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Q.laz.A-!il

npu.J~Atepau

1 1l 111-ll -,,-,-

J, 11 IJJCOJ

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2009

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. , , .

2009,- 192 .
ISBN 978-5-89237-108-7

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.:

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. , ;;. ;. ;;
..

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.
.

..,

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. .,

ISBN 978-5-89237-108-7

2003
2003

............................................................................ 10

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11
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(, )
(

............................... 13
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
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15
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. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . 19
...................................... 20
...................................... 21
= lf(x)l ................................ 22
f(lxl) ................................ 22
.............................. 23


........................................... 24
................................................................ 26

(
) ..............

26
......... 26

............................................. 2 7

~ ...........
=

kx

28

........................................................ 29

.........................................................

30

...............

30
.................................... 30
........................ 30
.................... 31
,

................................................................

32

4

,

()

....................... 33

2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

d : ..........

36

...................................................... 37

= ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

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39
40
41
42
46

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. . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
..........................................................
.......................................
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49
50
51
52

..............................................................
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..................................................
...................................
...............................
...........................
.......................

52
53
54
55
55
56
59

.................................................................. 61
.......................................................... 62
....................................................... 63

( - 1 )k1 ( - 2 )k2 ( - an )k >


11

................................... 64

........................................
................................................
..................................................
..............................................
.........................

65
66
67
67
68


I .............................................................. 71

......................... 72

........................................................... 72
............................................................... 73

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

...... 75

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..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7
............................................ 77
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7
......................................... 77
................. 78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
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................... 80

...........................................

81

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r. ...................................................... 82
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( -) ...................................

83
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.......................... 84

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85

............................................................................... 86

r ...........................................................

86
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............... 86
........ 86
...................................................... 8 7
....................... 87
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

1r1Je~JI))IIJIKJI ~!}

............................................... 89
............................ 89
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
...................................... 90
, ......... 90
3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2
......................................................... 93
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.............................. 95
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................ 99
............................................ 100
............ 1 00
.............. 101
.......................................................... . 1 1

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.............................................. 102
.................. 102
, ....... 103
, ! 03
............................. 103
r ........................................................................... 104
................................................ . 1 04

7
....................................... 104
,

............... 105
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,

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.............................................. 1 09
, ......................................... 110
.

........................................................ 11

............................................................... 111

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, .................. 112
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113
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114
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................................... .123
.

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II()()r .............. 126
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............................................ 12 7

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.................................................... 132
~t!ltll))1()JIJal Jt()()))~JIIIJi1rJal JLiJiJ
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........................... 137

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BEKTOPbl .......................................................................................... 139


......................................................... 139
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..... 143
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....................................... 152

9
............................................ 153

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........................................................ 15 5
][[J)I(:I~ct JLf)f)
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.............................................................. 15 7

][[J)~Iv.l~~ JLfi~

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...... 159
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............................................................................. 160
........................... 160
............................... 160
. .................................................................... 161
......................................................... 162
, .................................. 162
, ......................................... 162
, ................................... 163
, .......................................... 163
, ...................................... 164
, .............................................. 165
, .......................................... 166
, ................................................... 16 7
, ........................................ 168
, ................................... 169
, ................... 1 70
, .......................... 1 71
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....................................................... 1 7 3
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............................................................. 1 76

I:I ............................... JL ~~

10


*)
,

.

f (),

: =

( ), -
().

D).

( ).

f(

~' ------------{

(,

f ()).

.."".

2 '

i f(xl)

. :
.

n: = 2 , =

. : .

--~

ln

. :
.

,.,.,..::J''Ir f ( ) =
n: 'fi.Y~.L

11 ,

:
.

*> , ,
.

11

, :

, :

f(-x)

= f(x).

f(-x) = -f(x).

, .
, , :

= cos

: = x 2n+ 1 , n Z;

: = x 2 n, n

Z;

sin

, , :

= ,

= ln ,

- 2,

= ( + 1)2

12

f ()

>

f(x) = f(x

+ )= f(x-

Tn,

).

N,

.
,

(, [; ]),

, 2, 3 .. ( ).

f(x)

0 , :

() =.

Xt, 2, Xg-

= f(x)

13
(, )

()

()

(; ),

(; ),

1 2

1 2

, 1

<

2,

f (xl) < f

, 1

<

2,

(2).

f (xl) > f

(2).

f( 2)
f(xl)

( )

Xmax

Xmin

()

< f ().

Ymax

()

() >

(i)

Ymin =

(i)

~
Xmtn

Xmax -

Ymax-

Xmin-

min

14

= f(x)

(), .
,

1
1
1
1
1

kx +

= ,

lim f(x) ( )
-++

( ) .

lim f(x)

-+-0

= ,

lim f(x) =
-++

kx

lim f(x) =

-+-

+ ,

= lim f(x), = lim(f(x)- kx)

~ , ~ -.

15

,

:
n1
.
.
, ,

( = 2 ,
, [; ), =

sin

[-n/2; n/2]).

g f,
f g

f,

g(y).

f(x).

, =

f(x),

f
g, f
g.


= (
. . 23).

= = Vx , = 2 = log2x
,

f(x),

g(y) ,

. ,

1
2

=-+1.

= 2 - 2.

, : = 2-

2.

: =2-2

= -1 + 1 .
2

16


30

f(x)

-f(x)

= -f(x)

f(x)

3 .

D ',

'

:= 2

,'=

1
,,

'

,,

1
1
1

'

, , ... ... ... ...

' ...
...

,
,,

........ ., -1

Slll

, ... ... ... ...


,,
...

'

... ... ... ,,' 2n


=

-sin

17

f(x) ---+- f(-x)

,,
,
,
,,-... .....,

,'

= f(-x)

f(x)

1
1

= f(x) .

3 . .

,,
,
,,

,, ,

n:

1
1
1
1
1
1

= log2(-x)

,
1

,ly=2
,
,,

,
,,

1
1

log 2 x

-- -- --

1
1

'

D
=~

=
_...

......
, ,,.

, ...

1.

(. .

11)

, :

f(-x)

2.

= f(x).

n: (-)2 = 2.

(. .

11)

,
f(-x) = -f(x). n: sin(-x) = -sinx.

18

f(x)--+ f(x

-)

f(x -

f(x)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

>

lal

< .

n:

,'

,,

. (. .

12)


nT, n Z.

19

f(x)

--+ f(x) +
=

f(x)

= f(x) II

>

<.

n:

,---,

,
,
tl'
tl'

tl'

tl'
tl'

'
'

'

',

'

'

...

_.

tl'

tl'

,'

20

f(x)

f(ax),

>

la>ll
=

f(ax)

f(x)

f(ax)

O<a<l

= f(x)

1/ .

8 . . .

=.{XJ2

1 1
2

21

f(x) -+ kf(x), k >

\k>l

= kf(x)

= f(x)
I

O<k<l

= kf(x)

= f(x) r

3 .. n .

1/k

n:

22

lf(x)l

= f(x),

, ,

().

. =

lt(x)l (

).

fJ

=
=

f(x),

f (lxl)

, , - ,
, ().
, , .

1-t . = f(l 1> (


).

23

g(x),
= f(x),
-

3 . .

f( ) -

= .

, (.
.

15).

n .

fJ

2 (>)

1
1
1
1

1
1
1

..
......
.....

IJ

...'
..
....

1t

.......
..
'
.... .....

-1t/2 -1

..
..
..
/

'

-1
-1tj2

-1

..

....

-1

1tx

24
I I

( )

= \ 2 -

6\xl + 8\ = llx\ 2 - 6\xl + 8\ = l<lxl- 3) 2 - 11

= 2 - 6 + 8 =
= (- 3)2 - 1

= (lxl - 3 )2

l<lxl -

3) 2 -

11

ll

25

= l3sin2x\ - 1
=

sin2x

-2

3sin2x

1t

= l3sin2xl -1

2n

26

kx

+ ,

k,

- .
- .

k = tg

y=kx

k 1 *- k2, r:1:
= k1 + 1 = k2x + 2

. .

k1 = k2,

k2x

*- 2, r:1:
= k1X + 1

+ 2 .

..

27

k::;:.

= kx +

{}

:
, ::;:. , ,

k::;:.

k ::;:.

k =

, =~:. ,

= ,

=, =, ,

k=
k =

=~:.,

= = -1k

, =~:. ,

= ,

.: ::

>,

> (-bjk; )

<,

> (-;

k=

k=

>
<

< (-;

<

>

<

=, =,

-bjk)

-bjk)
(-bjk; )

R
R
R

.: .:

k>

k<

k=

:..

