WORD $FE5E
BASIC1 -JE3BF ;INIT BASIC iGIVE DEVICES ON BUS TIME TO
BASVEC -SEA53 ;SET BASIC VECTORS ;THE AUTO-START SEQUENCE iFINISH POWER UP SEQUENCE
CLEAR -SA659 ;BASIC CLR COMMAND .BYTE $C3,$C2,$CD,'8O' ;CBM80 LDX 132
CHAIN -SA533 ;LINK BASIC LINES
DECTXT =SA533 ;BACKUP TEXT POINTER ;X=O ON ENTRY ;SET UP TIMER 1, CIA 1
RUM -JA7AE ;G0 TO IT1 COLD STX VICCTR TIME LDA ISFF
JSR IOINIT STA CIATA
;VARIABLES JSR RAMTAS STA CIATA+1
TXTTAB -J2B ;START OF BASIC JSR RESTOR LDA #$19 ;FORCE LOAD
VARTAB =$2D •START OF VARIABLES JSR CINIT STA CIACRA

54 AHOY!
RESET .
off, a second store would turn it back
(C64-pin C)
A on a third store would turn ii off
C! It
again, and so on. By doing this, we
EXROh have effectively added 8K of ROM
CCfi-t-fiin 7) *" CLK 0

memory to the C-64. A library of


machine language subroutines, per
D 5
haps for high speed graphics, driv
PRE
ers for analog to digital convenors,
Y or high speed disk access, could be
placed in the external ROM. A
*5V
BASIC application program could ac
cess these routines by first turning the
FIGURE 2:
ROM on with a PEEK(56832), call
A 74LS74 D-type flip-flop can be used to turn tiff the cartridge ROM,
ing the desired routine with a SYS
thereby recovering HK of RAM which would be hidden behind it.
command, then turnign off the ROM
PC SET with another PEEK(56832),
If you are not up to building your
own EPROM cartridge board then
FTSi EMROM use one of the reasonably priced pre
7)
pared boards available from the
EPROM programmer manufactures.
The photograph on page 53 shows
such a board with a cheap and dirty
way of installing the 74LS74 flip-flop.
You may want to use a socket instead

2)
of soldering directly to the chip.
FIGURE 3: Additional information on digital
When D and Q are wired together, the flip-flop is configured as a toggle. electronics and microcomputer sys
This allows the cartridge ROM to be alternated with underlying RAM tems can be found in Engineer's Note
in the C-64 address space under program control. book II by Forest M. Minis III (Radio
Shack), Digital Systems by Ronald J,

FOR TURNKEY 64
LDA CIAICR ;CLEAR PENDING IRQS JSR SETSAH CGDE1 STA 101 CARTRIDGE OFF
;UAIT FOR TIMER TO COUNT DOWN LDA Pi ;BELOCATKD LOAD LDA *f/j ;TEST IF RCH OFF
TIMOUT LDA CIAICR LDX TXTTAIi ;AT $0801 STA $8004
AND #$01 LDY TXTTAR+1 BIT $B'M
BEQ TIMOUT JSR LOAD ;AND LOAD THB BAM BMI C0DE1A ;NOT RAM
DEX DCS ERROR ;IS RAM, SO RESET
BNE TIHF, :CARRY CLEAR, NO ERROR ;TOP OF MEMORY TO SAOVj
JSR Cl.ALL LDY (SAO
;TEST IF DEVICE PRESENT STA MEMSZ1
LDA #0 ;SF.T END OF I'HOCRAM POINTERS STA MEMS22
STA STATUS LDA EAL STY HfXSil+1
LDA #8 LPY EAL+1 STY HEMSZ2+1
JSR LISTEN STA VARTAB C0DE1A LDA #$ED
LDA #$6F STY VARTAB+I STA ISTOP ;ENABLE STOP
JSR SECOND JHP (SA'XXi) ;AND
LDA STATUS ;CLEAR BASIC VARIABLE SPACE ;GOTO BASIC(READY-)
BEQ C0I.D2 :AN1) BELIHK BASIC LINES
JSR CLEAR ;EXECUTE PROGRAM, CODE MOVED TO
;N0 DEVICE ON BUS, JUST EXIT JSK CHAIN [TAPE BUFFER S EXECUTED THERE
ERROR LDA 10 LDA 10 iTURN OFF MESSAGF.S C0DE2 STA 101 ;CARTHIDGE OFF
STA STATUS JSR SETHSG LDA 100 ;TEST IF ROM OFF
JMP BASIC JSR DECTXT ;ADJ13ST TEXT POINTERS STA $8004
BIT $8004
C0LD2 JSR UNLRN [MOVE AND EXECUTE CODE BMI C0DI12A ;N0T RAM
LDX »32 ;IS KAM, SO RESET
;LOAD IN FILE, ASSUMES A BASK PKUGHAM EXEC LDA C0DE2.X ;TOP OF MEMORY TO SAOOO
;OB ML PROGRAM STARTED WITH A SYS CALL. STA T8UFFS.X LDY «A0
LDA »SEA ;FIRST DISABLE STOP DEX STA HEMSZ1
STA ISTOP BPL EXEC STA MEMSZ2
LDA IB [FILE #8 JMP TBUFFK STY MEMSZ1+1
TAX (DEVICE #8 STY HEMSZ2+1
LDY #0 ;LOAD. NOT VERIFY ;FILE NAME, IN TUTS CASE LOAD IN C0DE2A F.DA #$£D
JSR SETLFS iFIRST FILE OK DISK STA ISTOP :ENABLE STOP
LDA tU ;FILF. NAME LENGTH NAME .BYTE '<>:1*' JMP HUN ;AND RUN PRCCRA.M
LDX KNAME :POINTER Tl) FILE SAME ;ERROR HANDLER, CORE MOVED TO
LDY #>NAME ITAPE BUPFF.R S EXECUTED TIIKRE .END

AHOY! SS
Tocci (Prentice-Hall), and Digital
Integrated Circuits by Joseph Kasper
CHARACTER
(Prentice-Hall). The last book is
highly recommended for beginners.
Special thanks to Bruce I. Bracli-
man and to the management of R.J. Instant Text Screen Printer for the 64
Brachman Associates, Inc. The illus
trations were created with Ftexidraw By James C. Sanders
from Inkwell systems. □
SEE PROGRAM LISTING ON PAGE 115
any versions of sented with a BASIC loader. This
Instructions for Testing screen dump pro loader, when run, will load to the
grams have been memory address 52992 and then
the AUTO-EXEC
i devised since the erase the loader from memory. It will
Cartridge
home computer was introduced, with print the checksum value of all the
1. The prototype works best if your a variety of shortcomings. A screen data statements and instructions to the
C-64 and disk drive are powered off dump program written in BASIC screen befoire doing so.
the same switch on a power strip. must be added to another program in You may save the instructions to
Otherwise you will need to turn the order to load properly and work with your printer by typing SYS 52992
drive on first, then power up the C-64. that program. Many dump programs < RETURN > and pressing the f7
2. Insert the cartridge in the expan will only work with one printer. A key. A different function key may be
sion port, and insert a disk with a dump program in machine language, selected by following the POKE in
suitable boot file in the drive. Close however, will be free of any interfer structions on the screen. It will re
the drive door. ence with the BASIC program you vert to key f7 when you run the pro
may be working with. gram the next time. The program
3. Power up the C-64. The screen
The first version of Character may also be activated from within a
will be black with a gray border. Af
Dump was written with only 97 bytes BASIC program by SYS 53034. Di
ter a slight delay, the C-64 will be
of memory. It proved very valuable. rect mode entry of the SYS 53034
gin to load the first File off the disk
but had to be activated with a system command will also activate the
and then begin executing that file.
command from cither the program or program.
4. Test the backdoor and safeguard by direct mode. The program will work a wide va
features by powering up the C-64 It became apparent that a screen riety of printers, including all Com
with the drive turned off. The C-64 dump activated by a function key modore. Silver Reed, Olivetti, San
will power up with the normal startup would be much more useful. The yo, and Panasonic printers. Remem
message. The same thing will happen program was rewritten to use the f7 ber, it is not a graphics or high reso
if the drive is on but no disk is pre key to activate the procedure. The lution screen dump, but one for
sent. Test the backdoor by powering up program is now 149 bytes of machine note-taking as you program. Some
while holding the CBM logo key down. language memory. It has been located game cartridges and fast load pro
5. Test the ROM disable feature as at a high memory address of 52992 grams will interfere with the proper
follows: once ihe boot program has (SCFOO) to prevent interference with execution of the program. Remove
finished its job, and the READY other ML programs located at the them prior to loading Character
message appears, type in direct mode 49152 (C000) location. Dump, □
POKE 32768,0:PRINT PEEK This version of the program is pre SEE PROGRAM LISTING OX PAGE US
(32768). A 0 will be printed, show
ing that RAM is present at $8000 Call us the modern way—
(32768). Now type a PRINT PEEK
(56832). This will bank the ROM
on AhoyVs Bulletin Board System!
back into the C-64 memory space. at 718-383-8909
Try to POKE to 32768. You will not
be able to change the value there If your computer is equipped with a modem, you can call Atioyfs Bulletin Board System
any hour of the day, any day of the week to exchange electronic mail with other Commo
since it is ROM. Type PRINT PEEK
dore users or download files like the following:
(56832) a second time. This will bank
the ROM out and the RAM back in. Editorial calendar for Corrections to programs Program disk and
upcoming issues and articles subscription information
Try a POKE to 32768 now. You will
Excerpts from luture edi Detailed descriptions Classified
now be able to change the value.
tions of Scuttlebutt of back issues advertising

Set your modem for 300 baud, full duplex, no parity, 1 stop bit. 8-bit word length, and dial away!
REVIEWS
1 ^Wi
S'MORE Heading the list are the AUTO and program lines en masse, supports
Cardco, Inc. NUMBER commands which take the easy creation of program modules.
Commodore 64 tedium out of numbering and renum The MERGE command will recom-
Cartridge; $69.95 bering BASIC program statements. bine these modules with any other
S'MORE is Cardco's third offering The number command will also flag program in memory. This is a true
in their catchy name product line. unresolved line numbers in GOTOs merge where the added lines are
The first two were the G-Wiz and its and GOSUBs by assigning them to properly placed into the existing pro
prototype Oui-G printer interfaces. line number 63999. A rare treat for gram's line number sequence. Incom
We can't give them all the credit for Commodore programmers are the ing lines will also replace existing
dreaming up this one, as a survey of FIND and CHANGE commands lines with the same numbers, so
your grocer's shelves will readily which locate and substitute text watch out. Liberal use of the NUM
show. Nevertheless, Cardco gets full strings anywhere in your program. A BER command will of course help
credit for the Super Memory Optim useful application is to FIND the keep things straight.
ized RAM/ROM Expansion they de aforementioned 63999s. When MERGEing programs be
vised for their chosen acronym. In With S'MORE the ability to cieate sure to bring in the longest ones first.
any event the name is entirely apro and maintain BASIC subroutine li The MERGE operation is time con
pos, as a S'MORE cartridge in a C-64 braries is more than possible. In feet suming. Combining a long program
will definitely provide more of all it becomes downright convenient to with a short one in memory can take
those things that BASIC program organize your program files and util several minutes—after the disk drive
mers are looking for. ities. The DELETE command, has stopped working.
Some of what's more is immediate which provides for the elimination of Life with the 1541 disk drive is
ly apparent from the moment you greatly improved by S'MORE. A
power up. The dark gray on white PRINT DSS will read and display the
opening screen shows 61,183 bytes disk error channel. The CATALOG
free, more than Wi times what is nor command displays the directory with
mally available to C-64 BASIC 2.0. out affecting the program in memory.
As if to emphasize the point, BASIC'S LOAD may be typed right over a di
"READY" prompt has also been re rectory display as the default device
placed by "ok". Perhaps the S'MORE is now the disk drive instead of the
operating code was originally written cassette. The trailing PRG in the dis
in FORTH. The extra RAM is not play is effectively ignored as well.
built into the S'MORE cartridge. It is Programs may be LOADed and RUN
part of the original 64 kilobytes of in one fell swoop by the RUN"prg
RAM which comes with the compu name" command, and the Commo-
ter. S'MORE makes this memory dore/RUN STOP keys now LOAD
available to the BASIC programmer and RUN the first program on the
by adding memory handling hard disk. The new DISK command fa
ware and firmware similar to that cilitates sending any of Commodore's
which is built into the Commodore DOS commands to the disk drive. In
Plus/4 computer. all, the added disk support is nearly
The S'MORE cartridge does con as convenient as the DOS wedge.
tain 24 kilobytes of ROM, which sup The function keys are easily pro
plements the 16 kilobytes already in grammed with S'MORE. The KEY
the C-64. This additional code does command will assign any string (up to
a lot more than manipulate the C-64 a combined total of 128 bytes) (o the
RAM. S'MORE adds some 47 much- function keys. Some useful commands
needed commands to BASIC 2.0. In are placed in the function keys by
addition, many of BASIC'S existing S'MORE on power up. For example, f3
commands are enhanced in subtle will read the disk drive error channel
and convenient ways. while f7 displays the directory.
Cardco's S'MORE gives you s'more
Many of the added commands are SMORE includes several facilities
ROMs-three 8-kitobyte ROMs.
in the Programmer's Aid and Oper for program debugging. A running
READER SERVICE NO. 155
ating System Support categories. program may be STOPped at any

AHOY! 57
'PlayNET lime, its non-array variables DUMP-
ed, and CONTinued from where it
was interrupted. The TRACE com

$2.75* an HOUR! mand can be used to keep [rack of


the program lines as they execute.
The TRAP and RESUME com
PlayNET takes you and your whole family far beyond play. mands will even intercept BASIC
At $2.75 per hour it's the lowest cost way for everyone to programming errors without aborting
enjoy full color telecommunications.
the program. The ER, EL, and
ERRS variables let you identify the
■• It
specific errors and their line numbers
With your Commodore 64/128/
as they are TRAPed. If you should
SX and your modem you can 1
encounter a syntax error, the HELP
meet the experts, participate in
on-line talk shows, and meet thou command will show you the line
sands of people with your interests. where it's located.
The commands for inputting and
outputting data are enhanced by
There are many features of PlayNET, here are only a fewl S'MORE. The AT command locates
the cursor on the display screen. The
USING as in PRINT USING and the
You can post announcements, join associated PUDEF commands con
• ui ll tl« HU» | veniently format printed output. Con
in the excitement of many Special
t M 1
Interest Groups, get all the latest trol of user input is improved with the
1 1
information on the C-128 and INLINE (accepts punctuation and
Amiga. Communicate with peo quotes), INFORM (defines the input
MM M*
ple from all over the countryl field), and GETKEY (waits for a
keypress) commands.
S'MORE comes with a detailed
The Software Delivery Service 150-page manual which is up to
has a "lidding Post for selling Cardco's usual high standards. Each
self-written software and a Pub command is thoroughly documented,
lic Domain Library where thou complete with illustrative examples.
sands of programs are available
A S'MORE system memory map is
on-line.
included to let you adjust machine
language subroutines for the S'MORE
environment. The Commodore Ker-
PlayNET also provides 14 full-color games you play nal vectors remain unchanged, as
with other peoplel You can even talk with your opponent. well as many key locations in low
Games include: Backgammon, RAM. However, most other machine-
Boxes, Bridge, Capture the Flag, dependent locations have been signif
Checkers, Chess, Chinese Check icantly modified. For one thing, the
ers, 4 in a Row, Go, Gomoku, C-64's "protected" RAM in the SC000
Hangman, Quad 64™, Reversi,
block is now part of S'MORE
Sea Strike™.
BASIC'S workspace. Also, all of the
I/O block is no longer directly acces
sible by PEEKing and POKEing. In
*As a member you'll receive a membership kit for $19.95 and
stead, S'MORE BASIC provides a
then pay only $2.75 per on-line hour and $8/month account
complete set of reserved variables for
maintenance fee.
this purpose. Even the screen mem
ory is no longer in the same place.

PlayNET opurotti weokdayi


seam The manual does mention that the
from 6 PM locally unlil S'MORE memory banking is similar to
7 AM Eajlsrn lima, 24 hfi. what is used by the Commodore Plus/
i Holidayi
4. It even refcrs you to the Commodore
documentation for a description. Un
fortunately, the Plus/4 technical notes
are not readily available to the general
CALL 1-800-PLAYNET TO BECOME A MEMBER.
public. We would have liked (o see

58 AHOY!
REVIEWS
smore details on the S'MORE memory
A PlayNET membership kit
is yours free with a
banking in its manual.
A S'MORE demo disk with num
erous illustrative programs is includ
ed in the package. Since the disk is one-year subscription
not part of the advertising, Cardco
does not feel the need to cover it un
der warranty. They will replace it for
S3 if it fails to work.
Although S'MORE is fully upward
compatible with BASIC 2.0. any pro
grams using PEEKs and POKEs will
probably require modification. From For $19.95 you'll receive 12 issues of Ahoy!, PlayNET mem
the standpoint of using existing pro bership kit ($19.95 value), and the following services avail
grams, it will be best to treat a C-64 able only through PlayNET:
with SMORE as a new Commodore
computer.
As with other cartridge firmware
• The Ahoy/ Port of Call, a week
for the C-64, S'MORE automatically
ly teleconference with Ahoyl's
asserts itself on power up. S'MORE
writers and editors
may be incompatible with some ear
ly versions of the C-64. If your dis • Downloading of Ahoy! pro
play fills with commercial at (@) grams at a nominal fee
symbols you will know what we
lit!
mean. S'MORE will also work the
C-128 in C-64 mode if the Commo
dore logo key is held down when • Discount prices on Ahoy! disks
powering up or when the reset but and back issues
ton is pressed. Turning on the C-128
with SMORE in place and without fol • Multiuser access to Ahoy! Bul
lowing the above sequence prevents the letin Board
computer from initializing. The GO64
command will not work at ail if
Don't hove a modem? PlayNET will give you one free!
S'MORE is in the expansion port.
Take advantage of our $19.95 A/ioy//PlayNET offer,
You should also be able to use and agree to subscribe to
S'MORE's MERGE facility with PlayNET for fhree months, and
C-128 programs. However, programs you'll receive a free auto dial/auto
will not LIST properly, as the C-128 s answer modem right nowl The fa
BASIC 7.0 tokens are not compati mous make, touch tone or rotary
ble with S'MORE BASIC. capable modem cerries a 90 day
warranty.
After all the good things we found
in S'MORE, we had to really dig deep
to come up with some shortcomings.
3 Send me 12 iuuci of Aboyl Enclosed ii my check or money order, payable lo Ion Interna-
The complex memory management lional Inc., lor S19.95 ($26.95 Conoda and oliowhere). Alio, lign me up to PloyNET*
(of one month, ond land me lha momberjhip kit (S19.95 value] (roo oF charge.
performed by S'MORE docs cat up
some processor time. Some BASIC D In addition, I agree 10 lubscribe to PloyNET* for threa monlhi. Sand mo my frea oulo
d\a\l auto amwgi modem now.
operations, such as DIMensioning
and lilling large arrays or perform "As a PlayNET member I will be billed on my credit card S2.75 per on-line hour and SB.00
per month account maintenance fee I can cancel my membership ot any time by writing lo
ing many repetitive calculations, will PlayNET, bui iF I receive a modem and cancel before 90 dayi I will be billed $AA.QQ.
run a bit slower than on the C-64.
The penalties are not severe and may NAME

be more than offset by S'MOREs im ADDRESS


CITV
proved garbage collection routines.
TEtE PHONE
The latlcr are nearly 30 times faster
Circle One: MC/VISA Cord #
than in BASIC 2.0.
Expiration Date
If you are really after speed. Card
co is planning to offer a S'MORE
5END TO: Ahoy! 45 West 34th St., New York, NY 10001
compiler in the near future. The com-

AHOY! 59
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Disk Drive Printer Modem Olher


Type of Compute!
REVIEWS
pilcr will require ;i S'MORE cartridge. compatible with most existing pro NLQ KIT FOR GEMINI 10X
The following table summarizes grams. A useful addition to the ESP Corporation
the results of our benchmark iesis: S'MORE cartridge would be a simple Price: $57.50
way to enable and disable it without Psstt!
SWORE BENCHMARK TESTS having to unplug it. A cartridge expan Say, how about a new Gemini IOX
CALC DIM GARBAGE der board, with its own control switch printer for $57.50? It's got a typeface
S'MORE 8238 3527 45
es, may not be the solution, due to the that's so near letter quality, you have
C-64 6158 2586 1296 space limitations of many installations. to see it to appreciate it.
C-128 7941 3442 12 We have presented here just some Naw, it's not hot merchandise!
C-12B (FAST) 3758 1627 6 of the features of SMORE, In fact the Look at this—the 'y" doesn't look like
Note: all times are in jiffies (1/60 second). more we use S'MORE the more we a V with one side stuck below the
find out about it and the more we like line. This primer makes the 'y' look
Since S'MORE was so convenient it. If you are still looking for a BASIC like a 'u' with a curved tail. Look at
to have around, we didn't want to un support utility for your C-64 then the 'p on this S57.50 printer—it's got
plug it from the computer. However, S'MORE certainly merits serious serifs on it. The letters are round, not
this was often necessary when run consideration. square. Easier to read.
ning commercial software or existing Cardco, Inc.. 300 S. Topeka. Where can you gel a printer like
utilities. The S'MORE modifications Wichita, KS 67202 (phone: 3I6- this? If you have a Gemini IOX. you
to the C-64 memory map are not 267-3807). -Morton Kevelson already own one. But for $57.50, a
module about half the size of a cas
sette tape is available that will up
TABLE OF S'MORE BASIC KEYWORDS grade the typeface. The German-
Group 1 - Programmer^ Aid made module has been used in the
Works with AT
HELP - Identifies syntax error INLINE* - Same as INLINE for file* European Gemini models for about
- Same as REM INFORM - Formatted INPUT a year. Only recently did it become
AUTO - Automatic line numbering GETKEY - Waits for keypress available in the United States.
'LIST - Does not terminate program
Group 4 - Structured Programming Just about anyone can install it.
DELETE - Deletes program lines
FIND - Locates text in program DO/LOOP - Start and end of do loop The printer comes apart by remov
CHANGE - Replaces found characters WHILE - Use in do loop ing two screws in the rear of the top
NUMBER - Renumbers program lines UNTIL - Ditto deck. The module replaces the two
DUMP - Lists non-array variables EXIT - Leave do loop now
integrated circuits sitting sidc-by-side
TRACE - Tracks program execution ELSE - As in IE.THEN...ELSE
in the center of a circuit board loca
OLD - UnNEW
DEC - Hexadecimal to decimal Group 5 - PEEK and POKE Eliminators ted directly behind tlie carriage. It's
HEXS - Decimal to hexadecimal ClAfx] - The CIA chips just a matter of prying them out of
KEY - Assigns (unction keys COL(x) - Color memory their sockets (a small jeweler's screw
TRAP - Where to go on syntax error SID(x) - The SID chip driver conies in handy to get them
ER, EL - Error number and line VIC(x) - The VIC chip worked loose).
ERRS - Error message VID(x) - Screen memory
RESUME - Where lo go after error Once out, the ncar-lctter-quality
Note: The parameter in each of these
module plugs in the sockets. In 20
reserved variables corresponds to a register
Group 2 ~ Disk Support minutes, the chore is done.
or memory address.
CATALOG - Displays disk directory The NLQ module works its magic
"LOAO - Defaults to device 8 Group 6 - Odds and Ends by the way it manipulates the dot-ma
•RUN - Loads and RUNs program trix pins and moves the printhead.
INSTR - Finds substring within siring
MERGE - Merges BASIC program
"MID$=S - Permits substitution of string The letters are formed during two
OISK - Sends DOS command
'RESTORE -
Resets pointer to specified line swipes across the paper. On the Rist
OS, DS$ - Reads DOS error channel
CLS -
Clears screen
DOPENtf - OPENs relative file left-to-right pass, nearly all of each
UPPER -
Sets upper case/graphics
RECORD* - Accesses relative file record LOWER -
Sets upper/lower case letter is printed, except for a tiny bit
REPEAT -
Controls key stutter on the bottom. The 'y', for instance,
Group 3 - User Interface
NORM -
Clears screen and resets colors has no descender. On the next left-
AT - Locates cursor as in PRINT AT to default conditions to-right pass, the strip on the bottom
USING - Prints with format as in PRINT •STOP - Enables or disables the STOP key
is filled in lightly, so it is impossible
USING RESET - System reset
to detect the printhead's two-siep
PUDEF - Defines format for USING MONITOR - Go to machine language
■INPUT - Works with AT monitor method in the finished product.
INLINE - INPUT accepts quote, colon BORDER - Sets border color Besides having to do the installa
and comma PAPER - Sets screen color tion yourself, there arc some other
Accepts only string variables INK - Sets character color
tradeoffs for getting print quality as
'enhanced version of existing command good as Star Micronics' newer SG-10
for a fraction of the price.

AHOY! 61
Electronic Phone Book REVIEWS
1) Insert your COMAL disk in drive*.
2) Type LOAD "C64 C0MAL'",8
Printing a one-page letter with 230 THE COMMUNICATION EDGE
3) Typo RUN {starts COMAL) words took 43 seconds using the THE MANAGEMENT EDGE
4) Type AUTO (turn on auto lme#'s) Gemini in its normal, emphasized THE NEGOTIATION EDGE
5) Enter the program lines shown below
(COMAL indents linos for you)
mode. With the NLQ chip turned on. THE SALES EDGE
G) Hit RiiTUllN key twice when done the same letter tcx>k 83 seconds. Still, Info Designs, Inc.
7) Typo RUN that's an average of 14 characters a Commodore 64
e = entcr i=find ) = list
f
second, or about the speed of some Disk; $79.95 each
What name? COMAL inexpensive daisy wheel primers. Info Designs' Edge series of soft
COMAL Users Group 608-222-1-132 The near letter quality typeface re ware for Commodore 64. 128, and
sides where the italic face used to be, Plus/4 includes Ihe Communication
0010 dim n:imc$ of 20, pbonej of 12
0020 dim disk! of 2 so you'll sacrilicc the slanted letters. folge, 'Die Management Edge, The
0030 bl&ckmOi whitc:=l; ydlow:=7 But the new type provides sufficient Negotiation Edge, and T\\e Sales
00-10 background black
consolation. And the NLQ mode can Edge. As the names imply, (he pur
0050 repeat
0060 pencolor white be used with expanded and under pose of these programs is to provide
0070 print "e=enter f=find l=list" lined words. you with a strong base in your inter
0080 case kcyS of
00Q0 whon"e","E"
The letter forms arc pleasing, with actions with other people.
0100 cntcr'nnme the exception of one slight flaw: the According to Info Designs, Vie
0110 when "r,"F" double quotation marks and the single Communication Edge "can help you
0120 input "What name?": nameS
apostrophe curve cver-so-slightly to evaluate the personalities, strengths,
0130 fiiid'namc(nnmc$)
0140 when "I","L" ward the left, making them look a lit and weaknesses of people in your
01S0 find'name("") tle out of place at the start of a sen meetings, and provide specific tactics
0160 otherwise
tence or phrase. They'd have been to listen accurately and speak persua
0170 print chr$(l47) //clearscreen
0180 endcase perfect if left straight. sively." The Management Edge "can
0190 until truc=false //forever help you increase motivation and pre
0200 //
vent manager/staff conflicts." The
0210 proc enter'namfi
0220 input "Enter name : ": namej Thi s is the Gemini Negotiation Edge "can help you anti
0130 input "Enter phone. ": phonej 10;: printer in the cipate likely opponent maneuvers,
0240 if name$>"" then add'toTile
draft mode. implement alternative tactics and test
0250 endproc cnter'namc
0260 // their effectiveness." Tfw Sales Edge
0270 proc add'toTile
This is the Gemini "can help you maximize sales calls by
0280 open file 2,"phone.clat",append
iOx printer in the providing insights into customer buy
0200 diskS:=status$
0300 If dlikJo'QO" then emphasized mode. ing styles."
0310 close // data Tile not found These programs perform a sort of
0320 open file 2,"phone.dat",write
online psychological assessment of
0330 endif
0310 write file 2: nameS,phone3 you and of the individual with whom
This is the Gemini
0350 close you will be interacting. Actually, they
0360 endproc add'toTile lOx printer using the
only assess your impressions of that
0370 // nBar-letter-quality
0380 proc nnd'namc(aearchS) other person. 1 guess you could have
module.
0390 rone 21 // set auto tab to 21 that person enter his own data, but
0400 pencolor yellow
0410 open Tile 2,"phone.dat",road
then you would lose the edge the soft
0420 while not oof(2) do I've tried the NLQ chip with some ware is supposed to give you.
0430 read file 2: nameJ.phoneS popular word processing programs, Each program asks you to agree or
0140 if senrch$ in namoS then
including Fleet System 2. PaperClip, disagree with a number of statements
0450 print name$,phoneS
0460 endif and Easy Script. It worked every time. or sentences about yourself and a
0470 ciiilwhile Nor did it interfere with screen number of single-word characteristics
0-180 close
0490 print "Hit <rctuni> when ready"
dumps or offerings from 'Pie Prim about your counterpart. You might
0500 while keyj<>chr$(13) do null Shop. agree that, for you, "fair play is a los
0510 endproc find'name It would be a valid comparison to ing strategy" and you may disagree
say that the NLQ module has done that your Counterpart is either "hon
" If you don't have COMAL yet, order ^
Programmer's Paradise Package-310.05. for the Gemini lOX's typeface what est" or "egotistical." The statements
It includes the complete COMAL system the fast loading cartridges have done and traits are not organized in any ob
phis over 400 pages of information. Add
for the 154! disk drive's speed. vious way and fluctuate from positive
$5 more to get our 20 interactive lesson
Tutorial Disk. Add S2 shipping. Vis.-i/MC The NLQ Kit works with the Gem to negative.
or US funds check accepted. Send to: ini 10X and 15X and the Delta 10 and 'rbu will want to complete the self-
15 printers. assessment first, which will take you
COMAL Users Group USA
6041 Motion a Drive, Room 111 ESP Corporation, 7900 N. Tami- about 20 minutes. Each program will
Madison, Wl 53716 ami Trail, Sarasota. FL 34243 (phone: display 86 to 90 statements on the
phone G08-222-4432
813-355-6797). -Lonnle Brown screen, one at a lime, except Nego-

62 AHOY!
i
,.''. :'M
\

AXiS/CJL

Why waste time typing?


