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List of Recommended Titles for

South-South Translations
Turkey

I Critical Historiography
1.

Halkevleri : deoloji ve Mimarlkletiim, Aratrma nceleme 83, 206 Sayfa, 2. Bask

2003, stanbul (500 Adet)/Nese Gurallar Yesilkaya, Public Buildings: Ideology and
Architecture, Research 83, Iletisim Publishing House, 206 pages, Second Edition,
Istanbul 2003 (500 kopies) *****
For a whole period public buildings were the most important educational and training institutions.
The sole purpose of these institutions was to enlighten people to the Kemalist principles of the
Turkish Republic through join exercise of sports, education, arts and leisure activities. In this
research Nee G. Yalnkaya studies public buildings both from inside and outside: Ideology and
Architecture. Despite its structure and despite reaching to minutia such as what kinds of
construction materials had been used, Yalnkayas project is a serious contribution to the
research of the important role of national temples in modernizationalist and nationalist ideology.
This books shows that the investigation of particular aspects of Turkeys social history from a
micro scale perspective, turns out to be both a learning and a fun experience.
2. ktidar ve Tarih Trkiye'de "Resm Tarih" Tezinin Oluumu (1929-1937)/ Busra Ersanli:
Power and History: The formation of the Official History Concept (1929-1937), 309
pages, First Edition March 2003, Istanbul, Iletisim Publishing House *****
The revival of the past or a discovery of the historical presence... Power and History
problematises the golden age, in which the Turkish History Concept was invented NS
developed to reflect the political necessities of the ruling. Bra Ersanl studies the birth of
official history concept in Turkey between 1929 and 1937 starting from the debates on history the
First and Second. History Conferences and how these were reflected in history textbooks. The
book takes into account the positions and contribution to the history debates of key stakeholders
such as Afet nan, Yusuf Akura, Fuad Kprl, Dr. Reit Galip, Zeki Velidi Togan, Sadri
Maksudi Arsal, Samih Rfat ve Ahmed Refik. It also debates in detail the deformations inflicted
upon the perceptions of history and history writing between the 1930s and 1990s by government

ideology. As pioneering research in this field, Bra Ersanls Power and History still keeps its
importance.
3. Osmanldan Gnmze Eitim Tarihi, stanbul Bilgi niversitesi/Necdet Sakaolu: The
History of Education from the Ottomans until Nowadays, stanbul Bilgi University,
Instanbul 2003*****
The stages of public education Turkey witnessed from the Ottoman era until nowadays; the
transition from madrasah education to modern educational institutions; the transfer of knowledge
from older to new generations; all of these together with the educational purposes, concepts and
philosophy that were shaped during this social process, which took place during the course of
many centuries on this land, and brought us towards the end of our educational adventure to what
we have today. That is why, knowing the history of our education and learning the various
methods tried throughout this history, will provide clues to the answers related to the fact that
parallel to our expectations from the Westernization, we have not developed a unique education
system that fits our particular social structure.
In his book entitled History of Education form the Ottomans Until Nowadays', Necdet Sakaolu,
who has devoted his life to Turkish Education, starts with the the first measures aimed at
education, undertaken in Turkey and the Muslim world and lays down in detail the organization
of the Muslim theological madrasah education during the Ottoman Empire, the first steps in the
direction of Westernisation, the transition towards national, secular education with the arrival of
the republic, the educational policies of Mustafa Kemal Atatrk and smet nn, the years of
Mustafa Necatili and Hasan-Ali Ycel, the Language Revolution, the public buildings, the village
institutes, the implementation of the educational policies of Democratic Party and the educational
activities, currently witnessed in Turkey.
The book also contains hundreds of unpublished photographs, together with references to the
books, where one can find documents, related to education and the history of education, the
biographies of pioneering educators, educational newspapers and journals, a chronology of the
history of Turkish education, and specific data tables, derived from educational statistics.

4. Tarih: Heterodoksi ve Babailer, stanbul, Om Yaynevi***/Reha amurolu: History,


Heterodoracy and Religious Order Leaders, , 1999, Om Publising House***
What is History? It is elderly, it is man, a hunter/warrior, a sage with a beard. History, similar to a
composition narrated by a half sane history professor on Turkeys public television, does not
forgive; it helps move forward, forget, and ease conflict. I find social history or writing in an
anti-historical way productive, but there must be as well writing against history. I have attempted
to illustrate this with an example of ours. I attempted to do. All of the religious movements, the
Baba [religous order leaders], the Alaouite and the Bektashi have withstood an attempt of
destruction of their history. I tried to have attempted to understand this resistance and lay down
my feelings and thoughts on this. I wrote this one-sidedly, it is not objective, and this is not the
side of Anatolian Seljuks who exterminated the Babas.
5.

75 Ylda Eitim, Tarih Vakfi, Basm Tarihi, Haziran 1999****/Aye Berktay

Hacmirzaolu: Education during the 75 Years of the Republic, 384 pages, June 1999
History Print, The History Foundation****
Public education is without doubt the most important and also very problematic area in the 75year history of the Turkish Republic. From pre-school to high school, from extended to
centralised forms of education, every stage and area of public education in Turkey still continues
to pose a bunch of issues. Throughout the process of nation state birth and formation, the Turkish
Republic expected many things from education and assigned great importance to education. The
missionaries of the period 1920-1940 were the teachers who had first adopted the ideology of
Republican Kemalism. How did the republican educational leap forward take place? How was it
carried out? What were the issues faced? How many of the goals and objectives were realised?
What were the bottlenecks in the education system after 1950's and 1980's? This book attempts to
answer questions like these.

6. Tarih Yazmnda Yeni Yaklamlar, 1. Volume, 1. Cilt, Tarih Vakfi *****/Zeynel Abidin
Kzlyaprak: New Approaches to History Writing, Volume 1, Book 1, The History
Foundation *****
Sayfa: 285 Basm Tarihi: Aralk 2000/285 Pages, History Print, December 2000
The subject of the Third International History Congress, organized by the History Foundation
was New Approaches to History Writing and Museology: Globalization and Localization. As
emphasized by lhan Tekeli, the goal of the conference was by trying to incorporate new history
writing methods into the current agenda of Turkish history writing, to address issues of history
writing and museology in front of the same audience, and thus set an interaction of a new kind
between the two fields. Of particular importance for the continuing and lasting assessments of
the contributions is the publication of the reports from the successful conference. The book
includes presentations from the Congress, related to history writing. We hope that the important
points to which the conference reports refer, such as new approaches in history writing and the
story of globalization-localization in this context, will not only capture the attention of the
specialists but also the vast readers audience. We intend to present to our readers the reports on
museology from the congress in another book.
7. Yerel Tarihilik, Kent, Sivil Giriim, Tarih Vakfi, 2/2002, 220 sayfa, *****/Funda elebi:
Local History, City, Civic Enterprise, The History Foundationm, 2/2002, 220 pages *****
Within the framework of the Local History Groups Project, which has been running for three
years, the History Foundation supports both the creation and the activities of various local history
groups from different specializations and occupations, who have a certain sensibility to the
preservation of the cultural and historical heritage of the places they occupy, to the extent
possible in Turkeys vast geographical space, and who are also willing to explore the history of
their localities. For two years now we have come together in Istanbul with representatives of the
various local history groups to evaluate the projects realized, to assess our one-year work, and
define our goals and objectives for the following year. Our goal is by bringing together
professors, researchers, journalists, literature and history teachers, as well as representatives of
civic initiatives, occupied with local history-oriented research to initiate the first steps towards

the creation of a common environment, where one can assess and discuss the state of local history
in Turkey and the Local History Groups Project and where the various groups working in the
same field can freely interact.
The book includes presentations, discussions and contributions from the Local History
Conference. It has been prepared with the objective to share the outcomes of this meaningful
meeting with as large as possible audience and at the same time to invite new local history groups
to join us.
8. Tarih retiminde oulcu ve Hogrl Bir yaklama Doru, Tarih Vakf, Basm
Tarihi/Towards a Pluralist and Tolerant Approach in History Teaching, The History
Foundation, 108 pages, History Print, November 2003*****
The book includes important discussions from the symposium organized in Brussels on
December10-12, 1998 by the Council of Europes Council for Cultural Cooperation, in charge for
cooperation in the area of education and culture. This symposium took place within the
framework of the Learning and Teaching European History in XX-th Century Project. With
regard to this, there were many discussions on the handling of the numerous sources from cinema
to television, to museums and public archives.
The discussion brought the issue that one possible way to address the sometimes self-conflicting
sources is to discuss them hoping that this would further the historical understanding of the issue.
European history is a difficult thing. However, this difficulty may be overcome by paying
attention to the same story retold in different ways.
II Political Islam
9. Bedizzaman Said Nursi Olay/Modern Trkiyede Din ve Toplumsal Deiim, ev.
Metin ulhaolu, letiim/erif Mardin: The Story of Bedizzaman Said Nursi: Religion

and Social Change in Turkey, translation by Metin ulhaolu, Istanbul 1994, letiim
Publishing House*****
The book, which the author describes as a pre-reseat in the direction of the concept that merged
religion and society in Turkey, is concerned with the life of the Muslim thinker Said Nursi, with
religious, ideological, and epistemological issues, and the story of modernism in Turkish society.
The focus of this research is the particular reaction against the practice of Bedizzamans
reforms, which paralleled by the invasion of foreign cultures, settled permanently into our
lifestyle and changed our reasoning.
10.

Devlet-Ocak-Dergh 12 Eyll`den 1990`lara lkc Hareket, Caalolu, stanbul,

letiim Yaynlar, c1994***/Kemal Can, Tanl Bora: State, Association and the Dervish
Convent Nationalist Ideology from September 12 to 1990s, stanbul, Caalolu, letiim
Publishing House, c1994***
Contrary to the fact that the issue is not an important focus in Turkeys leftist literature, the book
offers an analysis of the nationalist movement, shedding away simplifistic explanations that have
to do with contra-partisan and forces of dark activities or explanations used in classical thoretical
texts, dealing with Fascism. This book studies the nationalist movements internal processes,
groupins, ideological swings, and discourse after the 12 July 1980 military coup d etat in Turkey.
11. Din ve deoloji/erif Mardin: Religion and Ideology, 1993, letisim Publishing House
*****
In this research erif Mardin looks into the role of the religion in Turkish society employing
different research an analytical methods. The focus of the study are the historical development of
Islam in Turkey, its influence on the social structure, the process in which it was reflected in the
peoples worldview, its organization, and the political and economic forms of Islams
manifestation.

12. slam Dncesinin Siyasal Ufku/Zerrin Kurtolu: The Political Horizon of Islamic
Thought, 1999, letism Publishing House****
The crisis of value and meaning during modernity, coupled with the discovery of postmodern
thought during the second half of the 20-th century laid the ground for a religion-based political
explanation. Islamic political thinkers claim that by nature and need Islam has a political
character and there is an inevitable link between religion and state to be explored. In essence,
both Islamic political thought and contemporaty Islamic theology refer to Medieval Islamic
thought. In fact, the profound assessment of all these ideas and claims requires an analysis of
Medieval Islamic thought. In this clear language study Zerrin Kurtolu tackles the political aspect
of the relation between religion and philosophy in the Medieval Islamic World and thus addresses
this need. By analysing the chronical cleavage between religion and philosophy during Islamic
thoughts golden age (through the wokrs of Farabi, Gazali and Rud) and the manifestations of
this cleavage on the political arena, Kurtolu draws the attention to a tradition that reduces
political rule to the a political game. A tradition that goes towards annihilating politics
autonomouss space and merging the moral and the political... Does this tradition of Islamic
philosophy completely suffocate politics or prempt it? Or may be this philosophy gives a chance
to politics probably in relation to its dependency its interconectedness- dont come to mind
but still to the opinions, the important rhetoric and the specificity of the political arena? By all
means, if one wants to unveil the relationship between Islam and politics or the issues related to
reason and government, they should not look for answeres in Korans Revelation but in the
Islamic philosophy.
13. Turk Islam Sentezi, Sarmal**/Bozkurt Gnen, Gencay aylan, lhan Tekeli, erafettin
Turan: The Synthesis between Turkishness and Islam, Sarmal Publishing House**
The government of ANAP has derailed the secular republic and under the image of this synthesis
between Turkishness and Islam is trying to bring businessmen wiht links to America into the state
-lhan Seluk
This project, which wants to be implemented under the name of synthesis beteween Turksihness
and Islam can diverge in very different directions from its natural trajectory the march to Samsun

launched by Mustafa Kemal under the banner of independence and national revival Mmtaz
Soysal
The ones who have named themselves the synthesis of Turksishness and Islam are trying under
disguise to allienate the Western and modern Turkish societ from this qualities.- M. Toker in a
June 21, 1987 interview for Milliyet [newspaper] (back cover).
14. Modern Dnyada Mslmanlar/Abdurrahman Arslan: Muslims in Modern World,
2000, letisim Publishing House****
The end of the 20-th century witnessed a period of intensified criticism against modernist thought.
Islamic thought seems to have contributed most towards this outcome. The starting point of
Abdurrahman Arslan writing are the confrontations which brought the above mentioned critiques
to the agenda and which claim to have given birth to the change created by Islamic thought and
its intellectual and political foundations. The break down and transformation, experienced by the
modern world, bring Muslims to a turning point. Will Muslims join the processes foreseen by
modernity and thus breathe into it a new spirit or will they stick to their own theoretical
foundations and look for opportunities and possibilities to make themselves visible and preserve
themselves, primarily in the form of a lifestyle. The book consists of articles of Arslan published
in different places. The books common denominator is the relationship bulid by the Muslims
between modernity and their conceptual framework and lifestyle. Arslan claims that to the extent
that Islamic thought is a response to the threat brought by modernity, it is also an extended
invitation to discover the genuine measning of the Islamic message. The effort of the Muslims to
place themselves as rivals to the modern world has now been transformed into a search for
meaning for themselves in the modern world. Arslans writings shed light on the inevitable and
problematic relationship established between Muslims and modernity.
15. Muktedirlerin Siyaseti Merkez Sa-Ordu-slmclk/mit Cizre: Stakeholders Politics,
Center Right-Military Islam, 1999, letisim Publishing House*****
Before Stakeholders Politics Itetiim published mit Cizres The Justice Party and the Military:
Anatomy of a Dilemma. Cizres Stakeholders Politics is a collection of articles offering sound

analitical comments of the crisis of Turkeys political system, which have been previously
published in foreign journals between 1994 and 1997. Cizre claims that Turkeys political regime
and stakeholders have been sealed off, poltics must solve the issues and this is conditional for a
further discussion in this direction. In Cizres analysis stakeholders are not only the ones in
goverment but also the ones belonging to the opposition. Major themes in Cizres articles are the
deadend of anti-party stance in politics, the identity issues of Turkeys center-right and
particularly the Right Way Party, the political autonomity of The Turkish Army, the interaction
between Islam and State in Republican Turkey, the relation between Turkeys Western identity
and Islam, Kurdish nationalism seen from the viewpoint of Turkeys Islamic writers, critique of
the so called TOBB report, which attracted considerable coverage at the time it was released.
16. Siyas deoloji Olarak slamcln Douu, 2. bask 1994/ Mmtaz`Er Trkne: The
Rise of Islam as a Political Ideology, Second Edition 1994 *****
This is a study of rise of the Islamic movement, regarded and often perceiving and presenting
itself as a rival of the West, its influence and modernity, which unfolded largely under the
influence of the westernisation and modernization processes. Gravitating around the axis of
contions that gave rise to Islamic as a modern ideology is the major concept that appeared on the
Ottoman political arena, i.e. the outlook of the various movemenets on Islam and tradition... the
conceptual frameworks of key Tanzimat scholars, often ignored by official history.
17. Trkiye'de Din ve Siyaset: Makaleler 3,/erif Mardin: Religion and Politics in Turkey,
3 articles, 325 pages, stanbul 1998, letiim Publishing House*****
One of the distinguished aspects of erif Mardin as a sociologist is his effort to describe in a
detailed and knowledgeable manner the social and cultural diversity of religion in Republican
Turkey at the background of history and everyday politics. This feature ensured him applause by
Islamic circles, although his rigorous scientific approach estranged him from the religious.
Similarly, Kemalist intellectuals distanced themselves from erif Mardin. This book covers major
works of Mardins exceptional scientific heritage.