R
R

28

1 = , 2 =

(; )

(1;

1.

+ k).

n.

+2

= 3

= ,

2 =

1,

Yl

= 2;

= 5.

(;

2)

(1; 5)

k -::;:.

(-bjk;

-::;:.

, (; )

) .

n.

= 2

+2

= ,

2 =, 2
(;

= 2;

Yl

= -1.

2)

(-1;

, 1

2 ,

Yt

2 .

n.

=--+2

Xt

= 3,

Yl = 1;
2 = -3, 2 = 3.
(3; 1) (-3; 3)
.

-3

-1

29

= kx +

1.

2.

kx

3.

kx

(
(

lkl > 1)
lkl < 1)

= .

k<

II

, ,

( >,

< 0).


).
n:

11.

= 2-

.
12.

= 2-

= 2

= -j + 2

= -j

= -j

+2

30

= 2 + + ,

7J!

- .
,

, .

D
1 >

>

= 2

> ,

- 4.
D

> ,

<

1 <

>

< ,

< ,

<


1.

2
)

-4
+- --2

= + + =

2.
2

>

= 2 + += (- 1 ) 2

D<

++

(- 1 )(- 2 )

31

+ +

= 2

>

[-D/(4a);

<

(-;

-Dj(4a)]

, :

i=

-- fD

>

: 1 =

D <

-+ fD
2

-bj(2a)

> (-; x 1)U(x2 ;


< ( 1 ; 2 )

>

D=

>

D<

>R

<

D>

<

D=

<

D<

<

>

>
<

<

(-;

x1)U(x1;

( 1 ; 2 )
(-;

(-;

x 1)U(x2 ;
x1)U(x1;

>

<

> , D > ,

(-bj(2a); )
(-; - /( 2 )]

{
(-; -bj(2a)]
{ [-bj(2a); )

>

<

Xmin =- /(2);

Ymin

=-

=- bj(2a);

=- Dj(4a)
Dj(4a)

32
,
,

== 2

+ +

:'

'

i
-------------------------+----------------------------

- : ; )

i
:

!
''

:
>
<

(-.!:.; - D)

= --

( :.)
-- JD
- + JD

D > 0:

D = 0:

1 =

D < 0:

-bj(2a)

, 2 =

( )

( )

: (0; ),

(-bja;

. ,

+ + =

33

,

n:

\ = 2

4 + 3

1.
2.

, .. =

(2; -1),

>.

..

- !!_ -- - -4 -- 2 '.
2
2
(2) = 2
4. 2 + 3 = -1 .
2

3.

..

=-!!_=2.
2

4.

t moe1l :

(1;

5.

0)

= (1; 0) (2; ) = (3; 0).

1l :
(; )

(;

3);

. mo1la

: (- : ; ) = ( 4; 3).
=- 2 - 6-

1.
2.

, .. =

(-3; 0),

-1

<.

..

-6
-2

- - = - - = -3;

-6

-3

(3)

3.
4.

= -( -3) 2 -

..

!
1

!
i
i

5.

= - - = -3 .
2

1l 1 :
(1; )

( -3) - 9

= (-3;

).

m1l :
(; )

(;

-9);

.. mo1la

: (-:;)= (-6; -9).

34
J"

30 J"
(. .

= 2

30)

:
2

- 4
+ + = ( + -

=--,

= ( -

) 2 + ,

2 - 4

= ----4

= 2.

= ( -

) 2

+ :

1. = 2
lal ( lal < 1 -

1/la\ ).

< , , ,

(
).

: = 2.

2.

''
''
''

= 2
(

''

Im\

>
< 0).

\
\

= ( - )2.

3.

~
= ( - )2 \l
( >

< 0).

= ( - )2

35
n :

: --------~U;,

1
1
1
1
1
1

'

11

-----= 2

---- = 2 2

-----= 2(-3) 2

---= 2 2

--= 2(-3) 2

--= 2(-3)2+1

1.

2.

3.

= 2

= 2( - 3)2

-2

---= 2

x 2 j2
-= -x2 j2

---=

2.

--=

1.

=
2

-x2 j2

-= -(+2) 2 /2

= - 2 /2

---= -(+2) 2 /2
-= -(+2) 2 /2-

3.

= -(

+ 2) 2 /2

36

xn,

1n

1n

[; )

, :

= =

:
,

> (; )
< ( -; )
> (-; 0) U (;

R
[; )
(-; ]

:
,

Ymin = Xmtn =

n =

(-1; -1), (; 0), (1; 1)


(-1; 1), (; 0), (1; 1)
==

xn

:;:. ; = .

37

= -'

\ \

1
-1

~\ ....... -1

VR

: (-;

(-; )

(; )

U (;

, :

.
:

{ > (; )

0) U (0;

< ( -; )
> (-; ) U (;

:
,

(-; )
(; )

(-; )
(; )

(-1; -1), (1; 1)


(-1; 1), (1; 1)
= , =

n = 1

=x-n

= 1/

..

38

r.{; , n

Vx

--ifx-

-1

[; )

[; )

, :

= =

,
,

> (; )
< 0 (-; )

> (; )

.
:

(-1; -1), (; 0), (1; 1)


(; 0), (1; 1)

39

u

= !'

>

<

''

''
'

....................... .,. ---- --1


,, . .

--<::..
:

1
1
1

,,

,'

\
\

\ --1
1 '
"'"'

L...

:i
:
:

..
:

>
<

[; )

(; )

:
> ,

[; )

(; )

<

, :
,

>

< ,

>

(; )

.: .:
>

[; )

<

(; )

:..

: : ::

>

<

.: ::

(;

0), (1; 1)
(1; 1)

.:

<

40

= ,

>

-:;: . 1 *)

:
..:

(; )

., .:
,


.".: >

" .:

<

>

< 1

"

" ." " (;

1)

: =

*)

= 1 : = .:.:.: .::

1 =1 n R.

41

logax,

>

:;:. 1

!9
:.

..

--------

: ------------------------~- ....---t: -

--

j log 113 x
!

log 112 x

--

, :

(; )

: = =

<

>

< 1,

1,

>

(;

>

(1;

<

(1;

), < (;

1)

1),

-, :
< <
>

(; )
(; )

-,

-,

: =

3 . .

(1;


(. .

15).

42

*)
=

SlllX

1t

, :

2n

sin

>

sin

sin

<

= tn, n Z

(2tn; 1t
(-t

2tn),

2tn; 2tn),

:
1t

Xmin = - -

R
[ -1; 1]

1t

+ 2tn, n Z;

= 2 + 2tn,

Ymin =

n Z;

-1

=1

[- ;

[;

J.

J.

+ 211n; ; + 2Jtn
+ 211n;

3 11
+ 2Jtn
2

*) . .

184-187.

43

cosx

, :

: = = -

[-1; 1]

21t
1t
+ 1tn,
2

cos

>

(- ;

cos

<

(;+ 21tn; ; +21tn).

+ 21tn; ; + 21tn). n

n eZ

= 1t + 21tn, n Z; Ymin = -1
= 21tn, n Z; = 1

xmin

+ 21tn; 21tn ], n

1t + 21tn ], n

[ -1t

[21tn;

3 , .

sin

cos

n/2 :

cos

= si{ + ;) ;

sin

= cos( - ;)

44
=

tgx

+ 1tn ~ + 1tn) n
(- ~
2
' 2
'

, :

: 1t

= 1tn,

tg

>

( ; ; + ).

tg

<

(- ;

+ ;

),

Z
n

1t

t: = -

+ 1tn, n

45
=

ctgx

..:
..:i
.::
..:i

1
:-1[


(1t; 1t

+ 1t),

, :

: 1t

= -1t + 1t,
2

ctg

>

( 1tn; ; + 7tn), n Z

ctg

<

( - ;

+ 1tn; 1tn). n

: = 1t,

. =
=

tg

ctg

/2.

46

arcs1nx

= sin

-1t/2

~ ~

arccosx

= cos ' ~ ~ 1t

1t/2

1t

-1

*>

.
= arcs1n

[-1; 1]

arccos

[-1; 1]

[;

1m

1t]

1m

= =

> (;

<

= =

1]

>

[-1; 1)

[ -1; )

..:

arcsin
*). .

187.

+ arccos

= n/2

47
=

arctgx

arcctgx

= tg , -/2 < < /2

ctg

<

<

-------------------*'- ---------------------------

-/2

(-;; ;)

(; )

= arcctg

arctg

1-

...