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issue of Aha/! are avail- -
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sette! Use the cou-
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ISSUE #19-JULY '85 $4.00


PROM programming] 3-pan harmon
ies on VIC/64! .Speeding puds! And
ready to enter: Auto-Append! Scrip
ftnalysfcl Wizard of [nil Lucky Lot
tery! Bruinframc! Eleh! Primal!

ISSUE 01-JAN. '84 $4.00 Sorry,..issues #\, 2. 4, ami 7 ISSUE #13-JAN. '85 $4.00 ISSUE 020-AUG. '85 $4.00
64 v. the Pcunul! Telecom muni cat in us! sold out! Reprint editions VIC/64 OS exposed! Sprites! 1541 de Inside ihe 1ZK! Read-world simula
Tales ill'the Commodore! And ready vice t> disconnect switchl Ghosibusteis! tions! Sound effects! Anil ready to en
(programs and feature articles
Hi enter: Mulii Draw.- W Graphics Svs- And ready to enler: Ultra Mail! Music ter: Windows! Formatter! Sound-a-
(cm! Interrupt Music Maker/Editor! A
only) of issues H\, 2. anil 7 only Tutor! Alice in Adventure land! Mid- Rama! Screen Dump! SeleiUichrome!
Peek at Memory! Sequential Files! arc available for S4.00 each. print! To ihc Top! Tape'Disk Transfer! Disiniegrator! Fulfils! Gators N Snakes!

ISSUE #2-FEB. '84 $4.00 ISSUE 08-AUG. '84 $4.00 ISSUE 014-FEB. '85 $4.00 ISSUE 021-SEP. "85 $4.00
Illustrated tour of Ihe 1541! Artificial Choosing a irord processor! Compu Primer interlacing! Multicolor sprites! Inside the 1571 drive and 128 keyboard!
intelligence! Synapses [hor Wolosen- tational wizardry! Creating your own Modems! Bulletin boards! Theory of Sprite programming] And ready to en
ko interviewed! And ready to enter: word games! Sound on the (>4! And game design! And ready to enter Fu- ter: Fastnew! Go-Lister! File Lock!
Music Maker Pan II! Screen Manip ready to enter: Micro-Minder! Direc [urewarl Fontasin! VIC Eraser! Insur Dragon Type! .Superhero! Aulo-Gen!
ulation] Night Attack! Relative Files! tory Assistance! The Terrible Twins! ance Agent! Flankspeed! Telellnk 64! Moxey's Porch! Fish Math!

ISSUE #3-MAR. '84 $4.00 ISSUE #9-SEPT. '84 $4.00 ISSUE #J5-MAR.'8S $4.00 ISSUE «2-OCT. '85 $4.00
Anatomy of the 64! Printer interfac Program your own text adventure! Making multiscreen gameboards! In Create Qltooo characters! Infinitesimal in
ing for VIC &. 54! Educational soft Build a C-64 cassette interface] Vid side the Plus/4! Commodore DOS! trigue! Inside cop;1 protection! And ready
ware scries begins! And ready to en eo RAM! And ready to enter: Salvage And ready Id enter: Old Routine! Pro to enter: Shotgun! Maestro! Solitaire!
ter: Address Book! Space Lanes! Ran Diver! DOS! Sound Explorer! The grammable Functions! Automatic Line My>Kiy at Mycroft Mews! Gravinauts!
dom Files on the 64! D\namic Power! Castle of Darkness! Base Conversions! Nos.! Home Budget! Salmon Run! 1541 Cleaning Utility! ShadeyDump!

ISSUE #5-MAY '84 $4.1)0 ISSUE #10-OCT. '84 $4.00 ISSUE 016-APR. '85 $4.00 ISSUE #23-NOV. '85 $4.00
Future of Commodore! Inside BASIC C-64 graphics programs! Bil-niappeii Assembly language column begins! Adventure gaming! ML sprite: manipula
storage! Memory management on [he graphics! Joystick programming! And Programming the joystick! 1541 disk tion! BASIC for beginners! And ready to
VIC Si. 64! Guide to spreadsheets! And ready to enter: VIC 40 Column Op drive alternatives! And ready to enter: enter: Lightning Loader! Knlaht'5 Tour!
ready to enter: Math Master! Air As erating System! BAM Read & Print! Hop Around! Faster o4! Booter! Ele- Chopper Flight! Rhythmic Bits! Instant
sault! Biorhythms! VIC Calculator! Emerald Elephant! Lawn Jub! check! BASIC Trace! Space Hunt! Bug Repellent! File'Scout! Slither!

ISSUE #6-.TUNE '84 $4.00 ISSUE #11-NOV. '84 $4.00 ISSUE #17-MAY '85 $4.00 ISSUE #24-DEC '85 $4.00
Game programming column begins! Music programs &. keyboards for the Disk drive enhancements! Install a re Speech synthesizers! The IBM Connec
Program generators! Rupert on Input- 64! Graphics feature continues! And set switch! Assembler escapades! And tion! The year's 25 best entertainments!
ling] Memory management continues! ready to enter: PTE word processor! ready to enter: Super Duper! Tuo-Col- And ready to enter: Gyps} Sturship! Di
And ready to enter: Post Time fur the Block Ediior! Alternate Character Set umn Directory! DSKDU! Raid! DOS rectory Manipulator! Cloak! Camelmder!
64 & VIC! Alpiner! Sound Concept! for the 64! The Tunnel of Tomachon! Plus! Font Editor! Tile Time! Jewel Quest! Lineout! Santa's Bus; Da>!

ISSUE tn-JULY '84 $4.00 ISSUE #12-DEC '84 $4.00 ISSUE #18-JUNE '85 S4.00 ISSUE #25-JAN. '85 $4.00
MSD dual disk drive! Database buyer's Buyer's guide to printers! 1535 printer Music & graphics entry systems! How Build a speech synthesizer! Survey of
guide! Training your cursor! Screen tutorial! Custom characters! User modems work! Inside the 6510! And sports games! Anil ready 10 enter: The
displays! i-'ilc Sleuth! Users Groups! Guide in KMMM Pascal! Diving into ready to enler: Quad-print! Mapping Martian Momlcrs! Streamer Font! Micro-
And ready io enter: Re mi inhering! BASIC! And ready tocnicr: Construc 4.4! Towers of Hanoi! Speedy! Duck Mtn! The Haunted Castle! Knockout! In-
Checklist! Math Defender! Brisk! tion Co.! Space Palrol! Cross Ref! Shoot! The 6510 Simulator! frarakl! Alarm Clock! Memory Check!

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REVIEWS
nation, which displays 5 per screen. their data to another disk and then you what to expect from your cus
Your options arc to agree, disagree, back to the program disk. The pro tomer's style compared to yours, lists
go to the ncxi statement, or go to the gram disk is heavily copy protected, sieps to succeed with your custom
previous statement. Or you can quit SO expect to do a lot of writing to it. er, and gives you opening, presenta
the self-assessment, save what you "What, me worry?" tion, and closing strategics.
have entered, and return to the main After completing the assessments, Reports can be sent to the screen
menu. From program to program, the choose to print a strategy report. The or to the printer. They will run from
assessments bear a lot of similarity program will prompt you to remove one to iwo dozen screens of text or
to one another. the program disk and insert the out three to eight printed pages. Reports
Next, you assess your counterpart put disk that comes in the package. use your counterpart's name or ini
(in Communication and Negotiation), The output disk stores "canned" par tials and appropriately refer to "him"
customer (in Sales), or subordinate agraphs that the program cuts ami or "her." (You tell the program wheth
(in Management). Negotiation gives pastes into a final report based on its er your counterpart is "Mr." or "Ms."
you the most thorough opportunity analysis of your input. All the pro when you ask for a report.)
for this assessment, asking you to re grams, except Management, use both 1 have numerous small complaints
spond to 90 traits and 22 statements sides of this second disk for text, so aboul the Edge programs. Negotiation
about your counterpart. Communica there is a fair amount of material prompts you to cnler your counterpart's
tion and Management only ask you from which the program may select. name. If you backspace pasl the first
about 55 trails, and Sales, 66. In each Communication and Management character you type, the program will
case, 10 traits arc listed on the screen; reports will be broken into sections crash, returning you to BASIC. And
when you respond to the last one, the with headings like "Be Flexible" or Negotiation, unlike the other three, will
next screen appears. It is easy to vis '"Create Moderate Stress." Negotia not allow you to update your assess
ually verify your response to every tion's report is organized into a sum ment of a counterpart. You must reen-
trait except the last one on each mary of your counterpart's expected ter all your answers from scratch-es
screen. The screens change so fast attitudes, a description of his initial pecially annexing since Negotiation has
that you will have to back up, with position, tactics for you to consider, the most comprehensive assessment
the "previous" command, if you are and a game plan suggesting possible (112 responses).
afraid you hit A (agree) instead of D openings, in-process, and closing ar Management also had its quirks.
(disagree), or vice versa. guments. The report from Sales tells Maybe I had a bad diskette, but ev-
In assessing your counterpart, you
have the same options as you did in
the self-assessment. Each of the pro
grams except Negotiation also offers GRADING
some level of help. Communication ...JUST GOT EASIER!
and Management "help"' you by re MASTER GRADES-NOW JUST $35.00
minding you lhat each question re * TEACHER WRITTEN. TEACHER TESTED. 1000'S IN USE
quires a response and by describing * 200 STUDENT CAPACITY
the responses - agree, disagree, next, * EASY TO USE BUT EFFECTIVE ■ RECORDS UP TO
9999 POINTS PER MARKING PERIOD
previous, and quit. Sales has Tar and
* COMPUTES AVERAGES, ASSIGNS LETTER GRADES
away the best help function lor as ACCORDING TO YOUR SCALE
sessment of your customer. Hit the * ALPHA OR PERCENTAGE ORDER PRINTOUTS
"H" key and the screen will display * STUDENT CODE NUMBERS FOR POSTING REPORTS
* PRINTS 3 DIFFERENT PROGRESS NOTES TO PARENTS
a definition of the trait to which you
* ATTENDANCE OPTION BUILT IN
arc responding as well as your possi * FULL CORRECTIONS ROUTINE MAKES FINDING
ble responses. All four programs ERRORS ALMOST FUN
should have this quality of online help. ELECTRONIC LEARNING LOVED IT.
Before you can print a strategy re FOR COMMODORE 64, 32K PET. APPLE II FAMILY, AND IBM
port, you must have responded to ev
FREE TRIAL IN YOUR SCHOOL FOR 30 DAYS
ery trait in both the self- and coun
Please Add S2.00 Per Order For Postage and Handling
terpart asscssmenLs. Assessments arc
SEND FOR OUR FLYER OF OTHER USEFUL SOFTWARE
stored directly on the program disk. WRITTEN BY TEACHERS FOR TEACHERS
You arc limited to storing one self-
assessment and nine assessments of MIDWEST SOFTWARE
others. If two people use the pro 214 Farminqton. Ml 48024
gram, their self-assessments will have VISA/MASTERCARD
to be completely recntcrcd each time
ORDER LINE 9:0
they switch or they will each have to
Michigan, and orders
copy the sequential file containing

AHOY! 65
erything involving [he disk took lung ments is that they only allow you to Each program also has a screen or
er. Generating a final report took a agree and disagree. This limitation two of online instructions available at
full 20 minutes-four times longer might affect the validity of the final the main menu. What is missing is
than the other programs. And after report. I would have preferred strong any guidance in the areas of com
the report had primed, 1 tried to en ly agree, somewhat agree, no opin munication, management, negotia
ter another assessment for a subor ion, somewhat disagree, and strongly tion, or sales beyond whal is printed
dinate. Everything worked fine, ex disagree. In assessing others, I often in the strategy reports.
cept the serccn was blank where the found that I did not know if they were To the degree that those reports tell
traits should have been listed. I could "moody." or "organized." or "clever." you to do specific things, you will be
still agree or disagree, but with what? I would have entered "no opinion" if okay; unless your interaction calls for
The same thing happened when 1 given the choice. a change in style. But the repom do
tried to update my self-assessment af In assessing myself, I had trouble not teach communication, etc. They
ter printing a report. with some statements like "I would give you genera! advice, not specific
Sales has no "next" option in the rather 'win' than make another per examples or exercises to develop your
self-assessment. That's no problem, son happy." If I win, will that person skills. Available from Info Designs
unless you are updating an existing be unaffected (though not "happy") or for $15.95 each are booklets on the
assessment. You will have to go back will he be broken? Or, "My success fundamentals of management, nego
ward through the statements with the depends more on others and luck tiation, or sales. I thought those
"previous" command. Communica than on my own skill." As a mana should have been included in the
tion, I am glad to say, had no glitch ger, I'd say my success depends on $79.95 purchase price, however.
es. It did, however, like al! ihe others, my skill or ability fo get work done The hxlgv programs come with a
contain occasional spelling and cap through others. So the right answer standard 90-day warranty. Backup
italization errors. Those were not too must be.... disks cost $12.50 when you mail your
annoying in the text of final reports, Each of the Edge programs comes warranty card, and $25 any time af
but when you are rating a counterpart with a brief (13- to 17-page) booklel ter that. Support ibr the program
and have to agree or disagree that he that describes the program general costs $25 per hour, though unless
is "dcrcndable," your concentration ly and tells how to load and run it. (hey iniend lo teach management over
will certainly be broken. Since the programs are menu-driven, the phone, vou should need no sup
One real limitation of the assess instructions are almost unnecessary. port to use ' >s software.
The Eelfjc SC1.-3 has been great fun

Super Graphix
and I intend to Iry some of its advice.
Anticipating the recommendations in
the strategy reports was fascinating.

"" I You Even when I disagreed with some


part of a report, it caused me to an

Asked
alyze my interactions much more
closely than I normally would. Edge
programs are fast to learn and easy
For lo use. But they really only give you
food for thought and are not profes
It . . . sional development tools. And for
$79.95, I wish they would fix the ty
Here pos and bugs and throw in ihc book
lets on fundamentals.
It Is!!! Info Designs, Inc.. 445 Enterprise
Court. Bloomileld Hills, MI 4K013
GRAPHICS and FONTS plus an 8K BUFFER lor the ultimate In performance and
(phone: 1-800-445-INFO).
speed. The XETEC Super Graphix interface for Commodore Computers now —Richard Herring
offers a new high in technology with Ihese features:
•BK Buffet Standard • Capable of Storing 2 Additional Fonts
• 10 Printing Modes • Correct GraphicsfText Aspect Ratio for
KEYS TO RESPONSIBLE DRIVING
• 3 Internal Screen Dumps all Ma|or Printers CBS Software, Inc.
• Extensive Command Channel • 8 Active Switches with Changes
Constantly MoniloreO
Commodore 64
• Resot Butlon to Halt Punting
Irom Buffer
• Internal Fonts Support Super-script, Disk; $79.95
Sub-script. Underlining, Bold-face and
• Switch Sellings on Label lor
Choice □( 9 Pitches
For most people, getting a driver's
Quick Reference
license is an important event. Being
• Correspondence Quality Font Bui l-ln
able to drive can give you a new
Suggested list $99.95 Includes Lifetime Warranty sense of independence, and for teen
agers il is a modern "rile of passage"
ASS.^^ . Inc. I 3010 Arnold Rd. / Salina, KS 67401 / 913-827-0685
Reader Service No. 197

66 AHOY!
REVIEWS
marking the transition into adulthood. methods of parking. In chapter three,
Simply passing your driving test, several hazardous traffic situations
READER SERVICE INDEX
however, doesn't necessarily make are depicted and you arc asked about
you a responsible driver. Just think the best way to respond in each case. Sw.
Company Nu,
of how many limes licensed drivers Sound is also used in several of the
32,33 Abacus Software 157
have cut you off to avoid missing (heir chapters to help bring the material to 47 Accolade 152
exit. What does make you a respon life. For instance, in chapter dirce you 94 Alsoft 156
9 American loiematiiinnl Computer 159
sible driver is knowing how to drive are given a test of your reaction time.
48 Aquarian Soft wire 189
legally, defensively, and safely. You are instructed to press any key 50 Ituulam !■ li. ii r. 199
Keys to Responsible Driving is a when you hear the tone. When the 37 Hulteries Included 208
47 1! roller bund Software
self-contained, self-paced program tone sounds, a colored bar begins 154
30 C.O.M.B. Co. 162
designed to provide you with the growing rapidly across the screen and 57 ( ardcn. Inc. 155
knowledge necessary not only lo pass stops once a key is pressed. By letting 11 Central Point Software, Inc. 160
your driving test, but, more inipor- you see how long the bar gets in the 69 Chectsheet Products Inc. _

51,6: ! Cuinal Users Group, USA


tanlly, to help you become both a safe time it takes you to respond to the
_

4,5 Computer Centers nf America 164


and responsible driver. Even if you sound, the program illustrates the de 91 Compumed 191

already have your driver's license, 42 Cosml


lay between when you first notice a 147
95 COVOX, Inc.
chances are Keys to Responsible Driv dangerous situation ahead of you on
_

C-2 CSM Software 165


ing could leach you a lot. the road, and the lime it takes you 22 CSM Software 166
The program is divided imo three to react lo it. 91 CVC Online 192
90 Electronic One 167
sections, including a pretest to mea The program also comes with a 41 Kpyx 144
sure your knowledge when you start, thirty-page "Guide to Responsible 42 Kp) \ 146
chapters that can be studied in any Driving" which reiterates many of the 43 Epyx 148
44 Kpyx 15(1
order and at your own pace, and a points illustrated in the chapters. It 8 I'lrst Star Software 202
positcsl lhat you can lake to see how then goes on to discuss a number of 47 Gamester 153
much you've learned once you com other issues related to responsible 92 Netware 194
35 InteRraled-SoflHarc Systems
plete all nine chapters. Like the writ driving such as what to do at the 168
90 Juson-Ranheim 195
ten tests given by the motor vehicle scene of an accident, insuring that C-4 John Henry Software 169
departments of most stales, the pro your car is in good condition, and 12 I ji nib's Inform alii in Systems 205
711,71 Ljco Compuler
gram's pre- and posttests consist of state laws concerning traffic and safe 1%
76 Matter Software 170
several multiple choice and true/false ty violations. It includes a glossary C-3 Maslerlronic International Inc . 197
questions covering everything from of driving and automotive terms and 16.17 Mt|;ii.S«rt l.iniiii-fl 200
20,21 MeuaSoft 1 !■ il
the colors of road signs to the effects is the perfect supplement to an ex 171
13 Micro Fabrication Systems 206
of alcohol on driving ability. cellent program. 44 MicroProse Simulation Software 151
When you select "execute a chap CBS Software, One Fawcett Place, 89 Mrcrm-aiions 198
65
ter" from the main menu, you are Greenwich. CT 06836 (phone: 203-
Midwest SoD ware 172
88 Ohio Computer Systems 173
given a choice of nine chapters to 622-2500). -Bob Guerra 81 Phoenix Arising 174
study. They are: 75 Professor Junes 175
24-2(1 Prolecto Enterprfzw
1. Control Skills. Handling and BUSINESS LETTERS 176
93 Quorum International, Unltd, 177
Maneuvering BCI Software 85 R.J. Bracliman Associates, Inc. 178
2. Signs. Markings and Regula Commodore 64 89 Roger Warner I'uliM shins, Inc. 179
tions 41 Sierra 143
Disk; $4.99 46 Solutions Unlimited Inc. 207
3. Seeing and Reacting Throw away your word processor! 42 S nil LOGIC Corporation 145
4. Cily and Town Driving Or at least keep it safely in its sleeve 43 SubLOGIC Corporation 149
5. Changing Lanes and Turning the next time you need to grind out
11 Texas Instruments Incorporated 204
88 Utrahjte 181)
6. Open Roads. Highways and the typical letters that comprise most 93 Unl-Kool 181
Country Driving of a small businesses outgoing mail. 94 Universal Marketing 182
82 Value-Suit Inc.
7. On the Expressway Over 50 types of business correspon l»3
10 VMC Software 184
8. Unfit to Drive dence can be prepared with Business 39 Wedgwood Rental 185
9. Higher-Risk Driving Letters, a stand-alone program with 8 Wclwjn Currah 201
74 West Coast Commodore Assoc 1H8
All chapters arc presented in an in a Illl-in-the-blank design so easy to 45 While House Computer 186
teractive question and answer format use that even the boss may be able 66 Xclec, Inc. IB7
and make excellent use of the C-64's to handle it. 38 Alioy.' Access Club
graphic capabilities. Chapter one. for Firsl you answer a series of 58,59 Ahoy.'IPlaySET Offer
63 AHoj! Disk
example, uses several pictures (o il prompts with your name, the com 64 Ahoy! Back Issues
lustrate the proper way to hold the
_

pany's name, address, phone number, 121 Ahoy! Subscription -

steering wheel while turning, how to and dale. (Get it right the first time, The publisher innnut assume responsibility
make two-point turns, and the various for you won't get a chance to edit this for errors in Hie above listing.

AHOY! 67
REVIEWS
data.) Next you'll be asked if you back to review it, so you won't know printer compatibility. With my TTX
want to include either or both option what to enter there until you've 1014 letter quality, the ? (which al
al insertions: an Attn: slot at the top printed at least one of these letters. ways precedes the program's prompt
of the body of the letter, and your job You can also personalize the con for information) was sometimes
title (which appears below your name tents of a letter by deleting or typing printed in my letter. And since there
at the end of" the letter). If you de over the existing text. Spaces may be is no way to insert escape codes, you
cide not to proceed, you may also inserted if you need to add more text, won't be able to underline or take ad
back out and return to the main menu but only up to the current length of vantage of your printer's particular
from this menu. a line. (In other words, you can't use features. I assume there will be no
Otherwise the main menu shows the "insert" key to push the last word such problem with dot matrix print
up and-offers nine general topics: let in a line down to the next line.) You ers, especially Commodore models—
ters of favour, inquiry, payment, sales, can'i save a letter that has been mod but you might want to be sure before
credit, complaint, collection, applica ified in this manner. When all the buying the program.
tion, and miscellaneous. Punch a blanks have been filled in, the pro And who would buy it? Anyone
number and, after brief disk access, gram tosses your information into the whose word processing time is de
a submenu lists the specific letters in dotted lines, displays the results, and voted to generating a variety of form
the chosen category. Most consist of asks if you need to change the text letters one at a lime. Certainly you
five or six forms that vary in purpose in any of the blanks. If you decide could sit down with a word proces
or tone. Collection letters, for in to do so, a list shows the contents of sor and create your own form letters,
stance, include 13 different versions each blank and lets you choose which placing blank lines in the appropri
of "pay up." There is collection letter you want to revise or replace. (But you ate spaces—but why bother when you
number one, then the one you'll send can't go back and display the entire let can get 50 letters ready to go for a
if ihe first is ignored, and three more ter to see your changes in context.) mere S5.00? (The letters are all se
-each a bit more insistent. (If you've If you have no more changes to quential files, too, which means they
ever bought anything on credit, this make, the program prints your letter, can be loaded with most word pro
will sound familiar.) Then there's a which rolls out of the printer as a cessors, edited to meet specific needs,
so-called humorous letter that says, standard modified block letter; your and then resaved for later use with
"Please send us the name of a law name and address are centered atop the word processor. However, this
yer in your town. We may have to sue the page, the date and closing (Yours eliminates the convenient fill-in-the-
you." And of course, the inevitable very truly) are set on the right side blank feature.)
"have you forgotten?" (about the mon of the page, and the name and ad BCI Software, P.O. BOX 730,
ey you owe us) letter. dress of the person to whom the letter Ringwood, NJ 07456 (phone: 201-
After choosing a letter from this is addressed is on the left. Text is sin 835-7300). -Shay Addams
menu, you wait a second while it gle-spaced, with a blank line between
paragraphs; each paragraph is in
PROGRAMS WANTED
loads. The letter is displayed, with
dented five spaces. (None of these Don't be fooled by the fact that Ahoy!
blank lines embedded in the text. The
settings are adjustable.) Margins are comes your way each month packed
first four blanks are for the name and
with the best games and utilities avail
address of the person you're writing. also preset, so you have to align the
able in any Commodore magazine. We
A prompt asks you to fill in the paper before printing.
just don't have the mile-high inventory
blanks, one by one, which is accom After the letter is printed, you can that you might imagine. But we're de
plished by typing the information at print the same letter with a new ad termined to continue bringing you the
the bottom of the screen. A payment dress, return to the main menu to se type of high quality programs you've
letter might read "I'm enclosing our lect a new letter, or quit the program. come to expect from Ahoy! To that end,
cheque for $-~e— for the ~f~." When The first option is handy when deal we've raised our rate of pay for accepted
prompted to fill in line e, you type ing with a small number of letters on programs, and we've added staff to
the same subject, but there is no way speed our response to jour submissions.
the correct number. The name of the
to insert names and addresses from There's never been a better time to sub
product goes in line f. Commas and
mit a program to Ahoy!
colons may be included in an entry a database and send out personalized
Send your program on disk or cassette
by beginning it with a quotation form letters in volume.
(preferably disk), accompanied by an in
mark: entries may be up to 80 char The program was apparently writ
troductory article, a printout, and a self-
acters long. ten in Canada or England, so Amer addressed envelope of sufficient size with
The only snag with this process is ican users will have to edit the Brit sufficient return postage affixed. (Sub
that when long letters are displayed ish spelling of words such as cheque missions not accompanied by such an
they automatically scroll down and and favour. You can't add notes about envelope will not be returned.)
cut off the top part of the text, so enclosures or copies sent to other Address submissions to Ahoy! Pro
sometimes you can't see part of the people at the bottom of a letter. And gram Submissioas Dept., Ion Interna
letter in which blank c is mentioned. the "documentation," all two para tional Inc., 45 West 34th Street-Suite
graphs, doesn't say a word about 407, New York, NY 10001.
It's impossible to scroll up or page