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18. Postmodernite, sivil toplum ve slam, letiim/ Ali Yaar Sarbay: Postmodernity, Civil
Society and Islam, 1994, letiim Publishing House, Metis*****
A thing that is recently much talked about and often times its meaning not quite well
understood (postmodernism), something often times generally misunderstood (civil society) and
again something that often times does not even question the fact that it misunderstood (Islam)...is
the subject of Ali Yaar Sarbays book Postmodernity, Civil Society and Islam. Sarbay does not
address these three things as distinct movements but as these objects of sociological analysis,
which is not too far away from everyday arguments.
19. slamiyet ve Bar Tartmas/M. Belge, A. Dilipak, D. Perinek: The Islam and Peace
Discussion, stanbul 1997, Kaynak Publishing House*****
This book includes the proceedings of the Islam and Peace Panel, held by the Journal Towards
2000, which took place on June 6, 1987 at nci Simas in Istanbul. Murat Belge, Abdurrahman
Dilipak ve Dou Perinek participated were discussants in the panel, chaired by which was Hasan
Yaln.
Cooperative American governments launched in the 1950s the process Becoming Little America
in an effort to preempt eriat. By shouting slogans such as For the sake of Jihad...for the sake of
Allah... in 1969 religious fanatics joined the students that protested the presence of Sixth
America fleet (Yeni Istanbul Newspaper of February 17, 1969). The bloody Sundays originated in
such a way. We have witnessed the gradual rise of eriat against the background of the process
after 1980 and the Moderate Islam eriat Program initiated by American Imperialism.
Islamic radicals murdered 37 intellectuals of ours in Sivas on July 2, 1993. After occupying key
state positions, now eriat wants the whole Government.
Is Turkey at a crossroad between Republican and eriat rule?
In these circumstances, we present a discussion on the Islam and Peace topic, which reflects three
different ideological approaches, i.e. an Islamic one, a civil society one, and a scientific socialism
one.

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20. slm'n Siyasallamas/Kemal H. Karpat: The politicization of Islam: Reconstructing


Identity, State, Faith, and Community in the Late Ottoman State, New York, Oxford
University Press, 2001, 909 pages, Print Date: April 2004, stanbul Bilgi University
Yaynlar, stanbul Bilgi University Publications *****
The politicization of Islam is the most important piece of work of Kemal H. Karpat, who with his
long-lasting research efforts has made a valuable contribution to the political and social sciences
of Turkey.
In his book Karpat traces the social and political changes in the Ottoman Empire. Islam is seen as
an important institution, which attempts to contribute towards the preservation of diversity in
society and at the same time reshape itself without losing its identity in the cultural development.
The book pays particular attention to the last period of the Empire, the idea of Abdulhamid to
preserve the entirety of the state through foreign policy, the remaking of the educational system,
the concentration of political power by the Sultan. Parallel to the description of the changes that
took place throughout the last years of the Empire, Karpat analyzes in a broad conceptual
framework the origination of the activities against the Empire and in favor of regime change and
national liberation.
A large majority of Turks who today live in the Republic of Turkey stand behind middle way,
modern, progressive and democratic principles and independent of the fact whether they follow
religion, are considered to be Muslims by Kemal H. Karpat. In his book he also stresses that
modernity and democracy in Turkey and Islam are not conflicting but complementing concepts
Note: Original title: The politicization of Islam : reconstructing identity, state, faith, and
community in the late Ottoman state / Kemal H. Karpat New York : Oxford University Press,
2001.
By Kemal H. Karpat (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. viii plus 533
pages).

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Historians of modern Turkey have often viewed the establishment of a secular republic by Kemal
Ataturk in 1923 as a clear break with Turkey's Ottoman past. Recent revisionist historiography
has modified this view by tracing institutional, economic and educational continuities between
the late Ottoman and early republican periods. Very few historians, however, have set themselves
the task of explaining the resurgence of Islamic populism in late twentieth century Turkey by
tracing its roots to identity formation in the nineteenth century. Kemal Karpat's primary concern
in his insightful, dense and often frustrating book, The Politicization of Islam: Reconstructing
Identity, State, Faith and Community in the Late Ottoman State, is to do just that. His book
challenges the dominant narrative of Turkish history that draws a clear distinction between
religious forms of identity and the...

21 slamclk Akm/Tark Zafer Tunaya: The Islamic Movement, stanbul 2003, stanbul
Bilgi University Publications****
Ever since the inception of the first Ottoman Constitution (Kanun-i Esasi), the Islamic movement
started to project itself as an important intellectual movement and thus brought many arguments
to Turkeys political agenda and posed many questions.
In an effort to provide answers to these questions, Tark Zafer Tunaya analyzes in detail first the
movements general meaning, the arguments created with its development, the political principles
of Islam, its formation through the interaction with the government system and the theory.
Tark Zafer Tunaya sees the Islamic movement as the important political movements throughout
the period of Turkeys Second Constitution, and stresses that similar to other movements of the
time, it possesses ideological and political characteristics.
As Tark Zafer Tunaya puts it, one can find answers to the following questions in his book:
How can a religious view influence a countrys political and social life? How do the ones who
claim they act in the sake of religion exert pressure on the political establishment (in the broad
sense, the ones who govern)? What do they offer to the political establishment? What do they get

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in return? Against this background, what kind of political power in republican Turkey can trigger
outcomes due to similar reasons in other countries from the Islamic world?
22. Siyasal slama tirazlar/Ahmet Oktay: Reactions To Political Islam, NKILAP
Publishing House, 2000***
With the chapters of this book Ahmet Oktay aims to openly display the ideological character of
Political Islam and the interaction between the discourse of political Islam and everyday life
stories; a discourse, which has gained both importance, and actuality in recent years and has
evolved in the direction of becoming common to the ruling class. Oktay, who emphasizes that the
futile conflict between secularism and religousness, which has dragged for years in Turkey, must
be overcome. Oktay reminds that at this point explorations of a theocratic system have to be
categorically opposed. He emphasizes that Political Islam is not democratic, solidary and liberalal
and makes an effort to review examples of the application of this mixture from and outside
Turkey. Although Oktay points out that search for postmodern ideas such as pluralism, otherness
and identity have gained importance, such concepts have been offered by intellectuals,
intellectuals have retained an activist approach in the political fight and have made exchanges
with Political Islam, he insists that democrats have not approached the issue of representation.
Oktay claims that Political Islam can not be defeated through oppressive measures, and makes
clear that he believes the solution lies in civil society, i.e. it can be solved solely through an
ideological fight. In order to guarantee that the majority of society is entitled to democratic,
solidary and liberal expression, one has ensure each individuals convictions and consent are in
place. (Back Cover)
23. Ayet ve Slogan: Trkiye'de slami Oluumlar/Ruen akr: Verses and Slogan: Islamic
Establishments in Turkey, stanbul 1995, Metis Publishing House***

Verses [from the Koran] and Slogan was first published in 1999, and for a short time became
classics in this genre. While looking at the Islamic formations in Turkey, Ruen akr, a journalist
and a researcher, refuses conventional viewpoints and established clichs and views, and prefers

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in stead to touch the topic and establish a genuine relationship with it. Thats is the reason why
Verses and Slogan gained so much success.
In the preface to the books sixth edition erif Mardin writes the following:
akrs research has shed light on at least six discreet research areas: Who in Turkey helped
establish the Islamic leadership? What is its relation to the political establishment? How did the
ideas of functionaries at the fringes of the Islamic establishment, yet ones, who can not be
considered licensed influenced Islam in Turkey? How did the leaders of the religious
establishment channel the ideas and religious beliefs of these intellectuals into the current
epistemological framework and how did they arrive at the new mixed ideological discourse?
What is the widespread influence of religious sects in Turkey which have taken to the pen heavily
equipped with knowledge.
From this aspect akrs book became an important source of reference for us. The book is
prepared for everyone to understand it, this did not decrease the readers enthusiasm for reading
until the end, despite the years this book retains its characteristics. Verses and Slogan is in front
of us as an important contribution to understand the Islamic movements.
24. slamn Yeni Kamusal Yzleri slam ve Kamusal Alan zerine Bir Atlye almas/
Nilfer Gle: A Workshop Study on the New Public Faces of Islam and the Public Space,
Edited by alar Keyder, 2000*****
As a workshop study, The New Public Faces of Islam and the Public Space analyzes the new and
different faces, expressions and life styles, brought by Islam through the visibility which it
attained in the public space during the last years. Gradually, Islams political function and
anonymous mass appearance undergo a change. We witness a dynamic trend in Islam, which
when faced with new spaces such television, concert halls, public beaches, festivals, and
voluntary organizations, starts to distinguish itself from the chorus, to display its individual
characteristic features, i.e. an individualizing Islam. It is precisely this individualizing and
distinguishing trend, which the authors try to trace through the different research studies, which
this book comprises of.

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25. slmn Ekonomik Yzleri/Timur Kuran: The Economic Faces of Islam, Iletisim
Publishing House, 304 pages, First Edition February, stanbul 2002****
Islamic banking and capital have played an important role since the 1970s on the economies of
many countries, including Turkey. Unfortunately we seldom come across research on the process
of economic islamization. This book analyzes from a democratic society viewpoint whether or
not economic islamization poses a threat; the place which an economy governed by Islamic
principles occupies amongst market economies; the sub-economies formed by Islamic production
places. Another valuable contribution of the book is that it puts forward the issues that provide
answer to the question why the Islamic world did not follow the pace of Western economic
development. This book proves that Islam has a number of economic faces.
26. Trk Dininin Sosyolojik mkan/Yasin Aktay: A Sociological Opportunity for Religion
in Turkey, 252 pages, Second Edition, stanbul 2000****
To claim that the religion in Turkey is linked to a political project has always been a sensitive
issue. With his book Yasin Aktay openly addresses this delicate issue neglected by the press and
related to the pile of controversies surrounding Islam. He analyzes the characteristics of the
political project of the state or official ideology in Turkey and describes religious politics as
Protestantism. By doing so, Aktay aims to make a negative reference towards the contribution
made by the Turkish Islam concept. Approached in this way, the Turkish Islamic expressions, at
the end, come to coincide with the official religious policy. The writings of Yasin Aktay, which
are under the influenced of sociology, bring forward a new approach to religion-politics-society
relations in modernizing Turkey.
27. Islam ve modernlik zerine melez desenler/Nilfer Gle: Hybrid Patterns of Islam and
Modernity, stanbul 2000, Metis Publishing House*****
There has been a change in conservatism and nationalism, as the republican rule began to
influence the middle and urban classes. Similarly, Muslims adopted mixed patterns of
modernity and secularism. In this process of hybridization, which started between the two
sides, and where differences we on the decline, we witness the rise of a search for a new

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purity, new border guardians and forbidden definitions. One must not forget that the ones who
oppose this hybridizing feed themselves on the small differences. Animosity is not directed
towards the foreigner from far abroad, but towards the ones next door, the ones coming close
to you that may be neighbors, and even groups shaking the same place and language with you
(but preserving some small differences). The others are not the foreigners, but the ones who
are so close to you that can spoil purity. By the way, the concept of hybridization is burdened
with so many negative connotations, as to suggest worries about the making origin extinct
and the corrupting the kin and the lost of purity. However, hybridization also means
reciprocal influence upon each other, learning from each other, depending upon each and is a
prerequisite for the outcome of mutual coexistence. Hybrid Patterns is a sketch, a mixed
experiment in form of writing on this specific hesitation between the search for purity and the
process of renewal.
28. teki Trkiye'de din ve modernleme/Necdet Suba: Religion and Modernization
in the Other Turkey, 2003, Vadi Publishing House*****
This work deals with the modernization experience of the other Turkey on the basis of the
religious differentiation. The book is composed of three parts. To summarize, the first part
analyzes the Sheikh and Molla typologies and the new forms these roles have gained
throughout Turkeys search for modernity. The second part studies the modernization
process of the Alaouite Turks within the context of the religious measures. The Alaouites
are known for stubbornly sticking to certain elements of their verbal culture, while the
Republic forced them to modernize and abandon their traditional culture. In the third part
theologians are studied as religious prototypes.
29. Bir Arada Yaama: Trkiye'de Din-Devlet likisi Sempozyumu/ehrazat
akrolu (ed.): Cpexistence: Symposium on Religion and State Relations in Turkey,
77 pages, September 1994*****
stanbul : Helsinki Yurttalar Dernei, 1994. Yayna hazrlayan/prepared for publication by
ehrazat akrolu.Eyll 1994, 77 sayfa.

17

This book consists of reports and discussions from the Symposium Coexistence - StateReligion Relation in Turkey, organized by the Commission on Civic Approaches against
Conflicts with the Helsinki Citizens Assembly. The Commission of the Civic Approaches
against Conflicts, which was established to support the search for peaceful solutions at the
civil base to conflicts caused by nationalist, religious and ethnic polarization in the world
and in Turkey, which at times may turn into armed conflict, organized this four-session
symposium on 28 May 1994. The introductory speech in the symposium was delivered by
Aydn UurPanels were entitled Religion-State Relations in the Ottoman Empire;
Religion-State Relations in Islam and the West; Religion-State Relations in Todays
Middle East and Religion-State Relations in the Republic of TurkeyThe discussants
were Mete Tunay, Ali Bula, Mmtazer Trkne...
III The Position of Army in Turkey
30. Asker Mdahalelerin Orduya Etkisi

Hiyerari D rgtlenmeden Emir

Komuta Zincirine/Doan Akyaz: The Influence of Military Interventions on the


Army, From Non-Hierachical Organization to the Grip of Order and Command,
letisim Publishing House, 444 pages, September 1, 2002 edititon*****
Together with the military interventions of May 27, 1960 and March 12, Doan Akyaz
analyzes the developments, approaches and discussions, which preceded and succeeded
these military interventions. Doan Akyaz offers interesting insights into the officers
ideology, the institutional traditions, the professional and institutional organization of the
army and their influence upon the military interventions.
31. Trk Ordusunun Tarihsel Kkenleri, A.. Siyasal Bilgiler Fak.Yay /Mevlt
Bozdemir: The Historical Roots of the Turkish Army, a publication of Ankkara
Universitys Social Science Faculty, 1982, (20x13,5)cm, 200 pages*****

18

This books aims to trace the historical developments and the political history of the Turkish
army from its very beginning.
32. mit Cizre, Ap-Ordu likileri

Bir kilemin Anatomisi/Relations between the

Justice Party and the Army: An Anatomy of a Dilemma*****


Topics such as the political impasses of party oppositions, the identity crisis of Turkeys
center-right, the political autonomy of the Turkish Army, the interaction between Islam and
State in Republican Turkey, the relation between Turkeys western identity and Islam,
Kurdish nationalism from the viewpoint of Islamic writers, etc are the major themes of
mit Cizres collection of articles.
33. Kladan Anayasaya Ordu, Siyasi Kltrde TSK'nin Yeri /Hdr Gkta, Metin
Glbay: An Army in between the Barracks and the Constitution, the Role of
Turkish Armed Forces in the Political Culture, first edition May 2004*****
What is the position of the Turkish Armed Forces in Turkeys constitutional order? Where
do the Armys influence and power at the political arena stem from? Despite May 27,
March 12, September 12, and February 28, what is the source of the Armys legitimacy? Is
the Armys activist position reconcilable with the democratic and laws-based state? Is
Turkish society politically mature? Is democracy in Turkey possible without the trusteeship
of the Armed Forces? Or can the thing under their trusteeship be called democracy? What is
the role exercised by the Turkish Armed Forces upon political arena through the Association
for MilitaryAssistance.
And other questions such as: Are the Armed Forces changing? Should they change and will
they change? Does the conservative military strategy, exemplified by the slogalPeace at
Home and Abroad leave room for a new role? If so, what is this new role? Can the Turkish
Armed Forces assume a new role a global and regional context?...And again the same
question... What is the position of the Turkish Armed Forces in Turkeys constitutional
order?

