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3.5.1 .
.
,
,
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,
. , , - , , , -
72


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.
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74

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4
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4.1 [15, 16].

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. 10-20 .
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()
5
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15

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78

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-
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4.4 [19,48].

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. , 79

()
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.
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. , - . , , , .

80

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4.4.3
[1,42].
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40 ,
81

G 0.85 (5-10)10-6 /. ,
110-72/. 10
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. . . ,
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.

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82

4.4.5 .
. [44]
, . ,
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15 .
4.5 .
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85

4.4.4, 4.4.5, 4.47 4.4.8 ),


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86


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2.
.
[50].
b. ,
, :
1. = +bx,
2. = b,
3. - = 1/(a+bx),
4. = +b lg x,
5. = b, ( b>0
, b<0 b
= 0 ),
6. = +b/x,
97

7. - = /(a+bx).
= f(x,a,b),
2-1,
.
,
, , . , 1 n. = (1+n)/2, =

1 n = 21n/(x1+xn). .
*1,
*2,
*3.
.
=(1+n)/2, - =

y1 yn

- 21yn/(y1+yn).
*1, *2, *3 , ,
:
/*1-/= 1- ,
/*1-/= 2- ,
/*1-/= 3- - (3),
/*2-/= 4- ,
/*2-/= 5- ,
/*3-/= 6- ,
/*3-/= 7- - (7).
=
min.
. , 2-1
2-1

1
521

2
308

3
240.5

4
204

5
183

98

6
171

7
159

8
152

9
147

y
500
400
300
200
100
0

*
*

* *

* *
x

1 2

4 5

. 2-1.

.
1. ,
. 1=1 9=9 = (1+9)/2= 5, =

1 9 = 3

= 2x1x9/(x1+x9)=1.8.
2. ,
: =5 *1= 180,
= 3 *2=240, = 1.8 *3= 341.
3. . =(1+n)/2= (521+147)/2= 334,

521 *147 =274, = 21n/


=
(y1+yn)=2*521*147/ (521+147)= =228.
4. *1, *2 *3 , ,
.
2-2.

99

2-2

\
1


=+bx

=+bx

y=a*bx

lgy

lg y=lg a+
x lg b

y=1/(a+bx)

1/y

1/y=a+bx

y=a+b lg x

lg x

y= a+ b lg x

y= a*xb

lg y

lg x

lg y = lg a+
b lg x

y= a+b/x

1/x

y= a+b(1/x)

y=x/(a+bx)

1/y

1/x

1/y=a/x+b


1= /y*1- yap/=
/180-334/=154
2=/y*1- y/=/180277/=97
3=/y*1y/=/180229/=49
4=/y*2yap/=/240334/=94
5=/y*2y/=/240277/=37
6=/y*3y/=/341334/=7
=min
7=/y*3y/=/341229/=112

6 =+b/x.
b
.
.
=+b/x =+b(1/x), b , :

(1/ x ) (1/ x )y (1/ x ) y


[ (1/ x )] n (1/ x )
2

a=

100

b=

(1/ x ) y n (1/ x ) y
[ (1/ x )] n (1/ x )
2

2-3.
2-3

\
1
2
1
521
2
308
3 240.5
4
204
5
183
6
171
7
159
8
152
9
147
2085.5

(1\)

3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
45

4
1
0.5
0.333
0.25
0.20
0.167
0.143
0.125
0.111
2.829

2
5
271441
94864
57840.3
41616
33489
29241
25281
23104
21609
598485.3

(1\)2
6
1
0.25
0.1111
0.0625
0.040
0.02778
0.02041
0.015625
0.012346
1.53977

(1\)

7
521
154
80.167
51
36.6
28.5
22.713
19
16.333
929.3143

8
521
309.86
239.72
204.65
183.61
169.58
159.56
152.04
146.19
2086.21

-1

(-1)2

9
0.713
-1.862
0.78
-0.65
-0.607
1.421
-0.558
-0.043
0.802
-0.004

10
0.50837
3.46704
0.60788
0.42185
0.36845
2.02019
0.31184
0.00187
0.64303
8.3505

n=9. 2, 4,
6, 7 :
=2085.5, (1/x)=2.829, (1/x)2=1.53977,
(1/x)y=929.3143
() (b) :
2.829 929.3143 1.53977 2085.5
a=
= 99.437
(2.829)2 9 1.53977
2.829 2085.5 9 929.3143
= 420.85
(2.829)2 9 1.53977
1=99.44+420.85/
3 , 8. 9. 9, 10. 9 10. :
b=

0 =

( )

1 2

n 1

8.3505 =1.022 <23.2


8
101

.
,
0.1 =0.12085.5/9=23.2
( )
2


R= 1 0 =

1.02 1.0
1

113

, R> 0.7
2
2
598485.3
2
= y =
(231.7 ) =113 9
n

()

(). -
().
, n- .
=0 + 1 + 22 +.nxn,
1, 2, .n- .
[35],
: y=k0q0(x)+k1q1(x)+k2q2(x)++kq(x).
n-1 . n- .
ui
= u , u = . n
2-4.

102

2-4

x=

yixi

xi2

xi2yi

xi3

xi4

xi3yi

xi5

xi6

2f(y)

3f(y)

u- u
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

-6

-12

36

72

-216

1296

-482

-7776

46656

2.9

2.1

10

100

-4

-40

16

160

-64

256

-640

-1024

4096

9.6

13.1

17

289

-3

-54

153

-27

81

-459

-243

729

16.3

20.6

33

1039

-1

-33

33

-2

-33

-1

35.6

37.7

51

2601

48.5

48.4

66

4256

+1

66

66

66

63.5

61.2

96

10

9216

+3

268

864

27

81

2592

243

729

99.8

95.3

120

11

14400

+4

480

16

1920

64

256

7680

1024

4096

121.2

117.6

172

13

29584

+6

1032

36

6192

216

1296

37152

7776

46656

170.3

175.3

567

63

61639

1730

124

9160

3268

45926

102964

103

1. .
yi=567 2 .2-4.
0.
0 =

567
= 63.
9

q0(x)=x0-1. 0f(y)=k0q0(x)=63.
. i2 4. i2= 61639. 0=i22
( yi ) =61639- 5672 =25918.
9
n

0 =

0
=
n 1

25918
=56.9.
9 1

2. .
ui=63. u =

ui 63
=
=7 i=ui- u
9
n

5.
yixi 6, yixi=1730.
i2 , 7 i2=124.
1730
= 13.95
1= i 2 i =
xi 124
1- q1(x)=x.
1q1(x)=13.95x.
k0q0(x)+k1q1(x)=63+13.95x.
1f(y)= 63+13.95x
1=0- 1i2= 25918-

1784.5
= =15.9.
7
0 1, .

13.952*124=1784.5 1 =

n2

104

3. 2- 3- .
i2i , 8 , xi2yi=9460. i3 , 9
, xi3=0. i4, 10
, xi4=3268.
2=

2
i

124
, b=
9

3
i
2
i

C2= xi4- b2xi3- A2 xi2= 3268-0*0-

0
= 0,
124

124
124 = 1559.56
9

2q2(x)

k2

x
=

2
i

y k0 xi2 k0 xi3
=
C2

9460 63 124 13.95 0


= 1.06
1559.56
124 2
= x - 13.78
q2(x)= (x2- b2x- A2)= x 2 0 x
9
k2q2(x)= 1.06(x2- 13.78)= 1.06x2-14.6

k0q0 (x)+k1q1(x) + k2q2(x)



2f(y)=

63+13.95x+1.06x2- 14.6= 1.06x2+13.95x+48.4


2=1- 222=1784.5- 1.0621559.56=32.12
2=

n3

32.12
=2.3
6

2=2.3 , 2- . = u- u =
u- 7 u, 2- x=u- 7.
105

2f(y)=

1.06(u- 7)2+ 13.95(u- 7)+ 48.4

2f(y)=

1.06u2+ 0.89u+ 2.74

3- .
xi3yi, 11 xi3yi= 45926.
i5, 12 , i5=0.
i6, 13 ,
xi6=102964. :
C3= xi5- b2xi4- A2xi3=0- 0*3268-

124
0= 0. D2= xi6- b2xi59

A2xi4= 102964- 0*0- 12.58*3264= 45025.778

1559.56
C
2
xi =
=
= 12.577, b3= 3
2
124
C2 xi2
xi
3

A3=

0
0

=0
1559.56 124
E3=D3- b3C3- A3xi4= 45025.78 - 0*0 12.58*3268= 3914.34
k3q3(x)
y x 3 k0 xi3 k1 xi4 k2C3
=
k 3= i i
E3

45926 63 0 13.95 * 3268 1.06 * 0


= 0.0862
3914.34
2 124
q3(x)= (x- b3)q2(x)- A3x= (x- 0) x
- 12.58 x= x3- 26.36 x
9

k3q3(x)= 0.0862(x3- 26.36x)= 0.0862 x3- 2.267 x


3-
3f(y)= k0q0(x)+ k1q1(x)+ k2q2(x)+k3q3(x)=
= 63+13.95x+1.06x2- 14.6+ 0.0862x3 - 2.267x
3
2
3f(y)= 0.0862x + 1.06x + 11.68x+48.4
106


3= 2- 323= 32.12-0.08622*3914.34= 3.15
3=

n4

3.15
=0.79
5

3>2 , ,
3- . 3
2 .
3f(x) u. , (u- 7) 3f(x).
3
2
3f(y)= 0.0862(u- 7) + 1.06(u- 7) + 11.68(u- 7)+48.4
3
2
3f(y)= 0.0862u - 0.75u +9.51u- 10.99
14 15 ,
2- 3- .
, [27].
x, z, u, v :
y= a0+ a1x + a2z + a3u + a4v.
a0, a1, a2, a3, a4 .
a0n + a1x + a2z + a3u + a4v = y
a0x + a1x2 + a2xz + a3xu + a4xv = xy
a0z + a1xz + a2z2 + a3zu + a4zv = zy
a0u + a1xu + a2zu + a3u2 + a4uv = uy
a0v + a1xv + a2zv + a3uv + a4v2 = vy
n, x, z, v, y . xz, xu,
xv, xy, u2, y2 .

x, z, x2, xz .
, (..)
107


Cii
Ai

0
C00
A00

x
C11
A11

z
C22
A22

U
C33
A33

v
C44
A44

S00
B00
1
S10
B10
b10
S20
B20
b20
S30
B30
b30
S40
B40
b40
S50
B50
b50

C10
A10
a10
S11
B11
1
S21
B21
b21
S31
B31
b31
S41
B41
b41
S51
B51
b51

C20
A20
a20
C21
A21
a21
S22
B22
1
S32
B32
b32
S42
B42
b42
S52
B52
b52

C30
A30
a30
C31
A21
a31
C32
A32
a32
S33
B33
1
S43
B43
b43
S53
B53
b53

C40
A40
a40
C41
A41
a41
C42
A42
a42
C43
A43
a43
S44
B44
1
S54
B54
b54

y
-

a50

a250/C00

a51

a251/C11

a52

a252/C22

a53

a253/C33

a54
S55
B55
1

a254/C44

0
x

B55/(n-5)


.
n=33 x= 706, x2= 16912, z = 701,
xz = 15486,
z2 =19625,
2
u = 2800, u = 359558, xu = 52617, zu = 68669,
v = 2425, v2 = 231553, xv = 52589, zv = 49223,
uv = 195131
y = 580.9 y2 = 11236.8, xy = 12545.9, zy = 12170.4,
uy = 48045, vy = 42210.3
:
a00 = b00 = a11 = b11 = a22 = b22 = a33 = b33 = a44 = b44 =a55 =b55 = 1
108