> (; 00)
< ( -; 0)

>

ER

=--

arctg

ER

=-

ER

==

+ arcctg = n/2

48

*)
,
.

f1 ()

= f2 (),

f1 (l,. .. ,) =

f2 (l,,)

,
:

f(x) =;
f(xl,,X) =.

f(x) f(xl,,X).
n.

.J- 2 = .J -

[2; 3].

(
) ,
.

, .

n. 2 - 4 = -
1 = -2; 2 = 2; 2 + 4 =
, .

.
rr, , .
n :

1.

- 2=

2% = 4,

2. sin = 2 = -1 .
*) ,
.

49

+ =,
-
.

* , -
+ = -

=-

= +

~~

: 2

+3

=<=> =

-1,5

= , * 1
=

.
=

,....

...

"

n:

+ 2

=-

= , = 1

+ =


:
=

...

'

n :
.

+ 2 = 2 <=>

50

+ +

= ,

i: i ..
: (.

crp.

30~

D = fl.- 4.

. < ,

-1,

2.

+ 5

: -2 2

- 3

<=>

2 2 - 5

+3=

> (

xt =

-- JD
2

-+ JD

=---2

. - ,
: :
:

/2 =F ~(/2) 2 -

. = ---""-------

1 2

ln=ol
(
) :

xt = 2

D<O
.

.

51

=, 2

= , 2 =

=, -:~::

.

:

1 1\,._/" 2

(+ ) =

=0;

=--.

, .

n: 2

- 2

<=>

- 2)

+=

= <=> 1 = ; 2 =

, -:~::

,
;
, :

1 = -~

: ;

2 = ~

: .

yl~

1
1
1

\
\
\

\ '~ ;, j
\

~ /2

,
, .

n: 2

+1=

2 - 1 = 0 <::> 1 = -1; 2 = 1

()

: 1

= .

....
.,

52

1.

1 2 -

+ + =

2. 1
1

+ 2 = -bja; 1 2 = cja.
2 , 1 + 2 = -bja, 1 2 = cja,
, 1

= .

3 .

+ + q =

+ + =

~ ~ (

q>O
q<O

~ ) :
>

<

nl :

1.

2 - 1 += . ,

7,

7 + = 1 .
2. 2- 4- 5 =. ,
4, -5- -1 5.
2 -

2 - 4-

= -1

5.

53
,

af2(x)

+ bf(x) +

1. t =

f( )

at2 + bt
2.

+=

t1 t2

t 1),

f(x)
[ f(x)

= t1
=t

( f(x)=t 1 ).

+ 2 + = 0).

( 4
t = 2.

n:

4- 2 -

=;

t2 - t - 2

= <=>

[t

= 2

[2

= -1 <=>
= -1
t=2
2 = 2

2 + ~ 2 - 2 = 4 <=> ( 2
t = ~ 2 - 2
t2

t - 2 =

<=> [

t =

2) + ~ 2

-2

<=>

t = 1

2 - 2= ;

[~ 2 - 2 = -2

~ 2 - 2 = 1

1,2=


sin2x - cosx 1 = <=> cos2x cosx

t2

+t

- 2 =

- 2 = ; t = cosx
[cosx = -2

t = -2
<=> [
<=>
t =1
cosx = 1

= 21tn, n Z

32

- 12 .

3-1

t = 3

t2 - 4 t

+ 3

+3

= <=>

[t

<=> 32 - 4 .

= 1 <=> [3

t=3

+3

= ;

= 1 <=> [ =

3 =

54

,
, .

{f(x) = g(x)
{f(x) = g(x)
1. v1 \;; J = vg(x) <=> f(x) ~
g(x) ~
3 .

~
u:3 <=>

.J 2
= -

-5

{3 -
5 - 2 <:::>

3- ~

5 - 2 <:::>

<=>

~3

2.

~f(x) =

<

, .

~ , f(x) = 2 .

.
.

n: z =

.J + 1 = 5 <=> ( + 1) - .J + 1 -

.J + 1 ,

z2

z - 6=

<:::>

z = -2

[ z=3

6=
<:::>

[.J + 1

= -2

.Jx+1=3

8.

g(x) ~
3. ~ f(x) = g(x) <=> { f(x) = g 2 ()
n: ~7- = -1 <=>

<=>

--6=0

= (

-1)

<=>

~1

~1

{7-

-1 ~

<=>

= -2 <=> = 3

55

>

= , > , 7:- 1

logab.

< , .

= .

..................

logax =

>

= .
=

logax

n:

log2x = -1 <::::> = 2- 1 = 1/2

, 7:-

56
IIPOCEIIIE I'

s1nx=a

lal ~

SlllX=a~

n Z
= 1t- arcsina + 21tn, n

= arcsina + 21tn,

= (-1)karcsin + nk,

= arcsin

k Z

arcsin

1t -

=1

sin = -1
= -1t/2 + 21tn, n

sin

1tn, n

1t

lal >

sin = 1
= 1t/2 + 27tn, n

57

cos

\\~ 1
cosx

=<=>

=
= -

arccos + 2, n Z
arccos + 2, n Z

= +arccos + 21tn,

-arccos

= arccos

=1

cos

= + 2,

1
n

cos

= /2

+ , n

cos

=1

= 2, n

1t

-/2

\\> 1

~---------------------

58

tg

ctg

arctg

+ , n

arctg

arcctga

+ cos =

sin

+ , n

= arcctg

(,

, 2

* )
<

2.

2 ~ 2, :

-;::::===- s1n

~2 +2

~2 +2

cos =

~2 +2

( 1 2 J + ( 1 2 J = 1,
va + 2

< ,

va + 2

, s1n < =
cos < = 1
1 2
2
2
2
va +
v +

: sin(x + <) = ~
2

= -< + (-1)k arcsin(J + J+ r.k, k Z.


2

u: Sln

rn
+ '\1 3t1 COS

.(

rn
1.

J2
= V;;::;
2 <:::::> - Sln + - COS = -

1[) = -J2

<:::::> Slll + -

1[

k 1t

<:::::> = - - + ( -1)

- +

r.k

'

<:::::>

59


:

f1(x,y) = f2(x,y)

(, ),
,
.

-
, .
n:

1. 2 + 2 = 1 - :
,
, , ..

2. 2 + 2 =0- : =, =
3. 2 + 2 = -1 -

.


, ,
.

n :

1. (- 2)2 +(+ 1)2=9

2.

=1

3.

lxllyl= 1

60
4. 2

5.

2 = 2

6.

)(

7. sin sin =

- 2)

YJ'

2
1t

-3

...

S.lx + Yl =

10. + IYI

....

1t

:i

9.lxl += 1

11.

lxl + IYI =

61

< ,
~ ,

>

~ , (

) . ,

<

>,

~ ~- .

:
.

1. 5 < 1 -
2. 2 ~ 3 -
3. 2 < 5-

,
.
-

, .
:

1. 2
2.

+5>
- 4

<:::> R

<:::>

( -;

4]

3. 2 <-
,
.
, , .
:

1. > 2 3 > 8
2. sin > 2 < -1
, ,
( . .

66).

( . .

54).

62


+ >, + ~, + <,

la > ol

+ <

+ > ~
+<
(

+ > ~ -; (

+<~

:J

~ -; -

(- : ;

:J

xE(-:;ooJ

+<

1= , >\

Ox+b>O<=:>xER
=+

+ < -

\= , <\

=+

>

Ox+b<O<=:>xER

1 = , = 1 ~

------------~0+---------+>

+ > + < -

. . (

+ ) Ot

O)t


+ ==. n,

+ 2 ~<=>

[ -2; ); ~ <=>

R.

63

2
2

+
+

+>
+~

+
+

+<

+~

, ,

D = 2

4.

<,

-1,

..

n.
22-

- 2 2 + - 6 >
+ 6 <.

>

+>

(-; 1)

U(2;

).

+<

(Xt; 2)
2

+>

(-; Xt)

U (xl;

).

+<

\n< ol

+>

+<

. (2

~,

~ 0),

+ =. n, 2-

+ 2 ~<=>

[1; 2].

64

(- a 1 )k1 (- a 2 )k2 (- an)kn > (>; <; ~ 0), ki N


1.

, .

2.

3.

ki

ki

, ,

- ).

: ,
:

.

:

4.

, ;

, .

: ( - 2)( - 3)2( - 4)3

1.

>

== 2, == 3, = 4
;:r

;:r

2.

+~

3:+>

3.

-----tt-2"-.__-:-_::----1r----_-~__,.~-~

4.

( -;

3 . .

2]

U {3} U[4;

, ,

(at - x)k1 , (- a 1 )kL ki.