68 AHOY!
CRABFIGHT
For the C-64
By Buck Childress

We've all heard of the Gunfighi at the O.K. count down from three. If it reaches zero, you'll lose pos
Corral. Now there's the Crabfight in session of the clam and your opponent gets ten penalty
Commodore RAM. Two crabs, red and points. The clam is returned to trie center of the playing
purple, are pitted against each other in area and a new crab race takes place.
a duel to reach 200 points. Crabfight can be frozen in play by pressing RUN/
Crabfight is a machine language game that must be STOP. A message will appear reminding you that pressing
entered using Flankspeed (see page 98). After saving the N key will take you back to the opening menu for
Crabfight, reset or turn off/on your computer. Disk us a new game, while pressing the C key will continue the
ers must LOAD"CRABFIGHT,8,1 and tape users LOAD game in progress. The message also appears at the end
"CRABFIGHr.U. When the program has finished load of the game. At this time, pressing the C key will start
ing, "READY." will appear on the screen. At this point another game with the same levels and players as the pre
type NEW and hit RETURN. To begin execution of the vious game. Pressing the N key takes you back to the
program type SYS 49152 and hit RETURN. opening menu. □
Crabfight will prompt you for the level of play. One SEE PROGRAM LISTING ON PAGE US
is the fastest and three is the slowest. Next you select
one or two players. If two are playing, the game starts. HAVING TROUBLE REMEMBERING ALL THE
If not, you're asked to choose the computer difficulty, COMMANDS FOR YOUR PROGRAMS??
one being the hardest and three the easiest. Use joystick YOU NEED

port 2 when playing the computer. By the way, the com LEROY'S CHEATSHEET
puter crab is a very formidable opponent.
The game begins with a crab race. A clam is placed
in the center of the playing area. Five warning beeps will
sound, then the race is on. The first crab to reach the
clam takes possession of it. Each player must try to pro KEYBOARD OVERLAYS FOR
tect an octopus and at the same time attempt to elimi CDMMDDQRE B<4~
LEHOrS CHEflTSHEETS'arL'plBJIic
nate the opponent's octopus by shooting the clam at it. /fits oven keyboard

You start with two of them. When they or any others


for use wnn popular soll-vare. r*aia-
ONLY / PUTS PROGRAM COMMANDS
RIGHT 4T YOUR FINGERTIPS

arc lost, a new octopus will appear. %u receive 20 points Thesc CLl-OL]|.,0[/fseT nelp sneers til
ovo; Ihe keyboard pulling hard io / SAVFS TIME - ENDS FRUSTRATION
each time you hit an opposing octopus. You also get five rl!°IIL"llbQr£r;»(]rnrn rnrnrr".ird9 nnhlst
your NrgpitiDs The eclunl *o/31rake3 / oet to no* tour sosTimne amen

points whenever you hit the wall behind your opponent. are in bold fyEC nnd Bnv variable?
nre ghovpn in T^J/ca Now ypn car ui« /leahhnew software faster easiep
your aoriwaro fo^in' morp oaglly EACH
To move your crab, push the joystick in the direction and mor» pffeclnpl^ Wiin LEflOV 5 • sturov plastic laminate
CHEATSHEETS' you II new r-a.u 1o
/ unbeatable price11
you want it to go. You can take possession of the clam riunr for fl program commanrt agair-

by touching it with your crab. To shoot the clam, press CIRCLE YOUR CHOICES
Basic Simons Basil QTV
the fire button and push the joystick left to shoot left or Blanks (S6I oi 3 Sky Tiave!

right to shoot right. If you're the red crab, pressing the Consullanl
DUV1541 Supei&ase
fire button while pulling the joystick back will shoot the DOODl! Virllci
r .■[ ..', ■■: ■■_■ !■_

TOTAL S
i ■- -.-HOD
clam .straight. For the purple crab, press the fire button Easy Script VIP Tciminal
Flight Simulator II
and push the joystick forward. Whenever you press the Fieel Syslern 2 WordPro 3-
"r hnir* U

fire button your crab will turn blue. Press it only when For Ine Becmner WordPro 64 NAVI
Manage: Wnle Nowi'64
you intend to shoot the clam. Your crab will not move Epson FS S nxPrimi rS r.iv
with the fire button depressed and a quick opponent, ob Omni Writer Gemini 10. !5» *.TATI 'ip

Papnr Clip I525.MP6B0I


serving your blue crab, will score a lot of points. PrsctiCalc 64 1526. M PS 882
*HYI

CHEATSHEET PRODUCTS INC


Once you have the clam, you are given three seconds PractiCalell Dkldata 92.93 P.O Ho. 111108 Pan..PA 1SI38
DOZENS MORE AVAILABLE
(in crab time, of course) to get rid of it. A timer will (111)TSI-1551

AHOY! 69
SEyco Compute/t uAAa/tfeetlwg £ Consufemts
COMMODORE COMMODORE BATTERIES INCLUDED
"WE MAKE VOUR COMPUTER MPSI0O0 Prmier 259
C-128 NEW .CALL Paper Clip 59.95
FUN TO USE!" 1571 Drive CALL Spell Pak". 34.9S
C Consultanl 59.95
1572 Dnve CALL
C1750 512K RAM 2«9 Paper Clip
1902 Monitor CALL
JANE 36 w/Spell PoN 75.95
1670 Moaam CALL
Por!«l Wnler 4B Horpe Pa« 34.95
NO LABEL DISKETTES C-64 Computer CALL
Period Calc «» Bus Corfl 129 95
1541 Drive ....IBS Portoci F*w 49
NU SV SSDD ..1099(Bon 10 SO Column Board 109.95
MPSBOi Primer ..LOW
NL SWDSOD.,15.99 (Boi 10
1702 Monitor.. . ....199
1 Free DiskeHe Writer Pen' Simon's Basic .24.75
■Fros Slorage Case!
Assembler'64. .34.75 SPINNAKER (C-64ROM) EPYX
Cosmic Lite ROM 19.75 (C-64)
Super Eipand r 22 75
JuKeBoi 19.75 Fast Load !6.75
Logo £4 49 75
DUST COVERS Pilol 64 .3B.75
Alpnabet Zoo
AlF in Coloi Caves
17.75
19.75
Breakdance
Greatest Baseball
23 75
24.75
Easy Cale .34 75

4
Up foi Giabs 19.75 Summer Games 26.75
srasr Easy Serial.... .3B.75 Delia Drawing 19-75
1»XE Kids on Keys. 16.75
KB". KinOercomp 14.75
105C 693 FacemaVer 17.75 SUB LOGIC (C-64)
COMMODORE Fraction Fever 17.75 Flight Simulator II....32.75

4
Nidhi Mission Pmrjali 20 TS
Commodore SOFTWARE
SSI (C-64)
1903
699
1095 MICROPROSE (C-64) Colonial Conquest 24 75 CONTINENTAL
Wings ol War 24 75 |C*41
1702 699 Kennedy Approach . 21.75

4
Compuier Ambush... 34.75
C6*Vpc!0 699 Crusade in Europe .. .24 75 Home Accouniant 44.75
Decision in Daseri 24.75 Field ol Fire 24.75
Fighter Command 36.75
19B4 Tai Advaniage 35.75
Panasonic Solo Flight . 20.75 :mi C-W Book n\ Soirnsie .16.95
Kamnlgruope .36.75
8 9S Nafo Comma noer 20.75
IB 75 Mecn Brigade .36.75
aw Spirfire Ace Market Garden .29.75
1033 999 F-15 Slnke Eagle 20.75
Helical Ace IB.75 Si> Gun Sriootoul 24.75 OR & D
Slar Micronlcs Compuier Baseball... . 24.75
CopyO 27.95
Acroiet 21.75
SGSD10
Compuier Quarterback 24.75
B99 Silenl Service £1.75 Impunum Ga'aclum GPC Printer Interface. .65.00
5&SDIS
.24.75
9 99
Pniintasre 24.75
SRIO 999
SHI5
Cartels S Cuiihroais .. .24.75
999
50 Missipn Crush .. . . .24.75
CARDCO Quesiron .24.75 EASTERN HOUSE
OhldalD Digilr2er Camera 1B9 95 RaDbit C-64 19.95
B99 32K Printer Duller... . ...S3.95 RaEbil VIC-20 19.95
Sl'SO 9 99
Numeric Keypad, ...34.95
193 9 99 INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS MAE C-64 .... 27.95
CBI5 5-Blol Board(Gd) S4.00
Flip-n-Fila 10 3 50 Telsiar 64 ,,..19,95
CB(2 2- slot Board(6-i) 25 00
Flip-n-Filo 15 8.25 M L Monilor 64 .. .. IB 95
S'More Basic Rom.... 49 95
Flip-n-File 25 Lock 17.95
Write Now-64 35 00
Flip-n-File 50 17.25
PRINTING Mail Now-64
Spell Now-64
File Novi-64
29 00
29 00
29 00
Flip-n-Flle 50 Lock
Flin-n-File Horn
.. 22 95
17.25 KOALA
PAPER Paint Now-64
Calc Nov.-64 ...
29 00
29 00 KoainPad
(C-64)
5995
Tax Survival 29 00
3000 SHEETS
SCARBOROUGH (C-64)
Supor Pnnlor Utility .2 7 95
FANfOlD SIZ '5 Wrile Ndw-Vic-20 29 95 Build A Book . .24 75
Improved Masieriype 23.75

COMPUTER
1000 SHEETS NET WOHIH 4S.75
FtNfOLD 119 75
BROQERBUND Maslerups Filer... . 22.75
TOOO SHEET LETTER Ml 95 Tfie Pnnl Stiop 28 75 Boslon 64 Diel 27 75
200 SHEETS LETTEH 18 99 Graphics Library
BaDficsLbiaryll
CARE
150 RAG STATION ARY SI099 rary III
WAILING LABELS I'm j 1995 Kara1P<a TRONIX
Casllcs Dr Crccn SAM Alan. .. 38 50 NORTRONICS
Bank SI Writer SAM- C64 38 50
Lodcrirnner DISK DRIVE
Mask of me Sun
WICO Joysticks Spnlunker CLEANER
15-97M Dai Handle.. .16 75 Serpent's Slar PERSONAL PERIPHERALS with software
5O-J03O Boss 11 99 Wnistler's Brotficr Super Skelch64 32 75
50-2002 Sneer 3-Way ...19.99 Pd8l6 Pnnler Ulility 18.75 REG. 49.95 NOW 19.95

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TO OHDEH
AMERICA'S MAILORDER HEADQUARTERS CALL TOLL FREE
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HEAD TO HEAD
Two-Player Maze Action for the C-64
By Doug Smoak
y first computer was a VIC 20 and I en to play a number of rounds and have the score accumu
joyed playing and writing games for it. late from each round until the game is over. You can
But one shortcoming of" those games was choose to have a bonus (a large x) placed in the maze
, that they were usually one person that will be worth 500 points (50 dots) and you can re
against the computer. You could have multiple players, play a particular maze over and over by answering the
but they were just taking turns playing against the com MAZE NUMBER? prompt with the same number over
puter. This was primarily because ihc VIC has only one and over. If you just hit RETURN you will get a ran
joystick port. domly chosen maze.
When 1 got my C-64,1 was so happy with its iwo joy After the options have been chosen the computer will
stick ports that I decided to write a g;ime where two peo draw the two mazes on the screen and fill them with dots.
ple could compete "head to head." This game is the re When the mazes are finished a "tune" will start playing
sult of that effort. It is the competition side by side on and a 10-second countdown will begin before you can
the screen that makes this game so much fun to play. start. This countdown gives you a chance to plan your
The format of the game is not that unusual: a maze strategy and intimidate your opponent with verbal abuse.
filled with dots that you must guide your players through When the game is over the screen will show scores and
to gather points. The idea is to gather the dots before announce the winner.
your opponent can. Since you play in identical mazes While this may seem like a friendly and harmless lit
that are side by side on the screen, you don't really know- tle game, I will not be responsible for broken friendships,
where your opponent is until you see the dots in your marriages, or bones when you play Head to Head.
maze disappearing. The listing has some comments in it to help you in
The game has several options that may help to even debugging your program if you type it in and have prob
out two players of different ages or skills. You can choose lems. □ SEE PROGRAM LISTING ON PAGE U9

72 AHOY!
CMMCDCRIE RCCTCt

MEMORY MAGIC
amount of control over a 64. By simply switching cer
tain bits on and off in this pair of registers, you can ac
tually determine which portions of your computer's mem
By Mark Andrews ory will be used as RAM, and which blocks of memory
will be used as ROM. And, as we shall sec before this
The engineer whu designed the Commodore 64 column is finished, that's a tremendous amount of pow
accomplished quite a teat: they stuffed 88 kilo er for a computer programmer to have.
bytes of memory in a 64K machine. So, from a If you really wanted to, you could use memory regis
memory-management point of view, the C-64 ters $0000 and $0001 to swilch off every byte of ROM
is a rare breed of computer. Most 64K compulers have in your C-64. Then, if you had the necessary program
only 48K or so of addressable RAM, plus around 1GK ming skill, you could turn your computer into a totally
of ROM. for a total of 64K. But the C-64 has a full 64K customized machine, with a homemade operating sys
of user-addressable RAM. pius 24K of built-in ROM. tem and a set of input/output drivers of your own de
for a total of 88K of memory. sign. We're not going to get nearly thai ambitious, but
This 88K is controlled by a pair of memory locations we will be dealing with one pretty fancy trick that in
that occupy addresses $0000 and $0001 (that's just plain volves switching back and forth between RAM and ROM.
0 and I in decimal notation, if you're not familiar with In this month's edition of Commodore Roots, you'll learn
hexadecimal). With the help of these two memory reg how to copy your computer's built-in character set from
isters, a skilled programmer can wield a tremendous ROM into RAM. Then, next month, you'll learn how
to modify this new character set and turn it into a set
FIGURE 1 of custom-designed text or graphics characters.
A SIMPLIFIED MEMORY MAP OF THE
COMMODORE 64 (NOT TO SCALE) YOUR COMPUTER'S MEMORY MAP
SFFFF Before we start doing all this, let's take a look at a mem
OPERATING
ory map of the C-64. Figure 1 is a simplified map that
SYSTEM ROM
(THE COMMODORE KERNAL) illustrates your C-64's default memory configuration-
SDBFF what the computer's memory map looks like when the
power is first turned on.
COLOR MEMORY
Addresses $0000 through $00FF. The block of mem
SD80D
ory that extends from $0000 through SOOFF-often re
VIDEO, SOUND. AND
1/0 RAM AND ROM ferred lo as Page Zero-is so desirable that the design
SDOOO ers of the C-64 claimed most of it for Ihemselvcs. The
FREE RAM operating system, the BASIC interpreter, and other es
sential ingredients of your computer system take up most
SCOOQ of the available space on Page Zero. Consequently, there's
BASIC ROM very little room left on Page Zero for use in other kinds
$A0O0 of programs.
This shortage of space on Page Zero can create lough
problems for the assembly language programmer. It re
stricts the use of Page-Zero addressing, which can make
FREE RAM
programs run faster, and it also makes it difficult to use
indirect indexed addressing, which will not work at all
unless space on Page Zero is available. To write the best
possible assembly language programs, therefore, a pro
$0800 grammer just has to find at least a few free memory ad
VIDEO
MEMORY dresses on Page Zero. And, as you can sec by looking
$0400 at the following list, thai can be quite a chore.
OPERATING SYSTEM
RAM This column was adapted especially for Ahoy! from Mark
$0100 Andrews'book. Commodore 64/128 Assembly Language Pro
PAGE ZERO RAM-USED gramming, published in 1985 by Howard W. Sams & Co. Inc.,
BY OPERATING SYSTEM Indianapolis, IN, and primed with the permission of Sams.
$0000

AHOY! 73
USEABLE PAGE-ZERO ADDRESSES Addresses $0100 through $01FF (The Stack). Page
Oneofthe64'smemory-that is, the segment of memory
Memory Descriptions of that extends from $0100 through $01FF-is a special bank
Locations Registers' Functions of memory called the stack. This is the section that (he
SOO-SO1 Special 6510 processor I/O addresses C-64's 6510 microprocessor uses as a temporary storage
$02 Not used area during the processing of machine language programs.
S03-SFA Registers used by BASIC and the C-64 The stack is heavily used by the C-64 operating system,
operating system and is also available for use as a temporary storage area
SFB-SFE Bytes left free lor user-written programs by user-written programs. Before you can use Page One
$FF Used by BASIC interpreter safely, however, it is essential to have an understanding
of how the stack works in assembly language programs.
As you can see. there arc only four bytes on Page Zero Under ordinary conditions, the stack cannot be used at
-$FB, $FC, $FD, and $FE-that are always free for use all for permanent data storage. And, unless you have a
in user-written programs. But there are quite a few Zero- thorough understanding of stack operations, it's best to
Page addresses that can be used safely in certain situa stay completely away from Page One.
tions. For example, many of the addresses on Page Zero Addresses $0200 through $03FF. Most of the mem
are reserved for use by the Commodore 64 BASIC in ory space that extends from $0200 through S03FF is re
terpreter, and a number of other Page-Zero addresses are served for use by the Commodore 64 operating system.
used only by the floating-point arithmetic routines that However, there is one small block of memory in (his area
are built into the 64, So, in assembly language programs that is usually free for use in user-written programs. This
lhat are not called from BASIC and do not make use of free block, 88 bytes long, extends from memory address
BASIC'S floating-point routines, there are actually quite S0237 through memory address $02FF. This segment is
a few Page-Zero addresses that can be used. A complete memory is too short to do much programming in, but
list of these addresses can be found on the memory map it can be a useful spot for storing data tables.
Starting on page 310 of thfl Commodore 64 Programmer's Addresses $0400 through $07FF. When you turn on
Reference Guide. your Commodore 64, the segment of memory that ex
tends from $0400 through $07FF is the block (hat your
computer uses as a memory map-that is, for the stor
7GCA PRESENTS age of data which it uses to generate its screen display.
■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■- When the C-64 is in its high-resolution mode, however,
this area is not nearly large enough to hold the amount
THE of data that is needed fora screen map; it has only 1,000
bytes of storage space, while a high-resolution map re
COMMODORE quires 8,000 bytes. A high-resolution screen map can be
stored in almost any block of free RAM that's big enough,
SHOW and it's the programmer's responsibility to find one. Since
the $0400-$07FF block of memory is not large enough
FEBRUARY Sth & 9th to be used for high-resolution screen-mapping, it is gen
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CALL 800-227-4730 (or hotel reservations grams: specifically, to determine what colors will be used
in the C-64's high-resolution screen display.
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Addresses $0800 through $9FFF. The 38K block of
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■ SEE THE LATEST INNOVATIONS IN RAM, specifically set aside for use by user-written or
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commercial applications programs. When you write a
program-or buy one-this is the area of memory in
The only West Coast exhibition and conference which it will usually be stored.
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Commodore 128 PC and C-64 marketplace.
At first glance, this looks like quite a big hunk of mem
ory. Unfortunately, however, the closer you look at it,
REGISTRATION FEES: ONEDAYS10.00 TWO DAV $15.00 the smaller it gets. When you write an assembly language
program, your assembler, editor, and machine language
FOR MORE INFORMATION AND DETAILS CONTACT:
monitor usually consume a large portion of this section
WEST COAST COMMODORE of memory. And when you write a program that requires
ASSOCIATION, INC.
P.O.BOX 210638 the use of both assembly language and BASIC, you can
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA 94121 cramp your style even more, since you then have to take
(415)982-1040 BETWEEN 8AM-5PM PST 1 special precautions to keep your BASIC and machine lan
guage programs from running into each other. Some tips
Raider Sarvlcs No. 188 on how to separate the BASIC and machine language por-

74 AHOY!
lions of a program will be provided later in this series the direction of data flow to and from the Commodore
of columns. 64 datacassette recorder.
Addresses SAOOO through $BFFF. When you turn on Memory Location S0OO1 is the Commodore 64's input/
your 64, memory addresses SAOOO through SBFFF are output port, or control port. It is often labeled R6510 in
usually occupied by your computer's BASIC interpreter. C-64 assembly language programs. The chief function
If you don't need BASIC in a program, however, you can of the R65I0 register is to determine which blocks of
switch this block of memory from ROM to RAM, and memory will be used as RAM, and which as ROM, dur
can thus add 8K of user-accessible RAM to your com ing the operation of a program.
puter's memory. Details on how to do this will also be The R6510 register and the D6510 have eight bits each,
provided later in this column. but only the lower six bits in each register-that is, Bits
Addresses $C000 through $CFFF. In memory locations 0 through 5-arc significant. And there is a direct one-
SC000 through SCFFF, there is another 4K of RAM that's to-one correspondence between each of these bits in each
theoretically free for use in user-written programs. You register. The six significant bits of the R6510 register are
sometimes have to be careful with this block of memory, used to control the types of I/O data that flow to and from
though, since several popular C-64 assemblers - including the C-64. And each significant bit of the data direction
the Commodore 64 assembler, the Merlin 64, and the register controls the direction of the flow of this data.
Panther C-64—dW make use of it in one way or another. If If a bit of the D6510 register is set to 1. then data which
you know how to stay out of your assembler's way, however, flows through the corresponding bit of the R6510 regis
this is a useable segment of your computer's memory. ter is output data. If a bit of the D6510 register is cleared
Addresses $D000 through $D800. Memory registers to 0, then the data which Hows through the correspond
SD0O0 through SDFFF serve double-duty functions in ing bit of the R6510 is input data. On the facing page
the Commodore 64. With the help of some fairly sophis is a table listing the six significant bits of the D65I0 and
ticated bank-switching techniques, these addresses are R6510 registers, along with their functions.
used as both RAM and ROM by the C-64's operating
system. When they are used as RAM, their primary func THE MAGIC BIT
tion is to help conlrol input/output devices. When they The table on page 76 shows quite clearly what Bits 0,
are used as ROM, they hold the data which the C-64 1, 3,4, and 5 of the R6510 and D6510 registers do. But Bit
uses to print characters on its video monitor. The tech
niques used to switch this block of addresses back and Professional
forth between RAM and ROM will be explained below.
Addresses $D800 through $DBFF. When the Com handicapping systems
modore 64 is in its text mode, memory addresses SD800 PKi SI Nil 1) in I'KOI ISSOK IOM-S

through SDBFF arc used for the storage of color data:


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Mmedisi ih.',pc*eituiDi3gjanirt.iT,n^iL''.1 ••.-* jmJ iLui
is free for other uses. bu1 unalysn WIT a ' ingle heyiirok-
Reviewed by:
jMiWKir O"HOrhUir':'LJLJm]f SI99,95 c
Addresses $I)C00 through SFFFF. This block of Wholo Eorlrt
GLTO. Limited "Gold" " Software Guide
memory is occupied by the Commodore 64 Kernal, a ErtBUmProfeitJOrul Hapditappcr* 'Oiugn wn''< v*\**»TO 1
vvcfnnn *•"> *"* •"D'y-i''' c.-^vr p-og-sm h^qm bam rm a
Corona Data
Sy stems
collection of machine language input/output routines that ■ii.ii jndln'i' tunf it Ifll mauJnluni run pwceftaqe fh niir^jra-n is
in- ^=p <i* uu The user nppri* no programming eNpenenc
(Contains intogrdiuc BfliffO 5299-95 c
are extensively used by the C-64 operating system and
Prof. Jones
are also available for use by user-written programs. If GD. Gold Dog Analysis'' SU9.95
Sl9995 1940 W, Stale
you had a need !o, you could switch the C-64's Kernal Boise. ID 83702

ROM out of this area and use it as free RAM-but if MHH. Master Harness
you did that, you'd have to write your own operating sys Hnndicapper'"
flMEX
tem. A detailed explanation of the C-64 Kernal and how rKM m [** Uri rco Swek ana Canada lin»iie:i 5299 95

to use it can be found in Chapter 5 of the Commodore Professor Pix Football™


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ANOTHER LOOK AT $0000 AND $0001
As pointed out earlier, programs that switch back and
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5IJliMrCil corrpamon program ilnlionoD to UulflCl I
(208) 342-6939
forth between RAM and ROM often make use of memory
IERH5 F.M thjppLrtg
registers SOOOO and $0001. In literature about the Com PC-3 Portable Compjler (4k] . - all son-ore Wd UCO
■ --:.''' "■' ' S2J9.35 ilnt'ucsa ponasi* jon^pu*' 1 DrO5'a'^ I -a'C«a'e'S5 00 C O D (
modore 64, memory register $0000 is often referred to M-100 Portable (32k) *fcfwc< crThorougMt.M r
as the computer's data-direction register, or as Register Trailer ana Mono, iuiror

D6510. The D65I0 register, as its name implies, is used


to control the direction of the flow of data into and out FREE CATALOG!
of specified blocks of memory. It is also used to control Reader Service No. 175

AHOY! 75
sible, and 4K of character-generator ROM - belter known
THE R6510 AND D6510 REGISTERS
to mosi Commodore 64 users as the C-64 character set—
Setting ul is switched in. In memory management jargon, that kind
Nun if Pmrer-U l> Function of electronic hocus-pocus is called bank-switching. Here's
JDRAM 1 (Output) On: SAOOO-SBFFF is BASIC how it works:
ROM
The Commodore 64's screen graphics are produced by
OK: SAOOO-SBFFF is RAM
HIRAM 1 (Output) " On: SEOOO-SFffF is Kernal a sophisticated microprocessor culled a Video Interface
ROM Chip, or V1C-I1. To generate the characters thai it dis
Off: SEOOO-SFFFF is RAM plays on ihe C-64's screen, this chip uses a 4K character
»aren 1 (Output) On: SDOOO-SDFFF is I/O ROM
set thai is permanently stored in RAM addresses SDOOO
Oft: SDOOO-SDFFF if cnarac-
ter ROM through SDFFF. However, the VIC-II chip does not need
1 (Outpul) On: Write lo cassette line access to this character dala all the time;. Under ordin
Off: Read Irom cassette line
ary conditions, the VIC chip has to refer to its charac
0 (Input) On: Cassette switch pressefl
Off: Cassette switch not ter-generator data only 60 times each second, during a
pressed split-second screen blackout that is often referred to as
1 (Oulput) On: Cassette motor on a video refresh cycle. The rest of the time, the VIC chip
Off: Cassette motor off
is busy wilh other mailers, and does not require access
2 -the CHAREN bit-is worthy of special note. It's the to its character data. Most of the lime, therefore, the Com
"magic bit" in the D65K) and R6510 registers; it deter modore 64 keeps the character ROM on the SDOOO-
mines whether memory addresses SDOOO through SDFFF SDFFF block of memory bank-switched out. and keeps
will be used as RAM registers by the C-64's operating a 4K block of RAM bank-switched in. Only during the
system, or as character-generator ROM. When Bit 2 of video refresh cycle does the $D000-$DFFF memory
the R65I0 register is set, the DO0O-SDFFF block of mem block become character-generator ROM. This switch
ory is used as RAM, primarily by the portion of the op ing process takes place so rapidly, and so transparently,
erating system that controls the operation of I/O devic that it is hardly ever noticeable to the average Commo
es. When the CHAREN bit is clear, all RAM stored in dore user-or lo Ihe average Commodore programmer.
the SDOOO-SDFFF area becomes temporarily inacccs- As far as mosi programmers are concerned, the mem
ory that extends from SDOOO lo SDFFF is nothing but
WE WON'T PAY YOUR INCOME TAXES! RAM. But actually, as we have seen, it is a double-pur
pose block of memory that is sometimes RAM and some
!!,,i 1*1 MASTER will neip you comtilele mem mois QUICKLY jrO EASILY Be mo rJailc o! your
lair* *Mh TAK MASTER, no* a,ailsbiMur your 19B5 federal Income Taie* lor Ihe Commodore &4 times ROM.
j- 3 Cq"""O0gic 1?fl *■!"■ 1 ";'i- 'i- ' or dull TM* CT -'■ md fill ora pn-ler Look 31 Irieit
lUtVftl This bank-switching technique is an ingenious meth
• FOBMS 'WO 1S6J ira ScBMuIn CALCULATES |Uur IJHi n a flEFUNO
« B C.D E ana F INCLUDES ir.e 131 Holes
od tor expanding the nominal memory of a computer.
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• E»SY CHANGE 01 in) tnliy. wiin EASY
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PHINTS iB as a Irom Each lorm
However, il can occasionally cause problems. Sometimes
RECALCULATION oi Hllse lorm discount coupon [o*ara&:ni? pLrcrias
a programmer would like to have access to the C-64's
• TB*NSfER5-..r»rstiel*een(arms olneit *eaisupaa!M program
■ PUHCHA5E PHICE IS TA1 OEDUCIIBLE built-in character set for a longer period of time than the
Til MASTED. .FoiCHCIII {DISK ONLt| t
brief video refresh cycle provides. For example, some
TIRED OF COMPUTER LOCKUP? USEH PORT EXTENDERS
times a programmer might want lo copy the computer's
HF5ET MASTER rnsnu yuuf compiler c.en Pui yffdi VOOEM wnyre your Moiiie is1
wTit^inp ke,D^iiia Ijc-s «t just p ug it mio MODEM M*STEH -m J luul nipnDc'OT ino character set from ROM into RAM, so that il can be
inc serial pur: No^'dpr.rg RESET MASTER uw 'UODEM* fjtjn Keep yo<-.i MODEU oui
p'Q*i3« ? se'-H ports and a ?-i3H ienai wrie-e yOu car- lee it. and: *n?re it won I qe\ modified and then used in a user-written program. And
clan von includes RENEW p<ograTis lo reito'e craned agamn ine wait* Uk voyf '^
/our BASIC program AutoMoOsm AilhiheSX fi4l
this is a situation in which Bit 2 of the R6510 chip can
iNor Tor Commodore l?flf
MODEM MASTER $24.95 come in quite handy. To prevent the C-64's character data
RESET MASTER C&<-VIC 20 . . 12* 95
UOOf M MASTER PLUS n« rnP sampreaitirei
from being bank-su'itched out while it is being copied,
TOO MANYSVNTAX ERRORS? is UODEH MASTER, piu^ilcoiHain^irie same
all a programmer has to do is turn off the CHAREN bit
resel lunciisn and program) at RESET
HELP WASTER 64 pTSVlflM IfBlinl Online
Help screens lor all 65 BASIC commanui. wnon
MASTER. |Nqi rormeCDrfmodqre US) while the date-duplication process is taking place, and
you noed iNem T.iki". rm BASIC HAM Nn MODEM MASTER PLUS
mter(e'ence ftitn loading saving ed.iinrj or
then turn it on again. While the CHAREN bit is off. the
running BASIC program* "elp infoririaiiori tai CAN YOU USE TWO PRINTERS? character-generator ROMI in the SDOOO-SDFFF block
remain Qfi-stfeen whjie you prtgf*m or a
is a friool V caDKloiiriee plrDIN
ungfchey^Erahecdn remove it Campai.Q'c *m
5t^ial pen deriding 1 mafepiug and 2 female
of memory can be copied into RAM. Then, when the
DOS WEDGE includes a 36fl ^age BASIC
reference manual Be Sure Id speci'r1 di$k o>
lacks use 2 serial pfinters .rjiMerentde*ice
ninnOfirsl al Ltii? ^arrie iirrc or rjuE disk drive ard
copying operation is finished, ihe CHAREN bit can be
lipe
primer rjn dilferent ^Jde^ of your com pule r
turned back on.
HELP MASTER 64 I24.H
1-NOTJ 11000
The listing on page 104. called MOVECHRS. is an
OTHER PRODUCTS FROM MASTER SOFTWARE
assembly language program thai turns the CHAREN bit
* SOcQiumnrnorocirQmpcabeTsr Cl?S To'nar-HGB moniro' . - . . . - . - . . - I 9 M
* Su'ge Prelector 6 Duller po*er slnp imtcr. breaker UL 121. M off, copies the C-64 character set from ROM into RAM,
* D'S'Nokher- purches arjuarenaie use bolh Sides oi fli^ 1 BM
and then dims the CHAREN bit on again. In next month's
Send check or monty older lo:
column, we'll sec how this duplicate character set can
MASTER SOFTWARE All prurl In JS Dollbrt Surttc*