19

Journalist Metin Glbay and Hdr Gkta try to answer these questions through interviews
with sixteen writers, law practitioners, and political scientists. Recently, whether in a
foreign policy context such as the European Union, the Iraq War, and the Cyprus issue, or in
the context of political Islam, and the slogan The Army back to Work that has gained
circulation, the Turkish Armed Forces have been subjected to both a wide-ranging public
discussion and political demands. This is the reason, why we view this book as a timely and
valuable contribution towards building a democratic culture in Turkey.
34. Rejim ve Asker/Hikmet zdemir: The Regime and the Military, 360 pages, First
quality paper, 13x19.5*****
The Regime and the Military is the first product of a very large research project, envisaged
to last till the beginning of 21st century. Should the bigger project be entitled, its heading
may beProblems of Turkeys Democracy and Suggestions. Hikmet zdemir believes and
proves that Turkeys democratization issue should be viewed from a dynamic perspective.
35. Devlet Akl Kskacnda Hukuk Devleti/Mithat Sancar: Laws-based State in the
Pliers of State Intelligence, stanbul, letiim Publishers, c2000.****
Gangs, state practice with regard to religous face covering, human rights breaches
perpetual issues in the agenda of constatnly and quickly changing Turkey. One of the
reasons that led Mithat Sancar to collect his articles is that every day, every new incident in
Turkey reaffirms the perpetuity of these issues. Every day a new incident is added to the
developments that started with Susurluk andcontinued with Hezbollah. It seems likely that
the issues Mithat Sancar discusses in his book are going to dominiate the agenda of Turkey
for a long time to come. The various articles published in different places belong to each
other ad this holistic sence is triggered by the tension or event clash between state
intelligence and democratic rule of law-based state. Human rights violations and serious
law breaches are being committed in order to protect and guard the state. Sancar makes
interesting analytical comparisons between natural law human rights violations, points to

20

the tension in law books between the formalistic approach the human rights and the
universal understaning of law; discusses the freedom of thought with respect to the 1982
Constititution.
Laws-based State in the Pliers of State Intelligence is an extensive study on public law,
which started to gain new importance among social sciences.
IV Military nterventions in Turkey
36. 12 yl sonra 12 Eyll /Murat Belge: 12 Years after September 12, Birikim
Publishing House, 1993*****
This book is about the media, the judiciary, the university, the politicians... the supporting
conditions that lead to September 12 and our incapacity to confront this date.
37. 28 ubat, Bir Mcadelenin Gncesi, Birey Yayincilik, stanbul/Ali Bayramolu:
February 28: The Diary of an Intervention, Birey Publishers, Istanbul, 350 pages,
first edition April 2001*****
The book addresses the se questions:
How did Turkey arrive at February 28?
What is the difference between February 28 and the other interventions?
Does February 28 have a lasting effect?
Where can we place February 28 in the history of civil-military relations?
What are the critics of the Abdullah Gl domestic politics?
What is the relation of the media to February 28?
What do the so-called artists have to say?
V Democracy in Turkey

21

38. Cumhuriyet radesi Demokrasi Muhakemesi Trkiye'de Demokratik Alm


Araylar/ Aye Kadolu: Republican Will, Democratic Experiment, Explorations
of Democratic Opportunities in Turkey, Metis Publishers 1999****
The book comprises the following sections:
Introduction
I. Republican Epistemology and Hyper-Realistic Identities
II. The Paradox of Turkish Nationalism and the Construction of an Official Identity
III. Different Dimensions of Contemporary Citizenship: Towards a New Citizenship Ethics
IV. Secularism and the Origins of Liberalism in Turkey
V. The Secondary Position of Women in Turkey: Is Islam solely to blame?
VI. The Republican Woman: A Fellow Citizen or an Individual?
39. Katlmc demokrasi kamusal alan ve yerel ynetim/Hasan Blent Kahraman,
Emin Fuat Keyman, Ali Yaar Sarbay: Participatory Democracy, The Public
Sphere and Local Governments, stanbul, WALD Publishers, 1999 ****
In todays world, where social life and conceptual paradigms witness a radical
transformation, we observe a shift towards a common effort to conceptualize the virtues of
democracy. In this context, Hasan Blent Kahraman, E. Fuat Keyman, and Ali Yaar
Sarbay have prepared this book further to the discussions of a working group on where
generally the democratic transition has headed for; and what meaning specifically this
transition carries for local governments.
40. Trkiye ve Radikal Demokrasi, Balam, Aratrma-nceleme dizisi/E. Fuat
Keyman: Turkey and Radical Democracy, Context, Study and Research Series
1999*****
I would like to approach the issued of democratization in Turkey by breaking away from the
local and national educational forms through which we have used to conceptualize everyday

22

issues, the evolving structure of societal relations, when and how societal demands turned
into demands for change, how gradually state-society relations assumed the shape of
relations between two independent domains, etc. I would also like to stress that these issues
are not just Turkey-specific but possess a global characteristics. In this context, I map out
the solutions and strategies that are likely to evolve out of the recent developments in social
sciences and social theory and which could be proposed when time comes and when these
processes bear fruit. In this sense, Radical Democracy is a study, which scans developments
in democratic theory, makes a critical review of these discussions, and aims to analyze the
processes of democratization.
41. Liberalism, devlet, hemegonya/Liberalism, State, Hegemony, compiled by E. Fuat
Keyman, Everest Publishing House, 2002*****
Since the 1980s Turkey has been undergoing a radical economic and cultural change and
transformation. The major reason for this still undergoing economic and social crisis is the
understanding about politics as populist and under state control, incompatible with the
process of development, aloof from social demands and contemplating to put the process
under control. The relation between politics and economy has inevitabley stood in the focus
of the globalization debate. But without having understood the societal story, the social
relations, the processes and demands through which changes are being implemented in
Turkye during the last few years, the political story may be subject to only short-term
measures. With historical reference to the February 19 crisis, in recent years we undergo a
crisis in all aspects of our life, which is a modernity crisis.
Liberalism, State, Hegemony, compiled by Fuat Keyman is premised on the understanding
that in order to create a different Turkey, one must subject Turkish modernization to a
rigorous critical analysis. Based on this, the book comprises articles that constitute both
theoretical and historical analyses of modernization. Thus, the collection contains
suggestions how to tackle the crisis that are different, go beyond the orthodox and
reductions solutions, and belong to an existing conceptual framework that attempts to
reconcile Turkyes transitional story with its state problem.

23

42. Demokrasi ve kltr/Emre Kongar: Democracy and Culture, stanbul, Remzi


Publishing House, 1997***
Especially after the fall of the disintegration of the Soviet Union, in Turkey and globally the
democracy debate acquired new strength.
Culture and Democracy is precisely the kind of book, which studies and analyzes Turkeys
democratic culture. In his book Kongar also presents the reader with attempts at linguistic
inquiries to serve as examples. The book, which has been conceived in the aftermath of the
political darkness of the events of September 12, is a search for the enlightening power of
literature and culture.
43. ada Trk Demokrasisi, Demokratik Pekimenin nndeki Engeller/Ergun
zbudun: Modern Turkish Democracy, Obstacles to Democratic Consolidation
Translated by Ali Resul Usul, Doan Kitap, First Published in English ****
This book, claims Ergun zbudun, originates from the belief that Turkey is the outcome of
an interesting experiment of a good number of the contemporary democratization theories.
Turkey has a long history of democratic politics. However, contemporary Turkey is still far
behind the level of developed representative democracies. The causes of this constitutes the
research question of this book.
44. Demokrasi Raporu 1/Democracy Report 1, September 1993, 37 pages****
Krt sorunu, Yugoslavya ile Kafkaslar'daki atmalar ve Trkiye, Sivas katliam, siyasi
problemler, gvenlik rgtleri ve dahas... 1990'larn banda, Trkiye'nin demokrasi
aynasndaki sureti...

24

The Kurdish question, Turkey and the conflicts in Yugoslavia and the Caucasus, the Sivas
massacre, political problems, security organizations, etc Turkeys image in the
democracy-mirror at the beginning of 1990
45. -Gvenlik sektrnn parlamenter gzetimi, Trkiye Ekonomik ve Sosyal Etdler
Vakf (TESEV) Sunu mit Cizre /PAB and DCAF: Parliamentory Oversight over
the Security Sector, Turkeys Economic and Social Studies Foundation (TESSF),
Presentation of mit Cizre, 2003, *****
TESEV Demokratikleme Program erevesinde Trkiye'nin de ye olduu DCAF
(Cenevre Silahl Kuvvetlerin Demokratik Kontrol Merkezi - Geneva Centre for the
Democratic

Control

of

Armed

Forces)

ve

IPU

(Parlementolararas

Birlik

-Interparliamentary Union) tarafndan hazrlanan "Gvenlik Sektrnn Parlamenter


Gzetimi" kitab TESEV tarafndan yaymlanmtr. Kitabn tantm 21 Mays Cuma
2004'te Ankara Sheraton Oteli'nde milletvekilleri, yksek dzey brokratlar, gazeteciler ve
dier ilgililerin katlmyla yaplmtr.
The book " Parliamentary Oversight over the Security Sector" is prepared by TSESF
members DCAF (Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces) and IPU
(Interparliamentary Union) and published within the framework of TSESFs Democracy
Program. The presentation of the book took place on May 21, Friday 2004 at Ankaras
Sheraton Hotel with the participation of members of Parliament, senior government
officials, journalists and others interested in the topic.

VI Ex-Ottoman Questions:
(The 1908 Young Turks Revolution, The Committe of Union and Progress, The
Tanzimat Period)

25

46. 1908 Osmanl Boykotu: Bir Toplumsal Hareketin Analizi/Y. Doan etinkaya:
The 1908 Ottoman Boykott: Analysis of

a Social Movement, 2004, letiim

Publishing House*****
The proclamation of the Constitutional Monarchy was paralleled for the first time in the
Ottoman Empire by an outburst of public action. Actions, demonstrations, meetings, and
strikes... The public outcry that triggered the 1908 events, demonstrated once again its street
might and autonomous power following the annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina by Austria
and the declaration of Bulgarias independence. In the process that became to be known
during this period as the "Ottoman Fez boycott", the people further to their own initiative
launched a boycott against Austrian and Bulgarian products. In a short period, the boycott
which started with the symbol of the fez imported from Austria, turned into organized
actions and the Committee of Union and Progress assumed a leadership role over it. In this
way the successful 1908 events, which came to be know as the first economic war as
opposed to actual war, became a source of inspiration for the revived Ottoman thought and
heralded the discovery of the national economy. The 1908 Boycott, which opened the way
for the development of a national economy and easily provided the needed justification for
doing so, also added to the equation the social mobilization factor. By reviewing the daily
press, the impact of the social mobilization upon the masses, the autonomy of the masses,
and the various manifestations of nationalism, the two authors point in their work to the
specifics and importance of this social movement. This book, which is an effort underlined
by a laborious archive work, commitment to the questions raised and sound argumentation
when providing answers to them, looks at the world of the period of the Second
Constitutional Monarchy, and the internal side and actions of the people that lived
throughout it.
47. Bir Siyasal rgt Olarak Osmanl ttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti ve Jn Trklk/M.
kr Haniolu: The Commitee of Union and Progress as a Political Organization
and the Young Turks, Second Edition 1989, letiim Publishing House****

26

This extensive research of kr Haniolu, which gives preference to primary sources and
is based on meticulous archive work, offers completely new data, different from the facts
currently known about the Young Turks. The author completes the firstvolume of his work
with the Congress of The Committee of Union and Progress in 1902, which he sees the
major demarcation line in this period.
48. kinci Merutiyet Dnemi renci Olaylar/Ycel Aktar: Students Movements
during the Second Constitutional Monarchy (1908-1918), 1990, letiim Publishing
House****
Professor Ycel Aktar points out that students movements are not characteristic of todays
reality. In stead, they usually come around and parallel the countrys experience of grave
economic and social problems. The subject period of Artars research encompasses the
1940s in Turkey, when responding to the massive changes, the students movements
emerged in a most organized and massive manner.
49. Jn Trklerin Siyasi Fikirleri (1895-1908)/erif Mardin: Young Turks Political
Ideas (1895-1908), 1999, letisim Publishing House****
In this classical work, which falls under our History of Political Thought topic, Mardin
analyzes the emergence and the formation of the political ideas of the Young Turks, which
we can trace to contemporary political movements. Mardin is influenced by the ideas of
thinkers and politicians such as Beir Fuat, Mizanc Murat, Ahmet Rza, Abdullah Cevdet
and Prens Sabahattin.
50. Jntrk Modernizmi ve "Alman Ruhu" 1908-1918 Dnemi Trk-Alman likileri
ve Eitim/Mustafa Gencer: Young Turks Modernism and the German
Spirit...Turkish - German Relations and Education in the Period 1998 -1918, 2003,
letisim Publishing House****

27

Throughout the Unionist period, the modernism of Young Turks embarked on a trend that
can be called an emergency one. Simultaneously, there was a separate trend to transform
the multiethnic Ottoman Empire into a nation-state. Both these trends were confronted by
the peaceful influence policies of late imperialistic Germany towards Turkey. Germany
exercised this influence over Turkeys modernization and nation-building processes with the
objective to further its competitive position. The most important features of this enterprise
were the organized travels to Germany for distinguished Ottoman representatives,
educational opportunities for apprentices, students and army officers, the establishment of
Turkish-German and German-Turkish associations with the objective to steer and plan the
flow of knowledge, technology and culture. Of particular importance is Germanys role in
offering substantial assistance and advice in the reform of Ottoman educational system.
The goal, inspired by Britains imperialist policy on Egypt, was defined as making Turkey
into an Egypt of Germany. Mustafa Gencers study looks in detail into Germanys cultural
influence policy of and its causes. At the same time he discloses the ideological motivation
behind the Unionists keen interest in German modernism. Another achievement of the
research is the finding that although cultural exchange streamed in one direction, the Young
Turks and the Ottoman administration were able to steer the cooperation with Germany in
accordance with their own interests.
51. Memalik-i Osmaniye'den Avrupa Birlii'ne/alar Keyder: From the Ottoman
Empire to the European Union, 2004, letisim Publishing House*****
The writings collected in this book deal from different points of view with a hundred-year
old history, as well as contemporary developments. But they are all based on one important
premise. The world has overcome the nation-state period and has entered a new period in
which the supranational structures have gained importance. In this context, by focusing his
attention of the unutilized potential of the political and social projects of the late Ottoman
Empire, Keyder points to the importance of not seeing the nation-state as an inevitable stage
of development. Echoing imperialist rule, the articles of this book analyze in a comparative
perspective the establishment of the Turkish Republic, its transformational stages, class