:

1. (2 - )2 == ( - 2)2;

2. (2 - ) 3 == -( - 2)3

65

-

( - )kt .
1

. (- )k
n
<
Pm

< - 1 > . . . < -

>

'

k.

t'

.
]

(x-a1)k 1

an)k(x-b1)p 1

(x-bm)Pm <0 (> )

. .

n:

( - 2)( - 3)

-1

-+--..

<

~ ( - 2)(

- 3)

( -

(1 ;2)

1) <

64.

(- )kt .
1

. (- )k

!(

(- b1)Pt .. (- )

( ~

0),

ki,

.
1

(x-a 1)k1 (x-an)k(x-b1 )Pl (-) !( (~ )

'* l' 2 ,

. . 64.

n:

( - 2)( - 3) 2

1. - - - - -1

+
2.

<

{< - 1)( - 2)( - 3) 2 <


:-~=1

( - 3)( - 2)
-3

~~

--.--.../2

(1;2]U {3}

:-~=3

[2;3)U(3;oo)

{< - 3) 2 ( - 2) ~

f+:v::")

3 . .

[2; )

3,

- 2

- 3)

~ ,

66

,
( ) .

{g(x) ;;.

.,[1(;} ..{iW
>

g(x) <:=>

Jj{;) ..{iW
~

f(x) > g(x)

{g(x):>O
f(x) ~ g(x)

g(x) <:=>

f(x) ~

~f(x) < g(x)

g(x)

<:=>

f(x) ~

~f(x) "g(x)

>

g(x)~O

<:=>

f(x) "g ()
2

f(x) < g (x)

{g(x) <

.Jf(x) > g(x)

f(x)~O

.Jt(x) :> g(x)

g(x)~O

{g(x) <
f(x) ~
{

f(x)> g 2 (x)

g(x)~O

'-

'-

f(x) ~g 2 (x)

n:

1. .J + 12 > .J4 <:=>

2.

"4
<:=>
> -4

.J + 2 ~ <:=>

<:=>

{4 -+ 12 ~> 4

<:=> {

"4

> -8

<:=>

( -4; 4]

<

+ 2~0

{ + 2 ~

<:=>

-2" <

[ " "2

<:=> ( -2; 2]

67
3

af(x)

> 1
af<x>

>

ag(x)

>

>

ag(x),

, =1=-

<<1

<::::> f(x) > g(x)

>

af(x)

ag(x)

<=> f(x) < g(x)

n:
2

1. 2 > 2+ 2 <::::> 2 > +2 <::::> ( -; -1) U(2; )

1)2 (1)-1
<
<=>
3
3

2 ~

- 1 <::::>

( -1; )

..
~

>

<

<.

logaf(x) > logag(x),


1

> 1

>

, =1=-

<<1

logaf(x) > logag(x) <=> {g(x) > 0

logaf(x) > logag(x) <::::> {f(x) >

f(x) > g(x)

logaf(x) ~ logag(x) <=> {g(x) >


f(x)

f(x) < g(x)

logaf(x) ~ logag(x) <=> {f(x) >

~g(x)

f(x)<g(x)

n:

1. log 2 (x + 8) > log 2 (2x + 4) <=> 2 + 4 >


<=> { > -2 <=>
+ 8 > 2 + 4
<4

2. log 1 (- 2) ~log 1 ( 2
2
2

<=>

3 . n .

+3

<=>

(-2; 4)

- 2 >

- 2 <

+1

>2

- 2 >

3 + 1)

<=> [ < 1 <::::> [3; )


~3

loga :

ne

>

<

<.

68
011 *>

sin

>

sin

lal <

<=> arcsin

>

<

+ 2nn <

sin

sin

~ ;

<

sin

arcsin

1t -

+ 2nn,

+ 2nn,

nEZ

sin

<

<=> -

= arcsin

arcsin

1t -

:::

arcsin

1t -

+ 2nn <

< arcsin

nEZ

= -t -

arcsin

= arcsin

. > <
~ ~

sin

sin

sin

sin

-1 <::>

= -t/2

> -1 <::>

"* -t/2

-1 <::>

<

sin

>

(~

<
)

(~ )

-1

sin < 1 <::>

+ 2tn
+ 2tn

sin

sin

sin

1 <::>

> 1-

<::> R

=1

< -1 -

sin

= -1

sin

<

sin

>

(~

"* t/2 + 2tn

1 <::>
1

= t/2

>1
)

+ 2tn

<::> R

(~ )

*) , ,

Z.

69

cos

cos

>

>

<:::> -

cos

~ ;

arccos

cos

lal <

+ 21tn <

<

< arccos

cos

1 1

+ 21tn,

neZ

21t
=-

cos

<<:::>

arccos

arccos

= arccos

arccos

21tn < < 21t-

21tn,

neZ

arccos

~ =

21t - arccos

. > <
~ ~

cos

cos

cos

cos

< -1 -

-1

cos

-1 <=> = 1t + 21tn

cos

> -1 <=> =1= 1t + 21tn

cos

cos

-1 <=>

<

<

cos

>

(~ )<=>

< 1 <=>

1 <=>

> 1-

>

<

(~

=1=

21tn

1 <=>

-1

cos

(~

=1

= 21tn
1

cos

<=>

cos

>(~ )-

70

tg
arctg

tg

tg >
1tn < < 1t/2
neZ

tg
arctg

>

~ ;

tg

<

tg

<

tg

+ 1tn,

-1tj2

+ 1tn <

tg

,.;;; < 1t/2


neZ

+ 1tn,

+ 1tn,

neZ

+ 1tn

< arctg

1tn~

-1tj2

+ 1tn <

,.;;;

,.;;; arctg
neZ

.:.
..
.
----..:
!

ctg
1tn <

1tn <

>

ctg

~ ;

ctg >
< arcctg + 1tn, neZ

ctg ~
,.;;; arcctg + 1tn, neZ

ctg

arcctg

<

ctg

ctg <
+ 1tn < < 1t + 1tn, neZ
ctg

arcctg + 1tn ,.;;;

,.;;;

< 1t

.:
.:
.:

+ 1tn,

neZ

.:
..
.
----:

1
1

----1-i

1
1
1

:
1

3 . n .

tg

ctg

>

<

. :;; .

71

!
3I
:

!1 (, )

= g 1 (, )

{ f2 (x,y) = g 2 (x,y)

( 0 , 0 ),
,
.
:

1 { - 2 = 1

2 += 9

= 2

2. {
=+2

(3; 1)

(-1; 1)

(2; 4)

, .

,
.
, , .
, , ..
:

+ 2 = 2
3

+ = 5

3 . .

. . :

.
: :
.

72

1.

{2- = 4

+=

+ 3 (2 - 4) = 9;
7

= 21

=2-

+ (2-

)-

- (2- ) 2

= 1;

2 -

+5

3.

() ,

1;
=5

Xt =

..

()
.

4.

4=
=23-4=2
= 2-

(),

= 2- Xt

=
=2-1=1;

= 2- 2 =
= 2- 5 = -3

...

(-

) .

5.

(3; 2)

+=2

= 2-

2.

{ + -

(1; 1), (5; -3)

73

1.

+ 5 = 191 4 2 + r = 213
{ 4
{ 3 4 = 5 (-2)
7- 4 = -5 5
16

{ 35 -

20
20

51

= 76
6 + 3 2 = 6
= -25 {-6 + = -10

=51

3 2 + = -4

2.

) ,

-2;
= -2/3

1 =

=1

()

.

3.


()

4 .1+

5 =

= 19;

15

= 1
6 =

()

2 =

= -2
3;

= -2/3

-7/3

4.

(
)

( ),

=3

Yl

= 1/2;

= -7/6

)
.

5.

(1; 3)

(-2; 1/2),
(-2/3; -7 /6)

74



n:

J2

= 3.

(-1; -1)

2.

(1; 1).

2 + 2 = 25
=

12

12

=-

(-4; -3),

(-3; -4), (4; 3)

(-4; -3)
(-3; -4)

(3; 4).

...
,
,

(,
).

75

*)

1 + 1 = 1

{2

+ 2 = 2

1.


, ..

1 2 :;.: 21.

12 - 21
12 - 21

'

12 - 21
= __;;",_.;;_
_ __.;;;;_...;;...

atb2 - a2bt

2.

atb2

..

= 21,


, .. 1 2 :;.: 2 1 t 2 :;.: 2 1

3.

, ..

12

= 2 1 ,

1 2

= 2 1 ,

1 2

= 2 1


:
(; ),
() .

*),
, ..
.