G Hillery Cl, Randallslown. MD be combined with high-resolution graphics and incor


21133 (3O1|9Z2-296Z
porated into some user-written programs. □
Render Service No. 170 SEE PROGRAM LISTING ON PAGE 104

76 AHOY!
c WDIET'S <
Building Up to Structured Programming By Cheryl Peterson
A few monlhs ago, f talked about program 130 PRINT"USING MY MICROWAVE'S AUTOMATIC
ming and presented a mortgage program TIMER AND PRE-PROGRAMMED"
that was thrown together in a rather slip 131 PRINT"COOKING CYCLES BOTHERS ME"
shod manner. The point was to show that 132 PRINT"1) NONE"
a program doesn't have to be a work of art to work. To 133 PRINT"2) A LITTLE"
day, we'll examine two different versions of the same pro 134 PRINT"3) SOME"
gram, Compuphobia. The first version is an unstructured 135 INPUT"4) VERY MUCH";A
but functional quiz program. The second version is the
perfected and organized version. (Well, since perfection Now that we have the answer to the first question (line
is relative, it's relatively perfected.) You'll probably no 135). we need to evaluate the answer and quantify it. We
tice right away that the second is shorter. This is one ob could assign a different variable to each question and then
jective of structured programming: to make prudent use figure it all out at the end, but I wanted to keep vari
of computer memory by shortening a program. We'll take ables to a minimum. So each answer is assigned to A,
a close look at how this is possible. evaluated, and then added to the total score T.
Another reason for structuring is to make the result
136 IF A=1THENT=O
ing program easier to modify for alternative purposes.
137 IF A=2THENT=1
We'll touch on that a bit, too.
138 IF A-3THENT=2
The third point of our exercise is to have a little fun.
139 IF A=4THENT=3
Our program supposedly measures an individual's level
of compuphobia. After you've typed it in, you can try Using the IF/THEN statements, let us compare the an
it on your "phobic phriends." swer to a particular value and then reassign a value to
But First, let's pretend that you're going to design a pro the score. In subsequent answer evaluations, we take the
gram that asks a series of questions and analyzes the an new value and add it to the total we're accumulating.
swers to come up with a pseudo-scientific result. We want When the test is complete, we'll have a total that reflects
to devise questions whose answers give some indication all the choices made.
of how well a person will interact with a computer. So Since we need to be sure there's no cheating, we make
the first step is to create a multiple choice test, similar sure the answer is between 1 and 4. A PRINT statement
to the ones given by schools. Then you must come up is used to help illuminate the problem when an incor
with a way to analyze the answers and give an evaluation rect number is used.
of the total.
148 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 230
I devised a ten-question quiz with one bonus question.
Using a rating system that weighs answers on a 0-3 scale,
149 PRINT"TRY USING A NUMBER, 1-4":GOTO
130
I came up with possible scores between 0 and 30. Since
I think most people's reactions to computers fall into one Actually, while this appears to be the correct way to go
of four categories, my test gives four classifications de about doing it, it isn't. This is just a ruse to show you an
pending on the quiz results. example of sloppy programming. While it checks for the
Throughout the remainder of this column we'll be refer right range, it doesn't evaluate for whole numbers. This
ring to the two program listings found under the heading means that in this version decimal values will be accepted:
Compuphobia - Slipshod Version (page 100) and Struc 2.195 or 4.9, for instance. An alternative would be
tured Version (page 101).
148 IF A=l OR A=2 OR A=3 OR A=4 THEN GOT
PROGRAMMING 0 230
Once you've got the questions, the fun starts. Program These sequences arc repeated until all the questions
ming! PRINT statements arc used to display the ques have been answered, except the last. Note the subtle
tions on the screen. To read the answers, we need to ac changes in the values in lines 136-139, 236-239, and 336-
cept input from the keyboard. There arc two ways to do 339. These change since the reverse order of evaluation
this: GET or INPUT statements. I chose to use INPUT is needed for some of the questions.
because it waits for a carriage return before accepting The bonus question requires a different method of eval
input. This allows the person taking the test to change uation, because it is the only one that subtracts from the
his mind. A short bit about GET statements later when accumulated total.
we examine the structured version of the program. For The remainder of the program compares the total score
now, let's look at the messy one. With a base figure and then prints the appropriate evaluation.

AHOY! 77
THE STRUCTURED VERSION swers and determined how the final evaluation went, so
The structured version is organized differently. The or don't put too much weight on your test results. What the
ganization is still fairly loose, but repeating sections have program does do, though, is "illustrate how you can cre
been moved to subroutines at the end of the program. ate quizzes for your family and friends.
In BASIC, these arc called "subroutines." In truly struc It is much easier to modify a structured program than
tured programming, they are usually called "procedures." a slipshod program. Here's a challenge. Choose a group
If you look in the early portions of the program you'll of questions that have only one correct answer and three
see a lot of GOSUBs. These route the program execu invalid ones. Write the PRINT and INPUT statements
tion to the line specified.- The program will continue along for your questions. That's the easy part! Now, rewrite
until it "sees" a RETURN, at which point it will go back the subroutine at 10100 to lock out the incorrect answers
to the line following the GOSUB command. and only give points for a correct answer.
Line 31 of the structured version of the program uses Can you imagine how difficult it would be to go through
a GET statement to hold the display until a character is and modify the evaluation sections for each question in
entered. Each GET statement can be used to take as many the unstructured version? You'd be at it for hours. With
as 10 characters from the keyboard and assign them to the structured version it can be done easily.
variables. For instance, to get the first five characters you
would use a statement similar to "GET AS, B$, C$, D$, SIMPLE AND NOT SO SIMPLE
E$." The "$" following each letter variable means to treat The easiest way to redesign the structured program
the variable as a character value, rather than a numeric would be just to reassign the "T=T+?" values to 0 for
or integer value. the noncorrect answers and 1 for the correct answer.
In line 31,1 was only interested in using the first char However, this would require six lines for each possible
acter, so I only assigned one variable. By comparing it answer. Since each question has a possibility of four cor
with nothing (IF Z$="") and repeating that line until an rect answers, we'd need four subroutines to cover all pos
other character is received, the copyright notice stays on sible answers. After all, in a multiple choice test we don't
the screen until a character is pressed. want all the answers to be the same, right? This would
The next line clears the screen, giving a clean slate mean 24 lines to cover all possibilities and one GOSUB
for the first question to appear on. The sloppy version per question to send execution to the subroutine that has
of the program doesn't have the "clear" statements to keep the correct answer. Can you think of a way to do me same
everything pretty. The way the sloppy version is writ thing, but use fewer lines?
ten, there would have to be a dozen of these statements
to make the program look as nice as the structured ver 20100 IF A%=1 THEN T=T+1
sion. The structured version takes care of this using four 20110 PRINT" [CLR]'1
lines-100, 5005, 10140, and 10240. 20120 RETURN
As you can see, the first two printed questions are fol 20200 IF A%=2 THEN T=T+1
lowed by a GOSUB 10001. This prints the answer op 20210 PRINT"[CLR]"
tions and grabs the answer. Because we use the variable 20220 RETURN
A%, the answer must be an integer value to be valid. 20300 IF A%=3 THEN T-T+l
(We could be fancy and include a trap to evaluate the 20310 PRINT"[CLR]"
answer and request an integer value only, but that would 20320 RETURN
complicate matters too much.) 20400 IF A%=4 THEN T=T+1
GOSUB 5000 analyzes the answer to make certain that 20410 PRINT"[CLR]"
it falls between one and four, and if not clears the screen 20420 RETURN
and prints the invitation to pick an appropriate answer.
Execution returns to the last question section, where the If 1 is the correct answer use GOSUB 20100. 2 =
next line again evaluates whether the answer was valid. 20200, 3=20300, 4=20400.
If the answer is invalid, the question is repeated on the Half as many lines! Not bad, huh? Actually, I showed
newly cleared screen, right below the request for a valid you the difficult way first. I hope this gives you some
answer. If the answer was okay, a GOSUB sends the pro ideas for projects of your own. If any of you would like
gram off to evaluate the latest answer and add it to the total. to share some of your projects with me. I'd be delighted
The subroutine at 10050 handles the answers for ques to take a look at them. I'm available on Viewtron (user
tions four and five. Since all the rest of the questions ID 266399CCP) or through letters forwarded to me by
have different answers, each is followed directly by its the Ahoy! staff. I occasionally stop in at Ahoy'.'s Port of
options. The results section of the structured program Call on PlayNET as well.
is no different from the sloppy version. Unless something more pressing comes up, I will be
examining some copy products next month. If there's any
TEST RESULTS thing in particular you'd like to see in my column, let
Of course, this lest has not been scientifically veri me know. I'm always open to suggestions. □
fied or researched. 1 invented all the questions and an- SEE PROGRAM LISTINGS ON PAGE 100

78 AHOY!
OMMOPARIEC
I iVl
PROGRAMING CHALUENGIES
By Dale Rupert
ach month, we'll present several challenges de two) of the vowels a, e, i. o, or u. "Good dare" are two
signed to stimulate your synapses and toggle the such combinations.
bils in your cerebral random access memory.
We invite you to send your solutions to:

Commodores, c/o Ahoy! PROBLEM #26-4: SPELLED NUMBER


P.O. Box 723 Is there any number equal in value to the sum of the
Bethel, CT 06801 letters of its name, assuming that A = l. B=2, and so

We will print and discuss the cleverest, simplest, short forth? For example, "one" equals "15 + 14 + 5" or 34,

est, most interesting and/or most unusual solutions. Be but obviously "1" does not equal "34." This one shouldn't
sure to identify the name and number of the problems be too difficult if you refer to the solutions to Problem
you are solving. Also show sample runs If possible, where #20-2: Numeral Converter, discussed in the December
1985 column.
appropriate. Be sure to tell what makes your solutions
unique or interesting, if they are.
Programs on disketie are welcome, but they must be We have some interesting and useful solutions to the
accompanied by listings. You must enclose a stamped, October 1985 Commodores, including what just might
self-addressed envelope if you want any of your materials be the world's longest listable BASIC program line. We
returned. Solutions received by the middle of the month promised in October that we would list Jim Spcers' (Nilcs,
shown on the magazine cover are most likely to be dis MI) solution to his Problem #22-1: Making Change, so
cussed, but you may send solutions and comments any here it is.
time. Your original programming problems, suggestions,
and ideas are equally welcome. The best ones will be 1 RKM COHMODARE #22-1 :
come Commodares\ 2 REM MAKING CHANGE
3 REM SOLUTION BY JIM SPEERS
4 REM
PROBLEM #36-11 APPLES ANYONE? 100 INPUTENTER AMOUNT: $";T:T%=T*100+.5
Ted Grondski (Springfield, MA) sent a selection of :IFT%>1000THEN10rj
problems he has proposed to his user's group. Here's a 110 INPUT"ENTER # OF COINS:";C%:X%=T%-C%
good problem in logical deduction. Ted suggests you :IFX%<0TIO160
might need access to an Apple computer to solve it. but 120 Y%=X%/4:D%=X%-4#Y%:Y%=Y%-2*D%:IFY%<0
I'll get the Commodore computers will do as well. THEN160
Eight teenagers divided 32 apples as follows: Ann got 130 Q%=Y%/6:N%=Y%-6*Q%:P%aC%-Q%-D%-N%:IF
one, Beth took two, Kate three, and Dot four. Ed Smith PK0THBH160
took as many as his sister, Fred Brown twice as many 140 Z%=Q%:Z$="QUARTER":G0SUB170:Z%=D%:Z$
as his sister, George Black three times as many as his, ="DIME":GOSUB170
and Jack Robinson four times as many as his sister. What 150 Z%=N%:Z$="NICKEL":GOSUB170:Z%=P%:Z$=
arc the lull names of the girls? "PENNY":G0SUB170:END
160 PRINT"NO SOLUTION POSSIBLE":END
170 PRItJTZ%;Z$;:IFZ$="PENNY"ANDZ%<>lTHEN
PROBLEM #26-2: WHAT'S YOUR SINE? PRINT"+IES":RETURN
John Prager (Bay City, MI) sent a collection of mathe 180 IFZ%O1THENPRINT"S": RETURN
matical problems. This one requests an angle in radi 190 PRINT:RETURN
ans, and the computer responds with the sine of that an
The problem was to find a combination of a specified
gle. One catch, of course. Your program must not use
number of quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies which
any trigonometric or logarithmic functions.
added up to a specified amount of money. We arbitrar
ily limited the money amount to $10.00. Jim did some
algebra before writing his program. If you are interested
PROBLEM #26-3: DUAL VOWELS in his solutions to the set of simultaneous equations, send
Write the shortest program which prints every possible me a stamped, self-addressed envelope with your request
combination of four letters containing any two (and only clearly stated.

AHOY! 79
The solution from B. A. Zidovec (Kitchener, ONT) 60 ON CT GOSUB 100,200,300
lets the computer step through all possible combinations 70 IF CT<3 THEN 50
of coins, looking for the right ones. Eventually all solu 80 END
tions are found, but eventually can be a long time. Per 99 Rffli trm^^w nr.nr ■ ■ ■■ ■
haps you can modify this program so that the current 100 FOR N=l TO 10:XA=XA+A(N):YA-YA*A(N)
values of coins are displayed as an indication that the 110 XB=XB+B(N) : YB=YB*B(N) : NEXT
computer really is thinking. 120 IF XA=XB AND YA=YB THEN PRINT : PRIN
T"MATCH" : RETURN
1 REM COMMODARE #22-1 : 130 PRINT"NOT A MATCH" : RETURN
2 REM MAKING CHANGE 199 RRH- -wn-m ■
3 REM SOLUTION BY B. ZIDOVEC 200 FOR C=l TO 10;FOR D=C TO 10:IFA(C)<>
4 REM B(D) THEN 220
10 INPUT'AMOUNT $";A:A=A*100:INPUT"# OF 210 H=B(C):B(C)=B(D):B(D)=H:GOTO 240
COINS";C:PRINT:PRINT" Q D N P":PRINT 220 NEXT D
20 FORQ=OTOA/25:FORD=OTOA/10:FORN=OTOA/5 230 PRINT"THE TWO SETS ARE NOT THE SAME"
: FORP=0TOA: IFQ+D+N+POCTHEN40 :RETURN
30 IF 25*QflO*Qf5*N+P=A THEN PRINTQ;D;N; 240 NEXT C
P:F=1 250 PRI\'T"THE TWO SETS CONTAIN THE SAME
40 NEXT P,N,D,Q:IF F-0 THEN PRINT"NO SOL NUMBERS":RETURN
UTION" 299 REM====——--===0=.==:=========:=:=====
300 FOR 1=1 TO 10:F0RJ=10 TO 1+1 STEP-1
Paul T. Dawson (Waitsfield, VT) sent a very compact and
310 IF A(J)>A(J-1)THENC=A(J-1):A(J-1)=A(
speedy solution which prints all possible coin combinations.
J):A(J)=C
100 REM PROBLEM #22-1 : MAKING CHANGE 320 IF B(J)>B(J-1)THEND=B(J-1):B(J-1)=B(
110 : J):B(J)=D
120 REM PAUL T. DAWSON 330 NEXT J

130 : 340 IFA(I)OB(I)THEN PRINT"NrOT EQUAL":RE


TURN'
140 INPUT "AMOUNT OF MONEY (CENTS)";X
150 INPUT "NUMBER OF COINS";? 350 NEXT I : PRINT"EQUAL":RETURN
160 FOR Q = INT((X-Y)/24) TO 0 STEP -1
170 FOR D = 0 TO 100 The problem was to compare two sets of ten numbers
in DATA statements to determine if the sets contained
180 N = (X-Y-(24*Q)-(9*D))/4
the same numbers or not. Norm Green (Perth, ONT)
190 P = Y - (Q+D+N)
took an interesting approach. He calculated the sums and
200 IF Q>=0 AND N>=0 AND P>=0 AND N=INT(
products of the two sets of numbers and compared those
N) THEN PRINT "Q"Q"D"D"N"N"P"P
results. His program, as submitted, performed the cal
210 IF N > 0 THEN NEXT D
culations as the values were being read without having
220 NEXT Q : PRINT "FINISHED"
to store them in numeric arrays. Unfortunately, John's
230 P » Y - (Q+D+N)
solution will not work if either list contains one partic
Pauls program tells you when it is finished. The amount ular number. Can you figure out what it is? (It is really
of money must be entered in cents, although you may nothing at all.)
easily modify that if desired. It is also' possible (but not likely) that two differing
Problem 822-2: Simple Comparison brought several sets of numbers might have the same sum and product,
types of solutions. Three representative approaches have isn't it? (There's another challenge for you mathemati
been combined into the following program. cally oriented readers.) If the lists do not contain zero,
and if they contain small enough numbers so that an ac
1 REM COMMODARE #22-2 : curate product can be determined, John's method is a
2 REM SIMPLE COMPARISON quick and efficient approach.
3 REM SOLUTIONS BY Jim Speers also checked the sums of the numbers, but
A REM NORM GREEN (LINES 100-130) simply as a preliminary checksum. If their sums differ. Jim
5 REM FRANK SMITH (LINES 200-250) knows right away that the sets don't match. If their sums
6 REM & DENNIS FURMAN (LINES 300-350) agree, then Jim's program performed a sort and comparison.
7 REM Frank T. Smith {Wilmington, DE), in part two of the
10 DATA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 program above, took each number in the first set and
20 DATA 10,9,8,7,6,5,4,3,2,2 looked for a match in the second set. If a match is found,
30 FOR N=l TO 10 : READ A(N) : NEXT his program switches numbers in the second set to pro
40 FOR N=l TO 10 : READ B(N) : NEXT tect the matched numbers from any further comparisons.
50 CT=CT+1 Several readers overlooked the important point of elimi-

80 AHOY!
nating any matched values from further checking. For 5 B=3 : F=B+1
example, the sets 1,1,2 and 1,2,2 will match unless the 10 INPUT"DECIMAL";D
used values arc somehow "crossed out." James Borden 20 C=INT(D/B):E=INT(F*(D/B-C)):A$=RIGHT$
(Carlisle, PA) replaced the matched values with IE38. (STR$(E),1)+A$:IF C THEN I)=C:GOTO 20
Paul Dawson converted the numbers to strings and re 30 FKINT"BASE"B": "A$
placed matches with the null string "".
One other approach is exemplified by the third part As David pointed out, this program is easily modified
of the program above from Dennis Furman (Edwards, to convert numbers from base ten to any base from two
CA). Dennis' program sorts the two sets of numbers from through nine. Simply change the value of B in line 5.
high to low. It compares values after each pass through It is also possible to convert to bases from 11 to 99 by
the bubble sort, and it exits when the first inequality ks changing the "1" in line 20 to "2". If B is 16. the conver
reached or when the ten numbers are equal. You can com sion will give a hexadecimal value. Digits greater than
pare the speeds of the three programs for yourself by add 9 will be displayed as two digit numbers rather than as
ing timing statements such as these: the letters A through F, but the results arc easy to interpret.
Congratulations and thanks to the following readers
45 TI$="000000" who have not been mentioned earlier for their solutions
65 PRINT TI-TM "JIFFIES FOR PART" CT : T to Commodores: George Churinsky (Denver, CO), Eric
M=TI Biberhofer (Dundas, ONT). Wallace Leekcr (Lemay.
MO), Paul D. Hanus (Akron, OH), Joseph T. Sacco
Other readers had solutions similar to the examples listed
(North Bergen, NJ), Tom Hall (Madison Heights, MI),
above.
Thomsen Fung (San Diego, CA). Charles Grady (Cleve
Problem §22-3: Measured Decimals brought quite a
land, TN), Peter Troy (Casco. ME). Maurice Tift (Al
few solutions. The program from Matt Shapiro (Fort Lee.
bany. GA). Richard B. Snyder (Chelmsford. MA), John
NJ) listed below is representative of many of the responses:
Fraleigh (Wappingcrs, NY), and Lome R Korc/iik (Ham
1 REM CQMMODARE #22-3 : ilton. ONT).
2 REM MEASURED DECIMALS We all know that the longest program line that can be
3 REM SOLUTION BY MATT SHAPIRO typed is 80 characters. Since BASIC tokenizes keywords
4 REM
10 INPUT"H0W MANY INCHES (DF-CIMAL)";D "COLOR"
20 W=INT(D):N=INT(64*(D-W)+.5):D=64:IF N
>PAPER & RIBBONS!
=64 THEN PRINT W+l : END
SPECIALS' C-iaQ..S271 1571 0R1UE..S2H5
30 N2=N/2:IF N2«INT(N2) THEN N=N2:D=D/2: *C-iaO Padrone - tComflijlinr B Drlva] . . , S5J, t *
GOTO 30 PRINTERS- STAR SG10..SB15 5G10C..S325

40 PRINT W;"AND";STR$(N);"/";MIDS(STRS(D Pre^lun COLOR Pacer- Pin-FBad Form, micro-porf.

),2):END edges,
100
[latching
SHEETS.. .S9.9S
envelopes. • RED , GOLD , BLUE
350.. .SIB.35 500.. .137.95
*

50 ENUEL0PE5-S3.35 100...S7.S5 350...114.35


The user enters a number of inches in decimal form, and Papnr E Enu. Sample Pak- SIB.39 CaBO Pea.)
•••Pastel Papor-PINK,GREEN,BLUE.GOLD,CANARY""
the program responds with a whole number and a frac Rolntjow 400-S13.9S P6E Sample Pnk-£13.9S
tional number of inches rounded to the nearest sixty- 500 SHEETS..17.95 1000..133.SS MIX OR ONE

fourth of an inch. Line 20 of Mali's program converts COLOR Ribbons Far Printers. CBlBck II Loaa]
the decimal fraction to a proper fraction. Line 30 reduces -RED »BLUE "GREEN "BROWN 'PURPLE "YELLOW
Epson B0ps-55.99 C-ltoh B51C,NEC Q053-E7.29
the fraction to its lowest terms by repeatedly dividing the 5G-10, Okidata nicroline 83/93/32/33-53.85
numerator by two, since two is the only prime factor of 1SSS, MPS 8O1-S11.9S • Many MORE! CALL -

the 64 in the denominator. Notice how Matt eliminated Print YDur O^jn Ne^saaDEir' THE NEWSRDGn-t3g .95
the leading anil trailing spaces normally associated with PRINT 5H0P-ie5.9S PS LIBRARY 1,a,or 3-S1S.99
SUPERBASE-I5e UIZASTAR XL9-I77.33
printed numerical values. The secret is to convert the ALTER EG0-S51 SLOT CAP. C0NS-S51 HnCKER-S?!
VJEB OlnENSION-IBl HA5TER OF THE LAI1PS-S21
numbers to strings first as he did in line 40.
n]NDSHftDOU)-Sei COnPLETE FIREWORKS KIT-IE3
Several readers sent general base conversion programs LITTLE COMPUTER PEOPLE RESEARCH PR0JECT-SB3
Better than PS NEU' PRII^Trifl5rES Fcr 54/159-
in response to Problem #22-4: Tertian- Turnabout. The
Chanass Fcnt Earn LlnG. riirror 1 na -95
problem was simply to convert a base-ten number into HALLEY PR0JECT-I36 WINTER GAtiES-lEB
ULTIMA 3-S3Q.95 NEUH ULTIMA 4 -S3B.3S
its ternary (base-three) equivalent. The solution below ACRO JET-S33 STAR TREK-SBE UO0ULE-SBS.37
from David Hoffncr (Brooklyn. NY) is about the most
"COLOR11 D1SKS-H5/DD BULK-c?O- ,09 1QO- .73
compact one we received.
THE CREBT1UE SOURCE PO BOX 1537
TOMS RIUER, NJ OB7S4
1 REM COMMODARE #22-4 : B00-235-EB'tS Ext.739, in CA B00-535-6547 X-7
2 REM TERNARY TURNABOUT Information and Qthgr Prices- £01-343-6^55
Add 4^ Shipping- tlin. S3.00. CDD add S3.00
3 REM SOLUTION BY DAVID HOFFNER NJ Residents odd B*i. FREE CATALOG
4 RFM
f Strvici No. 1M

AHOY! 81
and provides shorthand entry of keywords, it is possible
5 REM THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS MUST
to create program lines which, when LISTed, are much 6 REM BE ENTERED IN DIRECT MODE!!
longer than 80 characters. Their only disadvantage (be 7 REM
sides unreadability) is that they can't be edited. Jim Speers 10 REM F0KE46.10 : CLR <RETURN>
suggested typing a line number followed by as many "?:"
as possible. When such a line is listed, of course, you
20 REM POKE2050,9:POKE2051,0:POKE2052,0
<RETURN>
get a few dozen PRINT statements, separated by colons.
In fact, such a line expands to a grand total of 241 char 30 REM F0RI=2053TO2302:P0KEI,140:NEXT:PO
acters, including the line number. KE2303,0:POKE2304,0:POKE2305,0<RETURN>
But you haven't seen anything yet. Donald H. Graham
(Baltimore, MD) suggested ignoring the colons and sim The result of your effort is a LISTable BASIC line con
ply lyping 79 question marks after the line number. When taining 1752 characters. Donald agrees it is not worth
you list this line, you will see a syntactically error-rid much to BASIC, but perhaps you can figure out a use
den string which totals 397 characters. Taking us even for such a line. Donald says that he wil! be glad to ex
further is the suggestion from Lome P. Korczak (Ham plain what's going on here if you write to him at 125
ilton, ONT) to type a line number followed by REM and Cedar Hill Road, Baltimore, MD 21225.
Well, we can't quit these shenanigans without a final word
76 shift-x characters. The shift-x's expand to the longest
BASIC keyword, RESTORE. Now we're up to a grand from James Bordcn (Carlisle, PA). James says to load up
total of 537 characters in a single program line. your machine language monitor program and try this. Be
Not lo be outdone, Donald Graham comes back with ginning at memory location 0800 (use 1C00 for the Com
the following statements which must be typed in direct modore 128), enter 00 05 09 (use ID instead of 09 for the
mode (without line numbers): C-128) 00 F0, and then enter 8C's up to address 0904 (!D04
for the C-128). Finish up with at least three values of 00.
1 REM This gives a BASIC program line containing 1770 characters,
2 REM LONGEST LISTABLE LINE according to James. No doubt the people at Guinness have
3 REM BY DONALD H. GRAHAM already contacted James about this! Until next month, keep
4 REM those keyboards humming. □

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Header Servlco No. 1B3

82 AHOY!
ALIGNING
THE 1541
DISK DRIVE
Including 7547 Alignment Check for the C-64 and 1541
By Greg Granville

I Hum* ration* accompanying thii article are reprinted from Troubfoihoaflng and Repair of the Commodore
1341 Dlifc Drive by Michael G. Poltlar, published by Howard W. Sams S Co., Inc., Indianapolis, IN, and appear
courtesy of Mkhaol C. Peltier and Howard W. Sami.