B00 = S00 = n = 33
S11 = x2 = 16912
S21 = xz = 15486
S32 = zu = 68669
S22 = z2 = 19625
B10 = S10 = x = 706
S31 = xu = 52617
S42 = zv = 49223
S33 = u2 = 359558
B20 = S20 = z = 701
S52 = zy = 12170.4
S41 = xv = 52589
B30 = S30 = u = 2800 S44 = v2 = 231553
S51 = xy = 12545.9 S43 = uv = 195131
B40 = S40 = v = 2425 S55 = y2 = 11236.8
S53 = uy = 48045
S54 = vy = 42210.3
B50=S50=y=580.9
(,
, C).
: ()
( + ).
1. 00=1:00= 1:33 = 3030303*10-8 6-8 .
2. S10=x=706, B10=S10*b00=706*1=706,
b10=B10:B00=706:33= 21.3939, S11=x2=16912,
B11=S11-b10B10=16912-21.3939*706=1808, b11=a11=1,
a10=b10*a00= 21.3939*(-1)= -21.3939,
A10 = a10:B11=-21.3939:1808=- 1.183291*10-8,
A11= a11:B11= 1: 1808= 53310*10-8
3. S20=z=701, B20=S20*b11= 701*1=701,
b20=B20:B00= 701:33= 21.2424, S21=xz= 15486,
B21=S21- b10*B20= 15486-21.3939*701= 489,
b21= B21:B11= 489:1808= 0.2705, S22=z2= 19625,
B22=S22-b20*B20-b21*B21=19625-21.2424*701-0.2705*489=4602,
b22=a22=1, a21=b21*a11=0.2705*(-1)=-0.2705,
a20=b20*a00+b21*a10= 21.2424*1- 0.2705*21.3939=-15.4554,
A22= a22:B22=1: 4602=21.730*10-8,
A20= a20:B22= -15.4554:4602= -335841*10-8,
A21= a21:B22= -0.2705: 4602 = -5878*10-8.
109

4. S30=u= 2800, B30= S30*b00=2800*1= 2800,


b30= B30:B00= 2800:33= 84.8485, S31=xu= 52617,
B31=S31- b10*B30= 52617-21.3939*2800= -7286,
b31= B31:B11= -7286:1808= -4.0299, S32= zu= 68669,
B32=S32-b20*B30-b21*B31=68669-21.2424*2800+
+0.2705*(-7286)=11160,
b32 = B32:B22= 11160:4602= 2.4250, S33=u2= 359558,
B33= S33- b30*B30- b31*B31- b32*B32=359558-84.8485*2800-(-4.0298)*(-7.286)- 11160*2.4250= 65554, b33= a33=1,
a32= b32*a22= 2.4250*(-1)=-2.4250, a31= b31*a11+b32*a21=
=(-4.0298*1-2.4250*0.2705)(-1)=4.6855,
a30=b30*a00+b31*a10+b32*a20=[84.8485*1+4.0298*(-21.3939)+
+2.4250*(-15.4554)](-1)= -133.5825,
A33= a33:B33= 1:65554= 1525*10-8,
A30= a30:B33= -133.5825:65554= - 203775*10-8,
A31= a31:B33= 4.6855:65554= 7147*10-8,
A32= a32:B33= - 2.4250:65554= - 3699*10-8,
5. S40=v=2425, B40=S40*b00=2425*1=2425,
b40=B40:B00=2425:33= 73.48, S41=xv=52589,
B41=S41-b10*B40=52589-21.3939*2425=709,
b41=B41:B11=709:1808=0.3921
S42=zv=49223, B42=S42-b20*B40-b21*B41=49223-21.2424*2425-0.2705*709=-2482,
b42=B42:B22=-2482:4602=-0.5393, S43=uv=195131,
B43=S43-b30*B40-b31*B41-b32*B42= 195131-84.8485*2425-(-4.0298)*709 -2.4250*(-2482)= -1751,
b43=B43:B33= -1751:65554= -0.0267, S44=v2=231553,
B44=S44-b40*B40-b41*B41-b42*B42-b43*B43=231553-73.48*2425-0.3922*709-0.5392)*(-2482)-(-0.0268)*(-1751)= 51700,
b44=B44:B44=1, a43=b43*a40= -0.0268*(-1)= 0.0268,
a42=b42*a22+b43*a32= [(-0.5392)*1+(-0.0268)*(-2.4250)]
*(-1)=0.4742, a41=b41*b20+b42*a21+b43*a31= [0.3921*1+(-0.5392)*
(-0.2705)+(-0.0268)*4.6855](-1)=-0.4123,
a40=b40*a00+b41*a10+b42*a20+b43*a30=[73.48*1+0.3921*
*(-21.3939)+(-0.5392)*(-15.4554)+(-0.0268)*(-133.5825)]*(-1)=
-76.903, A44=a44:B44=1:51700=1934*10-8,
110

A43=a43:B44=0.0268:51700=52*10-8, A42=a42:B44= 0.4742:51700=


=917*10-8, A41=a41:B44= -0.4123:51700=-797*10-8,
A40=a40:B44= -76.903:51700= -148748*10-8
6. S50=y=580.9, B50=S50*b00=580.9*1=580.9,
b50=B50:B00= 580.9:33=17.603, S51=xy=12545.9,
B51=S51-b10*B50=12545.9-21.3939*580.9=118.2,
b51=B51:B11=118.2:1808=0.0654 S52=zy=12170.4
B52=S52-b20B50-b21*B51= 12170.4-21.2424*580.90.2705*118.2= -201.3, b52=B52:B22=-201.3:4602=-0.0437
S53=uy=48045 B53=S53-b30*B50-b31*B51-b32*B52=4804584.8485*580.9-(-4.0298)*118.2-2.4251*(-201.3)=-278.6
b53=B53:B33= -278.6:65554=-0.0043 S54=vy=42210.3
B54=S54-b40*B50-b41*B51-b42*B52-b43*B53=
=42210.3-73.485*580.9-0.3922*118.2-(-0.5392)*(-201.3)-(-0.0268)*(-278.6) =-639.4,
b54= B54:B44= -0.639.4:51700= -0.0124, S55=y2=11236.8
B55= S55-b50*B50-b51*B51-b52*B52-b53*B53-b54*B54=
=11236.8-17.603*580.9-0.0654*118.2-(-0.0437)*(-201.3)(-0.0043)*(-278.6) - (-0.0124)*(-639.4)= 985.6 b55=1.
a54=b54*a44= (-0.0124)*(-1)=0.0124
a53= b53*a33+b54*a43= [(-0.0043)*1+(-0.0124)*0.0268](-1)= 0.0046
a52=b52*a22+b53*a32+b54*a42= [(-0.0437)*1+(-0.0043)*(-2.425)+
+(-0.0124)*0.4742](-1)= 0.0392
a51=b51*a11+b52*a21+b53*a31+b54*a41=[0.0654*1+(-0.0437)*
(-0.2705)+(-0.0043)*4.6855+(-0.0124)*(-0.4124)](-1)=-0.0622
a50= b50*a00+b51*a10+b52*a20+b53*a30+b54*a40=
=[17.603*1+0.0654*(-21.3939)+(-0.0437)*(-15.4575)+
+(-0.0043)*(-133.5757)+(-0.0124)*(-77.01)](-1)=-18.4086
.
00=A00*1+A10*a10+A20*a20+A30*a30+A40*a40=3030303*1+
+(-1183297)*(-21.3939)+
+(-335896)*(-15.4575)+(-203703)*(-133.5825)+
+(-149012)*(-77.01)=72224323*10-8
C10=A10*1+A20*a21+A30*a31+A40*a41= (-1183297)*1+
+(-33589)*0.2705+(-203703)*4.6855+
111

+(-149012)*0.4129=-2208360*10-8
C20=A20*1+A30*a32+A40*a42= (-335896)*1+(-203207)*(-2.4251)+
+(-149012)*0.4742=87626.6*10-8
C30=A30*1+A40*a43= (-203703)*1+(-149012)*0.0268=
= -207697*10-8
C40=A40*1= (-149012)*1=-149012*10-8
C11=A11*1+A21*a21+A31*a31+A41*a41= 53310*1+
+(-5876)*(-0.2705)+7145*4.6855+(-798)*(-4129)=
= 90707*10-8
C21=A21*1+A31*a32+A41*a42= (-5876)*1+7145*(-2.4251)+
+(-798)*0.4742= 23582*10-8
C31=A31*1+A41*a43= 7145*1+(-798)*0.0268=7124*10-8
C41=A41*1= (-798)*1=-798*10-8
C22=A22*1+A32*a32+A42*a42= 21730*1+
+(-3698)*(-2.4251)+918*0.4742=31133*10-8
C32=A32*1+A42*a43= (-3698)*1+52*0.0268=
=-3673*10-8
C42=A42*1=918*1=918*10-8
C33=A33*1+A43*a43= 1526*1+52*0.0268=1527*10-8
C43=A43*1= 52*1=52*10-8
C44=A44=1935*10-8

B55
985
=
=
n 5 33 5 35.18

(C)

Cii*10-8
Aii*10-8

()

0
x

0
72224323
3030303

x
90707
53310

z
31133
21730

u
1527
1526

v
1935
1935

33
33
1
706
706
21.3939

-206714
-118330
-21.394
16912
1808
1

87626.6
-33589
-15.458
-23582
-5876
-0.2705

-207697
-203703
-133.583
7124
7145
4.6855

-14901
-14901
-77.01
-798
-798
-0.4129

112

y
-

-18.409

501.7

-0.0622

4.27

701
701
21.2424
2800
2800
84.8485
2425
2425
73.485
580.9
580.9
17.603

15486
489
0.2705
52617
-7286
-4.0298
52589
709
0.3922
12545.9
118.2
0.0654

19625
4602
1
68669
11160
2.4251
49223
-2482
-0.5392
12170.4
-201.3
-0.0437

3673
-3698
-2.4251
359558
65554
1
195131
-1751
-0.0268
48045
-278.6
-0.0043

918
918
0.4742
52
52
0.0268
231553
51690
1
42210.3
-639.1
-0.0124

0.0392

4.94

0.0046

1.39

0.0124
11236.8
985.6
1

7.95

35.18


, (C) .
1. b00*a10+b10*a11=1*(-21.3939)+21.3939*1=0
2. b11*a21+b21*a22=1*(-0.2704)+0.2704*1=0
3. b00*a20+b10*a21+b20*a22=1*(-15.4575)+21.3939*(-0.2704)+
+21.2424*1 =0
. , , 0.
1
b21
b31
b41

a21
1
b32
b42

a31
a32
1
b43

a41
a42
a43
1

B11
B21
B31
B41

A21
B22
B32
B42

A31 A41 a41*1+a42*b21+a43*b31+1*b41=0


A32 A42 1*b41+a21*b42+a31*b43+a41*1=0
B33 A43 A41*B11+A42*B21+A43*B31+A44*B41=0
B43 A44 A11*B41+A21*B42+A31*B43+A41*B44=0


(ABC) y=(x,z,u,v). y, ,
, 55 =1, . , .
Y = 18. 4086 + 0.0622 x 0.0392 z 0.0046 u 0.0124 v
ii
, 113

. (.
y ). n-5 =33-5=28 , 0.95 3
(1-2=0.9973). (t)
2-5 [35].
(t)=
4.15
t(a50)=501.7:35.18=14.26>4.15
t(a51)=4.27:35.18=0.12<4.15
t(a52)=4.94:35.18=0.14<4.15
t(a53)=1.39:35.18=0.04<4.15
t(a54)=7.95:35.18=0.23<4.15
( )
(y).
(x) (u)
(y) (). y= 19.72+0.06z-0.0115v.
(t)=4.10
(ta30)=1950:33.1=58.9>4.10
(ta31)= 1.67:33.1=0.05<4.10
(ta32)=6.91:33.1=0.21<4.10
, , , y
.