76

*)

f(x)

A.f = f(xo

. . 4

+ .) - f(xo)

'(

f(x 0 + .)- f(x 0 )


1Im--~--------~

)_ .

0 -

Ax-tO

f'(x0 ) = tg

>

'= . .
..::

f'(x0 )

f(x) :

= tg

==

f'(x 0 ) = tg

<

= f(x

0)

f(x)

0 :

+ f'(x 0 )(x-

0)

n.

f(x)

1:

1. f(xo) = f(1) = 1

'
2. f'(x) = ( ) =
3. f'(X 0 )

4.

*) . .

= f'(1) = .!_

1+

188.

- 1) =

1
2

77

f(x)

f'(x) ( f''(x)).

x(t),

u(t) = lim x(t + L\t)- x(t) = x'(t)


At~O

L\t

'

a(t)

lim u(t + L\t)- u(t)


At~O

= u'(t) = x"(t) .

L\t

gt2

x(t)

=- ,
2

= u'(t) = g.

a(t)

u(t)

= x'(t) = gt ,

+ u)'

= '

u(x)

v(x)

+ v'

()'

= ' , -

(v)'

= ' + v'

( J
v

const

'v- v' ( ':::/=. )


v2

f(g(x))
, = .,, . g,

lg

t;

g~,

'

n:

,
1. (,.J,--si_n_x) =

2-vsin
. ),
2 . (1n s1n
3. ()'

(sin

)'

. ),
= . 1 (s1n
s1nx

= (exlnx)

= exlnx(x ln

;~

2-vsin

(sin >

cos
= ctg (sm
. > )
.
s1nx

)' = xx(ln + 1) ( > )

78

(; )

f'(x) > ,

f(x)

J
s
(; )

f'(x) < ,

f(x)

3 . , .

, . n

, = 3 ,

'

= 3

= .

n :

= 3 - 3
' = 3 2 - 3 =

3( 2

'> (-;

1)

-1)

, ( -;

(1;

(1; ),
-1)

'<

(-1; 1),

( -1;

1)


ycJIOue

f(x)

(; ) ,

f'(x)

79

0 - = f(x),

, ..

, .
. .
, :

= 0:

IY = lxl- 2)

= f(x) 0 f'(x) , 0 -

= f(x).

f '() > < ,

'() < > ,

- .

f '()

< < ,

'() > > ,

- .

. 0 =

f(x)

n :

!'=0

xmtn

f'

80

= 2 - 3 2 - 36

1.

. :

+5

, -

f' ().

2.

3.

f'(x) = 6 2 - 6- 36

.. , -

f'(x)=O
= -2, = 3

4.

f'

( -

.3 +",

-2

).

5.

, -

-2

=3

, u

f( )

(-;

6.


:
.

-2)

(3;

);


(-2; 3);

f(x)

Xmax = -2,
Ymax = f(-2) =

49;

Xmin = 3,
Ymin = f(3) = -76

81
,


, ,

, , .
:

f(xmax)
f(a)

.:

f( ) t: .

~
~ ~

..

. .:
;

.s

max f(x) = f(xmax)

max f(x) =

f(:)

max f(x) = f(a)

min f(x)

min f(x)

f(b)

min f(x)

[; ]

[; ]

f(xmin)

[: ]

[; ]

[: ]

f(b)

[: ]

3
,

= 2 3 - 3 2 - 36

[;

1.

2.

f'(x).

, .. -

f'(x) =

+5

4]

f'(x) = 6 2 - 6 - 36

f'(x) =
=

-2

[;

4]

3.

3.

= 3.

f(O) = 5;

f(3) = -76;

f(4) =-59

4.

max f(x) = f(O) = 5


[;

4]

min f(x)
[;

4]

f(3) = -76

82

*)

F(x)

f () ,
F'()

= f(x).

npuep.

F(x)

= 2 /2,

f(x)

= ~

( 2 /2 )' = .

F(x)- n f(x).
F () + , - n,
f(x).

f(x)

~

.


n f ()
-

Jf(x)dx :

Jf(x)dx = F(x) + , - .

Jcf(x)dx = Jf(x)dx, -

const

J(f(x) g(x)) dx = J f(x)dx Jg(x)dx

Jf(ax + b)dx

~ F(ax + ) + , *

*> . . 189.

83

f(x)

[; ]

L f(~k )8

~ ,

k=l

=--

Jf(x)dx = lim L f(~k)8x,

n~oo k=l

~k [xk -1 xk] (. )


( -)

f(x)dx = F(x)l: = F(b) - F(a),

F(x)- n

f(x).

Jt(x)dx =

Jf(x)dx = Jf(x)dx + Jf(x)dx

Jdx = -

cf(x)dx

Jf(x)dx = - Jf(x)dx

Jf(x)dx , - const

J(f(x) g(x))dx =Jf(x)dx J g(x)dx

84

[; ]

f () ,

= = :

= Jt(x)dx

[; ]

f(x),

= = :

= - Jt(x)dx

3 . .

'l.;

sl

[; ],

St - S2 = f(x)dx

~
s
i'

1
1

v t:

85

() =

() ,

f(x) ~ g(x) [; ],
-

= g(x)

= J(t(x)- g(x))dx

,
-

f(x)

[; ]:

= 1t f 2 (x)dx

= :

v = Js(x)dx,

S ()-

, [; ]

86

<<

90.

90.

90< < 180.

180.

f3

180:
= 180.

180.

180.

87

, .

180.

180.

, -

,:

(allc, bllc) ~ allb.

(a.lc, b..Lc) ~ 11 .

88

()

,
,

: ,
,

,
.

,
,
:

d.

..

, .

:
,

,
.

89

1
1

la- bl

<< + .

180:

~ + =

180.

>

<=>

>


,
:

= + ~

s1n

sin

stn

----

2R,

90

~~ LlLl ~~

.

~ ;6bl

L1 :i:; L:'
yr .

~


,

, .

91

,
,

,
,
, .

92

( ).

: 1,

( ).

6 .

2 + 2 2 - 2
= .i~2b
2
.

93

,

.


,
:

.
-

BD

AD

2bccos
[=

94


,
,

.
.

1/

'
/1 '

''

''

''

(
,

,
,

) .

h0 :h:hc

1 1 1

= -:-:-.

ha

= sin ~ ;

= 2S = 2~ ( - )( - )( - )

== sin

= ++
2

95


.
.

( )
.

( )

( )
.

,
,
.

96

NIIAC;

1
MN=lAC.

1/2.

1/2.

r = S/p,

S- ,

++

=----

R =
4S'

S- .

97


,
:

1
2aha.

~ ( - )( - )(- ) ,
++

=----

S =pr,

++

4R.

98


,
.

, - .
:

1.

2.

, - .

't

,
, .

99


,
.


, ,


, - .
:

1.

- ,

2.

, -.

,
.

( :

r = Jj ; R = J3 ; R = 2r.)
2

120.

: h = J;
2

= J3a = JJ3r2 = 3J3R


4

100

, .
, ,
,

, - .


.

101

+ 2 = 2.


: , ,
-

+ 2 = 2,

102

= sin . = cos(9 0 -.)

!!_ = cosa. = sin(9 -a.)


0

!!.. = tga. =

ctg(9 0 -.)

!!_ = ctga. = tg(9 0-.)


,
,

ahc = !!_ => h2

,, .

h =

- --
- .. =:> 2-

=-

a=-

fi

= J
2

103

r= - - - a + b+ c '
+ -

= ----



,

- :

R = E_
2
-

R=

S=

= 1 2tg~ = 1 2ctga .

S =

~ 2 sin 2 = ~ 2 sin 2 .

104

7 L

/rI

1 1 ~

360:
.

+ ~ + + 8 = 360.

(
):

= d 1d 2 sin <
2
.

105

,

,
:

a+c=b+d.

,
.

S = pr,

a+b+c+d
2

(),
.

S =

pr ,

,
,

180: + =

8 = 180.
,

180.

+ bd = d1d2 .

S = ~( - )( - ) ( - ) ( - d) ,

a+b+c+d
2

().

106

,
.



,
,

,
- . :

1.

- ,

2.

, - .

,
,

.+~=

180:

180.

107


()

d\2 +

di = 2 +

+ d2 .

( ).

108

S = aha =

h .

S = sina .

S = d 1d 2 sin <

109

, .

,
,
. :

1.

- ,


, - .

2.

r .

,
,

110

.
r
:

=2,

d,d2
4a '

r=-

d1

d2 - ,
.

d 1 = 2.JAH ,

d2

2.J. ,

r = .JAH .

ah.