28

cohesion, and states dominant ideology of nationalism. Apart from this, the book
researches the opportunities set by the process of globalization. Keyder believes that to
think about this process from a monolithic Western point of view is wrong. Quite the
contrary, the civilizations conflicts that will determine the future of the world are the ones
between the Europe and the US models. Turkey is standing at a crossroad. It has to make a
decision that is not based simply on its geopolitical position but an existential choice based
upon its government structure, and informed by its social-economic development and statesociety relations.
52. Trkiye'de Siyasal Partiler Cilt 3 ttihat ve Terakki, Bir an, Bir Kuan, Bir
Partinin Tarihi/Tark Zafer Tunaya: Political Parties in Turkey, Volume 3, Union
and Progress, The History of one Period, one Generation and one Political
Party****
With the publication of his book Political Parties in Turkey in 1952, Tark Zafer has brough
to a new horizont political science in Turkey. It was published again after 1984 in three
volumes entitled The Period of the Second Constitutional Monarchy, The Period of
Truce and Union and Progress, respectively. This is not the first time that the issue what
a true political looks like has been addressed in our academic literature. However, Tark
Zafers 800-page book symbolizes the difficult achievement of an understanding about the
factors characterizing that period of time not just from a political science pooint of view but
also from the point of view of other social sciences.
As the new publications of this book prove, this work is a classics, an opus magnum
unsurpassed for more than 40 years, a reference for all historians and social scientists,
dealing with Turkish political life, a source of inspiration for a good number of researchers
of the late Ottoman and early Republic periods. Very few social scientists are known to
have produced such a substantial reference used for such a long period of time.
53. Modern Trkiyede Siyasi Dnce Cilt 1, Tanzimat ve Merutiyetin Birikimi/

29

Political Thought in Modern Turkey, Volume I, The Merging between Tanzimat


and the Second Constitutional Monarchy of, Mehmet .Alkan (ed.), 2001*****
In this first volume, editor Mehmet Alkan takes as a starting point Turkeys Republic
periods widely known ideological streams, political developments and their influence and
subjects them to an analytic assessment. The conceptual trends, arguments/polemics,
ideological discourse, as well as the viewpoints upon them, the ideational sources of
inspiration behind them, and their lasting presence throughout different periods and various
streams in the form of powerful mind frameworks are under detailed scrutiny in this 9volume edition, each book of which can be read separately. Separately, the work lists the
major theories, journals and personalities of the thinkers that have influenced political
thought. However, certain topics and issues have been addressed in relation to different
streams and with different methods. Together with the major streams of thought and the
ideologies that were most influential throughout the period, the work does neglect the
searches, which are considered marginal and their claims. Edited by Mehmet Alkan.
54. Modern Trkiyede Siyasi Dnce, Cilt 1, Tanzimat ve Merutiyetin
Birikimi/Aykut Kansu, Cemil Koak, Fsun stel, lber Ortayl, smail Kara, Jale
Parla, Mete Tunay, Orhan Kololu, erif Mardin: Political Thought in Modern
Turkey, Volume I, The Merging between Tanzimat and the Second Constitutional
Monarchy , 2001, letisim Publishing House*****

The political thought of Republican Turkey and the ideological and institutional structure of
the regime emerged and developed during the last decades of the Ottoman Empire. The
features of all the movements, characterizing New Turkey can be traced back to the political
thought underlying Ottoman modernization, the search for a reformation of Islam, the
disputes around Tanzimat reforms and the inception of the Second Constitutional
Monarchy. The effect of the new Western ideational paradigm made was heavily felt. There
was a dynamic import of thought and even the attempts to resurrect traditional, pre-modern
mentality could not help to be affected by the change in the mind framework. The famous

30

Western-Islamic-Turkish divide... The preservation of state and the religion pattern...


Snatching the basic concepts of politics like fatherland, liberty, equality, democracy,
parliament, citizenship, legitimacy, constitutional law, revolution... are the headlines of the
laden agenda of the period... Grappling with basic concepts of contemporary politics such
as country, freedom, equality, democracy, parliament, citizenship, lawfulness, constitution,
revolution, etc... These are the items in our overwhelmed contemporary agenda.
55. Osmanl mparatorluunda Sosyal Devlet Siyaset, ktidar ve Merutiyet (18761914)/Nadir zbek: Welfare State, Politics, Rule and Constitutional Monarchy in
the Ottoman Empire, 2002, letisim Publishing House*****
Lately, the crisis of the welfare state and the issue of poverty have become major items on
the worlds agenda. In this research, the welfare regime, the social state, social policy, social
assistance and other concepts have been approached anew from a broad historical
perspective. The efforts focusing on these issues in Ottoman historiography, which often
possess the characteristics of monographs, suffer from a lack of theoretical and conceptual
foundation. In this respect, the work of Nadir zbek on social policy during Abdul Hamids
Second Constitutional period comes to fill in a major gap in the area. After refining the data,
collected by an impressive archive and literature review work, through an analytical sieve,
zbek claims that in the Ottoman Empire there has been a process of a development of a
welfare state policy.
56. ttihat ve Terakkinin Mslmanlar skan Politikas/Fuat Dndar: The Muslims
Resettlement Policy of the Committe for Union and Porgress (1913-1918), 2001,
letisim Publishing House*****
The population structure of Turkey is to a large extent a heritage from the last period of the
Ottoman era. It is enough to look at the past of our own families to understand the
importance that both migration and resettlement hold for Anatolias Turkicization. The
period, during which the ethnic and religious structure of Turkey was reshaped, coincides
with the rule of the Committee for Union and Progress (1913-1918) and not so much with

31

the years of the National Struggle . Fuat Dndar analyzes the refugee and resettlement
policy of the Committee for Union and Progress against the background of the ideological
transformation from Ottoman to Turkish identity, carried out by them. The measures to
make Anatolia a Muslim Turkish land are derived from primary sources such as ciphered
telegrams. Referring to memories and documents, the author presents the socioeconomic
structure and the state of societal spirit of a period during which a third of the population
had to change their residence and mix. The two main topic of the book are what
resettlement policies were followed with regard to Muslim migrants and refugees and how
Union and Progress solved the practical problems of these migrants and refugees. Migration
and resettlement policies have been largely ignored in historical studies but are important to
comprehend the transition towards a Turkish national identity and ethnic and the ethnicreligious composition of contemporary Turkish society. In this study Dndar convincingly
demonstrates that one of the most important components of the nation-building period is
the homogenization of population.
VII Current Political Debates in Modern Turkey:
Turkish Modernization and Turkish Nationalism

57. Modernizm ve Bir Ulusun naas: Erken Cumhuriyet Trkiyesinde Mimari


Kltr/ Metis 2002 Sibel Bozdoan/Modernism and Nation Building: Turkish
Architectural Culture in the Early Republican Period. Studies in Modernity and
National Identity Series. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press 2001

Bozdoan introduces her study with a discussion of "modernity at the margins," a phrase that
carries analytic rather than geographical meaning. Ideologies of modernity accompanied the
industrialization of Western Europe and North America. So the commitment to modernity-constructing the future with a readiness to jettison the past--came in the company of impressive
political, technological, and economic resources. Ideologies of modernity were no less current in
the late Ottoman Empire and the early Turkish Republic. But for both entities, the commitment to
modernity could only anticipate rather than mobilize an industrialized society. The crisis of

32

representation that accompanies all ideologies of modernity was therefore more palpable and
more destabilizing.
In the six chapters that follow the introduction, Bozdoan examines three successive phases of
architectural modernity in the early Turkish Republic: (1) The First National Style of the 1920s,
(2) the New Architecture of the 1930s, and (3) the National Architecture of the 1940s..
Bozdoan approaches the three successive phases in terms of the personalities, studios,
academies, manifestoes, propaganda, competitions, and projects that comprised them. Each
modernity is examined as an uneven process of invention and application in a changing national
and international environment.
Bozdoan concludes with a retrospective comment on the high point in the drama of Turkish
modernity. Many of the exemplary buildings of the New Architecture, she tells us, have been
neglected or abandoned, and so have fallen into ruin. Somehow its cubic forms and geometric
shapes never fully succeeded in capturing the hearts of the citizens of the Turkish Republic. But
perhaps this study will open eyes, both inside and outside the country. Bozdoan teaches us how
to view a lost modernity that very much mattered even if it did not prevail. We are left with the
thought that its most exemplary artifacts deserve no less careful attention than those of the
classical imperial past.
Bozdoan skillfully guides the reader through a large body of evidence, including photographs of
buildings, design plans, wall posters, and magazine illustrations. The presentation of visual
artifacts is consistently punctuated with concise but telling analyses that reference contemporary
theorists of modernity.

58. Kltr fragmanlar: Trkiye'de gndelik hayat/Deniz Kandiyoti, Aye Saktenber:


Fragments of Everyday Life Culture in Turkey , translated by Zeynep Yele,
stanbul, Metis Publishing House, 2003
A Thick Description of Fragments of Culture in Turkey
Fragments of Culture is a much-needed volume for students and scholars of Turkish studies,
bringing together articles that examine different aspects of everyday life in Turkey, ranging from

33

urban residential styles and gender and class hierarchies in shopping and education to folkdancing, Islamic fashion shows, and a community of transsexuals in Istanbul. This collection is
only the second comprehensive work on society and culture in Turkey available, after Sibel
Bozdogan and Rezat Kasaba's edited Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey
(1997), that responds to the needs of both researchers and teachers. However, in contrast to
Bozdogan and Kasaba's volume, which successfully brings together scholars from different
disciplines discussing a single theme, namely Turkish modernity, Fragments of Culture lacks
such interdisciplinarity and thematic focus.
Providing a thoughtful and insightful introduction, Deniz Kandiyoti frames the collection as an
investigation into "the mutual 'culturisation' of politics and 'politicisation' of culture [that] can
only be interpreted through a serious engagement with emerging arenas of subcultural expression
and cultural production" (p. 5). Indeed, each of the individual essays focuses on a particular
cultural "fragment" and most of them provide a thick description of the production of culture, and
related class and gender hierarchies. Since none of the authors actually provides a clear definition
of how they understand politics or engages in an analytical discussion as to how culture is
politicized, the collection does not live up to the larger frame promised by Kandiyoti.
Sencer Ayata examines the retreat of the "suburban middle classes" to "site" type residences
(similar to condominiums), that became the norm in suburban Ankara in the 1990s, based on
survey research and interviews conducted with "site" residents. Gul Ozyegin also utilizes survey
techniques to study "doorkeeper" (janitor) families, who live and work in "middle-class"
neighborhoods of Ankara, and their interactions with employing residents. Both of these chapters
shed light on the specifics of class relations and the production of class hierarchies in Turkey.
However, the use of the concept of "middle-class" by both authors is rather problematic since it is
not defined or theorized; thus "class" appears not as an analytical category but only as a term
vaguely descriptive of socio-economic status. As illustrated by both Navaro-Yashin's work in this
collection and Ayse Oncu's elsewhere, class is a category exceptionally mediated by culture in
Turkey, where socio-economic status plays only a secondary or indirect role, and such
unaccounted uses of the term "class" and class hierarchies conceal more interesting and culturally
specific dynamics.[1]

34

Durakbasa and Cindoglu provide their observation of shopping malls as a newly developing site
of consumption since the 1980s in relation to the reproduction of class, gender, and age
hierarchies. Feride Acar and Ayse Ayata compare three high schools: an Imam Hatip Lycee as a
religious vocational school, a private and prestigious school, and a public school. They observe
that while the first two provide their pupils with a strong sense of identity and vision for the
future, grounded in religion and a secular modern life-style respectively, the public school,
suffering from an insufficiency of funds, lacks such vision and identity. The authors successfully
illustrate the ways in which gender and sexuality play a central role in the socialization of
students into adult roles, which is particularly interesting in the Imam Hatip Lycee, where
controlling male sexuality plays a central role in the organization of relations and the construction
of a sense of belonging.
Serif Mardin examines the development of vernacular Turkish in the nineteenth century before
the establishment of the new nation-state and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's famous 1932 language
reform that institutionalized Turkish as the national language. Hence Mardin makes a case against
Benedict Anderson, who asserts that national languages were standardized by nationalist elites,
and instead suggests that language may indeed have primordial aspects serving nationalistic uses.
Mardin's insightful and thought-provoking essay does not really belong to this collection, since it
neither looks at a fragment of culture nor makes use of class, gender, or consumerism as an
analytical category that is common to most of the other essays.
Tracing the development of folk dancing, Ozturkmen argues that the organization of teams and
naming of dances, based on location or region rather than ethnicity, contributed to nation-building
practices. Ayse Oncu, on the other hand, examines the development of the maganda type in
popular satirical magazines as an illustration of the way in which "commercialization of sexuality
as a form of spectacle has pervaded everyday lives of different groups" (p. 187). Oncu's insightful
essay makes the unconventional observation that male sexuality, as represented in the grotesque
figure of the maganda, emerges as an important medium for the formulation of new gender
identities, urban subjectivities, and class relations.
Chapters 9, 10, and 11, by Jenny White, Yael Navaro-Yashin, and Ayse Saktanber, respectively,
look at different "fragments" of Islamicism. Both White and Navaro-Yashin offer ethnographic
studies of different Islamist groups in relation to the significance and function of the Islamic

35

headcovering and "politics of identity," but arrive at very different conclusions. White studies a
rally organized by Turkey's main Islamist political party during the mid-1990s, the Refah/Fazilet
Party, and concludes that "identity politics" cannot adequately account for Islamist mobilization
as symbolized by the Islamic headcovering, where socioeconomic class still seems to be an
important organizing principle. Navaro-Yashin looks at the development of the Islamic fashion
industry, led by one of the main business companies in the field, Tekbir, which claims to be "the
trademark of Islam." However, Tekbir is highly criticized, especially by Islamist intellectuals, for
monopolizing Islam and diluting the "struggle." While Navaro-Yashin concludes that the battle
between Islamists and secularists is waged through the medium of consumption, her own account
points to a different battle, one waged within Islamist circles themselves. Yet it is not elaborated
on or even acknowledged as a form of struggle by the author. For both of these authors, even
though "identity politics" is frequently used in their discussion, neither defines nor theorizes the
phrase. Indeed, what is actually political about the headcovering, how it is or is not related to
identity, what exactly is the nature of the battle between Islamists and secularists, and what is at
stake in this battle are not accounted for by either author.
Deniz Kandiyoti's ethnographic study of the male-to-female transsexuals in Istanbul is a
wonderfully written essay that brings forth several thought-provoking questions about the
dissolution of boundaries and norms on gender, sexuality, national belonging, citizenship, and
consequent state interventions to regulate gender and sexuality. Unfortunately, Kandiyoti does not
elaborate on the boundaries that are threatened by the very existence of transsexuals, thereby
tempting the state to intervene, sometimes brutally, to regulate their lives and suppress their
visibility. The issue of globalization, only briefly touched upon by Kandiyoti, also deserves more
elaboration, since her account illustrates the complicated ways in which globalized images,
networks, and relations offer different means and opportunities for empowering the otherwise
marginalized community of transsexuals against the authority and interventions of the
overbearing state.
Finally, the last two chapters, by Ayse Simsek Caglar and Lale Yalcin-Heckmann, both look at
Turkish immigrants in Germany. Caglar examines differential expectations and upward mobility
aspirations of Turkish families in Germany and Turkey by comparing different living-room use
and decoration styles of the same families in the two countries. Yalcin-Heckmann examines

36

Turkish immigrant youth culture in Germany and discusses the dilemma of bearing hyphenated
identities, such as the German-Turk, which, on the one hand, tends to reify ethnic-national
identity categories but, on the other hand, "empowers them as belonging to two cultures,
encompassing both, not torn between them" (p. 315). Well illustrated and thoughtfully written as
it is, Yalcin-Heckmann's chapter is another essay that does not belong to this collection, for it is
not about Turkey nor about Turkish studies, but about Germany.