R=

bii Bii
=
B55 + bii Bii

b51 B51 + b52 B52 + b53 B53 + b54 B54


B55 + b51 B51 + b52 B52 + b53 B53 + b54 B54

114

2-5
n
P=0.95

10

12

14

16

18

20

25

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

200

0.997

5.28

4.99

4.78

4.62

4.50

4.39

4.20

4.10

3.94

3.84

3.76

3.70

3.66

3.63

3.60

3.47

0.95
0.90

3.26
2.74

3.08
2.59

2.96
2.49

2.86
2.40

2.79
2.34

2.72
2.29

2.61
2.19

2.54
2.13

2.44
2.05

2.37
1.99

2.33
1.96

2.30
1.93

2.27
1.91

2.25
1.89

2.23
1.87

2.14
1.80

()
0
C00
A00
S00
B00
1

z
C11
A11
C10
A10
A10

v
C22
A22
C20
A20
a20

S10
B10
b10

S11
B11
1

C21
A21
a21

S20
B20
b20

S21
B21
b21

S22
B22
1

a32

S30
B30
b30

S31
B31
b31

S32
B32
b32

S33
B33
1

Cii
Aii
0

0
19938271
3030303
33
33
1

z
215721
21123.7
526290
448720
-21.2424

v
1914
1914
160371
160371
-83.785

19.719

1950

701
701
21.2424

19625
4734
1

926
926
0.4837

-0.0600

1.67

a 2 32
C 22

2425
2425
73.485

49223
-2289.8
-0.4837

231553
52244.4
1

0.0115

6.91

B33
n3

580.9
580.9
17.603

12170.4
-257.3
-0.0544

42210.3
-601.6
-0.0115

11236.8
990.3
1

33.1

a30

a 2 30
C00

a31

a 2 31
C11

115

R= 0.159, R=
0.144. (< 0.70) .
Excel, 4, 3 2 . .
n= 30
x=77.5
x2=262.63
xz=157.58
z=46.5 z2=94.55
u=73.3 u2= 187.22 xu=211.34 zu=126.80 uv= 30.96
xv=21.55 zv=12.93 uy=670.68
v=16.32 v2=26.01
y=247.5 y2= 2603.75 xy=826.66 zy= 496.00 vy=72.80
:
Y= 0.43318 +1.11151 X+ 3.1287 Z+ 0.0379 U+ 0.0061V
R= 1.0
.
t(a50)
t(a51)
t(a52)
t(a53)
t(a54)
t(d)
141.179 21.0765 60.1817 3.3758 2.3319 4.18
Y= 0.5016+ 1.1258 X+ 3.1245 Z+ 0.00116 U
R= 1.0
t(a41)
t(a42)
t(a43)
t(d)
t(a40)
859.94 26.0
72.136
0.0111
4.15
Y= 0.3518+ 1.3164 X+ 2.8789 Z
R= 0.99965
t(a30)
t(a31)
t(a32)
t(d)
64.304 0.079
0.136
4.13
Y= -2.16 + 4.658 U- 1.391 V
R= 0.9195
t(a31)
t(a32)
t(d)
t(a30)
3.763
115.607 7.593
4.13
Y= 0.0248+2.8965 X+0,3089 U
116

R=0.9997
t(a31)
t(a32)
t(d)
t(a30)
0.842
64295.4 21.85
4.13
Y= 0.2515+ 5.108 Z+ 0.102 V
R= 0.99996
t(a30)
t(a31)
t(a32)
t(d)
27.335
43647.9 10.777
4.13
, 1, .
3.

.
.



8+00 (
22+00)
2

393.0
394.0

387.51
(327.74)
384.98
(361.43)
384.65
(361.43)
(360.98)

117

388.23
(378.23)
386.13
(361.62)
385.82
(361.02)
(361.36)

388.95
(378.72)
387.28
(361.81)
386.99
(361.22)
(361.74)

10





8+00 (
22+00)
2

385.35
(376.27)
381.53
(360.86)
381.14
(360.22)
(359.84)
4.0
2.0

384.63
(375.78)
380.38
(360.67)
379.97
(360.02)
(359.46)
6.0
2.5

8
4

0.045


, .
.

386.07
(376.76)
382.68
(361.05)
382.31
(360.42)
(360.22)
2.0
1.5

3/

0.030

0.035

0.040

1.0

1.5

2.0

50

70

80

>100

118

10

11

12
13
14

15

16

17

18

19

20

, .
.







(
2-

3/

710

715

969

1355

3/

850

870

900

> 900

17

20

25

> 40

371.7

374.0

20

28

30

5.0

20.0

40.0


50.0

10

20

40

>50

>5
/
2

15.0/350
0

119

16.0/375
0

18.0/390
0

20.0/400
0

21

22


Rbi/Rs

1.0

2.0

3.0

>3.0

4.


,
.
[24] ,
200 . . 1010
:
- ,
.
3.
- 0 200 .

120

Log N = a-b*M,
N
().
max = (R) , .. .
max = exp (-0.0916 R + 4.734)
3.6 <M< 4.5
Amax = exp (-0.042 R + 5.47)
4.6< M < 5.5
Amax = exp (-0.0272 R + 6.102)
5.6< M <6.5
Amax = exp (-0.018 R + 6.63)
6.6< M <7.5
Amax , R .
.. [49]

, R0
,
. R0 log R0 = 0.195 M + 0.039.
R0 < R
R. 0
log 0 = 0.15 + 1.63.
max
log Amax = log A0 + a* log (R/R0),
() = 0.06 -1.97 .
= 1- -1/t, t - . max t
Amax = (t) 100-10.000
.

.. ACLRAN.
, (d)
log d = 0.2 M + 0.5 log R -1.3. () log T = 0.15 M + 0.25 log R 1.9
121


, , ,
.
, ,
.
. [41].
, , .
, , [39,44]
,

. , . , , ,
.

, , , , , .

, . ,
,
122

,
(, ), .
, (,
, , ,
), , , .
.
.
,
, , ,
. ,

, .
,
, .
.
, 1400 . n=800
(m=0),
n=450 -
(m=1). n=100
-
(m=2). n=30
123

- 3 (m=3)
n=20 -4 (m=4).
4- .
()
.

m n
m * ea
, =
, m != 1*1*2*3
n(m)=
m!
n
4-1

m
0
1
2
3
4
5

n
800
450
100
30
20
0
1400

m*n
0
450
200
60
80
0
790

4-1
Pn(m)
0.5688
0.3209
0.0906
0.0170
0.0024
0.0003
1.0

, 3 4
0.017 0.0024 .
,

3- , , 0.017 , , .
.
.
124

:
, .
: hs= hset+hrun 1%+a, hset ,
hrun 1%- , -
. (.) .

. () 0,5 ,
5 =0,1h1% (h1% - 1%
).
,
.
, , .
: , , ,
.
, , ,
.
.
, ,
, , .

.

, ,
( ). ,
.
125

.
.

.
,
.

. . , .
, ,
, . ,

. ,
, - ( ). , ,
,
. ,
.
.
40 .
3,50 3,24 . 9 .
() ,
(m) 4-2 ( 1 2).
1 3.37 ( )
-3. 4, 5, 6 7 . 40. 126

S, .
(t)
3 S.
( 9)
(t)=

2
1
-0.5(t) .
2


( 10) 9 0.03*40/ S, (3.49-3.46 =0.03 , 40-
2, S- ).
11 12 2 10 .
13 11 12. ().

=

( m ) 2
, 0,75
m
=

S=

A=

0.5( 6.6 8.4* )


()= 12

xm 133,93
=
=3.34825
m
40

x 2 m xm 2
) = 0.1719 ( 0.87 ) 2 =0.061842
(
m
m
40
40

x 4 m
x 3 m
0.0081
=
=
-0.85334
E=
3=
m S 4
m S 3 40 0.0618423
0.001622
3 = -0.22687
40 0.0618424

2, 3 4 - ,
.
127

e0.5t
e0.5t
2 = (t -1)
, 3 = (3t-t3)
,
2
2
2

e0.5t
4= (3-6t + t )
2
2

() = [ (x)+

3 + 4 ]
6
24


(x) =

0.5t
+
2

2 + 3
6
24

1.497 2
=0.237,
40

-
=

2.6462
= 0.418
40

()= 0.9999 ()= 0.9966 , 0


0,
,
- , = 3.34825 S=0.061842.

128


( )
4-2
x

xI

xI m

x I2 m

x I3 m

x I4 m

t=(xI- )/s

(t)

mI

mI

11-12

11

12

13

9*19.404

-4

10

3.49

0.12

0.12

0.0144

0.00173

2.07*10

2.29213

0.02884

0.55969

0.560

0.440

3.46

0.09

0.18

0.0162

0.00146

1.31*10-4

1.80702

0.07796

1.51268

2.072

0.928

0.00065

3.89*10

-5

1.32192

0.16651

3.23109

5.303

0.697

4.05*10

-6

3.43

0.06

0.18

0.0108

3.40

0.03

0.15

0.0045

0.00014

0.83681

0.28109

5.45441

11

10.76

0.242

3.37

0.35170

0.37501

7.27688

18

18.03

-0.04

3.34

-0.03

-0.21

0.0063

-0.0002

5.67*10-6

-0.1334

0.39541

7.67257

25

25.71

-0.71

3.31

-0.06

-0.36

0.0216

-0.0013

7.77*10-5

-0.6185

0.32949

6.39344

31

32.10

-1.10

-4

-1.1036

0.21698

4.21043

36

36.31

-0.31

-1.5887

0.11293

2.19137

40

38.50

1.497

3.28

-0.09

-0.45

0.0405

-0.0037

3.28*10

3.25

-0.12

-0.48

0.0576

-0.0069

8.29*10-4

40

0.1719

-0.0081

0.001622

-0.87

= -0.02175

0.0043 -0.0002

4.06*10-5

129


( -)
4-3
x

xI

xI*m

t=(xI- )/s

(t)

3.49

0.12

0.12

2.29213

0.02884

3.46

0.09

0.18

1.80702

0.07796

3.43

0.06

0.18

1.32192

0.16651

3.40

0.03

0.15

0.83681

0.28109

3.37

0.35170

0.37501

3.34

-0.03

-0.21

-0.1334

0.39541

3.31

-0.06

-0.36

-0.6185

0.32949

3.28

-0.09

-0.45

-1.1036

3.25

-0.12

-0.48

-1.5887

40

mI

11-12

11

12

13

0.975786

0.976

0.024

1.700622

2.676

0.324

0.13428

2.605544

5.282

0.718

0.00189

0.20605

3.998181

11

9.280

1.720

-0.0081

0.31300

6.073559

18

15.35

2.646

-0.0108

0.40696

7.896842

25

23.25

1.749

-0.0027

0.40270

7.814094

31

31.06

-0.07

0.06069

0.00579

0.28347

5.500535

36

36.57

-0.57

0.01215

0.00616

0.13124

2.546634

40

39.11

0.888

6+7+8

*3

*4

24

0.02119

0.00025

0.05029

0.00532

0.00437

0.08764

-0.0392

0.00698

-0.0769
-0.0540
0.02237
0.07586

0.21698
0.11293

-0.87

= -0.02175

130

mI
(9*19.404)

10

,
:
- hrun=0,15+1,25 logV,
- Cv=0,14+0,002 V
= 0 ( ), =0,50
( , ,
, 3-
), = 0.56 (
4- ). - 0, 70 .
- V2%=30 /, - V20%=25 / V30% =20 /.
4-4.
4- ,
t=

,
.
4-4
.

t 1%

h=

0.01

2.32

0.01

2.32

0.01

2.32

0.01

2.32



()
H ()
t
=(t)

2.928

2.928

-6.50

5.23*10-12

3.233

3.233

-1.86

0.03144

3.293

3.293

-0.893

0.18593

3.209

3.209

-2.25

0.01222

h *(1+CV*
t)+

2.00*(1+0.20*
2.32)+0
1.90*(1+0.19*
2.32)+0,50
1.90*(1+0.19*
2.32)+0.56
1.77*(1+0.18*
2.32)+0.70

=(t)

131

(t) =

1
2

0.5 ( t ) 2

dt

,
(0.18953)
, , 4- .
0.03144 .
, ,
.
-
(- ).
- , , .
1. ( ).
2. .
3. ( , , ).
4.
.
,
-
, 132

.
-
, .
,
, ( ,
, ),
.
, .
,
, .
,
. ,
.
, , .
1 100-10 000 . 10-15 c
(. ) , () , . [41] 133


. ,
4-4, .
.
,
.
,
. ,
,

, .
,
, ,
.
, () .


