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In the various application of daily life of a person, reliable authentication has the major role.
Biometrics uses biological trademarks of a man as a mean of perceiving a person and has various
manageable outlook including security information reliability adoption to internal failure and
framework recuperation. It provides a method of securing personality and the privilege of people
as being a changeless element. Biometrics are used for two authentications.
The construction of a unique identity for one specific person based on the biometric analysis of
that person. In this process obtained sample are compared with the already stored data using the
matching function for identification.
The identity that is owned by a person can be confirmed or denied by biometric analysis in this
process a man with basic identity is confirmed on this identity by taking his biometric template
and matching using 1:1 matching algorithm.

According to the recent research paper, Biometric Security is on a sharp growth curve. The world
is moving towards the technology which is the rise in a large part due to the fact that most of the
users of mobile have become comfortable using tools such as, face identification, figure prints
identification for access.

The first type of biometrics came into form in 1890 named as Bertillonage which is created by the
great personality anthropologists named as Alphonse Bertillon. He claimed that after the age of 20
measurements of adult bones does not change. He based his system on his claim named
Bertillonage.The system consists of identifying people by catching separate body parts
measurements like a person's breath of head, height, arm length, lengths of forearms, the length of

different figures, etc. through using calipers. The method was so unreliable and shows the same
results to many of people and decreased the accuracy and hence no longer used.

Fingerprint Recognition
It involves capturing the image of a person's fingertips and records its characteristics such as loops,
arches, and whorls, as well as along with the pattern of minutiae, furrows, and ridges. There are
three ways through which matching of fingerprint can be achieved as follows;
Minutiae-based is a set of points in plane which matches the stores and the points are matched in
the input minutiae and template
Correlation based matches the images of superimposes two figure print and it also computed the
correlation between the corresponding pixels.
Ridge feature based matches the advanced method which captures the ridges, as minutiae are
providing the image of fingerprints which are in low quality.

Face Recognition
by using digital camera characteristics of the face are captured for example distance between
mouth and nose, eyes and nose and jaws and ears distance. These features are added to the data
base for comparison. Face recognition can be performed in two ways
The appearance of face involves Fourier transformation of the images of the face into its
fundamental frequencies a formation of Eigenfaces. Eigenvectors consisting the covariance matrix
of a set of training images. Face distinctiveness is recorded by avoiding oversensitivity to noise
such as lightening variations.
Face geometry models create particular features of the human face like mouth, eyes etc. and layout
of geometry so features are computed. Face geometry after this is just to match constellations.

Iris recognition
this technique just captures and analyze the pattern of colored tissue around pupil by analyzing
rings, furrows and freckles in it. Normal video camera with high definition feature is used. The
images are then taken and processed in two ways:
Daugman System LED-based light source is used with the standard video camera. Pictures are
captured with the iris diameter between 100-200 pixels from a distance of 15-16 cm using the
330mm lens.
Wild's system This system images iris approximately 256 pixels across the diameter from 20cm
using 80 mm lens.

Hand Vascular Pattern Identification

Hand Vascular Pattern Identification is used to produce an image on the face, hand, or wrist as
veins are relatively stable by one's life through a non-harmful infrared light. The computerized
comparison of size and shape of the subcutaneous blood vessel structures in the back of hand. It is
enough idiosyncratic to function as personal code that is highly difficult to discover or duplicate a
vein "tree" introduced a pattern which gathers through a video camera. the sensor not required any
physical contact it provides the outstanding convenience and has no performance reduction even
with hand contamination or hand. The system has fast verification speed which is (0.4 sec/ person)
and the False Rejection Rate and False Acceptance Rate are highly low at 0.1% and 0.0001%. the
vascular pattern scanners are used are found in testing the major military installations. Insecurity
industry already established, companies considered it for multi-order retailers.

Retina Recognition
With the help of technology, the process of infrared scanning and images comparison of the blood
vessels is held in the black lens of the eye. It is known as the choroidal vasculature. It is very
fundamental to keep eye's intrinsic isolation from the both environments external as well as from
an internal organ of the body. The use of Retina scan is easily identified in high-end applications
of security usually in armed installations and power plants.