2ar.

S = 2 sina.

: S

dd
1 2

111

,
.

,
,
- . :

1.

2.

, - .

, .

, .

,
,

.J

112
,


.

R=2'
d = ~ 2 + 2

S=ab.

:

= d 2 sin
2



, .

,
.

113

,
.

,
- . :

1.

- ,

2.

, - .

, ,

, .

90.

114
,


.

d
R= fi=2

=2.

S=cl.
:

d2

S=2

115

,
(),
- ( ).

(, ).

(all ),

, - ,

d1, d2 -

z,

h-

(,

},
N-
(,

).

S=a+bh.
2

:

= N-h.

S = d1d 2 sin q>

116

, , (

, ) :

AfN II , AfNII , MN

180:

.+
+

J3 = 180,
8 = 180.

D,

,
( ).

AOD ,


, .

k = AD

D
MOD(\)~COB

/!.

117

()
, -

AD.

--=-

, ,

.

ABCD

DOC

).
,
,

,.D

. __ _ _......;;;;_......IIIIIOio. _ _ _

118

, .

1 ~ 5717'45",

1=

1t

18

1t

= 180,

"21t = 90.

119



,
:

=2.

,
, .

,
,

, .

,
,
,

180:
+ = 180.

,
, .

120

+~
= --'-2 .

~-

2 .


:
=

~-

2 .

:
=

~-

=-.

=-

121

,
.

,
.

1 = 2R sin ~ = 2R sin .

122
,


cd.

, :
=.

,
:

2 = ACAD.

, :

AD .

123

/ = . r

( . ).

L = 21tr.


: S =

n?.

: S =

'21 a.r 2

( . ).

S = ~(.- sin o.)r 2

( . ).

124

: 1 2

< R1 - R2.


-
,

12

0102.

0 12 = R 1 - R2.

N.

.
,
,
,

10 2
N

0 10 2

: N .l

0102 ; = N.

,
:

R,- R2< 0,02 < R, + R2.

125


()
-

0 10 2

.
()

0 10 2

( )
, ,

1 2.

: 12 =

Rt + Rz

:
( )
,

12.

(

d)

,
,
,

0102.

Rz.

0 10 2 > R 1 +

126



-:

-:

n.

-:

n(n- 3).

- ,
:

n-2.

127

.
.

(: - ,

r - , R -

n-r

J3

R=

R = .fi

J
r=-2

R=a

= 2/r

= JR

r=2

r=-2/3

R=

1800

. 180

= .fiR

2r

a=R

J3

18
1800
2rtg- a=2Rsinn
n

2s-

2tgn

2r

n-

J3a2
S=
4
S = 2

s=

S=

18

4tgn

J3r

S=

J3R 2

J3R 2
S=
2

2.J3r 2

r n tg

4
S = 2R 2

S = 4r 2

.J3 2
S=
2
2

}goo

1 2 36
-R nsm2
n

128

,
:

1.

2.

, ,

n .

-,

129

(}

J,


,
.

),

,

130
30 .


---

---

, .........
--"""
__"'-, ........

---

......... --~-__

-- .......- --

, ...... ...

-- --"""


1
1
1

/~

,,,, L.-1 ,

--

--'""- ...,,;f:
,

-$/

111:::
1
1

180

( ).


- - - - - - - - ::! - - - - - - ::!

---
---

5----- ..
~ ----

~ ------


,
-
.

131

()

, ,

( ) ,

= k. OAI'

= k . 1

. .

k = - 1


(, , , ,
.

..

132

90

~
-

120 ~ -

: r,

=
1

xn

n.


()

1
1
1
1
-----1
1
1
1
1

( ),

= xn

n.

133

:

~~

.............. (; yr)
1

- .

- .

.:

1
1
1

...

: 0

= ~(xl - 2)2 + (Yt - 2)2 .

xt + xl
2
Yt + 2

'

,
-:

AD- al
DB 2 '

134



++=
( , ;

(; ),
).

,

( )

/'0

..

( <

<

= ' )=> + =

'

=--

1~

= ,

;~:.

;~:.

) =>

=--

J\

( ;~:. ,

=>

, ;~:. )

...

=-

~~

= '

;~:. ,

= ) =>

,...

* ,

= ,

= ) =>

135

kx +

; k = tg

'\

<;:'\

k > 0 < . < 90

...

"'

k < 90 < < 180


=, k:-~=

,,.

...

=kx

:f

, :-~:0

=
)

,

(- 1 )( 2 - 1 ) = (- 1 )( 2 - 1 )
1 :-1= 2 , 1 :-1= 2 ,

1 =

-yl

-xl

-+-=1
(

* ' * )

136

;, ;, ;, -

;, ;, ;:

ai

bl
2

ci
2

l2
alc2

a2bl

= a2ct

137
,

Zt :

k 1 + 1;

z2 :

k2 + 2

138

Zt:

+ htY + 1

=;

/2:

+ 2 + 2

z1:

k1 + 1;

z2:

k2x + 2

1 + 1 + 1 =
2

+ 2 + 2 =

= k 1x + 1

{= k2x + 2

btc2 -

2,

- a2ci - alc2

1 2 - 2 1

'

- atb2 - 2, .

- 2

. -- k,- k2'
.

klb2- k2bl
k,- k2

...._...:_.....:,_~::.._...:_

(; ):

( - . )2

+ ( - )2

R2.

139

,
.

.
( ) .

- .

1 1 1


, .

. .
.

,
.

( .)

=h

=-

140

~~~

~/'
.

, ,
:

+ =

+=
-

=>

=-

= + (-)

141
()

,
, > ,

< .

Y
2

1 1=1 1.

- ,

la IJb J cos <

la 1= .J = .Jii2 .

90 < <

180

<

142

YJ

1
1
1
1
1

----

:
1
1

--

~~

~~

1 1
1 ~~
~~
2 _ _-_-_-_-_-_"_ _ _ _ _ J! ~~

(;):

a(ax;ay;az):

= 2- 1

Oz

= Z2 -ZJ

lal

=~;+ ~

lal =~;+ ~ +;

143


=+
=+

=+

hx
hy

= +
Cz

hx
hy

= az + bz

=-
==

=- hx
= ay-hy

hx
hy

Cz = az

hz

= '
hx =
hy =
hz = Mz

s =

144

:
:

COSq> =

ah

lal 11

()

axhx +

= ,

axhx + ayhy + azhz = .

=.

:
,
:

\ \ = la 1\h \

145



,
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

= .

+ ~,

. ~- .

.> , ~>

.< , ~>

( ,
)

, -

d = . + ~ + v '
., ~ v - .

.
u.\1 .

146

()

1.

i(1;

0
),

j(; 1)

1 (1; ), 2

i(1;

0
),

j(; 1;

k(;

),

0
;

; 1)

el(l;

. )

- (

''

. 1. )

2 ''

. . l)

'3''

1)

= )

+ ayj + azk

). -----------;1

//
(--1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

___________

//

1
_",
1/

147

,
.

---------- ... ...

Ct

148

n .

n.

149

,
,

(allc, bllc)

allb

=>

,
.


,
,

(blla, bcza,

) =>hlla.

,
,

, ,
,
:

// ---------

( (3, blla) => (311

allb.

150

, .

,
:

(a1lla2, b1llb2) => 11~

......._6___1_

___,/

._13
. . . _ ___,/

IIY, ~ llr)

=> 11~.



,

:

11~ => llb.


, :

( 11~,

llb)

=>= CD.

151

,
.


,
:

(atllbi, a2llb2, alj_a2) =:> btl_b2.


, ,

,
,
.

,
:

(al_b

aj_c) =:> aj_a .

, .

,

.

152
,

,
,

.
,

, .


, ,
,
.

( _i ~)

=>

_i ~ .


,
,

,
:

( _i ~ _i )

=>

al_~.

153

,

.

,
,
.

:
, ,
, .

, ,
.
.

( :
)
,

,
,

.
,

, ,
.

154

, n

( n n).


,
,

,
.

( ).


.

,
.

~~~~

"""'~

.)

155

).

,
.

<

< < < 180.



.
, ,

180.

0 < <

90.

( < =

.)

90,

156

, (
)- -,
,

n ( )- .
,
.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
).--

""

""

S = f,

S = ,

- -

/ -

S = S

+ 2. .S

S = S

+ 2. .S

V=

S/,

S- -

V = S,
S

/ -

157

, -
.

d12 + di + df + d] = 4 2 + 4 2 + 4 2
:

1
1
1

,, --

- ,

:
,

1'
1
1 '
1 '

'd

(9\


, :

~~

d2 =

2 + 2 + 2 .