. , 8-12 . , . 3-5 ,
134

, .
: 1
4 24 .
24-4 = 20 .
10 2. 5 . 4-5.
: I-I 0.6 3.0 /.
= 3.0-0.6 = 2.4 /. - 8
0.3 /. 3 , 4-6.
, .
5-6 , 50-60 .
. , [28, 29, 40, 42, 43 45]
.
.
. , , , . .
. .
135

( )
, .

136

4-5

- (x)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

0-2
2-4
4-6
6-8
8-10
10-12
12-14
14-16
16-18
18-20

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19

m
60
40
30
25
15
10
8
6
4
2
200

(x)

m1

0.1905
0.5714
0.9524
1.3333
1.7143
2.0952
2.4762
2.8571
3.2381
3.6190

0.1574
0.1076
0.0735
0.0502
0.0343
0.0234
0.0160
0.0109
0.0075
0.0051

63.0
43.0
29.4
20.1
13.7
9.4
6.4
4.4
3.0
2.0

mx
60
120
150
175
135
110
104
90
68
38
1050

m1
63.0
106.0
135.4
155.5
169.2
178.6
185.0
199.4
202.4
204.6

m
60
100
130
155
170
180
188
194
198
200

m1-m
3.0
6.0
5.4
0.5
0.8
1.4
3.0
5.4
4.4
4.6

: 0.

=
t = / =

2
=
m

mx 1050
=
= 5.25
200
m

62
= 0.424
200

()=0.9923. 24 =24-4 =20 t= x/ =20/5.25


= 3.81 = 1-(1--t)= e-t =2.71828-3.81= 0.022.
137

4-6

- ()

mx

(x)

m1

.
m1

.
m

m1-m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

0-0.3
0.3-0.6
0.6-0.9
0.9-1.2
1.2-1.5
1.5-1.8
1.8-2.1
2.1-2.4

0.15
0.45
0.75
1.05
1.35
1.65
1.95
2.25

36
26
18
12
6
4
2
1
105

5.4
11.7
13.5
12.6
8.1
6.6
3.9
2.3
64.1

0.2457
0.7371
1.2285
1.7199
2.2113
2.7027
3.1941
3.6855

1.2812
0.7838
0.4795
0.2933
0.1795
0.1098
0.0672
0.0411

40.4
24.7
15.1
9.2
5.7
3.5
2.1
1.3

40.4
65.1
80.2
89.4
95.1
98.1
100.7
102

36
62
80
92
98
102
104
105

4.4
3.1
0.2
2.6
2.9
3.4
3.3
3.0

mx 64.1
=
=0.6105 t = / =
m 105

2
=
m

4.42
= 0.43
105

()= 0.9923.
q =3.0 / . = 3.0- 0.6= 2.4
= -3.99= 0.0185

138

t = 2.4/0.6105= 3.99

()
(/)
. / 10-15
, . , / 1.
, , .


.
, 8 15.
(. 4-2, 4-3 4-5) (,
- ). , (1)
(2)
( ,
).
4-7 (/1).
50 [28, 29, 40, 42, 43
45] ,
1 10. 9
-1. , -.
/=1 = 0.00698.

139


( -)
4-7
m31

m41

1
1.5

2
3

3
-4

4
-12

5
48

6
-192

7
768

2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5

5
10
9
7
6
5
3
2

-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4

-15
-20
-9
0
6
10
9
8

45
40
9
0
6
20
27
32

-135
-80
-9
0
6
40
81
128

405
160
9
0
6
80
243
512

49.5

50

-23
-0.46

227
4.54

-161
-3.22

2183
43.66

=5.04
S = 2.08048
A = -0.35757

m1

m21

8
1.7015
-1.2208
-0.7402
-0.2596
0.2211
0.7018
1.1824
1.6631
2.1437

(t)

11
0.01567

12
0.11048

13
2.655

14
3

15
2.655

16
0.345

0.01966
-0.0001
-0.0280
-0.0294
-0.0025
0.0190
0.0166
0.0039

0.22980
0.33604
0.37524
0.34474
0.27666
0.19491
0.11435
0.05212

5.523
8.076
9.018
8.285
6.649
4.684
2.748
1.253

8
18
27
34
40
45
48
50

8.178
16.254
25.272
33.557
40.206
44.890
47.638
48.891

-0.178
1.746
1.728
0.443
-0.206
0.110
0.362
1.109

4
24

9
0.09380

10
0.0010

0.18934
0.30334
0.38573
0.38931
0.31187
0.19830
0.10007
0.04009

0.0208
0.0328
0.0175
-0.0151
-0.0327
-0.0224
-0.0023
0.0082

1.746 2
= 0.247 () 1.0
50

t= 1 5.04 = -1.94186 = 0.026077-0.01-0.0091= 0.00698.


2.08048

E = -0.6696
140

mt

9+10+1
1

m1
12*24.0
33

3
6

12-13


.

,
.
,
. () ,
.
.
, , , ,
.

. , ,
.
. , , , ( ). ,
,
() . , .
N
141

,
. ,
()
(tg) () . ,
, tg
(t),
. 4-8.
4-8

0.30

0.34

0.38

0.42

0.45

0.55

0.59

0.63

0.67

0.71

1.80

0.26
0.51

1.76

0.23
0.47

1.71

2.4

0.19

1.66

2.0

0.43

1.62

1.6

0.15

1.57

1.2

0.39

1.52

0.8

0.11

1.47

0.4

0.35

1.43

0.07

1.38

-0.4

0.31

1.34

-0.8

0.425

0.077

-1.2

0.217

-1.6

0.225

tg

(t)

0.468

1.523


= (1+V*t)


, , (t)
.
. (, tg )
,
142

-
( 0). ( 10-15). ,
, 0
10-15( 4-8 n=11),
.
() 3
(. 4-9 11).
, 4-8. , (t) 100 ( 1,
100, ,
100). 4-9. ,
,
. 1 = 0.05456.
.
: ,
,
,
.
.
143


( )
4-9

- m

m1

mx12

mx13

mx14

(t)

m
S

m1

mt

13-14

1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

2
0.6
1.4
2.4
3.5
4.4
5.6
6.7
7.5
8.6
9.3
10.5
60.5

3
4.43
7.77
11.60
14.70
16.00
14.70
11.60
7.77
4.43
2.20
0.90
96.1

4
-4.9
-4.1
-3.1
-2.0
-1.1
0.1
1.2
2.0
3.1
3.8
5.0

5
-21.707
-31.857
-35.960
-29.400
-17.600
1.470
13.920
15.540
13.733
8.360
4.500
-79.001
-0.8221

6
106.364
130.614
111.476
58.800
19.360
0.147
16.704
31.080
42.572
31.768
22.500
571.385
5.946

7
-521.185
-535.516
-345.576
-117.600
-21.296
0.015
20.045
62.160
131.974
120.718
112.500
-1093.76
-11.382

8
2553.81
2195.62
1071.28
235.20
23.43
0.002
24.054
124.32
409.12
458.73
562.50
7658.06
79.688

9
-1.7764
-1.4279
-0.9923
-0.5131
-0.1211
04017
0.8808
1.2293
1.7085
2.0134
2.5361

10
0.08236
0.14394
0.24384
0.34973
0.39603
0.36802
0.27066
0.18739
0.09270
0.05256
0.01600

11
33.494
41.867
46.054
37.681
50.241
46.054
33.494
46.054
29.307
50.241
46.054

12
2.795
6.026
11.230
13.087
19.897
16.949
9.066
8.630
2.717
2.641
0.737
93.775

13
2.795
8.821
20.051
33.138
53.035
69.984
79.050
87.680
90.397
93.038
93.775

14
4.43
12.20
23.80
38.50
54.5
69.20
80.80
88.57
93.00
95.2.
96.10

15
-1.635
-3.379
-3.749
-5.362
-1.465
0.784
-.75
-0.89
-2.603
-2.162
-2.325

=4.67793
S= 2.29563

=
tp= x x = 1 4.67793 = -1.60214
S
2.29563

5.362 2 =0.547 () =0.9464


96.1

- 0.05456

A= -0.9408
E= -0/1306
144


.
, , .

, .

- , , .
, . , 4-8, .
.
. , , (.
2, 1.4).
S=R-=0 .

.
,
, ,
.

145

5.
.

- .

Jp

d50

n %
-
%
-
/

5-1

n 10-3

40

17

20

n10-4

50

20

40

n10-5

65

25

60

0.010.02
0.010.005
0.0020.005
0.1-0.2

15

7-10

25

20

1013
1317
1

45

40

50

30


- /
0.1

10

1.0

30

0.001

1.0

10
55

0.050.1
0.020.05
1.0-2.0

1012
1215
1520
0

30

0.5-1.0

40

0.2-0.5

10

50

3.0-10

30

20-80

30

146

20

0.01

100

10.0

30

0.1

1000

100.0

40

10

10.000

1000

100

10.0

() ,
-
5-2

,
, ,

, .

1*1031*105
1*1031*105
1*1031*105
1*1041*105
1*1051*106
1*1051*106
1*1051*106
1*1041*105
1*1041*106
1*1041*106
1*1051*106
1*1041*105
1*1051*107
1*1068*107



( 3
( 3
/) /)

1*10-1*102
1-10
2*10-2*102

1-20

5*10-5*102

1-50

1-1*102

2*10-2*102

5-1*102

1-1*102

3*10-2*102

1-10

1-1*102

1*102-1*103

5-1*102

1-1*102

1*102-1*103

5-1*102

1*102-1*103

10-1*102

1*102-1*103

50-1*102

1-1*102

1*103-1*105

1*1021*103
1*1021*103
1*1021*103
1*1051*106

1-1*102

1*103-1*105
1*103-1*105
1*105-1*106
1*103-2*104

1-1*102

10-5*103
50-5*103
10-1*103

147

5*1041*106
5*1045*105
5*1055*106

1*103-1*104

50-1*103

1*103-5*104

1*10-1*103

5*10 1*105
5*1031*105
1*1031*105
1*1041*105
1*1041*105
1*1061*107
1*1061*107
1*1061*107
1*1061*107
1*1061*107

1*102-1*103
5*102-1*103
1*102-4*105

5-1*103
10-50
10-50

1*103-5*103

50-1*103
50-1*103
50-1*103

() (Vp) (Vs) ,
.
,

, /3

V, /

2
1.0
0.9
1*10-32*10-3
0.9

3
1.45
1.30
1.28

3.70

148

Vs,
/
4

V/Vs ,

n, %

1.70

0.46


.
-


, .