59. Modern Trkiyede Siyasi Dnce Cilt 2 Kemalizm/Political Thought in Modern


Turkey, Volume II, Kemalism (Following the doctrines of Mustafa Kemal Atatrk,
the founder of the Turkish Republic), letisim Publishing House 2001*****
Kemalism is both an ideology expressing a coveted ideal for national modernization, shared
by the majority of the population, and a means to transfer this to a political assertion. In this
context, surpassing the expression of an absolute theoretical truth, it imposes upon an
attitude, a political assertion and orientation. The fact that during the time period of a
century it managed to achieve a dominant position in political thought is largely due to its
ability to produce a set of absolute concepts valid for this period thus securing a special
place for itself. These are the absolute truths whose contents or hierarchical order change
according to the requirements of each period. Kemalism, which is ideologically shallow and
methodically pragmatic, carries more weigh as a political assertion as opposed to its
contents.
Kemalism is an effort to examine the different areas of manifestation and the various
perspectives of Kemalism/Ataturkism, which seems to have acquired the status of a matrix
ideology in contemporary Turkish political life. This extensive work aims to analyze the
positive role Kemalism exerted over the 80-year history of Turkey, together with the
reasons behind some of its negative influences. Based on this, it make an assessment within
the framework of political thought, which is still a valid source for the political
controversies surrounding us.

37

60. Modern Trkiyede Siyasi Dnce Cilt 3 Modenleme ve Batclk (Ciltli)/ Political
Thought in Modern Turkey, Volume III, Modernization and the West (hard cover),
2002, letisim Publishing House*****
Modernization/ Westernism in best words to define " to live what is better and happier " the
concepts which has the meaning longing" to become western/ to become modernized/ to
become contemporary" trying to look from different point of views to this concepts...The
different words that express and criticize this loaning.West-Western-Westernism-Europe- To
become European-to make European, modernism- to become modernized-modernization-to become contemporary -contemporisation-etc. generics terms and concepts and behind
this semantic/ semiotic, politic/ideological meaninigs which couse this kind of threatments
and actions; and asking the question if we may better understand and make conceptions
about their effect on philosophy to politics education to arts in our life.
This book is an effort to assess from various angles, conceptually and ideologically the
Westernization/Modernization/Contemporarization concepts, which are best characterized
as the desire to live better and happier. This desire is expressed in many different ways and
in critical concepts such as West-Western-Westernize, Europe-European-Europeanize,
Modern-Modernity-Modernization, Contemporary-Contemporarization, etc. and their
derivatives, terms and ideas, as well as the semantic/semiotic, political and ideological
concepts, behavior and rhetoric they leave behind. The question asked is whether we can
better comprehend and conceptualize their impact on all aspects of life from philosophy to
politics, to arts and education.
61. Modern Trkiyede Siyasi Dnce Cilt 5 Muhafazakarlk/Political Thought in
Modern Turkey, Volume V, Conservatism, 2003, letisim Publishing House*****
Is conservatism a universal phenomena as an assertion and ideology; and subsequently can
it be reduced to the psychological or collective imagination? Or is it related to historical or
social specifics? On a different note, is conservatism of the same kin as traditionalism or
reactionalism, or does it lean to a different point of focus? One can increase the options and

38

in order to verify each option it is possible to find specific social and historical data.
Political Thought in Modern Turkey, Volume 5, Conservatism on one side aims to bring
together various essentially political characteristics of the phenomenon. On the other side, it
aims to openly display the empirical diversity of the concepts contents by indulging in an
encyclopedic enterprise.
62. Developmentalism and Beyond: Society and Politics in Egypt and Turkey Abdel
Monem Said Aly [et al.]; Edited by Aye nc, alar Keyder, Saad Eddin brahim,
Cairo, Egypt : American University in Cairo Press, c1994
Introduction : comparing Egypt and Turkey / aglar Keyder and Aye nc -- Egypt's
landed bourgeoisie / Saad Eddin Ibrahim -- The agrarian background and the origins of the
Turkish bourgeoisie / aglar Keyder -- Ideology and legitimacy in Egypt : the search for a
'hybrid formula' / Ali E. Hillal Dessouki -- The politics of state interventionism in 'populist'
Egypt and Turkey / Ilkay Sunar -- Evolution and shifts in Egypt's economic policies : in
search of a pattern / Galal A. Amin -- Political regimes and social performance : the case of
Egypt / Nadi Ramsis Farah -- Contradictions of 'structural adjustment' : capital and the state
in post-1980 Turkey / Korkut Boratav -- The international system and state policies : the
case of Egypt / Abdel Monem Said Aly -- Turkey in the changing postwar world order :
strategies of development and westernization / Atila Eralp -- Political and institutional
context of business activity in Turkey / Aye Bugra -- Socioeconomic policies and interest
groups in Egypt / Amani Kandil -- Street politics / Aye nc
63. Trkiye'de Politik Deiim ve Modernleme, Alfa Basm Yaym Datm /Ersin
Kalaycolu ve Ali Yaar Sarbay Caalolu: Political Change and Modernization in
Turkey, stanbul, 2000, Alfa Basm Publication*****
This book, essentially prepared to serve as academic lessons material, has been used in
many universities and is still in circulation. With its update, it became reflective of the
events that make up Turkeys political agenda. However, practical issues of everyday life in
Turkey do not go hand in hand and do not follow the same speed with which these issues

39

are conceptualized at the theoretical level. This book analyzes the political history of
Turkey from the Tanzimat period until nowadays. Various articles by Tark Zafer Tunaya,
Mehmet Ali Klbay, lber Ortayl, erif Mardin, and Niyazi Berkes look into the process
of political change and more specifically issues such as secularism throughout history, the
direction of the modernization process and its contents.
64. stanbul: Between the Global and the Local, Edited by alar Keyder, Lanham,
Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, c 1999
Who Owns the Old Quarters? Rewriting Histories in a Global Era / Ayfer Bartu
Who Owns the Old Quarters? Rewriting Histories in a Global Era / Ayfer Bartu
The Historical Construction of Local Culture: Gender and Identity in the Politics of
Secularism versus Islam / Yael Navaro-Yasin
Islamic Chic / Jenny B. White
stanbulites and Others: The Cultural Cosmology of Being Middle Class in the Era of
Globalism / Aye nc
Sounding Out: The Culture Industries and the Globalization of stanbul / Martin Stokes
The Housing Market from Informal to Global / alar Keyder
Where Do You Hail From? Localism and Networks in stanbul / Sema Erder
A Tale of Two Neighborhoods / alar Keyder
65. Modernleme, Kemalizm ve Demokrasi/Levent Kker: Modernization, Kemalism
and Demokracy, 1990, letisim Publishing House*****
Levent Kker takes to a different dimension the issue of the foundation or the lack of
foundation of a democratic tradition in Turkey. He points out that it was not the final goal of
Kemalism to establish a Western democracy in Turkey and that populism was borne our of
the understanding that since there are not social classes in Turkey there is no need for
pluralism.

40

66. Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, Edited by Sibel Bozdoan
and Reat Kasaba, Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1997

"About time" was this reviewer's response to a collection of essays reconsidering the
Atatrk experiment in secularism and Western orientation some sixty years on. Essays,
almost all by Turks, offer high-quality though overly jargon-laden discussions of such
topics as architecture, women, and scholarship.
The book's highlight is undoubtedly an unassuming 12-page essay, "The Quest for the
Islamic Self within the Context of Modernity," by Nilfer Gle, an associate professor of
sociology at Boazii University in Istanbul. Gle establishes the enormous cultural chasm
between the Atatrkists' Westernizing ideals and what had come before, then shows how
today's Islamists are trying "to maintain an identity separate from that of the dominant
West." In other words, rather than see Islamists as products of failed economies, she shows
the acutely important cultural dimension of their effort. To illustrate these points, she looks
in more depth at the question of the body, especially the female body, and contrasts the
Western notions of care and exposure with the thoroughly different Islamic concepts. Gle
concludes by noting the paradox of Islamic pop music and fashion showstwo signs
indicating the ubiquity of Western modernity.
All this should be self-evident, but it is not; most analysts of Islam pay too little attention to
culture in their fascination with material well-being. Gle has succinctly shown why they are
wrong.

67. Kltr Ktas Atlas Kltr letiim, Demokrasi, Cogito Dizisi /Aydn Uur: Atlas of
the Culture Continent, Culture, Communication, Democracy, 2002, Cogito Series*****
When in 1991 Aydn Uur compiled his writings, our societys every day practices and
mentality was new and undiscovered. Ten years later, his enlarged collection of writings
discovered a continent; it was named and a map was produced Atlas of the Culture
Continent.

41

As a sociologist who studies society, observes its habits, and ponders over the accumulation
and transition of knowledge, Uur has produced articles on conditions that we experience
everyday but never find the time to think over in detail. Thus, he has gathered in his
collection articles and studies to present to us the society and the societal state in which we
find ourselves.
Easy to read articles such as Our Minds New Masters: the Media, Clean Information,
The Republics First Original Pop Culture: Arabesque, Our 1968s, Who is not an
Intellectual?, The Sociology of a Small Bar, Fear the Ones who are Ashamed of Sin,
Feminism, Masculinity and Identity cover a broad sociological field.
68. Trk

Modernlemesi/erif

Mardin:

Turkish

Modernization,

Compiled

by

Mmtaz'er Trkne and Tuncay nder, 1994, stanbul, letiim Publishers*****


The approach Mardin takes with respect to the chronic discussions around Turkeys
modernization-westernization is to reduce the modernization process to the dichotomy
developed - backward. Alongside the articles on modernization and the different
intellectual streams to understand it, one can also find in the collection articles on the
specific dynamics and projections of youth, culture, masses, democracy, taking place within
the theoretical-conceptual frameworks of the modernization process.
69. Ne Mutlu Trkm Diyebilene Trk Ulusal Kimliinin Etno-Sekler Snrlar (19191938), Iletisim, 1. bask Nisan 2001, stanbul/Ahmet Yldz: How Happy to Say I am
a Turk, Ethnic and Secular Limitations of the Turkish National Identity (19191938), First Edition April 2001, Istanbul, Iletishim*****
Ahmet Yldzs research focuses on the period of the construction of the Turkish National
Identity between 1919 and 1939, when the emphasis and intensity of the ethnic and cultural
identity is at its peak. As Aye Kadolu points out in the preface to the book , this period
was marked by a duty to be both a citizen and a Turk. Ethnicity is projected in the curricula,
language and history policies, the Kurdish issue, approaches towards the non-Muslim

42

minorities, the resettlement practices and assimilation measures. Ahmet Yldz analyzes the
birth of Turkish nationalism from the last phase of Ottoman era to the mandatory
pluralism of the 'National Struggle' period against the rich historical background of the
period, often narrowed down to national identity and citizenship in the context of ethnicity
and secularism. Is this ethnic nationalism understanding underlying the period transitional
or haphazard? Or is there any continuity underlying the determination of Turkeys national
identity? Based on a sound theoretical foundation, rich detail and meticulous language, the
work of Ahmet Yldz offers a critic discussion of the issue.
70. Varlk Vergisi ve Trkletirme Politikalar, 244 sayfa, 1.Bask ubat 2000,
stanbul/Ayhan Aktar: Income Tax and Turkicization Policies, 244 pages, First
Edition February 2000, letisim Publishing House*****
Though it did not actively join World War II, Turkey was influenced by the consequences
created by the war. This period, marked by the successes of the National Chief left an
important heritage that has been long ignored: Income Tax Although the use of income
tax had to be interpreted as a different dimension of the nation state ideology, it can also be
regarded as a response to the need to create a national bourgeoisie. What was made out of
this practice can be derived from a review of the press at that time - terror on the minorities,
actions gone out of control, nearly six-month long cleansing operations
The application of income tax is the continuation of the turkicization policy, a policy of
making differences and including them. The minorities that stayed in Turkey knew well
enough what they should not do. Ayhan Aktars book concentrates on income tax not only
as a tax issue, but also as a manifestation of turkicization policy such as the Turkish- Greek
population exchange and the Incidents with the Thracian Jews in 1937. The book traces the
wave of the turkicization starting from Lozan Peace till the end of the World War II.
71. Trkiye'de Siyasal Kltrn Resmi Kaynaklar Cilt 3 Kemalist Tek-Parti deolojisi
ve CHP'nin Alt Ok'u/Taha Parla: Official Sources on Political Culture in Turkey,

43

Volume III, Kemalist One Party Ideology and the Republic Peoples Party Six
Beams, 1992****
Trkiyede Siyasal Kltrn Resm Kaynaklarnn nc cildinde Taha Parla, Tek-Parti
dneminin kurumsal ideolojisini inceliyor. Parla, Alt Ok bata olmak zere, Cumhuriyet
Halk Partisi programlarnn ideolojik ilkelerini, Atatrkn ilgili grleriyle birlikte ele
alyor.
In Official Sources on Political Culture in Turkey, Volume III, Taha Parla analyzes the
dominant for this period ideology of One Party Rule. Parla starts with the six beams, the
leading ideological principles of the Republican Peoples Party, and links these with the
related viewpoints of Atatrk.
72. Trkiye'nin Siyasal Rejimi 1980-1989/Taha Parla: Turkeys Political Regime (19801989), 1993, letisim Publishing House****
This book is a renewed and enriched edition of critical papers, related to the process of the
restructuring of Turkeys political regime between 1980 and 1989, that shed light upon the
debates around the political agenda in the aftermath of the September, 12 events. The auhtor
not only subjects from a democracy point of view to a critical and holistic analysis the new
regime, but also tackles general topics such the institutional set up of government, the
political system, the constitutional order, and tradition.
73. Yeni Osmanl Dncesinin Douu/erif Mardin: The Birth of New Ottoman
Thought, 1996, letisim Publishing House, translated by Mmtaz'er Trkne, Fahri
Unan, rfan Erdoan, Responsible Editor mer Lainer
First through the secret organization entitled Patriotic Alliance and later under the banner of
the Young Turks, the contemporary intellectual movement always possessed a Western
orientation. It is precisely this orientation that has to be assessed considering the synthesis

44

between the issues based upon traditional Ottoman worldviews and Enlightenment Islamic
concepts.... This work constitutes an important intellectual contribution by erif Mardin.
English Title:
The Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought: A Study in the Modernization of Turkish
Political Ideas by erif Mardin.
Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2000
74. Kemalizm ve Trkiye`de Korporatizm/Ziya Gkalp: Kemalism and Corporativism
in Turkey, letisim Publishing House****
Ziya Gkalp is the most important systematic thinker Turkey nurtured during the 20-th
century. He lived and wrote in a period, marked by deep depression and radical change,
when the Ottoman Empire, which was based on multiethnicity, saw a transformation
towards a nation state Turkish Republic. In his work, which attempts to analyze the national
revival and the search for a national identity against the background of hopeless
endowments such as political heterogeneity, economic bankruptcy, a World War and search
for new cultural values, Gkalp made an effort to produce a synthesis between the values
behind the notions of Turkish, Islamic, and Western. Gkalps system may be regarded as a
heterodox combination between the dominant ideas during his period and the European
corporatism, characterizing the notion of national policy at that time. At the same time, it
can be regarded as an inspiration and departure point for future developments. In other
words, his system established the basis of the emerging political discourse in Turkey, as
well as the parameters of its practice. Some ideological positions in Turkey have at time
sprang independently; however, the majority has been derived as an implication from
Gkalps encompassing corporativist model.
75. eriat Bir Ayaklanma 31 Mart Olay MGE ve Yaam Dizisi/Sina Akin: A
Sheriat Uprising: The Event of March 31, Work and Life Series, Imge Publishing
***