S = 2 (

+);

V=

:
1 \
1 \

"' "'

\
\
-~

d=

J, S = 62, V = 3

158

, (
)- , ()
, (
).
,
,
.

,
,
.

.

(
,
,

).

.
.

159

I

S =

L,s, ,

S =

i=l

L,s,,
i=l

S , -

S , -

= S + S + S,

S
-

= S + S

S-

s -

31 ... S

~ ... (S + s + JSs)

V =

S =

2 .['

/-

S =

2 ( + ) f ,

-
,

/-

= S + S

= S + S + S,

S -

s-

31 ... S

= )

... (S + s + JSs)

160

, -

,
,

S = 21tR

S =

V= 1tR2H

21tR(R + )

Sn

= 1tRL

= 1tR(R + L)

V=

~ 1.R 2

= 1t(R + r)L

= 1t(R + r)L + 1t(R2 + r2)


1

V = J1tH(R + Rr + r 2)

161

,
,

R.

S = 41tR

V = 1tR

V = 1t 2 (R- )

= 21tR

V = 1tR
2

Sn

1tR(2H + ~2RH- 2 )

V = _!_1tH 3 + _!_7t(r? + r 2 )H
6
2 1
2

27tR

162

*
,


,
,

. . -=====:===----.1.- . .
1

1
1
1

'

'

'

,

,

1'

L._ ---..! __

. " -----'1-----

_,"..-

*
. .

163

,

~

,

,

1
1
1
1
1

1... .......... -.. ......


1

, 1....... - - ----~
1 ......
1

,.
...........

__r .......... _...,

,

.

164

(
) .

1
1

,*""

_,. . . --L..-----..
.............

.-.....,-:

1
1

........

.... ......1...
1 .........
1
......

( )

R,

165

,
n
,

) .

'

~r~~~

~----t-----
~-

1
1

'
1\

11

1\
1\

,
1
1

__', ----r--- -'

, n
( )

R
r,

R= r,
2R=H.

166

,

.


,
.

( )

R,

~R.

167

,

.

,

.

( )

R,

168

,

,

,
.

. (

R,

.)

r,

R2-- ()2
2 + r2 .

169

,

,

,
,

,
,

,
.

R,

r,

,
:

R=r=

170

,
I


.

,

,

. (

R,

r,

.)

,
:

R2

= (

- R)2 +

'2 .

H~R.

171

,



.

,

,


(
)
,

,

. (
,
.)

R,

r,

,
:

R
H-R

~H2+r2

172

""'

~-:.

1
1

1
1
1

Zo

-----:;: .

z-

,
,
.

- .

-----( .,. ,. ~ }

""'

""'

1
1

'

1
1
1

"'
1
1 ______ .:,.......

z0

2; 2;

.)

Zp

= ~(xl

2) 2 + (yl

2) 2 + (zi

:
=

xi

+2

= YI + 2

,
:

AD

DB

2 '

--=-

z=

ai +

ai +

ai +

YI +

z1

ai
ai + 2

ai +

ai
ai +

+ + cz + d =

( ,, ;

z2

- z2)

173
(~:),
)

= =>

+ cz =

=> + cz + d

=d =

=> + cz + d =

( = d =

= =>

=>

+ cz =

=> + cz =

+d =

z.

=> + =
z.
(

=d =

ax+by+cz+d=O
()

174

(= =) ~

cz + d =

= = d = )

cz =

( = = ) ~

+d =

= = d = ) =>

xz.

xz.

(= = ) ~ OX+d=

(====d=) ~ QX=

yz.

yz.

-:;;

-+-+-=1
(

-:;;

-:;;

175

1 : 1

+ 1 + 1 z + d1

2: 2

= ;

+ 2 + c2z + d2

;, ;, ;,

d;,

;, ;., ;,

\
\
cl
d\
-=-=-=2
2
2
d2

d;:

1 2 = 2 1

alc2 = a2cl

atd2 = a2di

d1
-=
- =1 - - : :1 1 = -

02

d2

atb2 = a2bl
atc2 =

atd2

a2cl

* a2dt

176

( )

1: 1
2

+ 1 + 1 z + d1

= ;

+ 2 + 2 z + d2 =

z
:

(, ,

zo):

( - . ) 2 + ( - . ) 2 + ( z -

z. )2 = R 2

177

I I

178

2
3
4

,
..

5
6

(. -

,
..

9
11

, ,
, , -

25

11

00, 25, 50

2
3
5
7
11
13
17
19
23
29
31
37
41
43
47
53
59
61
67
71
73

79
83
89
97
101
103
107
109
113
127
131
137
139
149
151
157
163
167
173
179
181

191
193
197
199
211
223
227
229
233
239
241
251
257
263
269
271
277
281
283
293
307

311
313
317
331
337
347
349
353
359
367
373
379
383
389
397
401
409
419
421
431
433

439
443
449
457
461
463
467
479
487
491
499
503
509
521
523
541
547
557
563
569
571

577
587
593
599
601
607
613
617
619
631
641
643
647
653
659
661
673
677
683
691
701

75

997)

709
719
727
733
739
743
751
757
761
769
773
787
797
809
811
821
823
827
829
839
853

857
859
863
877
881
883
887
907
911
919
929
937
941
947
953
967
971
977
983
991
997

179
3

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

100
400
900
1600
2500
3600
4900

121
441
961
1681
2601
3721
5041
6400 6561
8100 8281

144

169
529
1089
1849
2809

196
576
1156
1936
2916

225
625
1225
2025
3025
4225
5625
7225
9025

256
676
1296
2116
3136
4356
5776
7396
9216

289
729
1369
2209
3249
4489
5929
7569
9409

324
784
1444
2304
3364
4624

484

1024
1764
2704

3969~

3844

5184 5329 5476


6724 6889 7056
8464 8649 8836

361
841
1521
2401
3481
4761
6084 6241
7744 7921
9604 9801

"'>

1.

J :.,

..

2.

= - ,
d

ad

= .

, .,
r Iq1 , ..

-=-,-=-,-=-,-=-.

am 1 + bn 1

cd

cd
d
cm 1 + dn 1

am 2 + bn 2 - cm 2 + dn 2

= d :

c+d
c-d

b+d

am1 + cn 1

--=-=-

'

bm1 + dn 1

am 2 + cn 2 - bm 2 + dn 2 '

*)
.. .

180

2 - 2 = ( - )(

(+ ) 2 = 2

+ 2
+ + )2 = 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2
+ =(+ )( 2 - + 2 )
- = ( - )(2 + + 2)
( - ) 2 = 2 - 2

+ )8

+ 2 + 32 +

( - ) = -

3 2

+ + ( + )

- = - - ( - )

+ an-2b + an-8b2 + ...

an _ = (_ b)(an-1

n-

_ an-2b

+ n-82

an _

+ b)(an-1

an

+ = ( + b)(an-1

+-2

+ -1)

+ -2

-1)

n-

_ an-2b

+ an-8b2 _

_ -2

+ -1)

<+ > =

:L c:an-kk =
k=O

Cnk = k !(nn!_ k)!

JaJ = { , ~

-, <

lal ~;
lal = <=> =

laI

'

JaJ = .[2

= lai-II

-w
JaJ

b=FO

la + l ~ lal + II
la -

l ~

llal -

III

181

an + 1 = an + d,

d-

n-ro

* -

+ 1 =

an = 1 + (n- 1)d

= 1

qn- 1
= bk qn- k

Sn

q,

= 2 1 + (n - 1)d .

S _ 1 - qn _ qn - 1

-k n+k

1-q

Sn

= 1

n,

q-1
q

,q*- 1

bn+1
q=
bn

n +

= k + ,

= (

n:

+ 1)

s = 1-q
bl ' lql < 1

*)
2

+ 2

~ 2;

-2

- + - ~ 2 >

'

;~ "

~ , ~

( )

*)

, = .

182

-
, -

, .. !{{;;. = ,

( ~ , ~ 0).

= ntfamk , ~
r, 'i/ = ~ , ~ , ~

-=-

(Va)m =~,~

'i[iFa =n~ , ~

2~ 2n =lal 2.{1; ' ~


, ~ 2 =lai.J

~~
:
'

2n+~ a2n+l

, >

=. 2n+Jjj;

. r = { 2~ 2 ", (;. , ;.)