.
.
-

-

-


-
-

.
2.62
5.60
3.20
2.61
5.35
2.85
2.65
5.65
2.80
2.67
5.95
3.35
2.70
6.10
2.80
6.20
3.55

0.57
0.53
0.50
0.56
0.57

2.94
3.02
3.31
3.20

6.40
6.40
8.20
7.45

3.65
3.65
4.60
4.15

0.57
0.57
0.43
0.56

2.60
2.90
2.80
3.03
2.91

5.30
5.30
6.05
6.65
6.25

3.45

0.57

2.35
2.71
2.81
2.33
2.66

5.00
5.05
5.50
5.80
6.15

3.00
2.90
2.95
3.45
3.25

0.60
0.57
0.54
0.59
0.53

2.73
6.0
3.07
7.25
4.10
.
2.80
5.85
3.30
2.97
6.20
3.60
3.09
6.80
4.20
3.16
6.40
2.67
5.85
3.50
2.83
5.80
3.10
2.81
6.20
3.50
3.02
7.00
4.30

2.40
2.40
1.32
2.55
3.80
2.0
2.35
2.70
1.50
2.30
3.50
1.90

149

0.57
0.56
0.58
0.61

1.3
1.20
0.80

0.60
0.53
0.56
0.61

0.4
1.0
0.6

0.5-0.6
0.5-0.6
0.5-0.6
0.5-0.6

1.80
2.00
2.45
2.70
2.65

1.60
0.9
0.07-0.06
3.60
2.0
0.5-0.6
3.10
1.80
0.5-0.6
4.00
2.20
0.5-0.6
3.80
2.10
0.5-0.6
0.45
0.21
0.5-0.6
2.30
2.90
1.40
0.4-0.5
2.69
3.00
1.40
0.4-0.5
1.60
0.9
0.20
0.1-0.3
2.55
2.60
1.30
0.4-0.6
1.30
1.00
0.5-0.6
2.55
3.60
2.00
0.5-0.6

1.1
0.1-0.3
0.05-0.2
0.5-0.7
1.3
0.2-0.7
0.1-0.4
0.5-0.7
1.65
0.25-0.6
0.1-0.3 0.45-0.60
1.70
0.3-0.7
0.15-0.35 0.30-0.55
0.4-0.7
0.2-0.4 0.45-0.60
1.80
0.40-1.80
0.1-0.7 0.10-0.35
1.90
0.4-0.8
0.25-0.50 0.65-0.70
2.15
0.80-4.0
0.5-2.5
0.5-0.7

1.5-2.0
0.15-0.3
0.07-0.2
1.45-1.80 0.12-0.28 0.07-0.15
1.50-1.90 0.10-0.25 0.05-0.15
1.80-2.50 0.10-0.40 0.05-0.12
2.0-2.70 0.25-0.50 0.10-0.20
1.80-4.50 0.50-2.50 0.40-0.60
2.65
2.0-5.0
0.5-2.80 0.35-0.55
2.65
2.50-5.5
0.8-3.60 0.40-0.60
t= - 30
3.80-4.50 2.0-2.60 0.50-0.60
3.40-4.0 1.80-2.20 0.50-0.60
2.80-3.60 1.50-1.90 0.45-0.60
2.20-2.80 1.20-2.50 0.40-0.55
1.90-2.30
3.60-5.00 1.90-2.80 0.50-0.60
3.80-5.50
2.0-3.0
0.500.60
4.0-4.60
2.200.502.30
0.60

150

-
(
.).
:
Vp Vs-
, /
E G- ,
v-
s c d - ,
, , , /3
n e-
q-
W-
C - () ()
E- ,
- , /3
() (G)
V Vs:

(1 + v)(1 2v) = 2V2 *


s
c
(1 v)

G=
2(1 + v)

= V2p*c

(1)
(2)

W, s d c :
W=

d = s(1-n)
= s(1-n)+W*
q=

W s
e

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

-
.
151

1. ()
W=Wc
= (0.08539 *+ 3)
= (0.01425* Vp + 0.1985 Vs- 27)

(7)

= (5.64*10-2 G + 29.0)
= (4.98*10-2 Vs + 23.3)

(8)

37.5

+ 0.364

(9)

15.58

+ 0.198

(10)

=
n =

2. :
= (0.0445*+ 3.1)
= (0.1517*Vs 18.9)
(11)
E = (2.261*10-4V2s + 4.2)
-4 2
= (0.378*10 G + 28.6)
(12)
= (8.468*10-5V3s + 27.8)
3. :
= (1.013 V1/8- 0.39)
(13)
= (0.322*10-3Vp + 1.66)
:
d = (0.1115*10-2Vs + 1.41)
W=

e
s

(14)
(15)

-
:
= (av2 + bv + c)E2 + (dv2 + fv + m)E +
(16)
+ (pv2 + tv +s)
152

a, b, c, f, m, p, t s- ,
5-3
(17)
5-4 5-5
c, } = (av2 + bv + c)G2 + (dv2 + fv + m)G +
(17)
+ (p2 + t + s)
5-3

0.00- 0.20

a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s

-0.1691 E-3
0.5715 E-5
-0/2227 E-4
0.1222 E+0
-0.3809 E-2
0.3719 E-1
0.8149 E-9
0.5239 E-3
0.1147 E+2

a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s

-0.1584 -3
0.5621 -5
-0.2190 -4
0.1178 +0
-0.3675 -2
0.3583 -1
-0.8615 -2
0.2270 -2
0.1380 +2

a
b
c
d
f
m

-0.9127 -3
0.3280 -5
-0.1278 -4
0.1206 +0
-0.3756 -2
0.3670 -1


0.20-0.30
0.30-0.40
0.40-0.45

0
0
0
-.1287 E-3
-0.6190 E-3
-0.4364 E-2
-0.0018 E-3
0.1453 E-3
0.1643 E-2
0
0
0
0.8744 E +0
0.2963 E+0
0.6621 E+1
0.2384 E-1
-0.3880 E-1
-0.2568 E+1
0
0
0
-0.1000 E-1
0.1000 E-1
-0.2000 E-1
0.1148 E+2
0.1147 E+2
0.1146 E+2

0
0
0
-0.1265 -3
-0.6086 -3
-0.4290 -2
-0.0017 -3
0.1429 -3
0.1618 -2
0
0
0
0.8423 -1
0.2854 +0
0.1182 +1
0.2296 -1
-0.0374 +0
-0.3962 +0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.1380 +2
0.1380 +2
0.1380 +2

0
0
0
-0.7384 -4
-0.3552 -3
-0.2504 -2
-0.0101 -4
0.0834 -3
0.0943 -2
0
0
0
0.8629 -1
0.2923 +0
0.1211 +1
0.2351 -1
-0.3830 -1
-0.4059 +0

p
t
s

0.1531 -2
0.1164 -3
0.3255 +1

0
-0.2000 -2
0.3255 +1

0
0.3000 -2
0.3254 +1

153

0
0.6000 -2
0.3258 +1

0.45-0.475
0
-0.3233 E-1
0.1423 E-1
0
0.4947 E +1
-0.2085 E+1
0
0
0.1148 E+2
0
-0.3178 -1
0.1399 -1
0
0.4766 +1
-0.2001 +2
0
0
0.1380 +2
0
-0.1854 -1
0.0816 -1
0
0.4880 +1
0.2057 +1
0
0.1600 -1
0.3248 +1

(17) .
5-4
W,%

15.5-18.4

18.5-22.4

22.5-26.4

26.5-30.4

30.5-34.4

a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c

0.0-0.30

-0.6782 -5
0.2574 -6
-0.2724 -6
0.1643 -2
0.5984 -4
0.2263 -3
-0.3651 -3
0.1156 -3
0.4498 -2
-0.9857 -5
0.3685 -6
-0.3965 -6
0.2291 -2
0.8351 -4
0.3156 -3
-0.3119 -3
0.8613 -4
0.6242 -2
0.1037 -5
-0.3836 -7
0.4172 -7
0.1219 -2
0.4475 -4
0.1684 -3
-0.5984 -4
0.2202 -4
0.2985 -1
-0.7325 -6
0.2225 -7
-0.3018 -7
0.1816 -2
0.6814 -4
0.2509 -3
0.1311 -3
-0.3213 -4
0.3315 -1
0.1639 -4
-0.6078 -6
0.6540 -6


0.30-0.40
0.40-0.45

0
-0.1573 -4
0.3908 -5
0
0.2811 -2
-0.4499 -3
0
0.1080 -3
0.4471 -2
0
-0.2294 -4
0.5700 -5
0
0.3920 -2
0.6274 -3
0
0.3000 -5
0.6240 -2
0
0.2402 -5
-0.5959 -6
0
0.2089 -2
-0.3345 -3
0
0.3000 -3
0.2985+0
0
-0.1774 -3
0.4419 -4
0
0.3119 -2
-0.4993 -3
0
-0.4000-4
0.3316 -1
0
0.3790 -4
-0.9416 -5

154

0
-0.1125 -3
0.4263 -4
0
0.1123 -1
-0.3821 -2
0
-0.3600 -3
0.4637 -2
0
-0.1639 -3
06211 -4
0
0.1566 -1
0.5326 -2
0
0.2460 -3
0.6142 -2
0
0.1746 -4
-0.6619 -5
0
0.8346 -2
-0.2837 -2
0
0
0.2986 -1
0
0.1260 -4
0.4775 -5
0
0.1247 -1
-0.4240 -2
0
-0.4000 -4
0.3313 -1
0
0.2705 -3
-0.1025 -3

0.45-0.475

0
-0.8495 -3
0.3742 -3
0
0.4497 -1
-0.1900 -0
0
0.1720 -3
0.4422 -2
0
-0.1236 -2
0.5448 -3
0
0.6274 -1
-0.2651 -1
0
-0.3480 -3
0.6410 -2
0
0.1295 -3
-0.5706 +0
0
0.3344 -1
-0.1413 -1
0
-0.1600 -3
0.2993 -1
0
-0.9531 -4
0.4199 -4
0
0.4991 -1
-0.2109 -1
0
-0.8000 -4
0.3318 -1
0
0.2040 -2
-0.8987 -3

34.5-38.4

d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s

0.1767 -2
0.6577 -4
0.2445 -3
0.1434 -3
-0.1595 -4
0.4047 -1
-0.8684 -4
0.3232 -5
-0.3499 -5
0.5943 -2
0.2223 -3
0.8215 -3
0.3627 -3
-0.4144 -4
0.3644 -1

0
0.3035 -2
-0.4856 -3
0
-0.2000 -4
0.4048 -1
0
-0.2026 -3
0.5037 -4
0
0.1022 -1
-0.1639 -2
0
-0.2600 -3
0.3654 -1

0
0.1216 -1
-0.4137 -2
0
-0.2000 -3
0.4055 -1
0
-0.1448 -2
0.5487 -3
0
0.4080 -1
-0.1387 -1
0
0.2000 -4
0.3643 -1

0
0.4859 -1
-0.2053 -1
0
0.4000 -4
0.4044 -1
0
-0.1091 -1
0.4809 -2
0
0.1633 +0
-0.6902 -1
0
0.1600 -3
0.3637 -1

(17) .
5-5
W,%
15.5-18.4

18.5-22.4

22.5-26.4

a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m

0.0-0.30
-0.8622 -3
0.3301 -4
-0.3404 -4
0.2047 +0
0.7708 -2
0.2829 -2
-0.2068 +0
0.8810 -1
0.1880 +2
-0.1147 -2
0.4283 -4
-0.4619 -4
0.2421 +0
0.8882 -2
0.3336 -1
-0.3008 -1
0.8009 -2
0.1730 +2
-0.7720 -3
0.2867 -4
-0.3109 -4
0.1995 +0
0.7361 -2
0.2752 -1


0.30-0.40
0.40-0.45
0
0
-0.1969 -2
-0.1404 -1
0.4891 -3
0.5317 -2
0
0
0.3517 +0
0.1403 +1
-0.5632 -1
-0.4771 +0
0
0
-0.3000 -1
0.4000 -1
0.1882 +2
0.1879 +2
0
0
-0.2672 -2
-0.1911 -1
0.6639 -2
0.7239 -2
0
0
0.4146 +0
0.1656 +1
-0.6635 +1
-0.5632 +0
0
0
0.4000 -1
0.1729 +2
0.1729 +2
0
0
-0.1799 -2
-0.1286 -1
0.4471 -3
0.4873 -3
0
0
0.3419 +0
0.1367 +1
-0.5474 -1
-0.4647 +0

155

0.45-0.475
0
-0.1059 +0
0.4666 -1
0
0.5625 +1
-0.2377 +1
0
-0.4000 -1
0.1883 +2
0
-0.1439 -1
0.6343 -1
0
0.6634 +1
-0.2803 +1
0
-0.4000 -1
0.1733 +2
0
-0.9699 -1
0.4273 -1
0
0.5477 +1
-0.2312 +1

26.5-30.4

30.5-34.4

34.5-38.4

p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s
a
b
c
d
f
m
p
t
s

-0.3818 -2
0.1536 -2
0.1682 +2
-0.7889 -3
0.1728 -4
-0.1936 -4
0.1806 +0
0.6766 -2
0.2495 -1
0.1397 -1
-0.3073 -2
0.1593 +2
0.6392 -3
0.2570 -4
0.2549 -4
0.1245 +0
0.5086 -2
0.1732 -1
0.5821 -1
-0.2193 -1
0.1522 +2
-0.3843 -2
0.1458 -3
-0.1543 -3
0.2984 +0
0.1129 -1
0.4136 -1
-0.8941 -2
0.1015 -1
0.1347 +2