The 1541 is a very powerful disk drive tor the THE PROGRAM
price. Consider its unique disk formatting sys Type in the 1541 Alignment Check program and test
tem which allows more data lo be squeezed it out on a formatted disk. I recommend that you use
onto the disk by placing more sectors on the an expendable disk in case you have made a typing error
outer tracks. How about the fact thai the Disk Operat- while entering the program. If the program is working
ing System (DOS) is on a ROM chip, ready lo obey our properly, the drive motor will run as soon as the pro
commands from the minute we turn the power on? And gram is run. The only way to stop the drive motor and
don't forget that our drive can support relative Hie struc exit the program is to press 'X' on the keyboard. You
tures, something thai many other, more expensive drives should be able to move the drive head Vi step at a time
can't do.
by moving the joystick (port 2} to the left and right. Press
Despite all of the 1541's advanced features, it has at ing and holding the fire button should cause the red light
least one serious flaw (most things do): a tendency to on the drive to flash at about one-.second intervals. Hold
go out of alignment far too often. The symptoms of mis down T on the keyboard and the head should initialize
alignment usually include some combination of the fol back to track IK
lowing:
Now that we know that the program is working proper
1) The red light blinks quickly a lew times during a ly, we can use it to check out the alignment. You now
program load. need a disk that was formatted on a drive that is in prop
2) The drive head bumps against the track 1 stop sev er alignment. I recommend using a factory formatted
eral times and the load fails to complete. Alter the drive disk, such as the Test/Demo disk that came with your
stops, the red light continues to blink, indicating an er disk drive. Insert that disk into the drive and run the 1541
ror condition. Aligniiwm Check program. Move the head (with the joy
3) The drive mechanism "clicks" repeatedly when a stick) to track 17.5 (or any other lA track).
program load causes the drive to try to read track #1 and After moving the head to track 17.5, press and hold
the track #1 stopper is improperly set. the fire button (or depress the SHIFT/LOCK key) for
If your drive is still under warranty when these symp about !() to 15 seconds. If your drive is in close align
toms occur, you can usually return it to your dealer for ment you will get the message 'ALIGNMENT OK" sev
a new one. If your drive is out of warranty, you often eral times during the check. Take note of the track num
do not have any alternative but to box up your 1541 and ber read from the disk. If you get track numbers both
take it to an authorized service center for repair (get out Vi step above and below the track the head is actually
your checkbook)! on. along with some ALIGNMENT OK" messages, your
The program that accompanies this article (see page 114) drive is in almost perfect alignment. A good example
will enable you to accurately determine the alignment status would be reading alternating I7's and 18's when the ac
of the drive yourself. You can also use it as a guide in re tual head position is 17.5. This means that your head is
alignment the drive, if you have the inclination to try the exactly halfway between tracks, which is right where it
job on your own. Before proceeding, you may want to refer should be!
to Morton Kcvelson's review of CSM Software's 154! Disk You can move the head around to other areas of the
Drive Alignment Program (January '86 Ahoy!, page 84). disk now and try1 reading the drive status if you like. When
wherein he provides an explanation of the causes and symp checking the status on full tracks, the only message you
toms of 1541 disk drive misalignment. will get will be ALIGNMENT UNCERTAIN' unless the

AHOY! 83
alignment is way off. If a full track simply can't be read, get a notepad so that you can write down where the wires
or if the track number read from disk and the actual head plug into. You will feel more secure when you are putting
position do not match, an ALIGNMENT BAD' message the wires back on if you draw yourself a little diagram.
will be displayed. If the track numbers arc not in sync, Now you can go ahead and unplug the rest of the wires
your alignment is off by at least one whole track. from the circuit board. After the wires are removed, take
Keep in mind that you will normally be using the half out the screws that hold the circuit board to the chassis
tracks to do the line checks on the alignment. If you can frame. Please note that there arc two screws on the right
get the ALIGNMENT OK' message to come up within rear of the drive chassis that go in from the side. Now
10 to 15 seconds on a halftrack, the alignment is usual that you finally have everything loose, you ean carefully
ly close enough. You can perform this check on any half remove the main circuit board.
track from 1.5 to 34.5 in order to get the ALIGNMENT Exposed to your eyes now are the mechanical innards
OK' message. of the drive. As you face the unit from the front you will
If you discover that your fears are confirmed and your see the black head assembly in the center area. Note that
drive really is out of alignment, then you have one of the head assembly rides on two shiny metal rails. You
two choices. First, you could be content with the knowl can gently slide the head back and forth on these rails
edge that you have just gained and leave the job to some if you like.
one else. Or, you can be brave and attempt the job your If you have some Vaseline or a light silicone grease,
self. 1 am assuming that your drive is out of warranty; putting a very small quantity of it on each of the rails
otherwise you would be more foolish than brave to tear will make the drive run quieter while it is stepping the
it apart. head. Be sure that you don't get the grease on anything
else except the guide rails. It is also a good idea to slide
REALIGNING THE DRIVE the head back and forth after greasing the rails to work
Turn the drive upside down and remove the four Phil if in a bit.
lips head screws that hold the case together. Set the drive Slightly to the right of the head assembly you will see
right side up again, remove the top cover, and set it aside. two pulleys and a thin steel band connected between them.
Locate the two serews that hold the metal shield in place Note also that the head assembly is connected to this
over the main circuit board. Remove these screws and band. When the pulleys turn, the band moves, and the
lift the metal shield from the circuit board. Some older head assembly also moves. The pulley in the front is only
drives have a wire running through a hole in the shield, there to keep the band stretched tight. Note that it has
so make sure that you unplug it from the circuit board a spring connected to il, so that constant tension is be
before pulling the shield off. ing applied. The pulley that you see in the rear is the
You now want to locate and remove six Phillips screws stepper motor pulley itself! You want to he certain that
that hold the bottom plastic case to the main steel chas this pulley is tightly pressed onto its shaft. Take your Phil
sis of the drive. There are three of them down along each lips screwdriver (or any blunt-ended tool) and place it
side of the drive chassis. You will have to unhook the on the top surface of the pulley (not the shaft). Now hit
wire that goes to the red L.E.D. light on the bottom plas the top of the screwdriver with your hand to firmly seat
tic case. Unplug this wire from the main circuit board the pulley into place. If you saw the pulley move down
and leave it off until you are ready to put everything back ward even the smallest bit. then it was loose. Just lor
together again. good measure, carefully hit it again on the opposite side
Before we remove any more wires, you might want to to make sure that it is squarely in place.

DRIVE SERVO CIRCUIT


A. Drive ipccd ad|ustmunt
Drive jorvo cirtuH 11 located under drive mechanism in 134l'i equipped with ALPS drive
unit.. It il located above mechanism on 1341'* uiing the Hortronlc* drive mothanlim.
The Hartronlti drlvoi have a twilt latch lever on the disk drive door.

84 AHOY!
TRACK #1 STOP ADJUSTMENT
A. Drive larvo circuit located her* on Hortronlc* drive ».
B. Track #1 Hop
C. Leek down screw

per. Make sure that some of this epoxy runs up onto the
top surface of the shaft itself, so that the bond wil! In
terconnect the pulley and ihe shaft. Be certain that none
of it gels in the wide gap area where the track one stop
per protrudes. Keep an eye on the cpoxy as it cures to
1541 DISASSEMBLY/REASSEMBLY
A. anou hol<n to stopper motor locking iircwi
make sure that none of it seeps into this area. If it does,
hols far drlva ipsott adjustment remove it before the epoxy dries completely.
With all our preventive maintenance out of the way.
Once you have the stepper pulley tightly pressed unto we can now go ahead and adjust the alignment. Mount
the shaft, you might want to apply some five-minute the circuit board back onto the drive chassis and recon
cpoxy to the top of the pulley and shaft to prevent any nect all the wires you removed. (Don't worry about the
possible slippage from occurring in the future. Put the wire that goes to the red L.E.D. on the bottom case; you
epoxy in the small gap between the two protrusions on can leave it off tor now.) Set the drive on its right side
the top of the pulley that is opposite the track one stop- so that you can get at the bottom of it. Locate the two

CAUTION!
Reader* should be aware
of the possible hazardi B4K SERIAL PORT BUFFER
that exist when working is an intelligent 64K Serial Port Print buffer
Inside sensitive electronic that works with ALL Commodore printers
equipment. If you do decide
& ALL serial printer interfaces!
to follow the procedures do-
■crlbed hero you are doing ...and for ONLY l749a * smpptig
■o at your own risk. The Serial Box'" lets you compute while your
Power line voltage [120 printer prints.

eSerialBcoge
volts) It present In the 1541 imagine downloading a bit-mapped screen such
as Flexi-draw or Koala Painter in 27 seconds!
disk drive. This can present BUFFER
You can dump 15 pages ol tent or a 35-page
a hazard to both personnel
FOR THE COMMODORE BASIC listing in 2V4 minutes.
and equipment. Contact of C-B4 C-128 VIC-20 Oh yes. The Serial Box'"1 can even
the drive circuit board skip over perforalions.
R. J. Brachman Assuualcs. Inc.
with the metallic chassis at
SEE »0U« OtflLtH OH CALL I SCO ?}6 7!6< 10" OHDIOS AN!) INfD«M«f>ON
any point other than the iN resreVlVANM CAI I 12151 6?! 5495 OR WHITE
designated mounting
paints may damage the rn
R. J. Brachman Associates, Inc.
drive electronics. The same PO. BOX 1077 • HAVERTOWN. PA 19083
is true for metallic tools that us t %3 0Q in' shipping and htntSlfng <USA 3"d Csnoaa)
VISA MC Cfieck or Money Oitle'i accepted CO D. ,idO J2S0.
contact the exposed circuit PA rrsitiPnls .ilia 6'■ |Pl£«SE ALLOW J 10 6 WEEKS KM DtUVEFW)
■He-ill1,]* is .Meui'lTod T.iacm.l'k ol Inkwell SysicrrK Kuala P.nnlP' i* & rpgKte'eO
board or Its connector.
trademark oi Kmta reettWgas Op "C 6* C1!S A vie 30 in tggiiiirH
DEALER tHOUIRIES INVITED Header Servldo No. 178 INidtnidrk'' at rjnniin.iii..ir H.. .-rT-'iL-. Machines. Lid

AHOY! 85
openings about halfway back on the metal chassis that everything still looks good, turn the drive off and let's
each have a Phillips head screw visible through them. verify everything from a cold start just to be sure. Turn
These screws hold the stepper motor in position. the drive back on and run the program again. Move the
Power up your system and load the 1541 Alignment Pro head to track 17 and press the button. If the track read
gram so that we will have it ready. Now go ahead and from the disk is 17 everything is fine; if not, you must
loosen the two stepper motor screws. The screw holes loosen the screws and make the adjustments again.
are slotted so as to allow about 3/n inch of movement of We're almost done now, but we still have a few little
the entire stepper motor. Once it is free tor adjustment, things that we should check out. We must make sure that
run the program with the Test/Demo disk inserted. Move the track one stopper is set so that ii is just barely touch
the head to a full track (try 17) and press the fire button ing when the head is on track one. Move the actual head
(or shift lock) to read the actual head position. You can position to track one with the program. Stop the pro
now turn the stepper motor through the holes with your gram by pressing 'X' and remove the main circuit board
lingers. You want lo get the position read from disk to again. Examine the gap between the stopper and the pro
say track 17. with no read errors indicated. Once you have trusion on the stepper pulley. If you can see a gap here,
that, move the head to track 17.5 and press down the then loosen the one Phillips screw that goes through it
SHIFT/LOCK button so that both your hands are free. and move the stopper closer. Move it just enough to elim
This is the fine adjustment, so you may have to move inate the gap at this point. If you move it too far and
the motor only a very small amount at a time. With the push on the pulley itself, it will be too tight. If you heard
actual head position of 17.5 try to get the position read a thud when you were moving the head to track 1, you
from the disk to be on the edge of jumping back and may have to open up a very small gap between the stop
forth from 17 and 18. When you are close to being ex per and the pulley. (Ed. note: We found that a gap of
actly on the half track, you will probably get a lot of .006 inch works well with the 1541 drive.) After you ad
"Read Error Sensed" and "Alignment OK" messages. If just the stopper, reconnect the circuit board. Run the pro
you can"! get the track read from the disk to jump back gram, and move the head posiiion back to track one. Lis
and forth from 17 to 18 while reading the drive status, ten for the thud noise just as the indicator says track one.
then try lo get as many read errors as possible along with Turn off the power and remove the board again. Recheck
an occasional track read of the lower number (track 17). the gap to sec if you have the "just touching" condition.
Many drives will show almost nothing but "Alignment If you have to, go ahead and repeat the above procedure
OK" messages when they arc exactly on the halftrack, again until you get it just right.
since there is nothing on the half track for them to pick If you are very careful that the circuit board does not
up. Different areas of the disk may not give exactly the touch the chassis, you can avoid having to remove it each
same resulis on the halftracks, hui as long as you are time you want to check your adjustment. Just leave the
getting some "Alignment OK" and "Read Error Sensed" wires connected and move the board off to the side so
messages, you are OK. that you can get to the stopper adjustment. Placing a piece
of thin cardboard between the board and the chassis will
help in preventing an accident.
You may still hear a faint thud when the adjustment
is correct. Just make sure that the drive can read track
one. Press the fire button lo sec if you can read it with
no errors.

Take a minute to examine the strobe pattern that is visi


ble through the large hole in the bottom of the drive. Un
der a fluorescent light, the outer pattern should appear
to stand still or drift very slowly while the drive is run
ning. If it does not. the speed of the drive motor is im
proper. It can be adjusted with a small screwdriver
through a small hole that is toward the front left side of
DRIVE UNIT, PARTS LAYOUT (BOTTOM]
the drive bottom. (This adjustment is made on top of
A. Speed adjustment (VRII
the drive in 154!'s equipped with Nortronics mechanisms.)
B. Stepper motor
C. Locking tcrow* Problems in the motor speed servo circuit seem to be
D. Stroho markings for ipood adjuJtmcnt quite rare.
E. Dri vn motor lorvo circuit (I oca tod On top of Nortronits
The job is now completed! Put the rest of the screws
drive machanlsm)
back in and put the shield and case back on. Remember
to hook up the wire to the front red L.E.D. again. Your
Once you think that you have it as close as you can reward is a drive that runs both smoother and quieter
get it, tighten down the screws on the stepper motor and and, best of all, you have just saved yourself a pile of
run the check again. Do this to be sure that you did not money. Congratulations on a job well done! □
bump anything while you were tightening the screws. If SEE PROGRAM LISTING ON PAGE 114

86 AHOY!
IPS AHCYI
I
Compiled by Michael R. Davila
Tips Ahoy! is not founded on the democratic principle. That's why you'll see the same names popping up month after
moimS.We're not interested in getting everyone involved — just in publishing Hie most original and useful programming tips avail
able from the Commodore community. If you have a tip that fits this description and want to earn up to $50 (or more), send
it to Tips Ahoy!, Ion International Inc., 45 West 34th Street-Suite 407, New York, NY 10001.
PARALYZED CURSOR INSTANT DISK ERROR READ
It's often undesirable to have the person using your pro The next time your disk drive light starts beating at
gram able to move the cursor around the screen when 100+ BPM (Blinks Per Minute), simply press CTRL
an INPUT statement is used. There are a number of ways and D. This will instantly display what your drive's trying
to deter this; here are two examples. to communicate to you.
The simplest way is to POKE 198.1:POKE 631,34 be
fore each INPUT. The first POKE tells the program that 10 REM DISK STATUS
a key has been pressed, and the second puts a quotation 20 REM BY SHAWN K SMITH
mark in the keyboard buffer. This forces the computer 30 R$=CHR$(18):PRINT,R$"DISK STATUS"
into quote mode, and the cursor keys will appear as re 100 DATA 234,120,169,075,162,003,141,020
verse graphics characters. You're not really disabling the 110 DATA 003,142,021,003,088,096,173,141
keys, just preventing them from moving the cursor around 120 DATA 002,201,004,208,006,032,091,003
the screen. 130 DATA 032,062,003,076,049,234,169,088
Another method is lo use a short machine language 140 DATA 162,003,120,141,020,003,142,021
program that completely disables the cursor, both inside 150 DATA 003,088,165,203,201,018,240,001
and outside the program. Try the one below. 160 DATA 096,169,008,032,180,255,169,111
170 DATA 133,185,032,150,255,169,000,133
10 FOR A=710 TO 758:READ B:POKE A,B:NEXT 180 DATA 144,032,165,255,032,210,255,165
20 DATA 169,229,141,143,2,169 190 DATA 144,240,246,076,171,255
30 DATA 2,141,144,2,173,246 195 :
40 DATA 2,73,1,141,246,2 200 FOR M =829 TO M + 77:READ Y:P0KE M,Y
50 DATA 208,10,169,72,141,143 210 T=T+Y:NEXT:T=T-8849
60 DATA 2,169,235,141,144,2 220 IFTTHENPRINTR$"**DATA ERROR**":STOP
70 DATA 96,165,203,201,7,240 230 P0KE857,PEEK(788):P0KE858,PEEK(789)
80 DATA 4,201,2,208,4,169 240 SYS830
90 DATA 64,133,203,76,72,235,0 250 PRINT:PRINTRS"CNTRL-D DISPLAYS STATU
S..."
SYS 710 turns off the cursor keys if they're on. and 260 PRINT:PRINTR$"RUN/STOP-RESTORE DEACT
it also turns them back on if they're disabled. It's quite IVATES"
effective, and you don't have to worry about properly for 270 PRINT:PRINTR$"SYS(830) WILL REACTIVA
matting POKE statements to do the job. With this meth TE"
od you avoid the reverse characters, which is both conven
ient and effective. -Kevin Brown The utility wedges into the IRQ interrupt and can be
Anderson, IN disabled with RUN/STOP-RESTORE. A SYS to the start-
tog address (830) will reinstate the wedge.
DEFUNCTIONED FUNCTION KEYS Since this utility wedges inio the "Hardware Interrupt."
Commodore 64 BASIC programs may be loaded and it will perform in direct or program mode.
saved in 128 mode, but may not include BASIC 7.0 com -Shawn K. Smith
mands. The following routine restores the 128's function Bronx, NY
keys to their state when in 64 mode. Also, this is done
without implementing the KEY command. The routine DIRECTORY HIGHLIGHTER
must be executed in 128 mode. -Ed Hot-nan Here is a handy disk utility that allows you to high
Coatesville, PA light any program name in the directory. This is useful
in making certain programs stand out, such as program
1000 A$="133137134138135139136140" boots. The highlighting is achieved by renaming the file
1010 J=l:FORI=4106TO4113 with four special characters preceding it. The four char
1020 POKEI,VAL(MID$(A$,J,3)):J=J+3 acters are shifted space, two delete characters, and a re
1030 P0KEI-10,l:NEXT:A$="" verse character. This leaves enough space for only twelve

AHOY! 87
ULTRABYTE
DISK NIBBLER
characters for the rest of the filename. The routine below
VERSION 2.0 will first ask you whether you want lo highlight or de-
highlight and then ask for the filename. To end the pro
TOP-RATED COPIER
gram reply to the highlight/de-highlight prompt with any
DRAMATICALLY IMPROVED key other than "H" or 'D'.
INFO -64 Magazine. June 19B5. compared Commodore
64 copy programs and awarded the Nlbbler Its highest
rating. Now the Nlbbler has been Improved to copy 5 OPEN 15,8,15:G0SUB 1000
dozensot the latest programs that previously could not 10 SSS=CHR$(16O):DLS=CHRS(2O):RVS-CHR$(1
be copied, all In less than three minutes.

FOR SINGLE 1541 & DUAL MSD DRIVE


8)
20 HD$=SSS + DLS + DL$ + RV$
• Simple. Even a beginner makes perfed copies
• Fast. Copies protected disks In three minutes 30 PRINT"[CLEAR][RVSON][1[RVSOFF]IGHLIGMT
• Sophisticated. Senses the disk being copied and OR [RVSON]D[RVSOFF]E-HIGHLIGHT PROGRAM"
automatically adjusts lor dozens ol protection
schemes. Copies 99*% ol software
40 GET KY$:IF n$=""THEN40
• Modular design to allow easy updates 50 IF KY$="H" THEN 100
• Even copies Itaell. For this reason, no refunds 60 IF KY$="D" THEN 200
will be given
70 END:REM END PROGRAM IF NOT 'H' OR 'D1
$ 39.95 |lllls tm sn'l'lllr|B s handling. 100 INPUT "PROGRAM NAME TO HIGHLIGHT";HP
MiElercird, Vita, Check or M 0. CUM. add B V [I?6D| sales lax. $
Foreign orders or COD idd 1200. Paymenl mull be In U.S lundi 110 PRINT#15,"R0:" + I1D$ + I1P$ + "=" + II
PrevlDul cuiIdiheis may order V 2.0 tor J2C DO plus 14 00 shipping
P$:GOSUB 1000
NIBBLER U 2.0 EVEN COPIES ITSELF 120 GOTO 30
200 INPUT "PROGRAM NAME TO DE-HIGHLIGHT"
To order, wrlle or call .'■'. hr order line
Fur Information, wrlle. Phone lor orders only ;DP$
ULTRABYTE (818) 796-0576 210 PRINT#15,"E0;n + DPS + "»" + IID$ + n
P.O. Box 789 La Canada, CA 91011 USA P$:GOSUB 1000
220 GOTO 30
DEALERS & DISTRIBUTORS WANTED 1000 INPUT#15,E,E$,T,S
Render Service No. 1&U 1010 IF E=0 THEN RETURN
1020 PRINT E,E$

• I • £-64 1030 END

Note: To load a highlighted filename in eilher program


5QFTWHRE-QF -THE-mONTH CLLJB< or immediate tmxle you can use LOAD~(shifted space)??.'
(Omsron ol OCS me I
filename"8.1 —Dino Bavaro
We guarantee you'll never again buy useless software lor
your personal computer. Don Mills, ONT
CLUB MEMBERSHIP OFFERS BIG SAVINGS
* ♦ NO OBLIGATIONS ♦— ♦ EASY BACKUPS
Whin you loroll you wHIl * B# ellglbj* Far our Bonut Point Plin— Hcrcs a reliable, easy way to make sure you always have
tddinonil diicounti tpohid toward
K»»p only th* lonwirt <ruT you cm a backup to any C-128 program you're working on; it even
IBM. EnmlfH (or ■ full 10 d»r»: II 111 . £«C«l""ur lntafm»ll« monthly mwl-
noi -hit you mu, mam « (or ■ Nil ,.„„ Ml o1 ntl!>M Upt inr getting <** automatically keeps three copies on the disk for you! (Just
relund. rnotl from you; Commodoro-S*.
in case you make an "improvement" that docsn'l work.)
■ Receive dlicounli up lo 30% on your • HacbJvb notlcs 0( Sptclal Sattt where
lortware cholcai. you'll inve bi much 11 SC*i on lilt. I use the program names "CURRENT", "OLD", and
The Softwara-ol-rfie-Monlh Club It Unique. "OLDEST": you can. of course, substitute names of your
No minimum puich»»ei are required—no nutomallc ihlpmentsto you.
own choice.
Enroll now and receive tbtolultly t'ee Public Domain Software. To SAVE the current version of the program (and erase
Please check fl Cnsiellc LI Dlik the very oldest)- just type GOTO 3. -Bruce Jaeger
GREAT IDEAI I cin'l !□■>. Enroll m* now In the Sorwir.-ol-tht-Mcnlh Club. I Si. Paul, MN
undintind thir* !> no obllgillon. Enclotta le my 110 msmDarthlp (at.

Thech '.'. n' . Ordiri Bonk Cird


Commodore 128 Version
Nmnrm

1 GOTO 10
3 SCRATCH "OLDEST":RENAME "OLD" TO "OLDE
ST" : RENAME "CURRENT" TO "OLD" : DSAVE"
»■■>■'"'* Eipuauon date
CURRENT" : END
S'3n°""e Cut out and moil today id 10 REM YOUR PROGRAM BEGINS HERE
SOnWARE-OF-JHf-MONTH CLUB
Ohio Computnr Sarvlcev Inc.
P.O. Boi 178723
Commodore 64 Version
Cinclnnnil. Ohio 45212 3
1 GOTO 10
3 CLOSE15:OPEN15,8,15,"S0:OLDEST":PRINT#
■ I. . ! . Surulco No. 173

88 AHOY!
MERLIN 64
15,"R0:0LDEST=0:0LD" THE BEST MACRO ASSEMBLER FOR THECOMMODORE 64

i> PRINT5, "RO: OLD=O: CURRENT": SAVE"CURRENT Easy to use for (he beginner or professional. Merlin 64 is
an extremely powerful macro assembler.
",8:CLOSE15:END just .1 few of its features include:
10 REM YOUR PROGRAM BEGINS HERS
• Fast assembly times
• Word processor like editor
FORGOT THE SYS?
• Conditional assemblies,
Remembering the SYS numbers for all your machine Optional assembly to disk
language programs can be quite tedious and annoying. • includes Sourceror, an easy to
Here is an easy way to find the starting address of a ma use disassembler that creates
chine language program if you are using a disk drive. Merlin 64 source files from
binary data
• Macro library of common
10 OPEN 2,8,2,"FILENAME"
operations
20 GET#2,A$,B$:Z$=CHR$(0):CL0SE2
• Cross Ref. utility program
30 PRINT ASC(A$+Z$)+256*ASC(B$+Z$)
• SO column display
compatibility
If you wish to find the ending address, type LOAD
"This is the best assembler I've seen for the Commodore 64.. ."
"F1LENAME",8.1 and then after the prngrani has finished
Wm. Sanders/Assembly Language for Kids
loading type PRINT PEEK(45)+256*PEEK(46) and hit
". . .an outstanding value... I can't imagine how It could
RETURN -Wesley VriencI
be better."
Houston, BC C Peterson/AHOYl Magazine

"Plus S3 00Slilr>|jlnS.CARes.adil6lSfllesT.U.
COLOR PROTECTOR
Ask your local dealer for details, or just write or calb
Many programmers have individual preferences forcer-
tain background, border, and text colors and use them
when programming. Unfbnunaiely, whenever RUN/
STOP-RESTORE is pressed, the computer resets these
' PUBLISHING,'INC.
P.O. Box 582 • Samee.CA 92071 • Telephone: 619/5&2-322I
colors to the blue default colors. Also. RUN/STOP-RE
Header Service No. 179
STORE wilt disable some ML programs such as the DOS
wedge. In order to reenable the program, the appropri
ate SYS must be entered. Resetting screen colors and
recnabling programs becomes very tiresome!
The short routine below (for the C-64) will solve these
problems. From now on, RUN it before each program
ming session. Whenever you hit RUN/STOP-RESTORE
(or .simply RESTORE), the screen colors will be set to
ihc custom that you selected by placing them in the rou
tine. These POKEs, as you can examine in lines 30 to
60. can be POKEd with a different value at any time:
after POKEing the locations, type SYS 32785 so that the
routine will recognize the new values.
Each time you LOAD a new ML program type SYS
32785. Otherwise, the program will be disabled by press RESET SWITCH
ing RESTORE. The routine will also allow you to recover Only S9.95
from many more keyboard "lockups" by pressing RE
basic ri rnvt» mior.nArr. inci urn n
STORE. A note to tape users: you must type SYS 8 to
UK or*:; TROiTH" PROGRAMS
deactivate any ML programs that are enabled for a tape Ml 11(13 INIO TMr SfcRIAl AND UBERP0M

save to work. -Kevin Brawn aiiow:i iui i usi of ooin i»or<T5


Anderson, IN i xrrNns mr I Iff of your! (onruirii

coMPATirtl r Wl in ronnanom i>^, 126 ADD VIC 90

10 POKE 56,128: CLR: FOR K-32768 TO 3287 i vr An

6: READ M: C=C+M: POKE K,M: NEXT noil r Is

20 IF C <> 13765 THEN PRINT"ERROR IN DAT nicenvftiiDHS


sjiini^ioNCiNtiii on
■ CA Hniile nl\ KM fpl TiBlr^ liii

A STATEMENTS":END suiir sit,


SAN DllOd, CA 1J\Ot
Snipping A*T 11 FB lor Oraund
COO ti l>0 ?nil [)*v A>r
30 POKE 1020,03: REM- BORDER COLOR —CHA Hun
NGE Annuls".