45

The event of March 31 belongs to the past Ottoman history but it reminds us of two events
belonging to the course of the Republic the event of March 31 and the Menemen event.
What a pity that not long after, a third one that reinforces our memories has been added to
them: the Sivas Event.
31 March marks the first rebellion of Muslim religious law supporters and like other similar
events displays a strange peculiarity. For many years it has been the focus of discussions
who or on behalf of whom it was organized. The work of Sina Akin is the most extensive
study that has ever been produced until currently on the March 31 event. Akin who has
delved deeply into the topic, also sheds light upon the identity of the events organizers.
76. Cumhuriyetin Harc-I Kktenci Modernitenin Douu/ ilhan Tekeli, Selim lkin: The
Ingredients of the Republic, Volume I: The Birth of Radical Modernity****
lhan Tekeli and Selim lkin are the worlds most famous authors in Turkish social science.
Having written so many books and articles together for almost thirty-seven years, the two
authors make the case of an almost unparalleled on a worldwide scale scientific cooperation
and joint work. Now, stanbul Bilgi University Press has for the first time collected their
works published throughout many different magazines, which made them difficutl to find.
Under the title The Ingredients of Republic, these writings are now collected in three
volumes, which carry a sense of completeness. As the writers assert, on one side, these
writings place little known historical evidence on the agenda of historiography. On the other
side, the authors have taken the care of placing the addressed topics of societys undergoing
transformation in a theoretical framework. In this way, the emerging panoramic picture,
which was created by the modernity project, narrates the various details of the
transformation of the Ottoman Empire into a new nation state. Turkeys ongoing since 1839
modernization process, the developments and stories surrounding it have been divided
according to their specificity under the following titles - the bashful modernity project
(1923-1950), the radical modernity project (1950-1980), and the erosion of the modernity
project (1980 onwards). This first volume called The Birth of Radical Modernity brings

46

together papers on the social process triggered by the establishment of the Turkish
Republic.
77. Trkiye'de Ulusuluk ve Dil Politikalar/Hseyin Sadolu: Nationalism and
Language Policy in Turkey*****
During the nation-building stage, language and language functions, influenced different
nationalist movements, and thus stay behind the inception of different ideologically diverse
language policies. Nationalism and Language Policy in Turkey by Hseyin Sadolu looks at
the changes of language policy between 1839 and 1950 from the viewpoint of Turkish
nationalism. Sadolu places the scope of his study in a long period of time, reaches towards
the origin of the issues, and he makes comparisons between the different periods. In this
respect, the assessment of nationalist poetry through the use of sound research methodology
such as linguistic conversion offers an interesting perspective to ethnic languages.
This study offers a different point of view, independent of the fact whether the subject is the
policy of Ottoman Empire regarding this issue or One Party Rule during the first years of
the Republic.
An ancient Aramaic proverb says If you do not want to forget your name, learn and teach
your language.
78. Siyasi ktidarn Cinsiyeti, Ankara, Ekim 1994 1. Bask, mge Kitapevi Yaynlari
/Cemal Bali Akal: Political Rules Gender, Ankara, First Edition October 1994,
ISBN 9755330895, 3000 copies, Imge Publishing House Edition****
To interpret the supremacy of constitution among the lines of a major classification that
divides world history into political rule exercised solely by the state and one exercised by
class authority would mean to overcome a major inequality. To arrive at an understanding
that no masculine dominance rule is a true embodiment of the democratic ideal and to

47

comprehend the origin and continuation of political authority, one would have to go through
the process of questioning the pleasure and politics superiority men exert over women.
79. 75 Ylda Dnceler Tartmalar, Tarih Vakf Yaynlar/Mete Tunay: 75 Years of
Conceptual Discussions, Istanbul, August 1999, History Foundation
Publication*****
The edition comprises one of the most focused social change projects since the
establishment of the Republic in Turkey and has provided grounds for tense debates on a
myriad of issues from language to religion, to the system of government and economics,
from state intervention to the free market, to rightist and leftist ideologies, to the WesternIslamic orientation.
75 years of Conceptual Discussions aims to offer answers to the long lasting conceptual
search adventure of Turkey. It also reminds us of the major texts, some of which forgotten,
that stood behind the discussions that took place at the beginning of the century and aims to
place these once again on todays agenda.
VIII Identity Issues
80. Avrupa Yol Ayrmnda Trkiye/Cengiz Aktar: Turkey at a Crossroad to on its Way
to Europe****
Turkeys modernization was launched and carried out by the state. However, it is not
possible to sustain this process with the same mentality for 200 years. The reason is that this
mentality no longer works. If the nation wants to continue its modernization, its path goes
through Europe and becoming European. Due to geographical and historical reasons Turkey
does not have many options. The dispute we witness today is between these, who want to
block this road and the ones who want to open it. One of the important stakeholders in this
dispute of Turkeys is Europe itself. Through a new partnership, Turkey would come to feel
itself at home in Europe. Turkey will thus make peace with itself and the rest of the world.

48

By moving westward, Turkey would pay respect to its eastern character. If Turkey needs to
become European, Europe also needs to mature and accept this different and other. In
this way, the European Union can accomplish its objective to become a 20th century world
power.
81. Devlet, Sistem ve Kimlik Uluslararas likilerde Temel Yazlar/A. Nuri Yurdusev,
Atila Eralp, Faruk Yalva, Fuat Keyman, hsan D. Da, Necati Polat, Oktay F.
Tanrsever: State, System and Identity, Basic Articles in International Relations ****
The end of the Cold War disrupted the conventional understanding of international relations
and triggered a new round of discussions on the concept of the international relations. State,
System, and Identity is an important contribution to the above mentioned discussions in the
form of a collection of articles. It contains papers by Atila Eralp, hsan Da, Fuat Keyman,
Necati Polat, Oktay Tanrsever, Faruk Yalva ve Nuri Yurdusev.
82. 75 Ylda Kadnlar ve Erkekler, Basm Tarihi/Aye Berktay Hacmirzaolu: Women
and Men through 75 Years, 375 pages, History Edition*****

The background and conditions of the National Liberation War and its victory, which
enabled the establishment of the Turkish Republic, mark a radical turning point in the
history of our society. However, this is the start of neither a new era, nor an absolute breaksup with all the linkages to the past. The books aims to draw a balance of the Republican
period and in fact of the entire 20-th century from the viewpoint of Turkish women, but it
also draws a balance of todays discussions and viewpoints. Thus, independent of the fact
whether one looks into the past or the future, it becomes an important source on womens
special positions in society and all public spheres, the concepts relates to their identities and
roles, which were characteristic for this period of time.

49

83. 75 ylda Tebaadan Yurttaa doru, Basm Tarihi, Tarih Vakfi/Aye Berktay
Hacmirzaolu: From Subjects to Citizens for 75 years, December 1998, History
Edition, History Foundation****
Is it possible that the dramatic social developments experienced by the West in a timely
manner during the course of several centuries be compressed to several decades, as last
centurys social and political history of our country may suggest? Is the march of Turkish
people from scratch to subjects and then from subjects to citizens possible?
Where are we in this march? Have we reached its end or we standing at one place, similar
to a cat chasing its tail?
This articles belonging to book questions the difficult journey along the road of 75 years of
march towards citizenship, the historical, social and ideological obstacles faced along this
road, and separately the individual responsibility about writing our homework and the issue
of identity. The book contains twenty one contributions by nineteen authors tackling the
issue in different dimensions and from various points of view. The book is thus not just a
description of the road traveled but also an assessment of the motley concepts and everyday
discussions alongside it.
IX Women's Studies/ Feminism
84. 1980'ler Trkiye'sinde Kadn Bak Asndan Kadnlar/ Women from Women point
of View in 1980s Turkey, letisim****
This book consists of the articles presented by the 20 woman researchers published in
Germany in the 28th of April. These articles can be regarded as the important products
caused by the lively, self-confident discussion of area signaled by the woman movement in
the social and political areana of Turkey in 1980s.
85. 90larda Trkiyede Feminizm/ Feminism in 90s in Turkey, letisim****

50

Feminism in Turkey is talked a lot and but on it there are very few works written. There are
very few documents but there are many legends regarding the 1980s. 90s was a time span
that everybody only knew/ could know as far as they stand on the place. This book is
prepared to contribute to writing the feminist movement.
86. Kadnlar Dile Dnce, Jale Parla, Sibel Irzk, Deniz Tarba Ceylan, Zeynep Ergun,
Rana Tekcan, Hlya Adak, Sha Ouzertem, zden Szalan ve Nurdan Grbilek/
When Women are talked about, letisim*****
The book analyzes the background of the feminist ideology and it also concentrates on the
books of the women and men writers in the Turkish and western literature. The gender, the
object of being the literature, womanhood are some of the topics covered by the following
writers: Jale Parla, Sibel Irzk, Deniz Tarba Ceylan, Zeynep Ergun, Rana Tekcan, Hlya
Adak, Sha Ouzertem, zden Szalan and Nurdan Grbilek
87. Yerli Bir Feminizme Doru / Towards To a Local (Native) Feminism Yayna
Hazrlayan: Aynur lyasolu, Necla Akgke Sel Yaynclk ****
This book includes 18 articles written by the 20 feminist writers ranging from Aye
Dzkani, Dilek Hattatolu, Sevil Smer, lfet Tayl, Yldz Ecevit to Gzin Yamaner. The
articles aim to bring approaches to solve the problems faced by the women in Turkey.
88. Halide Edip Trk Modernlemesi ve Feminizm/ Halide Edip Turkish Modernization
and Feminism Aye Durakbaa, letisim****
Aye Durakbaa, Cumhuriyetin asi kz Halide Edibin hayatn, Trk modernlemesinin
feminist bir adan eletirisini yapmak zere okuyor. Halide Edibi bir feminist ve bir
modernist olarak inceleliyor, onun Trkiyenin teki kadnlaryla ve Batl feministlerle
ilikilerine bakyor. Kadnlarn, reformlarn pasif alclar olduklar eklindeki anlaty
sorgulayan Durakbaa, Kemalist feminizmin, 1920li ve 1930lu yllardaki devlet
feminizmini aan tarihsel bir gereklie tekabl ettiini savunuyor. Halide Edibin

51

modernlikle zdeletii ve modernlie direndii ve duygusal tepki gsterdii kerteleri


belirliyor. Bir taraftan rnek Trk kadn bir taraftan Kemalist devrimlere ihanet eden hrsl
biri olarak temsil edilegelen Halide Edibin srgnde kaleme ald anlar, bu kerteleri
belirlemede nemli bir rol oynuyor. Trkiyede modernist kadnlarn cins ve snf
dinamiklerinin etkileimini de ortaya koyan Durakbaa, Trk Aydnlanmas, milliyetilik ve
uluslama srecinin bir paras olarak feminizm zerine zgn tezler sunuyor.
Durakbaann kitab, Trkiyede nemi son yllarda anlalan kadn almalarna
anlaml bir katkda bulunuyor.
Aye Durakbaa analyzes the life of the Republics rebellious daughter within the context of
the feminist critic of Turkish modernization. She looks into her relation with other women
of Turkey and western feminists. She advocates that feminism in 1920s and 1930s points
to historical perspective, far than the State feminism.
attitude toward

She determines Halide edips

modernity, her association, and her resistance to the modernity. She

presents original theories feminism within the context of the Enlightment, nationalism.
Her book contributes the women studies a lot.
89. Women in Modern Turkish Society : A Reader By Sirin Tekeli (Editor), Serin Tekeli
(Editor) London ; Atlantic Heights, N.J. : Zed Books, 1995.
Essays by Turkish women social scientists explore the position of women in Turkish
society, discussing tradition, material life, women in public and private, and resistance.
Topics include feminism's response to Islam, women's labor in urban areas, gender
hierarchy in carpet-weaving villages, education, gender roles among nomadic tribes,
women's sexual problems, and participation in politics.
90. Yaprak Zihniolu, Kadnsz nklap Nezihe Muhiddin, Kadnlar Halk Frkas, Kadn
Birlii/ Revolution without Women Nezihe Muhiddin, Womens Party, Women
Union ****Yayma Hazrlayan: Mge Grsoy Skmen
Kapak Tasarm: Emine BoraKitabn Basklar:
lk Basm: Ekim 2003

52

Publisher: Mge Grsoy Skmen


Cover Design: Emine Bora
1st Edition: October 2003
Contents:
Presentation by irin Tekeli
Introduction
Nezihe Muhiddin: Her life and her ideas
First Oscillation of Republican Feminism and Borders of Nationalist Expression
Conclusion
Bibliography
Index
Who was Nezihe Muhiddin? In which social and intellectual atmosphere did she grow up?
On what subjects about women did she ponder? What did she do? During her 30s, which is
an early age that she could do more, why and how was she broken off the women act? How
was she caused to be forgotten? Reading the story based on the ancient Turkish documents
of the period by a histographer, who took place in and helped the formation of the New
Women Act from the very first days and who followed the feminism discussions, will teach
so many things especially to the young women.
Zihniolu says that the conflict between Nezihe Muhiddin and the governors in the One
Party period is about the women identity in its essence and declares that Muhiddin does not
accept Republican men wishing to see the women as an illegitimate child even openly as
an infant woman. Fatmagl Berktay expresses the vital importance for the women to
know about the Nezihe Muhiddin's struggle with these sentences: The life we lived in the
past, the sorrow we felt and the effort we spent are all fading away from our memories and
we are always sentenced to remain as a child. For this reason women need to have their
names mentioned in the history, to search the past, to establish a relationship with the
struggles of the other generations and to look after the knowledge and the education which
was witheld from them.. - irin Tekeli

53

91. Ayegl Baykan, Belma t Baskett, Nezihe Muhittin ve Trk Kadn 1931,
/Ayegl Baykan, Belma t Baskett, Nezihe Muhittin and Turkish Woman 1931,
iletisim, 171 sayfa, stanbul, 1999 ****
This book is about Nezihe Muhittin, who has a distinguished role in Turkish Woman
Movement, and her most important work, Turkish Woman. Ayegl Baykam analyzes
Nezihe Muhittin in the context of the feminist movement
Belma t-Baskett presents autobiographical Turkish Woman in todays Turkish.
Muhittins book not only covers her memories but also the history of the woman movement,
its evolutions, the experiences, and under all these, it contains a feminist commentary.
92. Serpil akr, Osmanl Kadn Hareketi/ Ottoman Women Movement, letisim*****
Lately the Ottoman feminity has claimed that they are alive. We are all hearing its voice. It
says we are here, we woke up, we will get up. Please get up and guide us.. We observe
this move in all layers of womenhood. Ones either thinking or not thinking are fed up with
the former lives. Its a need for the womenhood to go into a different life. Anyhow we find
and display the mistakes in our lives. We already know that we do not live good lives. But
the womenhood will not and can not live that way. Definitely be sure about this. - The
world of Women, March, 30, 1918
These sentences which come from the beginning of the actual century are striking enough to
emphasize the desire and determination of women to change their lives.
We, women, lived unignorant of our past. Where does this knife edge grow out of? Does
history show the truth as is? This is the first and the basic question which the women,
especially the women who makes research about the women history, should reply. We can
catch the first ring of the experience chain belonging to women.
Ottoman Women Act which is the product of a long and exacting study, is making the
hidden pragmatics of our grandmothers who struggled for their rights in the Ottoman period

54

gain life in the womens point of view roaming between the lines of the World of Women
magazine.
93. Fatmagl

Berktay,Tektanrl

Dinler

Karsnda

Kadn:

Hristiyanlk'ta

ve

slamiyet'te Kadnn Statsne Karlatrmal Bir Yaklam/ Women in Opposition


to Monotheistic Religions: Comparative Approach to Womens Status in Christianity
and Islam *****
The common characteristics of the Three mono-theist religion is that it is regarded as
legitimate to control her body. This common feature may be explained as following that the
three religion has developed approximately in the same historical and geographical
conditions and
94. Fatmagl Berktay,Tarihin Cinsiyeti/ Sexuality of History, Metis.*****
INCLUSION:
Introduction: Looking for sexulised Teory and History
An other perspective in history writting
Womans Human Rights.A New declination at Human Rights Law
Is Cultural Relativism asolution?
Feminism from Ottoman to Republic
The limits of Identity Politics and Islamist Woman Identity.
Inauspicious Women and Warms,Monkey,Poisoned Evies Etc:19Century Woman
Imagination in English Popular Culture.
Where the west and the east meets: The magination af Woman Concept
Writting your self make differences
Fredom in Heidegger ve Arendt: a correspondence point
Behice Boran:A womanWho has the right to sellect.
A writers who wats to see the stars freely:Suat Dervi
The Witches of Salem: To put the name of yourself for once.