0
0
0.1682 +2
0
-0.1121 -2
0.2787 -3
0
0.3101 +0
-0.4964 -1
0
-0.1000 -1
0.1594 +2
0
-0.1469 -2
-0.3647 -3
0
0.2154 +0
-0.3445 -1
0
0
0.1521 +2
0
-0.8953 -2
0.2225 -2
0
0.5152 +0
-0.8269 -1
0
0.1000 -1
0.1346 +2

0
0
0.1682 +2
0
-0.8025 -2
0.0304 -1
0
0.1240 +1
-0.4215 +0
0
0
0.1593 +2
0
0.1045 -1
-0.3958 -2
0
0.8638 +0
-0.2938 +0
0
-0.4000 -1
0.1523 +2
0
-0.6372 -1
0.2413 -1
0
0.2054 +1
-0.6980 +0
0
-0.6000 -1
0.1349 +2

0
0
0.1682 +20
0
-0.6041 -1
0.2664 -1
0
0.4960 +1
-0.2096 +1
0
0
0.1593 +2
0
0.7915 -1
-0.3481 -1
0
0.3448 +1
-0.1457 +1
0
0.4000 -1
0.1519 +2
0
-0.4805 +0
0.2117 +0
0
0.8224 +1
-0.3475 +1
0
-0.4000 -1
0.1348 +2

-
:
= (0.1076 - 1.9)
(18)
= (0.154 Vs- 12.0)
:

0.1588

=
0.0605
V p / Vs

:
= [45.60- 7.95(Vp/Vs)]
156

(19)

(20)

- :

0.191

=
0.0548
V p / Vs

(21)

(20)

:
(22)
= (1.146 1.764*10-3 )
= (0.0208* V p +1.46)

(23)

W = (38.0-0.0315 Vp)
Jp = (16.4-8.73*10-3Vp)

(24)
(25)

JL = (

56
- 0.83)
G

(26)

6.
.
,
, , , , .

, , ,
, , . : , ,
.
-
90 %.
157

6-1.
6-1

d10
0.001/0.004
0.01/1.0

0.04/0.35


d50
d75
0.010/0.035 0.025/0.050
0.02/2.0
0.028/2.5

0.08/0.70

0.01/1.9

d90
0.040/0.150
0.04/4.0

0.20/1.1

: , - .

0.1g , (VS) 0.200-0.220 /.

(1), Imperial Valley, [16].
1=

1
5 21.1 VS

(1)

VS - /, 1-
(/),
(1).
2=

1
9.2 41.4 VS

(2)

, (2).

.
,
,
, , .
158

: ,
,
[7].

,
NCEER 1996 [16], SPT- BS -1377,
, . ,
( 19912-81):
=70
-1
F= 4.3*10-32
L = 200
= **g= 70*1.0*9.81= 686.7 /
()
V= *L= 4.3*10-3*0.2= 0.86*10-3 3

(/V) = 686.7/0.86*10-3= 7.98*10-3 /3
SPT (BS 1377)
= 63.5
= 0.762
F = 2.04*10-3 2
L = 300 .

=**g= 63.5*0.762*9.81= 474.7 /
()
V= A*L= 2.04*10-3*0.3= 0.61*10-3 3

(/V)SPT= 474/7|0/61*10-3= 7/91 *10-3.

N1= N

( / V ) SPT ,
N
( / V )

N- ,
159

N- ,
N=0.4+5/C1V,
1V- (/2),

(N1)60= N1

,
60

- .
(N1)60 30
. 0 (N1)60 30,
(CSR)
(SR) 0.0117(N1)60
, .
(CSR)=

0.65 V rd
,
( M 1 )C 1V g

- ,
V- ,
1V- ,
rd- :
rd=1.0-0.00765h h< 9.15
rd= 1.174-0.026h 9.15< h< 23
rd= 0.744-0.008h 23< h< 30
h> 30
rd= 0.5
1-
- 7.5
1 = 173.8/ 2.56, - .
g- 9.81 /2.
, (CSR) 0.0117 (N1)60
0 (N1)60 30.
160

7.
.
7.1

, ,
,
,
. :
- ,

.
- -,
( ,
, ).
> 1 . 3,
0.2-1.0 . 3 < 0.2 . 3. ,

, 1, 2 1. , , .
1.2 ( 1.5-1.8), ++1 - 1.8.
-
, ,
, , . , , . 161

, .
-
,
,
.
1:2000 1: 1000 ( 40
). -
1:500. - . : , 100-200
25-75 -
.
200-300 25- 75 .
, ,

.
.
-
,
. 1:5000 1:2000 . - .
,
. , 150-300 50-100 - ,
300-400 75-150 .
1 162

, .

, .
,
.
1: 10.000 1:
5000 - .

. ,
300-500 100-150 , 400-600 75-150 .
7.2 :
- 10
.
- ( 168
, 219 ,
325 ). .
- , . ( ) .

.
.
80 % ( 10
) , .

:
-
( 25100-82).
163

, , ,
, ,
.
- ,
( 25100-82), , , , ,
,
,
,
- .
,
, . ,
.
- ( ). . ,
, , -. .
- , , . ,
. ,
.
- : , , , .
) 2 1. ,
.
) . . 164

1, .
)

.
.
1, .
) . ,
. ( )
. .
.
7.3 .
( )
:
,
,
. , - , .

(), , , . ,
. , , - .
, .

. -
, ,
165


. - .
:
- .
- , .
- : , , > 0.2 , > 0.5
, > 1.0
, .
- ,
.
- .
-
.
- .
- , .
-
- 5 . ,
,
2-3 .
.
7.3.1
.
, 166

, , .

.
,
7-1, - 7-2.
% .
7-1

1
2

1
20-30
20-30
20-30
40-60
40-60
30-40
20-40

20-40

30-50

.
7-2

1
2
3

1
8
3
20
12
5
25
15
7


.
7-3

:
( <5 )
(5-120 )
167

15-20
75-110

(5-10-15,
10-20-20, 20-40-30, 40-80- 40)
-


:
5-10
10-20
20-40
40-80
( )


: ( )

>100

110
100
100
300
1000

15
30
60
150
5
30
>70
2-5
>500

,
, , , , .
- ( 10%) ,
. 1
1.1-1.5 2-5 .
() ,
, 40 .
2
.
,
168

, .
2-
.
. 80100 %. , : m100= 0.785 d 2 l 0,
d- ,
l- ,
0- , /3.
7-4
,
%
0 /3

< 20

20-30

30-40

40-50

50-60

60-70

>70

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

2100

2200

, , . q=

Ql
,
M

Q- , 7-5.
l- , . (l< M 2 ).
- .
7-5

, (5120) %
15
20
30
40
50
2000
1500
1000
700
500
3000

2300

1700

1200

900

. 0.3-0.5 . 0.5
2-2.5 .
0.5-1.0 .
169

.
,
.
5050, 4040 3030
. Q V.
, . , . = Q/V.

.
d =

W
1+
+
100 100

d- .
W- 5 .
- % 5 .

( . ).
7.3.2 .
, . , , -
,
().
: Q= kd2.
Q- , .
d- , .
k- k= d60/d10.
.
7.3.3 .

.
. 170

5 ,
2-3 . 1-2 202020 ,
3 101010 .
80-120 . 7-6.
7-6
.

1
20
10
7
5
-

40
10

25
8

12
6

45
12

30
10

15
8

10

20-30 % 40-50 % 1.
7.4 .


- .
7.4.1 - .
-

.
171

, , :
- ,
.
-
.
- .
- .
-

- - .
- - (.
7-7).


7-7

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

.
-


SO3

172

+
+
+
+
+

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

34

(. )

.


. .



+
+

+
+

WL

WP

JP= WL- WP
JL= (W-WP)/JP
Wmax

%
%

+
+
+

/3

/3

dp

/3

d (G=1)

/3

G= WS/
=d-d/S

/3

/3

SW

SW
WSW
= S/d- 1

%
-

+
+
+

n= /(1+)

2/

a=

n1 n2
1 2

= 1- 2 2
1

173

35

= 1 + n0

36

37
38
39

(. . )

,

.

40

41

42
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

tg , C

tg , C

/
2
/

/
2

/
2

+
-

+
+

G
K

+
+

()
,
7-8

<0.005

0.05-0.01

0.14-0.05

0.3-0.14

0.6-0.3

1.2-0.6

2.5-1.2

5-2.5

10-5

0.01-0.005

20-10

40-20

70-40

120-70

150-120

200-150

300-200

500-300

>700

700-500

174

80-40
40-20
20-10
10-5
80-5

80-5

175

7-9

5-2
2-1
1-0.5
0.5-0.25
0.25-0.1
5.0-0.1

5.0-0.1

7-10

<0.005

0.01-0.005

0.05-0.01

0.10-0.05

0.25-0.10

0.5-0.25

1-0.5

2-1

5-2

10-5

20-10

40-20

80-40

100-80

200-100

300-200

500-300

800-500

1000-800

>1000

7.4.2 .

, .
, ,
,
. , , .

, , , %.
, 100.
= b1m1 + b2 m2 + ...bn mn ,
m1 + m2 + ...mn
b1, b2 bn 1-, 2- %.
m1, m2 mn- .


. % :
= + 1 1 + ... nCn ,
100
100
100
, 1 n- ( )
, %.
,
, . , 70% 15%. 176

.
- , .

<0.005 %
10
10-30
30-60
>60

7%
, 1 % ,
. ,
-
. 10%.
7.4.3 () .
()
(, , , )
<110-4/,
, (
),
.
<110-6/, 12-18
% .
-
,
0.25 35 %
5
45 %, , 6 %. 200 .
(
177

2%). 0.07-0.20 .
0.25
. ( 5 %), - 10 %, 8 %. .
,
tg y .

. 5 .
0,8
0,78
0,76

0,74
0,72
0,7
0,68
0,66
0,64
0,62
0,6

0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

()

7-11

,
.

1
2
3
4
5
6

4
5
6
7
8
9

0.6-3.4
0.6-5.5
0.6-5.2
0.7-4.9
0.5-5.2
0.7-4.9

628-630
631-635
636-640
641-644
645-649
650-654


.
0.0
0.00.050.050.050.050.050.05
0.10
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.08
0.791 0.788 0.757 0.703 0.648 0.605 0.574
0.747 0.747 0.747 0.744 0.688 0.653 0.621
0.700 0.700 0.700 0.673 0.612 0.596 0.545
0.755 0.755 0.755 0.748 0.680 0.634 0.606
0.750 0.750 0.700 0.675 0.591 0.550 0.522
0.773 0.773 0.773 0.773 0.711 0.672 0.640

178

7
8
9
10
11

10
0.5-5.2
11
0.5-5.45
12
0.5- 50
13
0.6-5.5
14
0.5-5.0

655-658
659-662
663-665
666-669
670-673

0.789
0.856
0.795
0.851
0.903
0.792

0.789
0.856
0.795
0.851
0.903
0.792

0.789
0.856
0.791
0.851
0.903
0.784

0.785
0.815
0.752
0.850
0.873
0.763

0.723
0.734
0.673
0.775
0.802
0.694

0.685
0.685
0.623
0.720
0.761
0.653

0.657
0.661
0.592
0.688
0.611

, 5 .