40 POKE 1021,00: REM- SCREEN COLOR —VAL siAir


ni.
IIP

<M fjcnipri Wclco ■M PImjuf (6191 71\


UES
50 POKE 1022,01: REM- CURSOR COLOR —IF R, Sarvlca No. 190

AHOY! 89
Program Your Own EPROMS YOU
». VIC 20 60 PORK 1023,01: RBM- CHARACTER COLOR —
► C64 $99.50 WISH
PLUGS INTO USER PORT. 70 SYS 32785:PRINT"[CLR][9 D0WN]IMT REST
NOTHING ELSE NEEDED. ORK TO ACTIVATE"
EASY TO USE. VERSATILE. 80 PRINT"[DOWJJ]TVFE SYS 32785 TO READ VA
• Read or Program. One byle or LUES AFTER CHANGING THEM"
32K bytes'
90 DATA 11,128,11,128,195,194,205,56,48,
OR Use like a disk drive. LOAD.
161,128,32,17,128,76,29,128,160
SAVE, GET, INPUT, PRINT, CMD,
OPEN, CLOSE-EPROM FILES! 100 DATA 204,185,52,2,153,128,128,200,20
Our software leis you use familiar BASIC commands lo 8,247,96,109,0,141,252,3,169,11
create, modily, scratch files on readily available EPROM 110 DATA 141,253,3,169,1,141,254,3,141,2
c chips, Adds a newdimension to your computing capability.
55,3,169,.r>8,141,0,128,141,2,128
(D Works with most ML Monitors too.
120 DATA 108,20,3,32,129,255,32,138,255,
£
• Make Auto-Start Cartridges of your programs.
• The promenade" C1 gives you 4 programming voltages, 160,204,185,128,128,153,52,2,200
130 DATA 208,247,173,255,3,141,33,208,17
0
2 EPROM supply voltages, 3 intelligent programming
algorithms. 15 bit chip addressing, 3 LED's and NO
3,252,3,141,32,208,173,254,3,141
switches, Your computer controls everything from software!
a TextOOl socket. Anti-static aluminum housing.
140 DATA 134,2,169,147,32,210,255,173,25
EPROMS. cartridge PC boards, etc. at extra charge.
3,3,141,33,208,162,255,76,139,227
Some EPROM types you can use with the promenade"
274B 2532 162732P 27128 5133 WBI6A1
Z51S 2732 256= 27256 5113 52BI3'
2716
27CI6
J7C32
2732A
276J
27C64
687^
68766
2S15'
2816'
JS016P' FASTER FAST LOAD DIRECTORY MENU
Have an Epyx Fast Load cartridge? Put this little pro

Call Toll Free: G00-421-7731 or 408-287-0259


gram at the beginning of any disk. When you press the
In California: B00-421-7748 COMMODORE and RUN/STOP keys the routine will list
J ASON-RANHEIM the disk's directory and place your cursor by the first file:
580 Parrott St., San Jose, CA 95112

100 PRINT"[CLEAR]$"
110 FOR1,=OT05: READA: POK E631+L, A: N EXT
ELECTRONIC ONE 120 P0KE198,L:ENB
COMMODORE HAHOWARE THE
C 64 1119.99 LOWEST 130 DATA19,13,19,17,17,17
C12B 1S9B9 PRICES
1541 DISKDRIVE .... 169 99
1571 DISKDRIVE £39.99
SERVICE This works by using the dynamic keyboard method of
MJ22 (RGB) MONITOR 249 99
1902 MONITOR 249.99 ONE CALL fooling the computer into thinking you're typing all those
1802 (COMPOSITE (6") 864-8994
-MONITOR) 159 99 P ° Bo' 134JS ' Colurnbus- 0H' 43213 keys. The DATA statement on line 130 holds the ASCII
PRINTERS SOFTWARE FOR COMMODORE values of HOME, RETURN. HOME, DOWN, DOWN,
PANASONIC 1091 219 99 SIMON'S BASIC .... 9 99
EPSON LX SO 219.99 KARATEKA IB 99 DOWN in that order.
MPS 601 99 99 HACKER
FAST LOAD
18.99
!2 99
This will also function with the DOS Wedge in place
G WiZ INTERFACE 44 99
CONNECTION INTERFACE MM MACK 5 22 99 instead of Fas! Load. -David Paulson
KOROWISRIFT 22 99
COMMODORE MI5C
THE EIDOLON 22 99 Renton, wa
HARDWARE
KENNEDY APPROACH 22 99
TOTAL COMM MODEM 29 99 =KV FOX 2199
WESTRIDGE MODEM « 99
COMMODORE 1300 BAUD .1999
TESTING FOR 64 OR 128 MODE
INDUS GTDISK DRIVE 2)9.99
24 99 When programming the 128 for compatibility with the
DISKS SILENT SERVICE 24.99
64, the variables DS and DSS cannot be used. These are
MAXELL 5(5 D/D 11 99 OUESTRON . 29 99
ELEPHANT S/SD/D 1299 PRINTSHOP 26 99 reserved on the 128 to indicate disk status. A line like
POLAROID S/5 DID 1299 FLIGHT SIMULATOR II 3299
GENERICSISDvD 7.99 HARDBALL 19.99 100 DSS="DO SOMETHING" wiO produce a SYNTAX
KUNGFU . 19 99
DISK BANKS (HOLDS50) ... 7.99
HEARTOF AFRICA 2«.99
ERROR when executed in 128 mode.
DISKNOTCHER . . . 3.99

SPECIAL
SIERRA BOXING 19.99 We can use DSS to our advantage, however, to test for
MICflO LEAGUE BASEBALL 2199
STAR SG 10 PRINTER WINTER GAMES .21.89 operating mode. Line 10 sets M to 64 unless DS$ is other
1 QQ 99 SUPERPASCAL 3999
than null. If it is, M is set to 128. M can then be used
HOW TO ORDER CASHIER CHECK. MONEY ORDER. MASTERCARD", O'
VISA1 (Add 4<ii) tor charge cards) NO PERSONAL CHECKS . NOCOD's as a Hag to call subroutines appropriate to the 64 or 128.
SHIPPED UPS PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE.
SHIPPING Prompt one Gay shipping on in-stock mejcnandise Ohio resitlflnts —Ed Morgan
Ma 5 5«o sales la" A00 13 00 on ail oiaersunaar S10D 00 Ada S5 00 on all
orders over S'00.00
Coatesvilte, PA
INTERNATIONAL Actual freight cnarge on all oiaers outside tne can^nentaf
Unnoo Slates including A P O
CAl i OR WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG

CALL ELECTRONIC ONE C614J 864-9994 10 M-64:IFDS$<>""THENM=128


Reader Service No, 167
20 PRINT'SYSTKM IS IN"M" MODE"

90 AHOY!
Connect with

IIRRATA
the leading
UNCENSORED
national
computer
communications
network.

Adults can
AHOY! DOCK experience
"live" interactive
Readers reported a STRING TOO LONG ERROR.
chatting,
To repair, change line 0 to read electronic mall and
many other full-
0 PRINT "[CLEAR]": P$=CHR$(n) service videotex
features.

Also. NEXT WITHOUT FOR and OUT OF MEMO


For a free
RY errors will emerge if you try to delete an item from brochure call
the file. To correct this retype lines 7190 and 7200 to (212)972-4719 Or
write:

7190 PLUNTTAB(4);"0Nr: MOMENT DELETING RE


CVC ONLINE,
CORD //";I:I=C: NEXT:F()K 1= I TO C dept. SL2
7200 IF SU$(I)»"DBLETB" THEN C=C-1: GOTO 801 Second Ave.,
N.Y..N.Y. 10017
7220

SOLITAIRE
Due to the backgmund color being the same as the
text color, the command -TURN DECK OVER" was noi
visible during play. To remedy this you may change the
POKE value in line 25 from POKE 53281,1 to POKE
53281,12 or any other color thai you prefer.
Reader Ssrulce Mo. 192

wuwmfflim
JLffllE
THE

MIRROR

$24.95
NO FINER OR MORE ADVAMCED ARCHIVAL COPIER AVAILABLE AT
ANY PRICE.
EASY IO USE. DOES NOT CAUSE DRIVE HEAD TO KNOCK.
COPIES UP TO 41 TRACKS.
PERIODIC UPDATE POLICY.
AUTOMATICALLY MAKES BACK-UP COPIES FROM VIRTUALLY AIL
PROTECTED SOFTWARE.
NIBBLES. HALF TRACKS. COPIES EXTRA SECTORS AND EXTRA TRACKS.
REPRODUCES ALL DISK ERRORS AUTOMATICALLY.
FAST. COPIES FULL DISK IN AS LITTLE AS 4-7 MINS. EVEN COPIES
ITSELF.
WE COPY MOREI
MASTERCARD, VISA M.O OR CHECK OK
• S3 SHIPPING ft HANDUNG
COD. OR FOREIGN ORDERS ADD S2
CAUF. ORDERS ADD 6% SALES TAX
— WRITE OR CAU. -

ComDumed
7 told him not to mess with the [■103| 758-2436
P.O. BOX 6427
copy protection on THAT disk!" SAUNAS. CA 93912
FOR COMMODORE M AND 1541 DRIVE

r Service No. 191

AHOY! 91
ARENA
For the C-64
By Bob Tedesco
Arena is an arcade style game for the Com predictable pattern of movement.
modore 64 written entirely in machine lan Moving the joystick up, down, left, or right will move
guage. A fast-paced shoot-cm-up, it can the spinner accordingly. Pressing the joystick button while
be played at three different speed levels. moving the joystick will enable the spinner to fire and
Arena can be entered after loading by typing SYS 49152. destroy each opponent. When all opponents are destroyed,
It is played with a joystick plugged into port 1. The open play will proceed to the next level. Points are awarded
ing screen will ask for the speed level desired: slow, me on a level-by-level basis: one point is awarded for each
dium, or fast. Once the appropriate key is pressed (S. opponent destroyed on Level One, two points on Level
M, or F), the action will commence at once. Two, three on Level Three, etc.
The game takes place in an "arena" represented by After the game ends a new game can be started by
a square section of the screen. The arena is composed pressing the joystick button. Typing fl instead will bring
of interlocking shapes making up a grid. The player back the opening screen so thai players may change game
controls his 'spinner." a whirling propellerlike object, speed (and clear the high score in the process). Pressing
pilled against computer-controlled opponents which 'Q' will exit Arena and reset the computer {if exited any
move about as brightly colored geometric shapes and other way. BASIC will not function properly),
whose speed more than makes up for the somewhat SEE PROGRAM LISTING ON PAGE W

Reader Service No. 194

92 AHOY!
FREE7DISKETTES
SAVE MONEY I C64 and VIC 20 users can
use the diskette flip side, it another
write enable' notch is correctly made.
TOP NOTCH - by QUORUM
quickly solves that problem.
s like FREE DISKETTES!
Stainless Steel Guide
While we didnt ask frequent Ahoy! contributor Shay Addams to • Easy Leverage Handle
Clippings Catcher
write the letter printed herewith, we did think his views on adventure • Square Nolcti Cut
gaming and Arnie Katz's spirited rebuttal of same would make worth • Black Finish

while reading for the game fans in our audience.


Vim don't have to be a computer press luminary to air your views
in Flotsam. Send your comments on any aspect of Commodore com Get THE BEST! Ask our customers;
U S National Bureau ot SianrMirjs
puting to Flotsam, c/o Ahoy.' Magazine, Ion International Inc., 45 IflW • rnw • Digital Researcri • ATA1
West 34th Sireet-Suite 407, New York, NY 10001. CiG^'Geigy PMarmacKji'calB • International Paper
J S Postal Service • Rockwell IMe<national
General Etecinc Corporate Researcn & Oevslo&menl
Alcoa ■ U3 Na/al Weapo.nB ReseflrchCenier
In your November issue's "Call to itself. Such a character is usually
Adventure," the writer seriously mis formed by assigning random values 160% 'Mow "%&ck SnUdmSat/t GiufuutUt •
informed your readers. to special characteristics such as
Firsl, his "history" of adventure Strength. Wisdom, Intelligence, TOP NOTCH" JustS14.95
games says they were inspired by Luck, or Charisma. These character AddS2 00s/ti • CA Res add 97C tax
"Dungeons and Dragons"-a popular istics in turn determine the capability
but false legend that is often repeated of the character in combat, negotia ORDER OIRECT FROM QUORUM
by hizy writers who don't bother to tion and encounters with other be 1-800-222-2824
research their subject. Last year I in ings." It goes on to explain that a In CA: 1-BD0-222-2812
terviewed William CrowtJier and Don game's goal can usually "only be Call 6 a.m.-6 p.m. PST Dealers Invited
Woods, wlui created the first such reached by nurturing a character until QUORUM INTenNfiTIONfil. UnltrJ.
game, Adventure, and both said they it is of sufficient power to overcome INDUSIHIAL STATION PO no* .-in All
OAKLAND. (.A -mi, i.i
never played D&D until after their the most assuredly dreadful guardians
Header Service Ho. 177
computer game was finished. So how blocking the path."
could it have influenced them at all? In a pure adventure, the player's ex

Uni-Kool
(And why. in a history of adventure, perience consists of solving logical
were their names not even men puzzles, not developing a character
tioned?) Also, he says Scott Adams whose life hinges on the number of
DISK DRIVE FAN
converted Adventure to micro formal hit points he has in store. Certainly,
-when Adams actually wrote an or
FOR COMMODORE
you may play the role of a character
iginal game, Adventureland, that he in some adventures (Mac Stccle in
says was inspired by the former. 'Hie Serpent's Star), but in most you
An even more serious mistake was enter an alternative setting (Zurk,
made when the writer attempted to Treasure Island) — therefore, the
categorize advenlures from his own role-playing aspect of adventure is an
point of view, calling games with pic attribute of certain games, not of the
tures "illustrated adventures" and VI- genre itself.
funa-Style games "graphic adven These are not my opinions on the
designed to work with Commodore Disk
tures." This is absurd: games with matter, but facts easily confirmed by □rive Models 1540, 1541, SFO 1001, the
pictures are graphic adventures; those talking with Mike Berlyn (Sus quid C-100 Ian enclosure moves cool,
liltored air through Ihe lop vents of the disk
focusing on combat, magic, and char pended}, Dave Albert (Xyplnts), or drive cooling the drive and thereby induc
ing Ihe misalignment problems caused by
acter development (like Ultima) are Penguin President Mark Pelczarski or heat build-up. A custom tilter keops loom
fantasy role-playing games. Of anyone else in the business. dust Irom entering the disk loadhig opon-
ing. This greatly increases Ihe life span ol
course, role-playing games are con This, however, is an opinion: after the disk drives, and decreases the mainte
sidered a type of adventure, with a reading those sketchy capsules. 1 cant nance required to keep the drive lunclion-
■ng properly. Only S39.95 plus S2.5Q lor
big difterencc-a difference that lies believe the writer actually played all shipping and
115i/.ic
not in the visual effects, but in the na the games he described. How else insurance.

ture of the playing experience. could he have wasted space on such


Money
Order.
The definition of fantasy role-play dogs like Screenplay's Dun:Jn'n series Cheeks k
or C.O.O.
ing games is best summed up in the and the primitive All Baba (a classic Only

foreword of all Penguin Software years ago but now obsolete and a 6-month warranty

RPGs: "...a game in which the player waste of money and time)?
assumes the identity of a character Apparently, this guy's research
Uni-Kool
909 Williamson Loop, Grants Pass. OR 97526
within the fantasy world of the game consists of reading the press release n I rvgilflBrac t'latmift at CoTnotrsri

Reader Service No. 181

AHOY! 93
mcniT or back of the box, not playing the styled for micros. No one who has
game. Perhaps Mr. Katz will do a played both could miss the similarities.
RACE ANALYSIS SYSTEMS better job when mapping the maze in There are as many ways to classify
Professional Harness. Thoroughbred and more familiar territory—Ms. Pac- adventure games as there are adven
Greyhound Race Analyzers with unparalleled
features: Man. —Shay Addams ture gamers. Addams'approach is no
♦ Five minutes worth ol typing replaces over Waxne, PA worse than most, but only a self-im
two hours ol tedious hand calculations
portant blowhard would imagine that
needed per race tor [his unique handi
capping system. it is the only possible means. Person
♦ Morning Lmeoddsare not used, giving the Arnie Katz replies: ally, I think any distinction between
botlor a source of information independent
Shay A ddams' letter contains a lot adventures and what Addams terms
from Ihe morning linc.
more heat than light. Stripped of its "role-playing" games is illusory. As
*■ Doss rflloroncos mlo from up to twenry
races nnd generates hot suggestions in nose-in-the-air snideness and impli experienced gainers know. Wizardry
cluding bust win, qulnallftd pflriflcr.a. exac-
cations that only Shay Addams and Ultima have no more role-play
Ira. trifflCtB Bnd inEectji box.
knows about adventure games, it of ing than Amazon or Mindwheel. Vie
♦ Ratings can lie viewed on screen, printed
hy printer or saved on diskette for future fers few hard facts. Worse, it makes main difference is that the former re
evaluation.
the implicit assumption that if two quire the gamer to work up a char
Available on diskatte for the Commodore 64 people hold differing opinions, one acter little by little, while the latter
3-PACK {all 3 Analyzers} . . . $49.95 of them is not only wrong, but Evil. give the gamer a full-blown persona.
2-PACK |any2Analyzers) . S39.95
I-PACK lany 1 Analyzer) . . . S24.95
The idea that there is a spectrum of In other words, games with "experi
DEMO (refundable fee| ... S10.00 opinion on every topic has apparently ence levels"focus on the process by
* 30 Day Money Back Guaranree not occurred to him. One shudders which someone becomes Conan,
■ Prices Include Shipping
* PA Residents Add 6% Sales Tan
at the thought of dinner conversation while ones without this element con
* All Orders Shipped Same Day chez Shay. cern themselves with what happens
ALSO FT
Let's begin with "Dungeons & Dra once that level ofpower is achieved.
305 Large Avenue * Clairlon. PA 15025 gons." Vie claim that Cmwther and While drawing a line between il
Phono (412|233-4659 Woods never played 'D&D" before de lustrated and graphics adventures
Reader Service No 123
signing Adventure doesn't mean that won't win me the Nobel Prize, I think
"Dungeons & Dragons" didn't inspire it does address a fundamental differ
the entire field of adventure gaming, ence. Tlie picture in an illustrated ad
electronic and non-electronic. venture is an external object. The
"D&D"is the most important gam gamer can look, but not directly af
ing phenomenon since "Monopoly."It fect it. Vie graphics adventure, which
is Inconceivable that the designers of often employs icons and symbols as
Adventure, with their great interest well as illustration, puts the protag
COMPUTERS-C 64 & C-128 in such things, had not heard descrip onist right into the scene. That's only
DRIVES—1541, 1571 & 1572 one man's opinion, but unlike Shay
tions of the theory and practice of
MONITORS—1702, 1901 & 1902
PRINTERS-1101 &803 "Dungeons & Dragons.'That's like the Addams, I know that.
producer of the latest science fiction It is distasteful to have to respond
DISKS
film about heroic rebels battling the to Addams'infantile challenge to my
NASHUA SPECIAL
3 BOXES OF 10 FOR $25.00 evil empire saving that he wasn't in credentials. In my egotistical way, I
BLUE fluenced by Star Wirs.'TMDmispart had hoped everyone already knew
CHIP FOR COMMODORE 64 ofpopular culture. You don t have to me. I've been writing about entertain

BLUE CHIP read a Conan Doyle story to know ment software for the last eight years
DISKDRIVE about Sherlock Holmes; you don't and was co-founder (will Bill Kunkel)
FOR have to play "D&D" to know the rud and editor (/Electronic Games. Vie
COMMODORE CB4
iments of adventuring. And consid Electronic Industry Association, the
$159.00
ering the well-known reputation of computer industry trade group, has
30% FASTER
TSR (creators of "Dungeons & Dra selected me to chair to Software
120110 PRINTER $179.00
120CPS, 10" CARRIAGE gons") for suing to protect "D&D" Showcase awards committee every
sg io $209.00 from even indirect infringement, what year since its inception. I am the
are the odds against any adventure co-author w/Borrowed Time, Activi-
^UNIVERSAL author acknowledging a debt to this sion's new detective adventure and
475 MAIN ST., FAHMINGOALE, N.Y. 11735 landmark design where TSHs legal have done major development work
TOLL FREE 800-468-4689
eagles might read it? on Star Trek (Simon & Schuster) and
LOCAL CALLS (516) 7530110
■■■ MASTERCARD. VISA. M.O OR CHECK |?*V\ I'm sure Scott Adams had just this The Fourth Protocol (Bantam) to
»IM I. NY ORDERS ADD SALES TAX PoO'
Prices are majl order only and do not
point in mind if he said that Adven- name just two adventure game titles.
include shipping & handling tureland was not essentially Crowther Further references on request. And I
Reodor Sarvlco No. IBS and Woods' Adventure revised and re- don't wash windows....

94 AHOY!
LITTLE
WINDOWS
Continued from page 23
or from the number in location 53284. (This is back
ground color 3, and the A in screen memory has its two
high bits set to 11, for a value of 192 added to the screen
code for A.)
When you enter shifted strings or convert existing
strings to their shifted equivalents, and then either turn
on Reverse mode (CTRL-9) or turn it off (CTRL-0),
BASIC will automatically PRINT those strings into screen
memory with the high bits set to the code for one of the
four background colors.
To turn on Extended Background Color Mode, simply:

POKE 53265,PEEK(53265)OR 64

The program Extended Background gives a demon


stration of how to convert strings from one mode to an Your computer can talk in your own
other, and then shows how PRINTing a string with each voice. Not a synthesizer but a true digitizer
attribute looks on the screen. that records your natural voice quality—and in
any language or accent. Words and phrases can
be expanded without limit from disk.
EXTENDED BACKGROUND COLORS And it will understand what you say. a
To give the effect of windows with different background real word recognizer for groups of 32 words or
colors, then, you merely have to make surq that every phrases with unlimited expansion from disk
string PRINTed within a window's area has the correct memory. Now you can have a two way conver
sation with your computer!
combination of SHIFT/UNSH1FT and REVERSE ON/
REVERSE OFF attributes. Easy for the beginning programmer
with new BASIC commands. Machine language
The program Windows divides the screen into four
programs and memory locations for the more
areas, and lets you type whatever you like within each experienced software author.
window. The cursor, RETURN, HOME, and CLR keys
Exciting Music Bonus lets you hum or
work normally—but only within the window. To change
whistle to write and perform. Notes literally
from one window to another, press II, (3, f5, or (7. To scroll by as you hum! Your composition can be
end the program, press RUN/STOP. edited, saved, and printed out. You don't have to
You'l! notice that PRINTing shifted or reversed SPACE know one note from another in order to write
and compose!
characters defines each window by filling it with its back
ground color. Based upon new technologies invented by COVOX. One low
price buys you the complsle syslem—even a voice controlled
The program is, of course, entirely useless. But it does black-jack p,ame! In addition, you will receive a subscription to
demonstrate how you go about defining screen areas and COVOX NEWS, a periodic newsletter about speech technology,
applications, new products, up-dates, and user contributions.
PRINTing within them. You will ii' viii llni! a batlar valua lor your computer.
Each character you type is converted into a number
\JvA LY Ipoa.aD Includes all hardware and software.
from 0 to 63. These numbers* are used as indexes Into
For telephone demonstration or additional Information, call
the string army CH$(3,63). This army contains the cor (503) 342-1271. FREE audio demo tape and brochure available.
rect ASCII value for either shifted or unshiftcd characters. Available Irom your dealer or by mail. When ordering by mail add $4.00
shipping and handling (110.00 lor foreign. $6.00 Canada).
Then (he variable FCS(3) is PRINTed before each char
Ths Voice Master Js available lor the C64, C128, ell Apple ll's, and Atari
acter is PRINTed into its window. FCSf/ij consists of a BOO, BOOXL and 130XE. Specify model when ordering.
foreground color character and cither a REVERSE-ON
or a REVERSE-OFF character, depending on which I For Faster Service on Credit Card Orders only:
background color is needed.
Therefore the character's ASCII value in CHS(n.n) de
ORDER TOLL FREE 1-800-523-9230
cides whether it is shifted or not, and the window's
(503) 342-1271
FC$(n) string decides whether it is reversed or not. COVOX INC.
It is important that, in changing background colors 675-D Conger Street, Eugene, OR 97402
from window to window, the foreground colors be Telei 706017 (AV ALARM UD)

AHOY! 95
changed as well. Many foreground-background color again until it wrapped at the edge of the screen.
combinations have such poor contrast thai they are com The on-planet sequences should have shown you the
pletely illegible. price you were being charged for each valuable item, in
Of course, you don't have to use Extended Background stead of choosing cost and value randomly after you've
Color Mode with windowlike screen formats. As you saw already bought it.
in December's Qypsy Pilot game, the extended back Because the game contains only 22 different inhabited
ground colors were used more for highlighting than to worlds and 10 uninhabited ones, it simply ends after you've
define particular screen areas. As long as your game us visited about 30. There should have been an ending screen
es only the alphanumeric characters, you might as well explaining that your term as captain has ended normally,
be in Extended Background Color Mode and use (he dif so you don't think you made a mistake. That was simply
ferent colors to create a far more interesting screen. an oversight on my part-an oversight combined with the
fact that Ahoy! was going to press and they kind of wanted
CRITIQUING GYPSY PILOT the finished program to go with my column...
Gypsy Pilot (December) was a long one —about 150 More telling, however, is the fact that there is no sound
disk sectors when it is typed in and saved. And if you've with the game. It should have had sound. When the ship
played it, you know that even though it is certainly a com is moving, it should make one kind of sound; when fuel
plete game, it is certainly not a finished game. and supplies get low. there should be two different warn
One of the biggest problems with it is that every now ing sounds. Filling up with fuel and supplies should cause
and then, as you're coming hack into space after a visit another sound. Each kind of message on a planet should
from a planei, the game seems to slop and hang for a be introduced with a unique sound or tune. And there
hoooong time. Unfortunately, this is unavoidable as long should have been introductory and closing music.
as the game depends on C-64 BASIC string manipula It could have had all that. too. But you would have had
tion. Because of the clumsy way BASIC handles string to type in another 50 sectors worth of program. There
formation in memory, lots of garbage is crcated-sec- are limits to how much we can expect you to do. (You
tions of suing memory that once contained useful strings didn't know that, did you?)
bul now arc used for nothing, livery siring operation caus Most important of all is the fact that the on-planet events
es more garbage to be created. Finally, string memory are selected with a second-rate artificial-intelligence routine.
is Filled up. The only solufion is to do "garbage collec The algorithms deciding what you find, and what happens
tion" by issuing a command like this: to you, and how the aliens or human respond to you, are
primitive a! best. Some of the flaws can be solved by fine-
X=FRr'(9) tuning. Others require new algorithms.
All these Haws in the game are the sort of thing that
The X and the 9 in thai statement are dummies. They would turn up in months of testing before a commercial
don't do anything, but they have to be ihere. The FRE() game was released. I don't have the luxury, with a month
function gets rid of the garbage and tightens down string ly column, of doing that kind of play-testing and fine-tun-
memory, then returns the amount of memory between ing-as it was, I stretched the patience of the folks at
the highest array variable address and (he lowest siring Ahoy! about as far as they can go before they send some
memory address-that's how much memory is left for body to North Carolina to break my knees.
your program to use. In the middle of the game, of course, What's disgusting is the alarming number of commer
we don't care how much memory is left. But we still have cial games that are released without having solved prob
to use the FRE( ) function to get rid of the garbage. And lems like these. You've seen some of them—you may even
it takes practically forever io do the job. have bought some. And you sit there after playing a few
The solution? It's quite simple-don't use BASIC'S times, wondering how in the world somebody got paid
string handling. Ideally, the game's text would be han for turning out something as unpolished and unprofes
dled in machine language, by loading ranges of text into sional as that. It's one thing to find flaws in an example
memory and then copying them into screen memory as game that you type in from a magazine column that is
needed. But if I had done that, none of the program would trying to teach game programming techniques. It's some
have been in BASIC, and so it would all have been in thing else to plunk down fifty bucks for a supposedly
comprehensible to those of you who aren't yet into ma professional game that doesn't work any better.
chine language. So the garbage collection is the price So when you get your game program to a point where
you pay for having the game come out in a column on it's playable, like my Gyp.sy Pilot game, please don't think
BASIC game programming! that your work is finished. You still have weeks and
There are other things that should be done to finish months of line-tuning ahead of you before it's ready to go.
the game properly. For one thing, it would be better if The difference is that once you have a working ver
you couldn't leave a planet and then immediately return sion, it stops being a program and starts being a game.
the ship to the same onscreen sprite and have it be a dif Instead of lines and lines of code, you experience it as
ferent "world" when you land! That should be fairly sim events on a screen. Believe me. it makes the work a lot
ple to accomplish, by not letting the player visit a planet easier. D SEE PROGRAM LISTINGS ON PAGE 102