55

95. Nilfer Gle, Modern Mahrem,

Medeniyet ve rtnme/Modern Mahrem,

Modernism and Veiled Identities, Metis *****


Thanks
Preface: About modern Mahrem
Introduction:contadiction of East-West
The main factor of Westernism :Woman
Civilization Conscious and Woman
Western Equalism,Ethics in Islam and Turkist Tradition
Visibility and Freedom
Modernity and getting into cover
II .modernisation project
Europanism and Anatolian woman
Kemalist Feminism :Public appereance and Equalist Social Fancy
The vector of Modernism. Modern Law
Kemalist Fathers and modern doughters
Freedom and Female
III The Symbol of Islamism: Covering
Traditions to Radicalism
Covered Sexuality
Educated Muslim
Desired prohibition Public Area
Islamc Utopian:Golden Age Utopian
Cultural Islam and Politic Islam
Social Pratics
Result
The Dark face of Modernism
Islamic Identity and Social Participation

56

Nilfer Gle is a Professor of Sociology at Bogazii University in Istanbul, Turkey. She


received her Ph.D. in Sociology under Alain Touraine at the cole des Hautes tudes en
Sciences Sociales. In 1991, she published, in Turkish, The Forbidden Modern, which
examined the "head scarf'' debate. Some Turkish university students had chosen to attend
the university wearing the Islamic head scarf, an event which became a focal point of the
debate on the Islamist movement in Turkey. Gle's book about the head scarf debate
received wide attention and became quite controversial in Turkey. In 1993, the book was
published in French and an English translation is forthcoming from the University of
Michigan Press. In fall 1994, Gle was a visiting professor of sociology at the University of
Michigan. Before leaving, she was invited to participate in an informal roundtable
discussion of her book and its reception. Mge Gek, Kathleen Canning (History), Sonya
Rose (Sociology/History), Gunther Rose (Bowdoin College), and David William Cohen
(Anthropology/History) participated in the discussion, a partial transcript of which follows.
The book is also published in English and French:
The forbidden modern : civilization and veiling / Nilfer Gle. Ann Arbor : University
of Michigan Press, c1996, 1999.
Musulmanes et modernes : voile et civilisation en turquie / Nilfer Gle Paris : Editions
La Decouverte , 1993.

96. Aynur lyasolu, rtl Kimlik/ Covered Identity, Metis *****


Presentation: on the identity politics in Turkey
Preface
The new veling in Turkey
Woman question, State and the Reformist Ideologies and Islam
On the sexuality and body from the point of Islamic perception
The state of being woman in the literary texts and Images
The impressions from a research
97. Kadn Yazlar/ Women Writings/ Baha Bal*****
57

Sayfa : 382 Basm Tarihi : Haziran 2000


The Woman Works Library and Information Center which is made in 14 April 1990 is
aimed at gathering all resourses all together.This Library is also like the other women
libraries " No Document, no jhistory" by assuming this saying Inspite of just collecting
documents also striving to define and make them become useful easy to reach by
publicating catalogs, guides, bibliographies.In other countries prepearing this kind of
publications made by woman libraries and foundations and to collect documents that is
subject woman, is getting more important in last years.These studies help woman researchs
in two main ways. The first one is it provides researchers to reach the documents they are
looking for and allows them use the documents that are out of their knowledge. The second
one is , it guides to find subjects for researchs academic thesis ,finding new ways, and
generally diversifying woman research.an other chracteristic of this bibliography is
containing high education and doctorete thesis of different universities. Most of this thesis
was not publicated that's why you'll find documents that are hard to reach.The book
"Woman Writers Bibliography 1955-1990" includes 5631 bibliographic definations.
98. Kadn Yurttan El Kitab/ Handbook of Woman Citizen Yayna hazrlayanlar/
Prepared for publication by: Esra Ko, Esra Gler.letiim Yaynlar, 1999, 102
sayfa, (tkendi).*****
How, in what way and to what extent can a woman citizen (adult, married or divorced, with
children, wanting to be self sufficient, working, with self-respect, wanting to be respected
by her husband, her family, her colleagues, the average man on the street, the state, in short
by everyone, and who respects these people) benefit from basic human rights?
Handbook of the Woman Citizen answers these questions. This book intended to serve as a
guide specifies for each given case: the basis of the right, the method to follow in case of a
violation and the institution to apply to.
This book is the work of the Woman Commission of Helsinki Citizens Assembly.

58

X Kurdish Question
99. Devlet Syleminde Krt Sorunu/Mesut Yeen: The Kurdish Question in State
Discourse *****
Turkey has been experiencing one of the most difficult problems during the last 20 years. In
his research Mesut Yeen points out that the government's policy with regard to this issue
can be summarized as rejection and/or denial, and states that this policy can not be seen a
simple bluffing policy: The state does not push the Kurdish Question in the direction of a
reaction movement, a tribal resistance, a rebellion, a foreign instigation or a regional
backwardness issue. But it does perceive it in this way... Mesut Yeen brings forth
important arguments, which arose throughout the historical context of Turkeys
modernization, and places the formation of this complicated perception in a theoretical
framework. In this work Yeen stresses the complication inflicted upon the issues due to the
influence of epic and stand-alone academic research and firmly opposes the attitude
dictating that there is not nothing left to say.
100. Trkler ve Krtler: Nereden Nereye?/Antoloji Dizisi/Murat Belge: Turks and
Kurds, Which Direction? Antology Series, Birikim Publishing House*****
We once again postponed democracy and we are still delaying it. In our political culture
democracy is almost like a mythological thing, or even more like a nirvana, an ideal in the
distance beyond the reach of anyone. (It is certainly normal to fantasize about in this way
about something which has not been experienced). Due to this culture, it seems like in our
subconsciousness, we define democracy as a future stage at which we could solve our
problems (as though we would be entitled to reach that time). Or may be, democracy is not
a sublime object. Seen in this way, democracy is a simple method, which has its problems
and deficiencies but no other one has been invented. There is nothing beyond the stage at
which issues are solved. There is, however, a method to solve the issues.

59

101. Krtler 2, Mebahaddan 12 eylle/Hdr Gkta: Kurds 2, From Mebahad to


September 12, Alan Publishing*****
The book analyzes the conditions that lead the birth and demise of the formation and
Mehabad Kurdish Republic, the long march of Barzani, the 1971 autonomy, the defeat
resulting in the 1975 Algerian Treaty, the clash between Mullah Mustafa Barzani and Jelal
Talabani, Iraqi and Iranian presence in Kurdistan.
102. Krtler 1-Isyan- Tenkil, Alan Yayncilik/ Hdr Gkta: bu kitaba ulaamadm/I
did not get hold of this book
103. Kltrel oulculuk Demokrasi ve Krt Sorunu/efik Beyaz: Cultural Pluralism,
Democracy, and the Kurdish Problem, PER Publishers***

In this edition I wanted to cover only symposium speeches, related to the Kurdish Question.
Precisely due to their relation to the issue, I also thought appropriate to include a discussion
that took place in the Yeni afak [New Dawn] newspaper. Upon the insistence of my friend
Ahmet nal, the publisher of this book, I included several other articles on the Kurdish
Question.
104. Krtlerde Airet ve Akrabalk likileri/Lale Yaln Heckmann: Tribal and
Knship Relations among Kurds*****
Tribal and Kinship Relations among Kurds is the anthropology doctorate thesis of Lale
Yaln-Heckmann, which draws its findings from field research in the area of Hakkari. The
work is both academically brilliant and fulfilling. It also offers an understandable and
enticing speculation that may appeal to the readers who are not experts in the field. The
gun smuggling example offered in the first part of the book captures the mind and draws
attention to the regions reality, and also offers clues into the themes further developed
throughout the book. The corner stone of the work are the relations between the

60

manifestations within the political system and the dynamics of the local culture. Various
identities such as relatives, tribe, kinship and ethnicity are analyzed within the context of
the specific conditions. Further to the analysis of the historical, geographical, demographic
conditions in the region, phenomena at the micro level are researched in depth. At no time
does the author conceive of the micro-level and macro level stories as completely disjointed
from each other. She makes a concerted effort to place and analyze the specific
developments in all their dimensions and complexity. In this way, the book leaves the area
of regional studies, offers an opportunity to make comparisons with similar events in other
societies, and deepen anthropologys methodological and theoretical underlying issues.
105. Krt Sorunu in Bar nisiyatifi/Peace nitiative for the Kurdish Question,
Prepared for Publication by Taciser Belge, 140 pages, 1992, Helsinki Citizens
Assembly*****
This is a documentary book on the peace initiatives related to the Kurdish question, which
has stamped our recent past with violence...
The Turkish Initiative Committee of the Helsinki Citizens Assembly (hCa) issued the
publication in 1992 when the organization was not yet registered. The book is a part of a
series conceived by the Initiative Committee as activities to further the Peace Initiative for
the Kurdish Question, and it consists of five sections. The text of Murat Belge called
Thoughts on the Diyarbakr Events, the members of hCa International Monitoring
Committee, their report, and statements for the press occupy the first four sections of the
book. The most significant part of the book is the tape recording of the March 1992 Peace
Initiative for the Kurdish Question Conference, which was joined by various groups.
106. Gareth Winrow, Kemal Kirii: K u r d i s h Q u e s t i o n A n d T u r k e y , CASS
Publishers / CASS yaynlar, 5/1999 in English*****
This book comes as a welcome relief amidst the clamour of accusation and counteraccusation. In a thoroughly documented and impartial manner the writers give a remarkably

61

comprehensive account of the course of the struggle, especially since the 1980s...' William
Hale CASS yaynlar 5/1999
XI Globalization
107. Kreselleme Srecinde Trkiye Ekonomisi/Erin Yeldan: Turkish Economy in
the Globalization Process, letisim Publishers*****
The Turkish economy is in perpetual economical crisis during the last thirty years. The
critique written on the Turkish economy as a rule points out that the main cause for the
crisis is solely the problem with the public finances and links the crisis directly to the
growth of the public sector and its ineffectiveness. These sorts of writings completely
isolate the crisis historical development within Turkeys social and economic life, accept as
though the process starts by itself and ignore the social division relations, which underlie
the crisis, the accumulation of capital and class conflicts. In this way, the crisis phenomenon
is completely divested from its historical context, and in the long run its description can not
go beyond the narration of a simple story. In stead of looking at the data surrounding the
phenomenon of the crisis and instability in Turkey, this study tries to answer the questions
why and in the interest of who. Throughout the study, the crisis is portrayed from a
perspective of division as a process in which social classes clash for the protection of their
interests. In this process, whether in the financial crisis of the public sector or in the
imbalances in the process of the opening up to the international markets, the mechanisms
guiding economic overproduction and it distribution in the international economy, are
actually perceived as a natural outcome. Similar to the Turkish case, the peripheral
economies, integrated through the strange, unbalanced, and faulty competitive market
conditions into the capitalist process, and their effort to implement market-based
stabilization measures have with time created a shaky structure, which in turn due to its
specificity has given rise the structural conditions enabling new crises.
108. Kresellemenin teki Yz Yoksulluk/Fikret enses: The Other Face of
Globalization - Poverty, letisim Publishers*****

62

Humankind is undergoing a period of exceptional polarization between great wealth and


horrible poverty. We are witnessing striking scenes of hunger and debasement and an
aggravation of poverty not only in the underdeveloped world but also in developed
countries. Against this and under the pressure of neo-liberal globalization rhetoric, for a
long time the issue of the poverty was met with indifference. Only since the latest years the
international financial organizations started to pay attention to the area related to capital.
The definition of poverty, the definition of its scale, objective forms and structures, the
definition of its origins, together with the discussions surrounding the fight with it,
constitute from an academic and political point of view an major battle plane. The
meticulous work of Fikret enses sheds light upon the definitions of poverty, the notions
behind the concept, and its scale. The author achieves this by questioning the existing
definitions and measures. Thus, his work leans towards a critique of the structures
sustaining poverty. Poverty is tackled as a global issue beyond the static economic
understanding, which can not be reduced to a local phenomenon but is circumscribed within
a historical dynamism. The outcome is grim but realistic: Poverty is a stable tendency,
which points to a near future, where it would not be resolved and where it would continue
to pose serious consequences for the world and humankind. The research of Prof. enses is
a special contribution and a major source for future analyses addressing poverty from a
political and economic perspective.
109. Yeni Dnya Dzeni Nereye, nceleme-Aratrma Dizisi/Korkut Boratav: What is
theDirection of the New World Order, MGE Publishers**
It has been more than twenty years now that he world and Turkey have been swept by the
neoliberal wind. The economic, social and political benefits of the working, of the ordinary
people, acquired through hard fights, are being threatened and eroded. Imperialism took the
name of globalization and was rehabilitated under the slogan of the free market has no
alternative...
The world is turned into a prey...The once who make a living through their labor are either
made to surrender or pushed towards radicalism, chauvinism and anarchy.

63

But this cycle will pass and sooner or later humankind will again resort to mutual
cooperation and socialism.
This book is a collection of a series of polemics resisting the defenders and practitioners of
neoliberal politics.
110. Kreselleme, Devlet, Kimlik/Farkllk: Uluslararas likiler Kuramn Yeniden
Dnmek Siyaset-Sosyoloji Dizisi /E. Fuat Keyman: Globalization, State, Identity
and Diffrence: Rethinking International Relations Theory, Politics-Sociology Series,
ALFA Publishers****
The purpose of this book is in the first place to speculate on the effectiveness of the
accumulated mass of critical theory on international relations, premised on the new
broadened critical theory understanding, built upon the dialogical interaction between
various critical discourses. The book is not just an epistemological and philosophical
critique of a particular, rationalist, founding ideational tradition in international relations,
but also an extensive and convincing explanation of the system of international relations.
All this has been done with the objective to actively attempt to bring the international
relations theory up to an important historical intersection in the period after the end of the
Cold War, in which the understanding of the absolute nature of international affairs had to
be upgraded to a global modernity understanding. If we conceive of the structure and
dynamism of the international system as not possessing an ontological character but yet
established through historical and intersubjective practices, then we need the theoretical
framework to allow us to both understand and ponder over international relations. The
importance of the critical theory stems from this fact and this books aims to demonstrate
this importance.
111. Mhendisler ve deoloji nc Devrimcilerden Yeniliki Sekinlere/Nilfer Gle:
Engineers and Ideology, From Pioneer Revolutioners To Innovative Elite stanbul,
1998, Metis Publishing House*****
The book consists of these articles:

64

On Engineers and Ideology


Industrial Civilization and Engineers
Pioneers of Modernization and Rationalization
Leaders of Dominant Rationality
The history of Rational Ideas in Turkey
Introduction: History as Legacy and Practice
First Reforms
First Elite: The New Ottomans
The Young Turks
National State Building and Kemalism
From Religious to Political Principles
Turkish Engineers Multi-Faceted Identity
The Historical Measurement
Condition and Action
Hypotheses
Are Turkish Engineers the New Pioneers of Modernization and Rationalization?
112. Kreselleme sivil toplum ve islam: Trkiye zerine yansmalar/Ali Yaar Sarbay,
E. Fuat Keyman, Ersin Kalaycolu, Halil nalck, Kadir Cangzbay, Nur Vergin,
Rana A. Aslanolu, Simten Coar: Globalization, Civil Society and Islam:
Reflections upon Turkey, Compiled by Ali Yaar Sarbay, E. Fuat Keyman, Halil
nalck
Through the various articles compiled together the editors of this book Yaar Sarbay and E.
Fuat Keyman make a serious attempt to analyze the process of globalization and civil
society development and to trace the influence of cultural differences upon life style.
Globalization is well underway; however, it does not destroy the other or identity and
differences; quite the contrary, it refurbishes them in a specific way.
In this way, the articles belonging to the collection address from a theoretical and Turkeyspecific point of view the relations between globalization, civil society and politics, and

65

specifically focus on the relations between Islam and civil society in the globalizing world.
Are the monotheistic principle, underlying Islam, the need to define contained in it, and the
unifying, simplifying and monist demand, compatible with a pluralist, postmodern civil
society? The example of the Medina document, purportedly a manifestation of Islamic
authenticity is presented as an irreversible process. Does it come together with a globalizing
world, paralleled by civil society development? The papers belonging to this collections
contain various methods and discussion brought forward by mature scientists.
The authors are Ali Yaar Sarbay, E. Fuat Keyman, Nur Vergin, Halil nalck, Simten
Coar, Ersin Kalaycolu, Kadir Cangzbay, Menderes nar, Rana A. Aslanolu.
XII Civil Society:
Civil Rights and STK(Civil Society Foundations)

113.