-5
0.60-5.50
631-635
.
>10

105
0.1

0.2

52
0.3

, % .
210.50.250.10.051
0.5
0.25
0.10
0.05
0.01
0.2
0.2
0.6
3.6
29.2
14.1

0.010.005
14.7

7-12
<0.005
36.8

WT
WP
J

51.9

2.69

27.7

24.2

7-13

%

23.4

1.90

27.9

1.54

42.8

0.747

0.84

- SW=1.90, SW =0.117, - =0.25,



2
=0.833,
= 2 1 , = 12 1
1
1 + 0


,/2

0 1
1 2
/

7-14

0.25

0.5

1.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

4.0

2.0

0.5

0.747

0.747

0.747

0.747

0.744

0.688

0.653

0.621

0.626

0.635

0.651

0.744

0.003

0.030

0.047

0.063

0.060

0.056

0.048

0.028
52.0

0.018
80.8

0.016
91.0

179

-0,01
-0,02
-0,03
-0,04
-0,05
-0,06
-0,07
0

, /2

tg .

( < 5).
-2, 7.5-10.0,
478-481.
3

2,5

/2

1,5

0,5

0
0

0,5

1,5

180

2,5

3,5

3
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
0

tg=

n I I I I 4 * 26.9 6.6 * 13
=
=0.369
2
4 * 57 132
n i ( i ) 2

0.8 1.2 1.95 2.65

C=

i tg * i 6.6 0.369 * 13
=
= 0.451 /
n
4

( . 9).
.
7-15

1
2
3

-1

3.0-10.0
0-3.0
0.6-2.7

458-465
545-457
467-469

-2

/2 /2

tg

0.6
0.6
0.9

0.8
0.6
1.2

1.2
1.2
1.8

1.5
1.6
2.9

0.181
0.217
0.393

181

C,
/2
0.436
0.295
0.422

2.7-7.5

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

470-477

7.5-10.0 478-481
-4
3.1-10.5
-3
0-2.5
482-484
2.5-7.0
485-488
-5
0-4.6
499-502
4.6-10.5 503-506
-1
0.6-3.5
616-618
-2
0.75-4.1 619-622
-3
0.55-5.1 623-627

0.8

0.7

1.6

2.1

0.292

0.353

0.8
0.9
0.8
0.75
0.55
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.700

1.2
0.9
1.25
0.9
0.8
1.1
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.935

1.95
1.2
1.9
1.4
1.2
1.7
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.427

2.65
1.5
2.4
1.6
1.5
2.25
1.5
1.6
1.5
1.892

0.369
0.127
0.316
0.179
0.189
0.321
0.171
0.183
0.173
0.239

0.449
0.712
0.560
0.581
0.398
0.369
0.419
0.505
0.488
0.460

=64.4, = 169.0, = 255.2, 2= 741.0, n = 52,

= 3.25, (I- )2 = 191.75


tgn, n
tg1, C1 [40].
(n+I*tgn-I)2= 4.9708,

tgn=

n 52 * 255.2 64.4 * 169


=
=0.239,
n 2 ( ) 2
52 * 741 169 2

n =

tg 64.4 0.239 * 169


=
= 0.460
n
52
D=

G=

max

min

6 3.25
= 0.198
191.75

1 3.25
= -0.163
191.75

182

= 0.51

=
(1 + nG 2 ) * (1 + nD 2 )
1 + nGD

1 + 52 * ( 0.163) * 0.198
0.51
=
2
2
+

+
(
1
52
*
(
0
.
163
)
*
(
1
52
*
0
.
198
)

0.791V=2.01
S=

[1 : ( n 2)](C n + 1tg n I ) 2 =
=

1 : (52 2) * 4.9708 = 0.315

n min= Cn+ mintgn= 0.460+1*0.239= 0.699


n max= Cn+maxtgn= 0.46+6*0.239= 1.894

)
)

n min
VS
min=
1+
=
2
n
I
=

2.01 * 0.315
52 * (1 3.25) 2
1+
=0.135
191.75
52

n max
VS
1+
=
max =
2
n
I
=

2.01 * 0.315
52 * (6 3.25) 2
1+
= 0.153
191.75
52

183


g=

n min

n min + n max
=
min + n max max

0.699 + 1.894
= 1.125
0.699 0.135 + 1.894 0.153


tg1= tgn/g= 0.239/1.125= 0.213
C1= Cn/g= 0.460/1.125= 0.409

7.4.4 .
,
, , . : , - ,
,
,
, , , ,
, , , , , , .
,
, .
. .
8-10 3.

184

( )
7-16
/

1-5

20

- , %
-

5-10

10-20

>10

10

<10

10-20

10

<10

50

10

<10

80

2
3
4

- 1
.
.
7-17

<0.8
0.8-0.9
0.9-1
1

%
>5
2-5
1-2
<1



- () .
( )
.

185

.
7.4.5 .
7.4.5.1 ,
.

5 % ,
- 10 %,
( ) 5 %, , -
8 %.
. 60 .
, , 100
20-30 , 400 75 , - 100 . ,
, 5 %,
1 %, - 15 %.

- 0.9, - 0.8,
, , ( 15, 25, 50, 150,
200).
7.4.5.2 .

0.14-5 5-120
1.5-3.5 6.5-9.5 . 2 - .
186

10 %. , ,

. 6.5 .
2-3 .
.
7-18

120
80
40
20
10
5
2.5
1.2
0.6
0.3
0.14
<0.14

1000
1340
4000
2660
580
212
94
187
435
43
29
1000
10.000
11000

%
10
13
40
27
6
21
9
19
44
4
3
100
100

21
30
49
93
97
290

10
23
63
90
96
117
126
145
189
772

= 290/100=2.9 =
772/100= 7.7

.
7-19

187

-

SO %
, %

,
-

2 (1.0)

5 (1.0)

5 (2.0)


.
.

1 (0.5)

1 (0.5)

1 (0.5)

8735-88 50 /

( )

:
- ,


,
.
- , .

.
7-20

188

800

600


()







(
>3)

8.

1000
.8
2.5 /3

800
.12
2.3 /3

0.5 %
1.0 %
5%

0.8 %
2.0 %
10 %

35 %

35 %

-1 ( ).
.
.
.
.
-2 ( )
-3 ( )
-4 ( ).
2 3
, - , ,
.
-2. .
.
-1. .
1.1 .
1.1.01. .
1.1.02 .
189

1.2 .
1.2.01 .
1.2.02 .
1.2.03 .
1.2.04 - .
1.3 .
1.3.01 .
1.3.01.01 .
1.3.01.02 .
1.3.01.03 .
1.3.01.04 .
1.3.01.05 - . .
1.3.01.06 .
1.3.02 .
1.3.02.01 .
1.3.02.02 .
1.3.02.03 .
1.3.02.04 .
1.3.02.05 .
1.3.03 .
1.3.03.01 .
1.3.03.02 .
1.3.03.03 .
1.3.04 .
1.3.05 .
1.3.05.01 .
1.3.05.02 .
1.3.05.03 .
1.3.05.04 .
1.3.06 .
1.3.07 .
1.3.07.01 .
190

1.3.07.02
1.3.07.03 .
1.4 .
1.5 .
1.5.01 .
1.5.02 .
1.5.03 , .
1.5.04 .
1.5.05 .
1.5.06 .
1.5.06.01 .
1.5.06.02
.
1.5.06.03 .
1.6 .
1.7 .
-2 .
2.1 .
2.2 .
2.3 .
-3. .
3.1 .
3.1.01 .
3.1.02 .
3.1.03 .
3.1.04 .
3.1.05 .
3.1.06 .
3.2 .
3.2.01 .
3.2.02 .
191

3.2.03 .
3.2.04 .
3.2.05 .
3.2.06 .
3.2.07 .
3.2.08 .
3.2.08.01 .
3.2.08.02 .
3.2.08.03 .
3.2.08.04 .
3.2.09 .
3.2.09.01 .
3.2.09.02 .
3.2.09.03 .
3.2.09.04 .
3.2.09.05 .
3.2.09.06 .
3.3 .
3.3.01 .
3.3.02 ,
.
3.3.02.01 .
3.3.02.02 .
3.3.03 .
3.3.04 . .
-4 .
4.1 .
4.1.01 .
4.1.02 .
4.2 .
4.2.01 .
4.2.02
4.2.03 192

.
4.2.04 .
4.2.05 .
4.2.06 .
4.2.07 .
4.2.08 .
4.2.09 .
4.3 .
4.3.01 .
4.3.02 .
4.3.02.01 .
4.3.02.02 .
4.3.02.03 .
4.3.02.04
4.3.03 .
4.3.03.01
4.3.03.02 .
4.3.03.03 .
4.3.03.04 .
4.3.04 .
4.3.04.01 .
4.3.04.02 .
4.3.04.03 .
4.3.05 .
4.3.05.01 .
4.3.05.02 .
4.3.05.03 .
4.3.06 .
4.3.07 .
-5. .
5.1 .
5.2 .
5.3 .
5.3.01 .
5.3.02 .
5.3.02.01 .
193

5.3.02.02 .
5.3.02.03 .
5.3.02.04 .
5.3.03 .
5.3.03.01 .
5.3.03.02 .
5.3.03.03 .
5.3.03.04 .
5.3.03.05 .
5.3.03.06 .
5.3.03.07 .
5.3.03.08 .
5.3.04 .
5.3.05 .
5.4 .
5.5 .
5.5.01 .
5.5.02 .
5.5.02.01 .
5.5.02.02 .
5.5.02.03 .
5.5.02.04 .
5.5.03 .
5.5.04 .
5.5.05 .
5.5.05.01 .
5.5.05.02 .
5.5.06 .
5.5.06.01 .
5.5.06.02 .
5.5.06.03 .
5.5.06.04 .
5.5.06.05 .
5.5.06.06 . ( t 300).
194

5.5.06.07 .
5.5.06.08 .
5.5.07 .
5.5.07.01 .
5.5.07.02 .
5.5.07.03 .
5.5.07.04 .
5.5.07.05 .
5.5.07.06 .
5.5.07.07 .
5.5.07.08 .
5.5.07.09 .
5.5.08 .
5.5.08.01 .
5.5.08.02 .
5.5.08.03 .
5.5.08.04 .
5.5.08.05 .
5.5.08.06 .
5.5.08.07 .
5.5.08.08 .
5.5.09 .
5.5.09.01 () .
5.5.09.02 .
5.5.09.03 .
5.5.10 .
5.5.10.01 .
5.5.10.02 .
5.5.10.03 .
5.5.10.04 .
5.5.11 .
5.5.11.01 .
5.5.11.02 .
5.6 -.
5.6.01 .
5.6.02 .
195

5.6.03 -.
5.6.04 .
5.6.05 .
5.6.06 .
5.6.07 -.
5.6.08 .
5.7 .
5.7.01 .
5.7.02
.
5.7.03 .
5.8 .
-6 .
6.1 .
6.2 .
6.3 .
6.4 , .
6.5 .
6.5.01 .
6.5.02 .
6.5.03 .
6.6 .
6.7 .
6.8 .
6.8.01
6.8.02 .
6.8.03 .
6.9 .
6.9.01 .
6.9.02 .
6.9.03 .
6.9.04 .
6.10 .
6.11 .
6.12 .
196

6.13 .
6.13.01 .
6.13.02 .
6.13.03 .
6.13.04 .
6.13.05 .
6.14 .
6.15 .
6.16 .
6.17 .
6.18 .
6.19 .
6.19.01 .
6.19.02 .
6.19.03 .
6.19.04
6.19.05 .
6.19.06
6.19.07
6.19.08
6.19.09 .
.
-7 - .
7.1 .
7.2 .
7.3 , .
7.4 .
7.4.01 .
7.4.02 .
7.4.03 .
7.5 .
7.5.01 .
7.5.02 .
7.5.03 .
197

7.6 - .
7.6.01 .
7.6.02 .
7.6.03 .
7.6.04 .
7.6.05 .
7.7 .
-8 .
8.1 .
8.1.01 .
8.1.02 . .
8.2 . .
8.3 . .
8.3.01 .
8.3.02 .
8.3.03 .
8.3.04 .
8.3.05 .
8.4 .
8.4.01 .
8.4.02 .
8.4.03 .
8.4.04 .
8.4.05
8.4.05.01 .
8.4.05.02 .
8.4.05.03 .
8.4.05.04 .
8.4.06 . .
8.4.07 .
8.4.08 .
8.4.08.01 .
8.4.08.02 .
8.4.08.03 .
198