- 2~ 2 ,( <, ~)

. 2n+Jjj;

=2n+~ a2n+l

an

=. ... ' =
1

-; =~,~a~O,m,neN

-r

1,

:1:-

1
ar

=-,

= +;

= ap-q;

(ap)q

>

= apq

= :

=()

183

n
(

>

:;:. 1) n n ,

, n :

logab

<::::>

= .

*)

: loga = , >

loga = 1

loga 1 =

loga = plogalxl, >

log

logalxl, >
q

loga 6 = .!.loga ,

::

log
log

logc
logc
1
log

'

> , > ,

' > ,

: ;:. 1

*) > , *

>

*1

184

*)
)7 )7

)7

sin 2 + cos 2 = 1

tgx ctg = 1

sinx
t gx=--

1 + tg =

cosx

cosx

cos

1 + ctg = .
2

t
cgx=-.sinx

s1n 2

)7l

sin(x +)= sinxcosy + cosxsiny


sin(x- )= sinxcosy- cosxsiny
cos(x +)= cosxcosy- sinxsiny
cos(x- )= cosxcosy + sinxsiny
tg + tg
(
) =----t gx+y
1- tgxtgy
tg tg
(
t gx-y
) =_......_ _..........:;;._
1 + tg xtg

ctg ctg - 1
) =----(
t gx+y
ctgx + ctgy

t g(

ctg ctg + 1
) = - _..,___..,_;;;__.
ctgx- ctgy

)7
)7

2tg-

sin = - - - =2:::.,.._
1 + tg2
2

tg

= - - - =2=--

2
1 + tg2

1- tg2

1- tg2
cosx =

2tg-

ctg =

1- tg -

2tg2

*> , ,

.

185

sin2x = 2 sinxcosx

cos2x

= cos 2 - sin 2 = 1- 2sin 2 = 2cos 2 -1


tg 2 x=

2tgx _ _ _2_ _
1 - tg 2 ctg - tg

ctg 2 - 1 ctg - tg
t g 2 =
2ctg
2

. 2 1- cosx
- 2
2

tg2 = 1 - cos
2 1 + cosx

Slll

cos 2 - 1 + cosx
2
2
t

S1

g-=
2 1 + cosx

t 2 1 + cosx
g -=
2 1- cosx

1- cosx

SlllX

1 + cosx

sinx
g-=
2 1- cosx
sinx

sin 3 = 3 sin - 4 sin 3

cos3x = 4cos 3 - 3cosx


3 tg - tg 3
tg
3 x = - - -2- 1- 3tg
ctg 3 - 3 ctg
t g 3X = - - - - - 3ctg2 -1

186

.
.
. +
-
SlnX + Slny = 2 Sln
COS
2
2
.
.
. -
+
SlX- Slny = 2 Sln
COS
2
2
cos + cos = 2 cos

cos --"2
2
. + . -
cosx- cosy =-2 s1n
s1n
2
2
sin(x + )
tg
t
sin(x + )
t gx+ t gy=

x+cgy=.
.
cosxcosy
s1nxs1ny
sin(x - )
sin(x - )
tg - tg =
ctg - ctg = - .
.
cosxcosy
s1nxs1ny
cos(x- )
.
COSXSiny
cos(x +)
.
t gx-cgy=t
COSXSiny
tg + ctg =

tgx+ctgx= .
--Sln cos sin 2
cos2x
tg - ctg = -2 .
= -2 ctg 2
s1n2x

.J2 cos(45-X) = .J2 sin(45+X)


sin = .J2 sin( 45-) = .J2 cos( 45+)

cos + sin =
cos -

asinx + s

Sl(f)

= /

= ~ 2 + 2

-va2 + 2

sin(x + <),

, COS<J) =

~2 + 2

sinxsiny

= .!:.[cos(x- )- cos(x +)]

2
1
cosxcosy = -[cos(x2
sin cos = .!:. [sin(x 2

)+

cos(x

+)]

) + sin(x + )]

187

~
sinP

1t
2

=-

J3=1ta

cosa
.
+ s1na
+ ct .....
+ tga

+ s1na

cosf3
tgJ3
ctgJ3

-cosa
+tga
ctga

.rv

31t
2

=-

-cosa
sina
+ ctga
+ tga

= 21t

sina
cosa
+tga
ctga

s1na

cosa
tga

ctga

30

45

60

90

180

1t
6

1t
4

1t
3

-1t

1t

J3

1
2

J3

J2
1

360

31t
2

21t

-1

-1

2
1
2

J2

J3

J3
J3

270

J3

arcsin (-) = - arcsin ,


arccos (-) = 1t - arccos ,
arctg (-)=- arctg ,
arcctg (-)= 1t- arcctg ,
.

1t

arcs1n + arccos = - ,
2
1t
2

arctg + arcctg = - ,

lal ~ 1
lal ~ 1
aER
aER

lal ~ 1
aER

188

. sinx
1lffi
-+0

. -1
1lffi
-+0

lim tgx = 1

=1

-+0

lim(1 + ) 11 =

-+0

lim

-1

;1;

= ln ,

;7;-+0

>

lim ln (1 + ) = 1

-+0

f(x)

' =

f(x)

()'

-1

(;1;)'

;1;

f(x)

()'

;1;

f(x)

= lnx

(lnx)'

f(x) =

f(x) = logax
f(x) = sinx
f(x)

= cosx

f(x)

= tgx

- const

ln

1
(loga )' = - -

xlna
(sinx)' = cosx

(cosx)' = -sinx
1
(tgx)' = - cos2

f(x) = ctgx

1
(ctgx)' = - - sin2

f(x) = arcsinx

(arcsin )' =

f(x) = arccosx

(arccosx)'

f(x) = arctgx

(arctg )'

f(x)

arcctg

1
1
v1- 2

=-

1
1
v1- 2

1
1+

(arcctg )' =-

2
1

1+

189

Jcos\

Jodx=C

J1 dx =

+
xa+l

xadx =

.+1

J ~1-

1
. 2 dx = - ctg +
J s1n
+, (.:;:.

-1)

J>x=Ii+C
1

dx = tgx

1
.
JSlX dx = ln tg 21~~ +

Jcosx dx = ln tg( 2 + 1t)4 +


1

{ arcsin +

2 = -arccosx +

. +
arcs1n-

1 dx _ { arctg +
J 1 + 2
- arcctg +

-arccos- +

Iaxdx=--+C
lna
Jsinxdx

-arctg- +

= - +

--arcctg- +

Jcosxdx = sinx +

Jtg xdx = -lnlcosxl+


Jctg xdx = lnlsinxl+


: '

= -

= , - .

: "= -ro 2 y
= cos(rox

+ <),

<- .

190

n

- , i -

+ bi,

, i 2 = -1.

+ bi - bi,

Rez

Imz.

, 1.

+ bi) + ( + di) = ( + ) + ( + d)i


+ bi)- ( + di) = (- ) + (- d)i

+ bi)(c + di)

a+bi

c+di

= (- d) + (ad + bc)i

ac+bd
2 d2
+

bc-ad.
t .
2 + d2 '

+d2 :;tQ

i4m=l, i4m+l=i, i4m+2=-1, i4m+3=-i.

= .Ja 2 + 2

tga =- .

z = r(cosa +isina)


~, J

Z 1Z 2

~=
z2

1j ( cos (

r2

1 2 ) + i sin ( 1 2
-

))

= rn(cosna + isinna)
(cosa + isina)n = cosna + isin
zn

-{; =
:

=1jr2 (cos(a 1 +a 2 )+isin(a 1 + 2 ))

if;.(cos

+ 2kt

n
k=I,2, ... ,n-1.

+ isin

+ 2kt

),

191

~t

Pn = n t = 1 2 3 ... n
.

k =
n

1
n
(n- k)!

: =

=n (n n

1) (n - 2) (n - k + 1)

_ n (n - 1) (n - 2) .. (n - k + 1)
k t(n - k)!
1 2 3 ... k
n!

()

=-, - -

n-

,
.

( +)= ()

+ ()

() = () ()

() =

1- (1- (1 )) (1- (~)) ...

(1- ("))
1 , 2 , ...

An -

"

'

n!
m!(n-m)!

n -

'

,
.

, ,

.
- .


.-. .

000

28.08.2009. 6088/16.
11, 73. 15 000 . 1575.

105187, . , ,
: www.ilexa.ru, E-mail: real@ilexa.ru,
8(495) 365-30-55, 8(495) 984-70-83

48,


142300, . ,
: www .chpk.ru, E-mail: marketing@chpk.ru,
8(49672) 6-25-36, 8(499) 270-73-00,
: 8(499) 270-73-59

ISBN 978-5-89237-108-7

111111

111

9 785892 371087

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