96 AHOY!
PROGRAM LISTING^
Attention new Ahoy.' readers! You must read the following information very
carefully prior to typing in programs listed in Ahoy.' Certain Commodore
characters, commands, and strings of characters and commands will appear in
a special format. Follow the instructions and listing guide on this page.

n (he following pages you'll End several pro and SHIFT J by [s J],
grams that you can enter on your Commo Additionally, any character that occurs more than two
dore computer. But before doing so. read this times in a row will be displayed by a coded listing. For
entire page carefully. example, [3 "[LEFTf] would be 3 CuRSoR left com
To insure clear reproductions, AJtoyts program listings mands in a row. [5 "[s EP]"1] would be 5 SHIFTed En
arc generated on a daisy wheel printer, incapable of prim glish Pounds, and so on. Multiple blank spaces will be
ing the commands and graphic characters used in Com noted in similar fashion: e.g., 22 spaces as [22 ""|.
modore programs. These arc therefore represented by Sometimes you'll find a program line that's too long
various codes enclosed in brackets j ]. For example: the for the computer to accept (C-64 lines are a maximum
SHIFT CLR/HOME command is represented onscreen of 80 characters, or 2 screen lines long; VIC 20 lines,
by a hear! J2 The c°dc we use in our listings is a maximum of 88 characters, or 4 screen lines). To en
[CLEAR). The chart below lists all such codes which ter these lines, refer to the BASIC Command Abbrevia
you'll encounter in our listings, except for one other spe tions Appendix in your User Manual.
cial case. On the next page you'll find our Bug Repellent pro
The other special case is the COMMODORE and grams lor the VIC 20 and C-64. The version appropri
SHIFT characters. On the front of most keys are two sym ate for your machine will help you proofread our pro
bols. The symbol on the left is obtained by pressing that grams after you type them. (Please note: the Bug Repel
key while holding down the COMMODORE key; the lent line codes that follow each program line, in the
symbol on the right, by pressing that key while holding whited-out area, should not be typed in. See the instruc
down the SHIFT key. COMMODORE and SHIFT char tions preceding each program.)
acters arc represented in our listings by a lower-case "s" Also on the following page you will find Flankspeed,'
or "c" followed by the symbol of the key you must hit. our ML entry program, and instructions on its use. □
COMMODORE J, lor example, is represented by [c Jj, Call Ahoy! at 212-239-0855 with any problems.

» lit II When Vui


VlLI St« ll Mtatt. Will S«- \iiu Sit II MrdH-

[CLEAR] Vrvi-n Ck-jr mi in CI.K HOME [BLACK] Black CVIKI. I


[HOME] I limit CI.K HOMK [WHITE] I'VIKI. •

[UP] Ciuxir I p SMIt'l t CKSKI [RED] Kill CMKI. .1


[ DOWN ] Cursor Dimn ( Ck.SK + [CYAN] < lail CVIK!. 4
[LEFT] i 'iirmr l«ll siiiir ■•■CHSK-* [PURPLE] Piirpti- CNTHI. t
L1 M

[RIGHT] Cursor Killlli ♦( USK— H [GREEN] (irvcii CMKI. A


[SS] Shi ft I'd S|);nv SMI I I S]bjit' [BLUE] llllU.' CMKI. 7

[INSERT] Iri-tri SH1F1 [NST'ltEt. [YELLOW] V'ltim CMKI x III


[DEL] (Mete INST7DKI [Fl] hiillilifill 1 n 5
[RVSON] Ki-u-rw On CNTR1. t [F2] 1-uik'lifiu 2 MIIKI M ■
[RVSOFF] Kcicnc on CMKI. I) [F3] himliufi .1

[UPARROW] t p \rr*iw » 41 [F4] t-|11HJiioil 4 M B


[BACKARROW] [F5] KuiKihm 5 K5 II
[PI] I'] [F6] htintf ion to SHIF1' IS
Kiq-lish Hill I ill [F7] KiiEK'liiui 7

[F8] Kiiliitiiin .': sum1 n

AHOY! 97
IMDflPTAMTI Letters on white background are Bug Repellent line codes. Do not enter them! This page and page 113 explain Ihese
11VI r Ull I HIM I ! codes and provide olher essential information on entering Ahoy.' programs. Read these pages before entering programs,
contradictions occur. LIST each line. spot the error-., and correct
BUG REPELLENT them.
is program will lei you debug any Ahoy! program. Follow in •5000 FORX«49152TO49488:READY:POKEX,Y:NEXT:END GJ
structions for VIC 20 (cassette or disk) i>r C-64. •5001 DATA32,161,192,165,43,133,251,165,44,133 DL
VIC 20 VERSION ■5002 DATA252,160,0,132,254,32,37,193,234,177 DB
•5003 DATA251,208,3,76,138,192,230,251,208,2 OF
By Michael Kleinert and David Barron •5004 DATA230,252,76,43,192,76,73,78,69,32 KN
For cassette; type in and save the Bitf- Repellent program, then
•5005 DATA35,32,0,169,35,160,192,32,30,171 CA
lype RUN 6300O[RETURN|SYS 828[RETURN1, Ifyou typed the
•5006 DATA160,0,177,251,170,230,251,208,2,230 CE
pnijrrjm properly, it will generate a set of two-letter line codes thai
■5007 DATA252,177,251,32,205,189,169,58,32',210 JE
will match those listed to the right of the respective program lines.
•5008 DATA255,169,0,133,253,230,254,32,37,193 CL
Once you've goi a working Hit/t Repellent, type in the program
you wish to check. Save it and type the RUN and SYS commands •5009 DATA234,165,253,160,0,76,13,193,133,253 NI3
listed above once again, then compare the line codes generated to •5010 DATA177,251,208,237,165,253,41,240,74,74 MIS
those listed in thi- magazine, if you spot a discrepancy, a typing ■5011 DATA74,74,24,105,65,32,210,255,165,253 EP
error exists in that line. Important: you must u.se exactly the same ■5012 DATA41,15,24,105,65,32,210,255,169,13 GH
spacing as the program in the magazine. Hue to memory limitations •5013 DATA32,220,192,230,63,208,2,230,64,230 AN
cm the VIC. the VIC Bug Repellent will register an error if your •5014 DATA251,208,2,230,252,76,11,192,169,153 NG
spacing varies from what's printed. •5015 DATA160,192,32,30,171,166,63,165,64,76 BF1
You may type SYS H2N as many times us you wish, but if you •5016 DATA231,192,96,76,73,78,69,83,58,32 EP
use the cassette for anything, type RUN 6.KXK) to restore the
•5017 DATAO,169,247,160,192,32,30,171,169,3 PJ
Repellent. •5018 DATA133,254,32,228,255,201,83,240,6,201 FK
When your program has been disinfected you may delete all lines
■5019 DATA80,208,245,230,254,32,210,255,169,4 FL
from 63000 on. (Be sure llie program you lype doesn't include lines
•5020 DATA166,254,160,255,32,186,255,169,0,133 CL
above 63000!)
■5021 DATA63,133,64,133,2,32,189,255,32,192 GC
Forili.sk: enter Bun Repellent, save it. and type RUN:NKW
[RETURN]. Type in the program you wish to check, then SYS H28, •5022 DATA255,166,254,32,201,255,76,73,193,96 NN
To pause the line codes listing, press SHIFT, •5023 DATA32,210,255,173,141,2,41,1,208,249 Nil
To semi the list to the printer type OPEN 4,4:CMD 4:SYS ■5024 DATA96,32,205,189,169,13,32,210,255,32 IM
828| RETURN |. When the cursor comes buck, lype •5025 DATA204,255,169,4,76,195,255,147,83,67 KG
PRINTiWiCLOSE 4[RETURN1- •5026 DATA82,69,69,78,32,79,82,32,80,82 DC
•63000 F0RX=828TO1023:READY:POKEX,Y:NEXT:END AC •5027 DATA73,78,84,69,82,32,63,32,0,76 ML
•63001 DATA169,0,133,63,133,64,165,43,133,251 JL •5028 DATA44,193,234,177,251,201,32,240,6,138 GN
•63002 DATA165,44,133,252,160,0,132,254,32,228 DF •5029 0ATA113,251,69,254,170,138,76,88,192,0 JK
■63003 DATA3,234,177,251,208,3,76,208,3,230 0E •5030 DATAO,0,0,230,251,208,2,230,252,96' NA
■63004 DATA251,208,2,230,252,169,244,160,3,32 OH •5031 DATA170,177,251,201,34,208,6,165,2,73 DM
•63005 DATA30,203,160,0,177,251,170,230,251,20 •5032 DATA255,133,2,165,2,208,218,177,251,201 JA
8 K0 •5033 DATA32,208,212,198,254,76,29,193,0,169 FM
•63006 DATA2,230,252,177,251,32,205,221,169,58 JJ •5034 DATA13,76,210,255,0,0,0 PA
•63007 DATA32,210,255,169,0,133,253,230,254,32 OK
■63008 DATA228,3,234,165,253,160,0,170,177,251 LG
FOR THE C-64
•63009 DATA201,32,240,6,138,113,251,69,254,170 BP
■63010 DATA138,133,253,177,251,208,226,165,253 By Gordon F. Wheat
,41 DD Fkmkspecil will allow you lo enter machine laniiuape 4/wy.1 pro
■63011 DATA240,74,74,74,74,24,105,65,32,210 EK grams without an\ mistakes. Once;on hnvc typed [lie program in.
save it for future use. While entering an Ml. program with
■63012 DATA255,165,253,41,15,24,105,65,32,210 F0
Flaahpeed there is no need 10 enter spaces 01 hit the carriage return
-63013 DATA255,169,13,32,210,255,173,141,2,41 PK
This is ail done automatically. If you make an error in a line a Ivll
•63014 DATA1,208,249,230,63,208,2,230,64,230 CB
will rinu and you uiil he asked In enter it again. To LOAD in a
•63015 DATA251,208,2,230,252,76,74,3,169,236 KH program Saved uith Ftanksptvtl use LOAD "name".1.1 for tape,
•63016 DATA160.3,32,30,203,166,63,165,64,32 DP or LOAD "*name".8.1 for disk. The function ke>s inn) be used alici
•63017 DATA205,221,169,13,32,210,255,96,230,25 the starting and ending addresses have been entered,
1 EL fi -SAVEs what you have entered so far.
•63018 DATA208,2,230,252,96,0,76,73,78,69 01 \~S—LOAD.s in a program worked on previously,
■63019 DATA83,58,32,0,76,73,78,69,32,35 FG f5—To continue on a line you stopped on alter LOADing in the
■63020 DATA32,0,0,0,0,0 LE previously saved work.
17 - Scans through the program ii> locale a particular line, or to find
oul where you stopped the last time you entered the program 17
C-64 VERSION
iempor;inly freezes the output as well.
By Michael Kleinert and David Barron •5 POKE5328O,12:POKE53281,11■ LL
Type in. SAVE, and RUN the /%■ Repellent. Type NEW. then •6 PRTNT"[CLEAR][c 8][RVSON][15" "]rLANKSPEED[
ijpe in or LOAD the Aitttyl program you wish in check. When [hut's
15" "]"; ED
done, SAVb your program (don't RUN it!) and type ,SYS 49152
■10 PRItJT"[RVS0N][5" "]MISTAKEPR00F ML ENTRY P
(RETURN).
R0GRAM[6" "]" MC
To pause ihe listing depress and hi>kl the SHIFT keV.
Compare the codes your machine generates i<> the codes listed •15 PRINT"[RVSON][9" "]CREATKD BY G. F. WHEATf
Qii ill" DM
to ilie righl of the respective program lines. Ifyou spot n difference.
Lin error exisis in thai line. Jot down (lie number i>l lines where •20 PRINT"[RVS0N]t3" "]C0PR. 1984, ION INTKRNA

98 AHOY!
TIONAL INC.[3" "]" DH •1060 PRLMT"?ERROR IN SAVE" :.G0T01100 El
•30 FORA=54272T054296:POKEA,O:NEXT IM ■1070 PRIST"?ERROR IN L0AD":G0T01100 GL
■40 P0KE54272,4:POKE54273,48:P0KE54277,0:P0KE5 ■1080 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"END OF ML AREA":PRINT PG
4278,249:P0KE54296,15 NH •1100 POKE54276,17:POKE54276,16:RETURN BH
•70 K)RA=680TO699:READB:P0KEA,ii:NEXT KO •1200 OPES15,8,15:TNTini#15,A,AS:CLOSE15:PRlNTA
•75 DATA169,251,166,253,164,254,32,216,255,96 IIJ $:RETURN IM
•76 DATA169,0,166,251,164,252,32,213,255,96 JU ■2000 REM GET FOUR DIGIT HEX PC
•80 B$="STARTINC ADDRESS IN HEX":GOSUB2010:AD» ■2010 PRINT:PRINTB$;:INPUTS GM
B:SR=B HC ■2020 IFLEN(T$)O4THENG0SUB1020:G0T02010 II
■85 G0SUB2520:IFB=0THEN80 FO ■2040 FORA=1T04:AS=MII)${T$,A11);GOSUB2060:IFT{
■86 P0KE251,T(4)+T<3)*16:P0KE252,T(2)+T(l)*16 KE A)=16THENG0SUB1020:G0TO2010 AD
•90 B$="ENDING ADDRESS IN HEX":G0SUB2010:EN=B IF ■2050 KEXT:B-(T(1)*4O%)+(T(2)*256)+(T(3)*16)+
■95 GOSUB251O:IFB=OTHEN8fJ FP T(4):RF.TURN GF
•96 POKE254,T(2)+T(1)*16:B=T(4)+1+T(3)*16 MN ■ 2060 IFA$>"§"ANI)AS<"G"TilENT( A )-ASC( A$)-55: RET
■97 IFB>255THENB=B-255:POKE254,PEEK(254)+1 GE URN EH
•98 P0KE253,B:PRINT HN ■2070 IFA$>"/riANUAJ<":"Tllii:NT(A)=ASC(A$)-48:RET
■100 REM GET HEX, LINE IL URN KP
•110 G0SUE3010:PRINT": [c P][LEFr]";:F0RA=0T08 FG ■2080 T(A)=16iRETURN ' NP
-120 F0RB-0T01:G0T0210 MD ■2500 REM ADRESS CHECK LI
■125 NEXTB ME ■2510 IFAD>ENTHEN1030 MI
•130 A%(A)=T(l)+T(0)*16:IFAD+A-l=ENTHEN310 LH ■2515 IFB<SRORB>ENTHEN1W; MG
•135 PRINT" [c P][LEFT.]"; IK •2520 IFB<2560R(B>40960ANDIi<49152)0RB>53247THE
•140 NEXTA:T=AD-(INT(AD/256)*256):PRINT" " PD N1050 MI
•150 F0RA=OTO7:T=T+A%(A):IFT>255THENT=T-255 LK -2530 RETURN IM
•160 NEXT IA •3000 REM ADDRESS TO HEX EB
•170 IFA%(8)OTTHENG0SUB1010:C0T0110 FK •3010 AC=AD:A=4096:G0SUB3070 HG
• 180 F0RA=0T07:POKEAD+A,A%(A):NEXT:AD=AD+8:COT •3020 A=256:GOSUB3070 CE
0110 MN ■3030 A=16:GOSUB3O7O PN
■200 REM GET HEX INPUT AB •3040 A=1:GOSUB3O7O MJ
•210 GETA$:IFA$=""THr,N210 HO •3060 RETURN IM
■211 IFA$=CHR$(2O)T!I1'N27O GC •3070 T=INT(AC/A):TFT>9THKNAS=:CHR$(T+55):G0T03
•212 IFA$=CHRS(133)THEN4000 MD 090 CJ
•213 IFA$=CHR$(134)THEN4100 KF •3080 A$=CHRS(T+48) JP
•214 IFA$=CHRS(135)THENPRINT" ":GOTO45OO GF. • 3090 PRINTA$;:AC=AC-A*T:RETURN AC
•215 IFAS=C1IR$(136)THENPRINT" ":GOTO47OO BJ •4VjO A$="**SAVE**":GOSUB42OO AI
•220 IFA$>"@"ANDA$<"G"THE>iT(B)=ASC(A$)-55:G0TO •4050 OPEN'1,T,1,A$:SYS680:CLOSE1 LH
250 GM •4060 IFST-OTIIENEND EO
■230 IFA$>'7"ANDA$<":"THENT(B)=ASC(A$)-48:G0T0 •4070 GOSUB1060:IFT=8TliENG0SUB1200 FJ
250 LE •4080 GOT04000 FF,
■240 G0SUB1100:G0T0210 LL •4100 A$="**LOAD**":GOSUB4200 AB
•250 PRINTA.$"[c P][LEFT]"; OA •4150 OPEN1,T,O,A$:SYS69O:CLOSE1 MF
•260 GOTO125 CG •4160 IFST=64THEN110 JH
•270 IFA>0THEN280 OP -4170 GOSUB1O7O:IFT=8THF,NGOSUI512OO CM
•272 A—1:IFB-1THEN29O OB •4180 G0T04100 FO
•274 G0TO140 CJ •4200 PRINT" ":PRINTTAB(14)AS FG
■ 280 IFB=OTHENPRINTCHR$(20) ;C!!R$( 20);:A-A-l HG •4210 PRINT:A$="":INPUT'TILENAME";A$ CM
-285 A-A-l BE •4215 IFA$=""THEN4210 GF
•290 PRINTCHRS(2O);:GOTO14O KH •'4220 PRINT:PRINT"TAPE OR DISK?":PRINT DF
■30f) REM LAST LINE AD • 4230 CETB$:T=l:IFB$="1)"THENT=8: : "+A$:RE
•310 PRINT" ":T>AD-(INT(AD/256)*256) GJ TURN IG
■320 FORB=OTOA-l:T=T+A%(B):IFT>255THENT=T-255 PL •4240 IFB$O"T1<THEN4230 FN
■330 NEXT IA ■4250 RETURN IM
■340 IFA%(A)OTTHENG0SUB1010:G0T0110 KF •4500 B$="CONTINUE FROM ADDRESS":G0SUB2010:AD
■350 FORB=OTOA-1:POKEAD+B,A%(B):NEXT UN B DK
■360 PRINT:PRINT"YOU ARE FINISHED!":GOT04000 ON •4510 GOSUB2515:IFB=0THEN4500 MA
•1000 REM BELL AND ERROR MESSAGES FL ■4520 PRINT:GOTOU0 . 01
■1010 PRINT:PRINT"LINE ENTERED INCORRECTLY":PR ■4700 BS="BEGIN SCAN AT ADDRESS":G0SUB2010:AD
INT:GQT01100 DH B FH
•1020 PRINT:PRINT"INPUT A k DIGIT HEX VALUE!": •4705 COSUB2515:IFB=OTHEN47OO NK
G0T01100 JA •4706 PRINT:GOTO4740 DI
•1030 PRINT:PRINT"ENDING IS LESS THAN STARTING •4710 FORB=0TO7:AC=PEEKCAD+B):G0SUB3O3O:IFAD+B
!":B=0:C0T01100 liD =ENTHENAD=SR:G0SUB1080:GOT0110 BK
•1040 PRINT:PRINT"ADDRESS NOT WITHIN SPECIFIED •4715 PRINT" ";:NEXTB EC
RANGE!":B=0:G0T01100 AG ■4720 PRINT:AD=AD+8 GN
■1050 PRINT:PRINT"NOT ZERO PAGE OR ROM!":B=0:G ■4730 GETBS:IFB$=CHR$(136)THEN1IO MN
0T01100 KN ■4740 GOSUB3010:PRINT": ";:GOTO471O JD
AHOY! 99
Letters on whim background are Bug Repellent line codes. Do not enter them! Pages 97 and 9B explain these codes
and provide other essential information on entering Ahoy! programs. Refer to these pages before entering any programs!

■438 IF A=3THENT=T+1 LB
COMPUPHOBIA •439 IF A=4THENT=T+0 IH
■448 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 530 FF
FROM PAGE 77 ■449 PRINT'TRY A NUMBER, 1-4":GOTO 430 Bll
SLIPSHOD VERSION
•530 PRINT"AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINES ARE" NC
'10 PRINT"SLIPSHOD VERSION" PP ■531 PRINT"1) A NUISANCE." EO
■20 PRINT" COPYRIGHT 1985 CHERYL PETERSON ■532 PRINT"2) A WASTE OF TIME." FL
PA ■533 PRINT"3) SOMETIMES CONVENIENT." BH
■130 PRINT"USING MY MICROWAVE'S AUTOMATIC ■534 INPUT"4) WONDERFUL."jA LN
TIMER AND PRE-PROGRAMMED" NB ■536 IF A=lTHENT=T+3 LB
■131 PRINT"COOKING CYCLES DISTURBS ME" ON ■537 IF A=2THENT=T+2 JH
■132 PRINT"1) NONE" JK ■538 IF A=3THENT=T+1 LB
■133 PRINT"2) A LITTLE" KN ■539 IF A=4THENT=T+0 IH
■134 PRINT"3) SOME" tG ■548 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 630 FG
■135 INPUT"4) VERY MUCH";A JB ■549 PRINT"TRY A NUMBER, l-4":G0T0 530 BA
■136 IF A=1THENT=O .IP ■630 PRINT"! FIND USING A SELF CORRECTING
•137 IF A=2THENT=1 JF TYPEWRITER" PG
■138 IF A=3THENT=2 KD ■631 PRINT"1) FRIGHTENING." LB
•139 IF A=4THENT=3 JJ ■632 PRINT"2) CONFUSING." EG
•148 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 230 FK ■633 PRINT"3) BETTER THEN USING A MANUAL.
■149 PRINT"TRY A NUMBER, 1-4":GOTO 130 EE KI
•230 PRINT"USING THE AUTOMATIC RECORDING 634 INPUT"4) A ROYAL PAIN COMPARED TO US
FEATURES OF A VCR BOTHERS ME" ' LM< ING A WORD PROCESSOR.";A KB
■232 PRINTM1) NONE" JK •636 IF A-1THENT-T+3 LB
■233 PRINT"2) A LITTLE" KN •637 IF A-2THENT-T+2 JH
■234 PRINT"3) SOME" IG ■638 IF A-3THENT-T+1 LB
■235 INPUT"4) VERY MUCH";A JB ■639 IF A=4THENT=T+0 IH
•236 IF A=1THENT=T+O KM ■648 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 730 GH
•237 IF A=2THENT=T+1 JE ■649 PRINT"TRY A NUMBER, 1-4":GOTO 630 BB
■238 IF A=3THENT-T+2 LA •730 PRINT"SETTING THE AUTO-DIALING FEATU
•239 IF A=4THENT=T+3 N RE ON A PHONE IS" GH
■248 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 330 FL •731 PRINT"1) BEYOND ME." AB
■249 PRINT"TRY A NUMBER, 1-4":GOTO 230 EF •732 PRINT"2) TOO MUCH BOTHER." LE
■330 PRINT'VATCHING A TELEVISION SET OR M •733 PRINT"3) WORTH IT IN CONVENIENCE." IA
ONITOR FOR HOURS" AJ •734 INPUT"4) EASY, BUT I LET MY COMPUTER
•331 PRINT"1) GIVES ME A HEADACHE, SO I D DO ALL MY DIALING.";A IA
ON'T DO IT." KG •736 IF A=lTHENT=T+3 LB
■332 PRINT"2) MAKES MY EYES HURT SO I DON ■737 IF A=2THENT=:T+2 JH
'T DO IT." MM •738 IF A=3THENT=T+1 LB
■333 PRINT"3) KEEPS ME PLEASANTLY OCCUPIE ■739 IF A=4THENT=T+0 IH
D," UP ■748 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 830 GA
■334 INPUT"4) IS A WAY OF LIFE.";A CC •749 PRINT"TRY A NUMBER, l-4":G0T0 730 BC
■336 IF A=lTHENT=T+3 '.,13 ■830 PRINT"IF MY CAR'S DASHBOARD LOOKED L
•337 IF A=2THENT-T+2 JH IKE THE COCKPIT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE" PD
•338 IF A=3THENT=T+1 LB ■831 PRINT'T) I'D SELL IT" CH
•339 IF A=4THENT=T+0 IH ■832 PRINT"2) I'D IGNORE IT." MP
•348 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 430 FE •833 PRINT"3) EVENTUALLY I'D FIGURE EVERY
•349 PRINT"TRY A NUMBER, 1-4":GOTO 330 EG THING OUT." IL
•430 PRINT"A REMOTE CONTROL DEVICE FOR A •834 INPUT"4) I'D BE FIGURING OUT HOW TO
TELEVISION IS " DG GET COMPUTER MAPPING RUNNING";A LA
■431 PRINT"1) A NUISANCE." EO ■836 IF A=lTHENT=T+3 LB
•432 PRINT"2) A WASTE OF TIME." FL •837 IF A-2THENT-T+2 JH
•433 PRINT"3) SOMETIMES CONVENIENT." RH •838 IF A-3THENT-T+1 LB
•434 INPUT"4) WONDERFUL.";A LN •839 IF A-4THENT-T+0 IH
•436 IF A=lTHENT=T+3 LB •848 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 930 GB
•437 IF A-2THENT=T+2 JI1 •849 PRINT'TRY A NUMBER, 1-4":GOTO 830 CD
700 AHOY!
•930 PRINT"!1D LIKE TO HAVE A COMPUTER BE •1599 PRINTYOUR SCORE IS";T;"!" ME
CAUSE" LN •1600 PRIN'f'FORGET IT! IT'S HOPELESS. A C
■931 PRINT"1) IT'S A GREAT STATUS SYMBOL. LASSIC CASE OF COMPUPHOBIA." DF
ND •1610 PRINT"HOW DID YOU SURVIVE TAKING TH
•932 PRINT"2) MY KIDS WILL NEED ONE." CN IS TEST?!" MG
•933 PRINT"3) THERE MUST BE SOMETHING I C
STRUCTURED VERSION
AN DO WITH ONE." OF
•934 INPUT"4) I CAN THINK OF AT LEAST A D •10 PRINT"STRUCTURED VERSION" DN
OZEN THINGS TO DO WITH ONE";A AF •20 PRINT"COPYRIGHT 1985 CHERYL PETERSON" EB
•936 IF A-1THENT-T+3 LB •30 PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" OP
■937 IF A=2THENT=T+2 JH ■31 GET Z$:IF Z$=""THEN 31 it
•933 IF A=3THENT=T+1 LB •100 PRINT"[CLEAR)" HH
-939 IF A=4THENT=T+0 IH ■130 PRINT"USING MY MICROWAVE'S AUTOMATIC
-948 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 1030 KB TIMER AND PRE-PROGRAMMED" NB
•949 PRINT"TRY A NUMBER, l-4":G0T0 930 BM •131 PRINT"C0OKING CYCLES DISTURBS ME" DN
•1030 PRINT"I WOULDN'T GO THROUGH THE RID -132 GOSUB 10001 TI
ES AT EPCOT CENTER BECAUSE" OB •145 GOSUB 5000 FK
■1031 PRINT"1) I DON'T TRUST THOSE COMPUT •146 IF A%<00RA%>4 THEN 130 BG
ER RUN CONTRAPTIONS." CD ■150 GOSUB 10100 IN
■1032 PRINT"2) WHO CARES ABOUT TECHNO MUM •230 PRINT'USING THE AUTOMATIC RECORDING
BLE ANYWAY." EE FEATURES OF A VCR BOTHERS ME" LM
•1033 PRINT"3) I'D BE TOO BUSY EATING!" CA ■232 GOSUB 10001 IL
■1034 INPUT"4) I'VE ALREADY RIDDEN ON ALL -245 GOSUB 5000 FK
OF THEM";A DJ •246 IF A%<0ORA%>4 THEN 230 Bl,
•1036 IF A=lTHENT-T+3 LB •260 GOSUB 10100 [N
•1037 IF A»2THENT»T-t-2 JH •330 PRINT"WATCH1NG A TELEVISION SET OR M
•1038 IF A=3THENT=T+1 LR ONITOR FOR HOURS" AJ
•1039 IF A=4THENT=T+0 IH •331 PRPJT"1) GIVES ME A HEADACHE, SO [ D
•1048 IF A>0ANDA<5THEN GOTO 1100 JP ON'T DO IT." KG
•1049 PRINT'TRY A NUMBER, 1-4":GOTO 1030 10 •332 PRItJT"2) MAKES MY EYES HURT, SO I DO
•1100 INPUT "HOW MANY COMPUTERS DO YOU OW N'T DO IT." FL
N";A BP •333 PRINT"3) KEEPS ME PLEASANTLY OCCUPIE
•1105 IF A>10 THEN I'RIN'f'TRY A NUMBER LES D." DP
S THAN 11" BK •334 INPUTS) IS A WAY OF LIFE.";A% FP
•1110 IF A>10 THEN GOTO 1100 ML •340 GOSUB 5000 FK
•1120 IF T>10 OR T=10 THEN T=T-A NC •350 IF A%<00RA%>4 THEN 330 BI
•1300 IF T>10 THEN 1400 HL •360 GOSUB 10200 IK
■1310 PRINT"YOUR SCORE IS A MEASLY";T;"WH ■430 PRINT"A REMOTE CONTROL DEVICE FOR A
ICH MEANS YOU ARE AT HOME WITH" CG TELEVISION IS " DG
•1320 PRINT"THE COMING COMPUTER REVOLUTIO •431 GOSUB 10050 JJ
N. IF YOU AREN'T ALREADY ACTIVELY" PB ■440 GOSUB 5000 FK
•1330 PRINT"INVOLVED WITH THE BEASTIES, Y ■450 IF A%<00RA%>4 THEN 430 BN
OU SHOULD BE." CO ■460 GOSUB 10200 IK
•1340 END IC • 530 PRINT"AUTOMATIC TELLER MACHINES ARE" NC
•1400 IF T>20 THEN 1500 GF •531 GOSUB 10050 JJ
•1405 PRINT'YOUR SCORE IS";T;"." PC •540 GOSUB 5000 FK
•1410 PKINT"WITH A VERY SLIGHT ATTITUDE A •550 IF A%<00RA%>4 THEN 530 BK
DJUSTMENT, YOU COULD BE" AA •560 GOSUB 10200 IK
•1420 PRINT"HAPPILY ENJOYING THE BENEFITS •630 PRINT"I FIND USING A SELF CORRECTING
OF A COMPUTER COMPANION." N] TYPEWRITER" PG
■1440 END EC •631 PRINT"1) FRIGHTENING." LB
■1500 IF T>25 THEN 1600 FD •632 PRINT"2) CONFUSING." EG
•1505 PRINT"YOUR SCORE IS";T;"." Pi •633 PRINT"3) BETTER THAN USING A MANUAL.
■1510 PRINT"GETTING YOU INTO COMMUNION WI HM
TH A COMPUTER WILL TAKE" EJ •634 INPUT"4) A ROYAL PAIN COMPARED TO US
•1520 PRINT"A TREMENDOUS EFFORT. BETTER 0 ING A WORD PROCESSOR.";A% LN
FF LEAVING TO THE NEXT GENERATION." OP •640 GOSUB 5000 FK
■1540 END IC •650 IF A%<0ORA2>4 THEN 630 DP