8.4.08.04 .
8.4.08.05 .
8.4.08.06 .
8.4.08.07
.
8.4.08.08 .
8.4.08.09 .
8.5 .
-9. .
9.1 .
9.1.01 .
9.1.02 .
9.1.03 .
9.1.04 .
9.1.05 .
9.1.06 .
9.1.07 .
9.2 .
-10 .
10.1 .
10.1.01 .
10.1.02 .
10.1.03 .
10.1.04 .
10.1.05 .
10.1.06 .
10.1.07 .
10.1.08 .
10.1.08.01 .
10.1.08.02 ( ).
10.1.08.03 .
10.1.08.04
10.1.08.05 .
10.1.09 .
10.1.09.01 .
10.1.09.02 .
199

10.1.09.03 .
10.1.10 .
10.1.11 .
10.1.12 .
10.1.13 .
10.1.14 .
10.2 .
10.2.01 .
10.2.02 .
10.2.03 .
10.3 , .
10.4 .
10.5 .
10.5.01 .
10.5.02 .
10.6 .
10.7 .
-11 .
11.1 .
11.2 .
11.3 .
11.3.01 20/0.4 .
11.3.01.01 .
11.3.01.02 .
11.3.01.03 .
11.3.01.04 .
11.3.02 20
11.3.03 20 . .
11.3.04 20 .
11.3.05 - 40
11.3.06 0.4
11.3.07 .
11.3.07.01 .
11.3.07.02 .
11.3.07.03 .
200

11.3.07.04 .
11.3.07.05 .
11.3.07.06 .
11.3.07.07 .
11.3.08 .
11.4 0.4 .
11.4.01 .
11.4.02 .
11.4.03 .
11.5 .
11.5.01 .
11.5.02 .
11.5.03 .
11.6 .
11.6.01 .
11.6.01.01 () .
11.6.01.02 .
11.6.01.03 .
11.6.01.04 .
11.6.02 .
11.6.02.01 .
11.6.02.02 -.
11.6.02.03 .
11.6.02.04 .
11.6.03 .
11.6.03.01 .
11.6.03.02 -.
11.6.03.03 .
11.6.03.04 .
11.6.04 .
11.6.04.01 .
11.6.04.02
-.
11.6.04.03 .
-12 .
12.1 .
201

12.2 .
12.3 .
12.4 .
12.4.01 .
12.4.02 .
12.4.02.01 .
12.4.02.02 .
12.4.02.03 , .
12.4.02.04 .
12.5 .
12.5.01 .
12.5.02 .
12.5.03 .
12.5.04 .
12.5.05 .
12.6 .
12.6.01 .
12.6.02 .
12.6.03 .
-3 .
.
-1 .
1.1 .
1.2 .
1.3 .
1.4 .
1.4.01 .
1.4.02 .
1.4.03 .
1.5 .
1.5.01 .
1.5.02 .
-2 .
202

2.1 .
2.2 .
2.2.01 .
2.2.02 .
2.3 .
2.4 .
2.5 .
2.5.01 .
2.5.02 .
2.5.03 .
2.6 .
2.6.01 .
2.6.02 .
2.6.03 -.
2.6.04 .
2.7 .
2.7.01 .
2.7.02 .
2.7.03 .
2.8 .
2.9 .
2.10 .
2.11 .
2.12 .
2.12.01 .
2.12.02 .
2.12.03 .
2.12.04 .
2.13 - .
2.13.01 .
2.13.02 .
2.13.03 , ,
.
2.14 , .
2.15 .
2.16 .
203

204

.
-1 .

1-1
.
1-2
.
1-3 .
1-4 .
1 -5 .
1-6 - .
1-7 .
1-8 .
-2 .
.
2-1 .
2-2 .
2-3 .
-3 .
-1 .
-2 .
-3 .
-4 .
4-1 .
4-2 .
4-3 .
4-4 .
4-5 0.4 .
4-6 0.4 .
4-7 - 40 380/220 , 50 .
4-8
.
4-9 .
4-10 .
4-11 .
4-12 .
205

.
-4 .
1. .
2. -
.
3. .
4. .
5. .
9.
( )
1. .
,
, ,
,

,
, , , ,
,
,
,
- ,
,
, :
1.7.1 ,
,
1.7.2 ( , , ,
),
1.7.3 -,
.
206

1.7.4 ( ).
1.7.5 -
, , , .
1.7.6
, ,
( ), ,
( ..).
1.7.7 .
1.8 .
1.8.1
, .
1.8.2
, .
1.8.3 , .
1.8.4 .
1.8.5 .
1.8.6 ,
.
1.9 .
1.9.1 .
1.9.2 ,
().
1.10 ,
, .
207

2 , , .( , . -
)
2.1
,
.
2.1.1 , .
2.1.2 .
2.1.3 (
), .
2.2 .
2.2.1 .
2.2.2 .
2.2.3 ,
.
2.2.4 .
2.3 - , ,
-:
2.3.1 .
2.3.2
.
2.3.3 .
2.3.4
.
2.3.5 .
2.4 .
2.4.1
.
208

2.4.2 .
2.4.3 ,
. .
2.4.4 .
2.4.5 .
2.4.6 .
2. 5 .
2.6 .
2.7 , .
3 .
.
3.1 , .
3.2 , , . .
3.3 ,
, .
3.4
,
, , .
3.5
.
3.6
,
( .).
3.7 -
, 209

,
, .
3.8 , .
3.9 - .
3.10
. 3.6-3.9.
3.11
.
3.12 .
3.13 , .
3.14 ()
.
4. . .
4.1 ,
.
4.2
().
4.2.1 .
4.2.2 , .
4.2.3 .
4.2.4
.
4.2.5 .
4.2.6
.
210

5. . .
5.1 .
5.2
.
5.3 .
5.4 , , () .
:
1. .
2. , .
3. , .
4. .
5. .
6. ,
.
7. - , .
10.
.
[11].


( 5 ).
1 . ().
,
( 2000) (W)
.
5 211

5 (m<5).
5 (m> 5) .

W<5=

W W> 5 (1 m< 5 )
m< 5

(W<5)

A*Wopt W B* Wopt.
Wopt- .

com.

:
d=

1+W

, d<5 =

d d > 5 m< 5
,
d > 5 d (1 m< 5 )

- ; d - 5 ; m<5 ; d<5 ; W .

(WL),
:
d max= 1.44+ 0.88 ln

S
1 + eL

1 + eL

- WL

eL= (S * WL)/W

212

W
WL
Wopt = 11.83*ln (eopt*WL)+ 37.07
(opt*WL) , .
eopt=

S d max
-
d max

.
S ().
d max .
WL- .
m i
. m i =

d <5
Kcom .
d max


() , ,
.
, .
d<5, m<5, WL,
(tg , C)
.
tg = 0.231- 0.33 ln (e/ei),

C= 21.63-40.39 ln (e/ei) k.


i =

S
1
d

S WL
- ,
W

WL- . W-
.
213

/i , ( )
( com= 96-103 % JL 0 WL= 32-61 %)
0.574

K=

m< 5 WL

3.22

10 7 /, -

, m<5
5 ( ), WL-
( ).
, .
.

:
dmax=

1 + emin

S ().
emin-
.
emin =

e0 min
,
K 60 / 10

e0min=0.35
60/10= 1. 60/10- .
[11] ,
dmin =

A S
,
2.65( P K )0.05

, (=2.28- - , =1.86 ).
214

d1 d 2
Pi
d
) lg( 2i ) - (
P lg(d1 / d 2 )
d 2i d1i
d1i

. d2 d1 . d1- d2. i , d1i ,d2i- n

dmax = 1.794+0.125 ln[(1-n) k S]


(1-n) .
n= (0.45-0.1 lgK60/10- [34].
k= (1+0.05K60/10)-
.
S ().
:
- di
[34] ().
,

W=W<20*m<20+ W>20(1-m<20),
m<20- 20 , .
W<20- 20 % (
1-3 )
W>20- 20 % ( ).

:
di =

1+W

- .
, (dmax) 215

.
: Kcom i= di/dmax Kcom
. .
:
tg= 0.684+0.049 ln K60/10, Kcom> 0.96
Rc = 4587(n*PCaCO 3 ) - 0.781 .
Rc .
n= 1- d/S .
d .
S .
PCaCO 3 - 3 .
.[18].
.

- , ,
- . , ,
. . ,

, , .




216

R=(Vp)

.

:
-
300 220-260 /3,
- 0.07-0.20.
- 0.3-1.25 ,
-
7-26 3/,
-
9-230,
- 3-410,
-
2-369 .
-

. 6
.
Vp= k1V0+[1.15-0.6 *lg(tM* lg p )]*lgp, =180 ,
Vp= k1V0- 1.353 lg tM+0.562 /.
k1= 1.32+0.25 lg tM- 0.15V0,
V0= V - [1.15-0.6 lg(tM* lg )]*lg,

4
)+0.23(t0-tn)+ [1.34+0.11(t-tn)]2,
h
1.55 (lg t M lg tn )(1 0.6 lg )
V= k2Vi , k2= 0.7+
+
,
Vi
Vi
tM= 1.17tn+(4-

Vp (/),
-; V0 - ; Vi ,
.; V - ,
217

; tM
() , ; tn- , .
(t).
- tn=3.0+1.1 t,
- tn= 6.3+0.7 t,
- tn= 8.0+ t
t0- ,
.
t- , .
k1- ,
.
k2- .


, . , . .

0.157

- 1.834 V)
,
1
0.96 + 1.57
0.131

= (7.68+
- 1.943 V)
,
2
0.96 + 1.78

= (7.29+

1 2
. 1 2 , .
:
(1 2)
, ,
.

= (Rc), [38].
218


1. .. -
- . . 1968 .
2. ., .. .
. .
3. .. .
. . , 1988 .
4. . 6, 1971 .
5. 122.48-96 .
.
6. 20069-81 . .
7. 19912-81 . .
8. 20276-99 . .
9 - .
.
. 2000 .
10. ., .. . . 1976 .
11. ..
- . . 2005 .
12. .
1999 .
13. - . 34.2-88 1989 .
14. . 45-77.
. 1977 .
15. - . 2001 .
219

16. .
GEF. . - :
. 2000 .
17. ..
.. 1957 .
18. .. . . 1984 .
19. ..
. . 1968 .
20. ..
.
. 1972.
21. . . . 304-01-2005.
22. . . . 3.04-101 2005 .
23. .. . . 1974 .
24. .. . -
2000 .
25. . . ..
. .. . . 1972 . 3.
26. . . ., .. .. . . 1986 .
27. ..
. 1965 .
28.
. 1982 .
29.
. 92-80 . 1981 .
220

30.
.
. 1981 .
31. -
. -836-85. . 1988 .
32. ..
. 8 1979 .
33.
. 891-91 . 1991 .
34. . 34.15.073.91. . 1991 .
35. 44-62. . . 1966 .
36. .. . . 1997 .
37. 2.06.01-86 . . 1987.
38. 2.06.-8-87 . 1988 .
39. 2.01.14-83 . . 1984 .
40. 2.02.-2-85 . . 1986 .
41. II-7-81*
. 1991 .
42. 2.06.05.-84 . .
1985 .
43. 2.06.06- 85 .
. 1986 .
44. 2.06.04-82* (, ) . 1986 .
45. . . 1955 .
221

46. 11-105-97 -
.
47. 11-104-97 -
.
48.
10 3 . 33.3.2.08-87 . 1987 .
49. .. . , , 1989 .
50. . . . 1976 .

222

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.6
1.7
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5



,




-

223

3
6
6
9
11
13
18
18
19
31
36
43
50
50
52
58
59
63

3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
1
2
3
4
5


.
.
-

-
()

.
224

67
67
68
68
69
72
73
74
74
75
75
78
79
79
85
87
87
97
117
120
145

6
7
8
9
10
11

.




.

225

156
160
188
204
209
217