Voice Recognition
A method that combines the use of physiological and behavioral factors to produce speech patterns
captured by speech processing technology is called voice recognition. It uses fundamental
frequency, nasal tone, cadence and inflection as the tool for authentication.
Voice recognition techniques are classified into three categories depending upon the type of
Fixed text method in which predetermined word recorded during registration on the system is used.
The text-dependent method uses specific words or phrases computed on the fundamental voice
pattern of the user.
Text independent method is advanced technology and uses fundamental voice pattern and is not
based on text or language.
Another technique named as conversational technique bring in the use of secret knowledge not
known by anyone other than the user.

Signature Recognition
a generally accepted evidence in courts of laws is writer recognition, the way a person sign his
name is his sole character and is used in signature recognition. This technique uses a number of
interior contours and number of vertical slope components to verify a person. But this technique
isn't that much applicable as signature are affected and changed by time and environment both
internal and external and also because professionals can copy signature leading to failure of this

CSO Threat Intelligence Survival Guide

If the large companies and SMEs want to figure out how they can invest in security in a better way
so that they have to take complete importance towards corporate security programs.
Here is the look on the projection of Market;
In a recent report "Juniper Research" said that in 2019 more than 770 million biometric
authentication application will be downloaded from that figure 6 million applications has been

downloaded this year. The report cites the example of high-profile adoptions of biometrics such
as Apple introduces the combination of its Touch ID authentication to tokenization for NFC
The Juniper study reveals that the authentication of the fingerprint will resolve the greater number
of apps, which are directed by increasing deployment of fingerprint scanner which are also
connected to smartphones.
In another report, which is written by Acuity Market Intelligence, predicted that increasing demand
for tablets, smartphones, and wearable devices integrate biometrics which is running a global
market of 2.5 billion users and which will increase nearly 4.8 billion biometric devices by 2020.
Acuity also stated that biometrics will become a standard feature on mobile devices.
ABI Research shows the in 2016 the overall market of biometrics will generate the revenue
$13.8billion. the major source of revenue which biometric recognition technologies are generating
is coming from the governmental entities. ABI also notes that in 2017 consumers and enterprise
segments are anticipate to come up with governmental spending due to increased consumer
acceptance of biometric tools.
Acuity Market Intelligence said in his Maxine Most principle that with biometrics, individual can
access the secure information or area is not just that the individual is holding the proper
documentation, but it means that the person who has been granted access to the information or
area provides the audit trail and also improves the security.
Biometrics can also give greater convenience, although there is major difference between different
biometric options (such as fingerprints v/s iris scan) there are greater advantages of using this
technology in which a person cannot forget it like they can with a secret key, nor would they be
able to desert it or have it stolen like they may with a token. Taule said that to help desk and
potentially labor savings is easy because this technology can easily it into lower volumes.
Taule said that biometric provides the strong authentication with the use of password-based
methods by which any individual cannot reject having taken an action. Tulle also said that it also
depending on how someone implemented, how much they have the potential to use biometrics
which will lead them to afford to access other resources.

Mary Chaney is the senior team leader, Incident Response and Data Management at the financial
services GR capital Americans said that biometrics if done correctly many of the problems can be
solved with the use of passwords and identifications.

The existing electronic security setups that heavily emphasize on personal identification, to
recognize that person or a client is an approved user of a system. It consists of general vulnerability
affects. In this way, the verification can be replaced and with the help of biometrics it can easily
be reduced or eliminated. Various organizations and business may use biometrics to boost their
environmental security levels and also for data protection. Patents are highly considerable to secure
for any company. Biometrics is not sometimes brought into use just because of higher cost and
legal concerns. Further, it is not the ultimate option of the masses mainly because of privacy issues.
Its merits are confirmed by actions of the G8 countries to that use it to avoid falsification of
passports. Many other travel documents are also secured as proof of their struggle beside terrorism.
No doubt the use of technology will touch its peak in the upcoming era and its affects can be
measured easily on everyone.