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# Definition of Error:

An error is the difference between an observed value for a quantity and its
true value.
E=X-

Where,
E is the error in an observation.
X

## X is the observed value.

The three types of surveying errors are:
a) Mistakes or Blunders
b) Systematic errors
c) Random errors

1) .
The 50%, 90% and 95% error are called the margin of errors which
expresses the variations underlying a surveys results.
The 50% error establishes the limits within which the observations
might fall 50 percent of the time.
Mathematically it can be expressed as,
E50= 0.6745 where, is the standard deviation.
The 90% error is often used to specify precisions required during a
surveying project.
Mathematically,
E90= 1.6449
Where, is the standard deviation.
Similarly, the 95 % error also called the two sigma error (2), is also
used to specify precisions required during a surveying project. While
conducting surveying projects, there might be a requirement for the
95% error to be less than certain value for the work to be acceptable.
Mathematically,
E95= 1.9559

## where, is the standard deviation.

2).
Precision can be defined as the degree of consistency between
measurements and is based on the sizes of the difference between 2 or
more derived values of same quantity.
Accuracy is the measure of absolute measured quantity of its true
value.
For example,
In lab if a weight of an object is obtained to be 5.5 kg, but the know
weight is 11 kg, then the measurement is not accurate.
Similarly, if the object was weighed 5 times and each time its mass
was recorded as 5.5 kg, then the performed measurement was precise
but not accurate.
And if the same object was weighed 5 times and each time its mass
was measured as 10.9 kg. Then in this case the measurement
performed was both precise and accurate as the measurement for the
mass was close to the actual value of 11 kg and each measurements
were close from each other.

3).
Random errors: Random errors are the error that remain in the
measured values after the mistakes and systematic errors have been
removed.
Two examples of random errors in surveying are:
a) Incorrect observation of angle from measuring point.
b) Placing of markers on slightly incorrect point.
Systematic Errors: The errors that occur by following some fixed laws
and are not evitable which include the environment, instrument and
observer.
Two examples of systematic errors in surveying are:
a) The measuring tape expands in length with increase in temperature.
b) Measuring a distance without allowing for the slope of the tape.
Blunders: These are the types of errors that can be of any size or
nature, and tend to occur through carelessness.

## Two examples of Blunders in surveying are:

a) Writing down the wrong value.

4)
a)

4) b

Vi2

Measurement
(Mi)

Residual ( Vi )

206.159
206.161
206.145

-0.0178
-0.0198
-0.0038

1.444

105

206.139

0.0022

4.84

106

206.137

0.0042

1.764

105

206.135

0.0062

3.844

105

206.143

-0.0018

3.24

106

206.137

0.0042

1.764

105

206.136

0.0052

2.704

10

206.131
206.133

0.0102
0.0082

6.724

10

206.14

0.0012

1.44

10

206.129
206.15

0.0122
-0.0088

7.744

105

206.149

-0.0078

6.084

105

206.14

0.0012

1.44

106

206.143

-0.0018

3.24

106

206.144

-0.0028

7.84

106

206.148

-0.0068

4.624

105

206.147

-0.0058

3.364

105

206.142

-0.0008

6.4

107

206.14

0.0012

1.44

106

206.132

0.0092

8.464

105

206.152
206.12

-0.0108
0.0212

0.00031684
0.00039204

0.00010404

0.00014884

0.00011664
0.00044944

Vi2 =

Mi = 5153.53

2.0881

103

Therefore,
Sample mean =

Mi = 5153.53 =206.1412
n

25

2.0881 103
=0.00933 m
251

0.00933
=
= 0.00187 m
n
25

5) Given,
a = 150.12 m

a = 0.20m

b= 255.64 m

b = 0.10m

c= 30.00 m

c = 0.05 m

## Area of the tract = ?

Standard deviation (z)= ?
We know,
Area of the Tract =

a+b
h
2
150.12+225.64
30
2

= 5636.4 m2
And now for the standard deviation,
Standard deviation (z) =

2
2
2
ah bh
ah bh
ah bh
( + ) a ) +( ( + ) b) +( ( + ) c )
a 2 2
b 2 2
c 2 2

9+ 2.25+88.24

= 9.97 m2

6) Here,

## Error for series (Es) = 0.04 ft

Now,
Number of observation(n) =

200
=5
40

We know,
Es = E

Therefore,
E=

0.04
= 0.018 ft
5

Thus, the standard deviation per 40 ft tape length to achieve the desired
precision is 0.018 ft