AHOYI 101
IMPORTANT I Letters on white background are Bug Repellent line codes. Do not enter theml Pages 97 and 98 explain these codes
and provide other essential information on entering Ahoy! programs. Reler to these pages before entering any programs!

•660 GOSUB 10200 IK N. IF YOU AREN'T ALREADY ACTIVELY" PB


•730 PRINT"SETTING THE AUTO-DIALING FEATU ■1330 PRINT"INVOLVED WITH THE BEASTIES
RE ON A PHONE IS" GH OU SHOULD BE." CO
•731 PRINT"1) BEYOND ME." AB •1340 END IC
•732 PRINT"2) TOO MUCH BOTHER." LE •1400 IF T>20 THEN 1500 GF
■733 PRINT"3) WORTH IT IN CONVENIENCE." IA •1405 PRINT"YOUR SCORE IS";T;"." PC
■734 INPUT"4) EASY, BUT I LET MY COMPUTER •1410 PRINT"WITH A VERY SLIGHT ATTITUDE A
DO ALL MY DIALING.";A% NC DJUSTMENT, YOU COULD BE" AA
•740 GOSUB 5000 FK ■1420 PRINT"HAPPILY ENJOYING THE BENEFITS
•750 IF A%<00RA%>4 THEN 730 DM OF A COMPUTER COMPANION." NI
•760 GOSUB 10200 IK ■1440 END IC
•830 PRINT'IF MY CAR'S DASHBOARD LOOKED L ■1500 IF T>25 THEN 1599 HC
IKE THE COCKPIT OF THE SPACE SHUTTLE" PD ■1505 PRINT"YOUR SCORE IS";T;"." PC
•831 PRINT"1) I'D SELL IT" CH •1510 PRINT"GETTING YOU INTO COMMUNION WI
•832 PRINT"2) I'D IGNORE IT." MP TH A COMPUTER WILL TAKE A" LC
•833 PRINT"3) EVENTUALLY I'D FIGURE EVERY •1520 PRINT"MIRACLE. BUT STRANGER THINGS
THING OUT." IL HAVE HAPPENED. GOOD LUCK!" HM
•834 INPUT"4) I'D BE FIGURING OUT HOW TO ■1540 END IC
GET COMPUTER MAPPING SYSTEM RUNNING";A% MF ■1599 PRINT"YOUR SCORE IS";T;"!" ME
•840 GOSUB 5000 FK 1600 PRINT'FORGET IT! IT'o HOPELESS. A C
•850 IF A%<00RA%>4 THEN 830 EB LASSIC CASE OF COMPUPHOBIA." DP
•860 GOSUB 10200 IK •1610 PRINT"HOW DID YOU SURVIVE TAKING TH
•930 PRINT"I'D LIKE TO HAVE A COMPUTER BE IS TEST?!" MG
CAUSE" LN •2000 END IC
•931 PRINT"1) IT'S A GREAT STATUS SYMBOL. •5000 IF A%>0ANDA%<5THEN RETURN CJ
ND ■5005 PRINT"[CLEAR]'1 HH
•932 PRINT"2) MY KIDS WILL NEED ONE." CN •5010 PRINT"TRY CHOOSING AN INTEGER BETWE
•933 PRINT"3) THERE MUST BE SOMETHING I C EN 1 AND 4" NE
AN DO WITH ONE." OF •10001 PRINT"1) NONE" JK
•934 INPUT"4) I CAN THIN'K OF AT LEAST A D •10002 PRINT"2) A LITTLE" KN
OZEN THINGS TO DO WITH ONE";A% GA •10003 PRINT"3) SOME" IG
•940 GOSUB 5000 FK •10004 INPUT"4) VERY MUCH";A% KI
•950 IF A%<00RA%>4 THEN 930 DO •10005 RETURN IM
•960 GOSUB 10200 IK •10050 PRINT"1) A NUISANCE." EO
■1030 PRINT"I WOULDN'T GO THROUGH THE RID •10055 PRINT"2) A WASTE OF TIME." FL
ES AT EPCOT CENTER BECAUSE" OB •10060 PRINT"3) SOMETIMES CONVENIENT." BH
•1031 PRINT"1) I DON'T TRUST THOSE COMPUT •10065 INPUT"4) WONDERFUL.";A% ND
ER RUN CONTRAPTIONS." ID •10070 RETURN IM
•1032 PRINT"2) WHO CARES ABOUT ALL THAT T ■10100 IF'A%=1THENT=T+O MI
ECHNO-MUMBLE ANYWAY." KE •10110 IF A%=2THENT=T+1 MM
-1033 PRINT"3) I'D BE TOO BUSY EATING!" CA •10120 IF A%=3THENT=T+2 MI
■1034 INPUT"4) I'VE ALREADY RIDDEN ON ALL •10130 IF A%=4THENT=T+3 KM
OF THEM";A% DP -10140 PRINT"[CLEAR]" HH
■1040 GOSUB 5000 FK •10150 RETURN IM
•1050 IF A%<00RA%>4 THEN 1030 FH •10200 IF A%=lTHENT=T+3 NF
■1060 GOSUB 10200 IX •10210 IF &%=2THENT=T+2 ML
•1100 INPUT "HOW MANY COMPUTERS DO YOU OW •10220 IF A%=3THENT=T+1 MJ
N";A% GF •10230 IF A%-4THENT-T+0 KP
■1105 IF A%>10 THEN PRINT"TRY A NUMBER LE •10240 PRINT"[CLEAR]" HII
SS THAN 11" CE •10250 RETURN IM
•1110 IF A%>10 THEN GOTO 1100 AE
•1120 IF T>10 OR T=10 THEN T=T-A% OK LITTLE WINDOWS
■1300 IF T>10 THEN 1400 HL
•1310 PRINT"YOUR SCORE IS A MEASLY";T;"WH
FROM PAGE 18
EXTENDED BACKGROUND
ICH MEANS YOU ARE AT HOME WITH" IG
1320 PRINT"THE COMING COMPUTER REVOLUTIO •1 REM *** EXTENDED BACKGROUND DEMO *** BP

W2 AHOY!
•9 REM SET EXTENDED BACKGROUND COLOR MODE CB -100 GOSUB 40:GOSUB 50:IF A$="" AND D=0 A
•10 POKE 53265,PEEK(53265)0R 64 AM ND JY-0 AND JB=O THEN 100 LE
•11 REM SET UP REGULAR STRING FOR BACKGRO •104 REM IF IT WAS A FUNCTION KEY, CHANGE
UND ¥) PH WINDOWS BJ
•12 A$(0)="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 123 -105 IF(D>132)AND(D<137)THEN QQ=D-133:P0K
4567890 !#$%&'()+-[EP][BACKARROW]*[UPARR E 53280,BC(QQ):GOTO 100 LA
0W]@=;:[]/.,<>?" El •109 REM IF IT WAS FUNCTION 2, QUIT FH
•13 A$(0)=A$(rj)+CHR$(34)+CHR$(34) LJ •110 IF D=»137 THEN SYS 58235 HG
•14 REM CONVERT REGULAR CHARACTERS TO SHI •114 REM IF IT WAS CLR KEY, CLEAR WINDOW BD
FTED CHARACTERS FOR BACKGROUND #1 OC •115 IF D=147 THEN HP(QQ)=ML(QQ):VP(QQ)=M
•15 A$(1)="":FOR 1=1 TO LEN(A$(O)):A=ASC( T(QQ):GOSUB 80:GOTO 100 JK
MID$(A$(O),I,1)) FM ■119 REM IF IT WAS HOME KEY, HOME CURSOR MD
•16 IF A<64 THEN A=A+128:G0T0 18 DJ •120 IF D=19 THEN HP(QQ)=ML(QQ):VP(QQ)=MT
•17 A=A+32 FB (QQ):GOTO 100 MG
•18 A$(1)=A$(1)+CHR$(A):NEXT DD ■124 REM DOWN CURSOR KM
•19 REM ADD REVERSE-ON/OFF CHARACTERS TO •125 IF D=17 THEN GOSUB 200:GOTO 100 BG
BOTH STRINGS FOR BACKGROUNDS 2 & 3 CJ •129 REM UP CURSOR CM
•20 A$(2)="[RVSON]"+A$(0)+"[RVSOFF]":A$(3 •130 IF D=145 THEN GOSUB 210:GOT0 100 FH
)="[RVSON]"+A$(1)+"[RVSOFF]" JD ■134 REM RIGHT CURSOR BO
•21 FOR 1=0 TO 3:PRINT A$(I):NEXT BA •135 IF D=29 THEN GOSUB 220:GOTO 100 AD
■139 REM LEFT CURSOR LD
WINDOWS
•140 IF D=157 THEN GOSUB 230:GOTO 100 FK
•1 REM *** WINDOWS *** NI ■144 REM RETURN KEY GE
•2 REM CREATES THE ILLUSION OF WINDOWS US •145 IF D-13 OR D-10 THEN GOSUB 200:HP(QQ
ING EXTENDED BACKGROUND COLOR MODE PA )=ML(QQ):GOTO 100 GJ
■13 REM SET EXTENDED COLOR MODE GO •149 REM DELETE KEY DJ
•14 POKE 53265,PEEK(53265)0R 64 AM •150 IF D=20 THEN GOSUB 240:GOTO 100 DM
•15 GOSUB 800 CI •164 REM IF IT WAS A COMMAND, BUT NOT A L
•19 REM EMPTY THE KEYBOARD BUFFER PP EGAL ONE, GO BACK FOR ANOTHER KEYREAD HP
•20 POKE 198,0 KB •165 IF D>0 THEN 100 ON
•30 GOTO 100 CF •169 REM IF IT WAS A CHARACTER, PRINT IT HM
-39 REM GET RAW JOYSTICK VALUE AND INVERT •170 PRINT VV$(VP(QQ))TAB(HP(QQ))FC$(QQ)C
IT (JOYSTICK PORT 2) AA H$(QQ,A);:GOSUB 220:GOTO 100 IA
•40 JY=255-PEEK(56320) LE ■190 GOTO 100 CF
•41 REM GET SEPARATE BUTTON VALUE CG •199 REM CURSOR DOWN ROUTINE LD
•42 JB=JY AND 16 PK •200 VP(QQ)=VP(QQ)+1:IF VP(QQ»MB(QQ) THE
•43 REM CLEAN UP JOYSTICK VALUE AND RETUR N VP(QQ)=MT(QQ) NN
N EJ •201 RETURN IM
•44 JY=JY AND 15:RETURN OP •209 REM CURSOR UP ROUTINE CH
•49 REM *# READ KEYBOARD HH •210 VP(QQ)-VP(QQ)-1:IF VP(QQ)<MT(QQ) THE
-50 D=O:GET A$:IF A$="" THEN RETURN LI N VP(QQ)=MB(QQ) El
•51 REM IS IT A COMMAND CHARACTER? PP •211 RETURN ' ' ' "' IM
•52 A=ASC(A$);IF A<32 OR A>95 THEN D=A:A= ■219 REM CURSOR RIGHT ROUTINE AC
0:A$="":RETURN GD •220 HP(QQ)«HP(QQ)+1:IF HP(QQ)>MR(QQ) THE
-53 REM CONVERT KEYSTROKE TO CODE FOR CH$ N HP(QQ)=ML(QQ):GOSUB 200 AP
() ARRAY HK •221 RETURN IM
•54 A=A-32:RETURN BD •229 REM CURSOR LEFT ROUTINE PI
•79 REM ** CLEAR WINDOW CK •230 HP(QQ)=HP(QQ)-1:IF HP(QQ)<ML(QQ) THE
•80 FOR I=MT(QQ)-1 TO MB(QQ)+1:PRINT VV$( N HP(QQ)=MR(QQ):GOSUB 210 AB
I)TAB(ML(QQ)-1); ME ■231 RETURN IM
•81 REM SET FOR NON-REVERSE OR REVERSE LK •239 REM DELETE KEY ROUTINE FF
■82 PRINT "[RVSOFF]";:IF QQ>1 THEN PRINT •240 GOSUB 230:PRINT VV$(VP(QQ))TAB(HP(QQ
"[RVSON]"; LL ))FC$(QQ)CH$(QQ,O); CP
•83 REM PRINT CORRECT PORTION OF WINDOW'S •241 RETURN IM
BLANK STRING KL •800 DIM VV$(24),CH$(3,63),FC$(3),BC(3),V
•84 PRINT LEFT$(BL$(QQ),MR(QQ)-ML(QQ)+2); P(3),HP(3),CB(3),MT(3),MB(3),ML(3),MR(3) CK
:NEXT:RETURN AE •801 REM INITIAL COLOR VALUES NF
•99 REM ** MAIN KEYREAD LOOP IL •802 FOR 1=0 TO 3:READ FC$(I),BC(I),CB(I)

AHOYI 103
in/IDDDTAMTI Letters on while background are Bug Repeilant line codes. Do not enter them! Pages 97 and 98 explain these codes
IIVII U fl inn I ! and provide other essential information on entering Ahoyl programs. Refer to these pages before entering any programs!

:NEXT PG 16 *
•803 DATA "[c 8][RVSOFF]",2,53281."[BLUE] 17 TABLEN EQU 512
[RVSOFF]",14,53282,"[c 2][RVSON]",7,5328 18 MVSRCE EQU $FB
S/'CYELLOWJCRVSON]11^ ,53284 BI 19 MVDEST EQU MVSRCE+2
■804 REM SET MARGINS & STARTING CURSOR P0 20 *
SITIONS U 21 LENPTR EQU $200
•805 FOR 1=0 TO 3:READ MT(I),MB(I),ML(I), 22 *
MR(I):VP(I)=MT(I):HP(I)=ML(I):NEXT JC 23 * SET CIA BITS TO OUTPUTS
•806 DATA 1,15,1,18,1,9,21,38,18,23,1,18, 24 *
12,23,21,38 EJ 25 LDA C2DDRA
•809 REM VERTICAL PLACEMENT STRINGS CE 26 ORA #3
•810 VV$(O)="[HOME]":FOR 1=1 TO 24:VV$(I) 27 STA C2DDRA
=VV$(I-l)+"[DOWN]":NEXT PB 28 *
•819 REM SET UNSHIFTED CHARACTER TABLES LG 29 * SWITCH TO UPPER CASE
■820 FOR 1=0 TO 63:CH$(0,I)=CHR$(I+32):CH 30 *
$(2,I)=CH$(0,I):NEXT GH 31 LDA #142
•821 REM SET SHIFTED CHARACTER TABLE IJ 32 JSR CHROUT
•822 FOR 1=0 TO 31:CH$(l,I)=CHR$(I+160):C 33 *
H$(3,I)=CH$(1,I):NEXT EG 34 * CLEAR RAM FOR CHR MEMORY
•823 FOR 1=32 TO 63:CH$(l,I)=CHR$(I+64):C 35 *
H$(3,I)=CH$(1,I):NEXT NF 36 LDA #48
•824 REM SET UNSHIFTED BLANK LINE IH 37 STA FRETOP
•825 BL$(0)="[38" It]":BL$(2)=BL$(0) PF 38 STA MEMSIZ
•826 REM SET SHIFTED BLANK LINE CP 39 *
•827 BL$(1)="":FOR 1=1 TO 39:BL$(1)=BL$(1 40 * TURN OFF KB INTERRUPT TIMER
)+CHR$(160):NEXT:BL$(3)=BL$(D EK 41 *
•829 REM INITIALIZE SCREEN ID 42 LDA CIACRE
•830 PRINT "[CLEAR]";:FOR QQ=O TO 3:G0SUB 43 AND #$FE
80 PA 44 STA CIACRE
•831 REM CLEAR WINDOW EDGES EA 45 *
■832 FOR I=MT(QQ)-1 TO MB(QQ)+1:POKE 1024 46 * SWITCH I/O OFF, CHAR ROM ON
+I*40+MR(QQ)+l,32+64*QQ:NEXT:NEXT MG 47 *
■833 QQ=O IL 48 LDA R6510
•834 FOR 1=0 TO 3:P0KE CB(I),BC(I):NEXT JE 49 AND #$FB
•835 POKE 53280,BC(QQ) GL 50 STA R6510
•890 RETURN IM 51 *
52 * COPY CHARACTERS INTO RAM
MOVECHRS 53 *
FROM PAGE 73 LDA KCHRBAS
Use of an assembler is required for entry of this program 55 STA MVSRCE
See introductory article. 56 LDA #>CHRBAS
1 * 57 STA MVSRCE+1
2 * MOVECHAR 58 *
3 * 59 LDA fKNEWADR
4 ORG $8000 60 STA MVDEST
5 * 61 LDA #>NEWADR
6 R6510 EQU $0001 62 STA MVDEST+1
7 NEWADR EQU $3000 63 *
8 CHRBAS EQU $D000 64 LDA #<TABLEN
9 CIACRE EQU $DCrjE 65 STA LENPTR
10 C2DDRA EQU $DD02 66 LDA #>TABLEN
11 MEMREG EQU $D018 67 STA LENPTR+1
12 CHROUT EQU $FFD2 68 *
13 * 69 * START MOVE
14 FRETOP EQU $0034 70 *
15 MEMSIZ EQU $0038 71 LDY
104 AHOYI
72 LDX LENPTR+1 -90 SP$="[38" "]" PK
73 BEQ MVPART -100 L$="[38t1="]" AB
74 MVPAGE LDA (MVSRCE).Y •110 PRINT "ELMAC <THE ELEMENTARY LEARNIN
75 STA (MVDEST),Y G MACHINE>"TAB(53)"PLAYS NIM" : PRINT NP
76 INY -120 OPEN 15,8,15 :REM DISK ERROR CHANNEL NK
77 BNE MVPAGE ■125 :REM MP
78 INC MVSRCE+1 •130 REM - - BEGIN NEW GAME - - NC
79 INC MVDEST+1 •140 :REM MP
80 DEX •150 :REM READ KEYBOARD BE
81 BNE MVPAGE •160 GOSUB 2110 FL
82 MVPART LDX LENPTR ■170 :REM PLAYER CHOSEN YET? EP
83 BEQ MVEXIT ■180 IF PL=O THEN 160 EH
84 MVLAST LDA (MVSRCE).Y ■190 :REM MOVE ARRAY FILLED YET? CG
85 STA (MVDEST),Y •200 IF FO=1 THEN 230 CA
86 INY •210 :REM FILL MOVE ARRAY INITIALLY AC
87 DEX •220 PRINT : PRINT "THINKING 13"."]" : GO
88 BNE MVLAST SUB 1580 : FO-1 NA
89 MVEXIT •230 IF NOT MDCHG THEN 300 ML
90 -240 :REM NEW GAME IN NEW MODE KB
91 * SWITCH I/O BACK IN •250 PRINT CHR$(147); : LL=5 : GOSUB 2400
92 : MDCHG=FALSE IB
93 LDA R6510 ■260 :REM ML
94 ORA #4 ■270 :REM <><><> MAIN GAME LOOP <><><><> HL
95 STA R651O •280 :REM ML
96 * ■290 :REM NEW GAME IN PREVIOUS MODE MF
97 * TURN TIMER BACK ON ■300 X=3 : Y=4 : Z=5 : MN=O ON
98 * •310 :REM DOES ELMAC GO FIRST? LE
99 LDA CIACRE •320 IF RND(0)<.5 THEN 380 BA
100 ORA #1 •330 :REM OTHER PLAYER'S MOVE PI
101 STA CIACRE ■340 ON PL GOSUB 810,1790 EH
102 * •350 :REM DID OTHER PLAYER WIN? FJ
103 * SET VIC MEMORY CONTROL REGIS1 •360 IF X+Y+Z=O THEN WIN=FALSE :GOTO 460 DK
104 * ■370 :REM ELMAC'S TURN OK
105 CLC •380 GOSUB'530 CI
106 LDA MEMREG ■390 :REM DID ELMAC LOSE? JP
107 AND #$F0 •400 IF TM=0 THEN WIN=FALSE : GOTO 460 PK
108 ADC #$oc •410 :REM DID ELMAC MAKE LAST MOVE? DL
109 STA MEMREG ■420 IF X+Y+Z-0 THEN WIN-TRUE : GOTO 460 MG
110 * •430 :REM READY FOR NEXT MOVE HD
111 RTS •440 GOTO 340 CD
112 •450 :REM GO TO GAME OVER ROUTINE EK
113 END •460 GOSUB 970 DA
114 •470 :REM HAS ANY KEY BEEN PRESSED? AA
•480 GET R$ : IF R$<>"" THEN 160 FP
ELMAC •490 :REM START NEXT GAME, SAME MODE AI
FROM PAGE 34 FLMflf PLAYS ||M -500 GOTO 300 BP
— -510 :REM <><><> END OF GAME LOOP <><><> IE
■10 REM JD -520 :REM HC
■15 REM RUPERT REPORT #26 OP -530 REM ELMAC'S MOVE JP
•20 REM ELMAC PLAYS NIM GA -540 :REM HC
•25 REM JD -550 :REM HOW MANY VALID MOVES? EO
•30 PRINT CHR$(147); JL -560 TM=A(X,Y,Z,O) KA
•40 :REM CL -570 :REM RETURN IF NO VALID MOVES; ELMAC
■50 :REM INITIALIZE NC LOST OF
•55 :REM CL -580 IF TM=0 THEN 790 FH
■60 DIM A(3,4,5,12),M(6,3) NP -590 :REM SELECT NEXT MOVE CO
•70 FALSE=O : TRUE=NOT FALSE MH -600 RN«INT(RND(O)*TM)+1 OH
•80 BK$="[10"[LEFT]M]M JC -610 :REM STEP THRU THE CHOICES TO FIND

AHOTI 105
IMPORTA MTI Lellers on while background are Bug Repellent line codes. Do not enter them! Pages 97 and 98 explain these codes
and provide other essential information on entering Ahoy! programs. Relerto these pages before entering any programs!

THE SELECTED MOVE DK •1170 M1=M(J,O) JE


■620 CT=0 : FOR P=1 TO 12 ID ■1180 A(X1,Y1,Z1,M1)=A(X1,Y1,Z1,M1)+1 OA
■630 CT=CT+A(X,Y,Z,P) : MV=P MG •1190 A(X1,Y1,Z1,O)=A(X1,Y1,Z1,O)+1 OF
•640 :REM FOUND MOVE VALUE (MV-1 TO 12) BJ •1200 NEXT J MM
•650 IF CT>=RN THEN P-12 EA •1210 :REM UPDATE SCREEN FM
•660 NEXT P NC •1220 IF PL=1 THEN 1260 HO
■670 :REM RECORD THE MOVE JD ■1230 IF WIN THEN PRINT "ELMAC WON. PRESS
•680 MN=MN+1 : M(MN,0)=MV : M(MN,1)=X GC ANY KEY." KL
•690 M(MN,2)=Y : M(MN,3)=Z NF •1240 IF NOT WIN THEN PRINT "YOU WON. PRE
•700 :REM SAVE THE BOARD FB SS ANY KEY." ED
•710 XQ-X : YO=Y : Z0=Z CK ■1250 GET R$ : IF R$="" THEN 1250 LG
•720 :REM MV STORES THE SELECTED MOVE IP •1260 FOR J=l TO 8 : PRINT SP$ : NEXT J :
•730 IF MV<4 THEN X-X-MV : GOTO 770 OJ LL=1 : GOSUB 2400 DI
•740 IF MV<8 THEN Y=Y-MV+3 : GOTO 770 JJ •1270 WSTRK=WSTRK+1 MN
•750 Z-Z-MV+7 JM •1280 IF NOT WIN THEN WSTRK=O FN
•760 :REM SHOW BOARD AFTER MOVE