Trkiye'de Devlet ve Snflar/alar Keyder: State and Class in Turkey, 300

pages, First Edition, 1989, stanbul ****


Keyder studies the path capitalist development in Turkey within the specific historical
context. Issues such as the Ottoman state and society, the birth of social classes in the
Republican period, the emerging social functions of the Turkish State, the maturing of the
Turkish bourgeoisie and its characteristics are being traced throughout the various periods
of the processes.
114.

Trkiye'de Sivil Toplum ve Milliyetilik/Alexandre Toumarkine, Barbara

Pusch, Gerard Groc, Gottfried Plagemann, Gnter Seufert, Harald Schler, Karin
Vorhoff , Kemal Can, Necmi Erdoan, Nicolas Monceau, Nuray Mert, Stefanos
Yerasimos, Tanl Bora: Civil Society and Nationalism in Turkey, stanbul 2002, 616
pages, Second Edition, letiim Publishing House*****

66

The book contains research on issues related to the Turkish NGOs, which have different
structure, orientation, goals, objectives, etc. there are many articles studying NGO
organizations with different aims and structures in Turkey.
Patriotic Organizations (Kemal Can), Kemalist Associations (Necmi Erdoan), Professional
Chambers (Tanl Bora), Business Associations (Karin Vorhoff), Human Rights
Organizations (Gottfried Plagemann), Migrant Associations (Alexandre Toumarkine),
Central Right Parties (Nuray Mert), Nationalism in Football (Tanl Bora) are the main
articles covered in this book.
115.

Merhaba Sivil Toplum 1998, 210 sayfa (tkendi) Helsinki Yurtalar

Dernei/Hello Civil Society, 210 pages (out of print), 1998, Helsinki Citizens
Committee*****
STK'larn dinamizmini yanstan, gelecee ynelik program ve etkinlikler tantlyor
The publication of Hello Civil Society comes at a time when civil society organizations
(CSOs) in Turkey are undergoing a very busy period; yet there are very few books on them.
The first part of the book comprises of papers trying to answer the question what CSOs are
and what they are not. The second part contains a project proposal that can be used by all
CSOs in Turkey. The third part emphasizes the role of the SCOS in the human rights area
and echoing the dynamism of the CSOs working in this area, it introduces an agenda with
activities for the future.
116.

Milliyetilik ve Avrupa Btnlemesi Civil Toplumdan Bak Alar Yayna

hazrlayan: Nazan Aksoy/Nationalism and European Unification, Civil Society


Perspectives, Prepared for print by Nazan Aksoy, November 1994, 87 pages*****
Is it possible for a huge continent to live in harmony without a common civic religion,
without a new form of European consciousness? Basically, Nationalism and European
Unification attempts to answer this question. This book comprises four articles Civil

67

Society, European Institutions and European Unification by Mient Jan Faber; NationStates, European Institutions and Citizenship by Mary Kaldor; Nationalism, Nations and
Civil Society by Radha Kumar, Nationalism Movements in Yugoslavia and on the Balkans
by Sonja Licht.
117. Demokratikleme srecinde Sivil Toplum rgtleri, Bir Alan Aratrmas Olarak
Gneydou Anadolu/Cuma iek: Civil Society Organizations in the Process of
Democratization,

Turkeys Southeast as an Area Study, January

2004, Tohav

Publishers*****
In modern democracies politics plays the role of an intermediary between state and society.
The establishment and institutionalization of adequate communication channels between
society and state, and between state and society has gained huge importance. The political,
economic, cultural, arts and social activities, exhibited by the Civil Society Organizations
and which can be described as means of democratic politics s have acquired the status of in
contemporary participatory democracies.
In the modern world, where ideological, economic, social, ethnic, racial, and religious
differences have begun to be perceived as an asset to society, the civil society paradigm,
from which the right to expression for every group, the right to free association according to
consciousness, and right to active participation in social, economic, cultural and political
life, have been derived, has become an accepted value.
118.

Akn devletten sivil topluma: aratrma inceleme/mer aha: From

Excessive State to Civil Society, study/research, Caalolu stanbul 2003, Genda


Kltr Publishers ****
Withouth doubt one of the most revered concepts in Turkish political life is the term state.
Throughout history the number of Turkish states and the state itself has been the source of
pride for Turkish people but has also necessitated sacrifice for its sake. Let us ponder over
the following. Why this concept occupies the most central position in Turksih political life

68

and why themes such as the individual, community, social group, individual rights and
freedoms, etc. have been pushed at the back.
In this context, mer aha analyzes civil society searches in a general state concept within
a historical context. While studying state structures in Ottoman and Republic Turkey, he
analyzes particularly civil society afterwards 1980s in philosophical way.
The political culture did not firmly assert the sole duty of the Turkish people to carry the
state on their shoulders; at the same time, the state has acquired an abstract, methaphysical
and excessive state. The saying God - in the sky; State - on the ground captures the fact
that state is not a concrete, institutional structure but has become a sacred phenomenon.
Sucg an inward-orineted focus estranges the civil society search in society.
mer aha analyzes the civil society searches in Turkey through the lenses of the general
state concept and within the specific historical context. While researching the state
structure in the Ottoman Empire and in Republic Turkey, the author focuses particularly on
civil society movements after the 1980s from a philosophical point of view.
119.

Sivil toplum yazlar, Balam Yaynclk/dris Kkmer: Civil Society

Articles, Caalolu, stanbul 1994, Balam Publishing****


dris Kkmer, who was banned for a long time because because of his convictions, in
1973 came forward with the suggestion to divide of Turkeys republican history according
to various functions and specific characteristics into different periods such as The Second
Republic and suggested that the Natinal Liberation Fight was not anti-imeprialist in
essence.
Who were the ones to impose the ban? To make things worse, why did not the ban assume
an open attitude and was not implemented accordingly?

69

Independent of the ban, Kkmer continued to look for an answer to his major question.
Was it the right thing to do to spend a whole life over the question Am I Eastern or
Western? It was the right thing to do for someone born in an Eastern society. Today, a
scientist, who was influenced by the West but banned to think in such a way by a society,
has become the source of inspiration for a number of defenders the civil society. Even if he
did not point them the truth, he offered to them direction and purpose. He asked the
question Who are we? What can we change? Due to his convictions, every single period of
his life was marked by extreme loneliness. This book collects his findings on the topics of
becoming civic.
120.

Trkiye'de Toplum ve Siyaset erif Mardin eserleri /erif Mardin: Society

and Politics in Turkey, The works of erif Mardin, 312 pages, First Edition, stanbul
1990, letisim Publishing House*****
This is the first volume to collect in a systematic way Mardins articles published in various
foreign journals and the authors interviews, and starting from the Ottoman Empire to
extensively cover different subtitles such as civil society, political culture and social
structure.
121.

Tarihten Gncellie/Murat Belge: From History to Today, Istanbul 1997,

letiim Publishing House*****


The book is a work of Murat Belge, who subjected Turkeys 1970s agenda to serious
thought and put this down into writing.
122. Kentte Birlikte Yaamak stne/On Living Together in The City, Prepared for
Print by Ferzan B. Yldrm, Third Edition, stanbul August 2002*****
This book is a contribution to the creation of new concepts in the area of town, human
rights, and deepening of democracy, their spread and enrichment, and an opportunity for
researches, politicians, practitioners and other interested individuals to make use of these
concepts....

70

The book has benefited from the contributions of lhan Tekeli, Ali Bula, Ali Yaar Sarbay,
Nuri Bilgin, Melek Gregenli, mer Lainer, Ahmet Yaar Ocak, Herkl Millas, Mgrdi
Margosyan, sa Karata, Stella Ovadia.

123. Avrupa Birlii Devlet ve STKlar,

Basm Tarihi Mays 2001/Ayen Anadol:

European Union and CSOs, ISBN 975-7306-84-3, IX+206 pages, May 2001, History
Print*****
Civil Society Organizations and State Relations in Turkey on the Road to the European
Union and The Role of Civil Society Organizations for Turkeys Accession into the
European Union are the seventh and eighth in a row within the series of Civil Society
Organizations Conferences. Where does Turkey stand against the background of the
growing importance of CSOs in the West and the opportunity they enjoy to influence the
decision-making mechanisms? In this respect, how does the West look upon Turkey and
what do CSOs think about this process? What is the experience acquired by CSOs on the
way to the European Union? The first conference of the series was put together in 1994.
The seventh was organized 2-3 June 2000; the eighth took place 15-16 December 2000.
They were joined by the Helsinki Citizens Committee, the Inevitable Movement, the
Human Rights Organization, The Committee for Support of Modern Life, the Green Steps
Environmental Education Organization and similar other civil society organizations in order
to share their activities related to the European Union integration process, to exchanged
thoughts and discuss ideas. This is an important source for the ones, interested in where
Turkey's CSOs stand.
124. stanbulda STKlar, Basm Tarihi/Dr. Mehmet . Alkan: CSOs in Istanbul, ISBN
975-7306-28-2, XXII+227 Pages, February 1998, History Print*****
Turkey, which had for quite a long time opposed Western literature on civil society and civil
society organizations, saw the beginning of a discussion on these concepts after the last
intervention of the military and the return to civil life. However, research on the history of
CSOs in Turkey is quite limited. The Istanbul part of the project Redefining the Public

71

Space of Muslim Societies: The Associational Life of Cities, which also includes the cities
of Amman, Beirut, Jakarta, Casablanca, researches CSOs from the Tanzimat period until
nowadays and places them in different groups. Even though the research of Prof. Dr. Ahmet
N. Ycekk, Prof. Dr. lter Turan and Dr. Mehmet . Alkan is limited only to the city of
Istanbul, it addresses the major factors influencing the development of civil society
organizations within Turkeys social, economic and political process and against the
background of the countrys general history. Being the biggest center of trade, industry,
production, culture, communications and politics during the Ottoman and the Republic
period, for an observer and researcher Istanbul becomes a laboratory, which has
concentrated developments in Turkey.
125. nde Gelen Stklar, Basm Tarihi Tarih Vakf/Leading CSOs, VIII+160 pages,
January 1998, History Print, The History Foundation*****
This work, which has been prepared by the Civil Society Organizations Knowledge Center
and which contains a detailed analysis of the major Civil Society Organizations in Turkey,
is the third outcome of a bigger project, carried out by the History Foundation in order to
develop Civil Society Organizations Information Databank and a Communications Center.
The first work Civil Society Organizations Guide was published in May 1996 in order to
assist local and foreign CSOs that joined the Istanbul Habitat II Conference. The guide has
a small part containing statistical information on the CSOs, collected in it. Separately from
this, the CSO Information Center collected more detailed data on the CSOs participating in
the conference and willing to take part in the survey. The CSOs Information Center
continued to collect information even after the conference. After that in January 1997 with
the financial support of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation, a selected group of leading CSOs,
which have or may have not been included in the Guide was subjected to a qualitative
analysis. An full version of the survey can be found at the beginning of the Guide under the
heading Statistics related to the Inquiry Results.
126. Projeler, Projecilik ve Sivil Toplum Kurulular, Basm Tarihi/Projects, Project
Work and Civil Society Organizations, May 2003, History Print, The History
Foundation*****

72

The twelfth gathering of the Civil Society Organizations Conference, which we have been
putting together each year since 1994, took place under the heading Projects, Project Work
and Civil Society Organizations was the most attended of the conferences organized so far.
Workshop discussions took place on topics such the concept of a project and its relation to
Civil Society Organizations, project-based work of CSOs, ethical and political issues in
project-based work, and also professionalism and voluntary work in project-based work,
project sustainability, basic project management and transparency in projects, project
management training and project outcomes evaluation.
This book transcribes the conference proceedings without change, and is one of the most
important sources published in the disputed area of project work.
127. Sivil Toplum Kurulular Sempozyum/Osman Kker: Civil Society
Organizations - Three Conferences *****
This book demonstrates the efforts of certain well-known stakeholders of the so called civil
society to step out of their shoes and reach out to learn about each other. The book has thus
overcome the political preferences of the ones, belonging to these organizations and is an
exercise to identify the things that unite these people and not the ones that separate them. It
includes the papers from the three symposiums that major SCOs put together as a
cooperative effort between themselves since 1994. The first Civil Society Organizations
Conference took place 16-17 December 1994 and was dedicated to the development of civil
society organizations, their relations with the state, local government and the private sector,
the democracy and participation. The second conference took place 23-24 June 1995 under
the heading Growing CSOs in the Shrinking World addressed international relations issues
of CSOs, communication and cooperation between them, and experiences on this subject.
The third conference was entitled Communication Issues between SCOs and their Solutions
and took place 7-9 December 1995.

73

128. Dnen Sivil Toplum Felsefi Yaklamlar -Almlar, Tarih Vakfi/Thought Over
Civil

Society

Philosophical

Approaches

and

Opportunties,

The

History

Foundation****
This book includes the talks, presentations and discussions from the 13th Civil Society
Organizations Conference, taking place since 1994.
Topics such as Individual, Civil Society and Civil Society Organizations, Information,
Civil Society and Civil Society Organizations, and The Public Sphere and Civil Society
Institutions were addressed in five separate workshops of the conference entitled Thought
Over Civil Society: Philosophical Opportunities and Approaches.
Similar to the first meeting of the Civil Society Organizations Conference in 1994, this
meeting stressed the fact that philosophy is a mind framework, a kind of structure for
knowledge transfer.
129. nsan Haklar GNDOAN Sosyoloji-Siyaset Dizisi/Anl een: Human Rights,
Sociology, Politics Series, GNDOAN Publishing House**
With this work professor Anl een focuses on the various manifestations of the subject
with the objective to make a scientific contribution to the human rights fight, taking place in
Turkey. Together with the general dimensions of the subject, the author approaches the
issue of human rights from various basic concepts such as democracy, economy, state,
culture and law and succeeds in bringing theoretical clarity to the issue. With this book,
based on review and assessment of both local and major foreign sources, the believers in the
human rights fight in Turkey can benefit from a scientific contribution on the issue.
130. nsan Haklar Mcadelesinde Yeni Taktik ve Stratejiler Helsinki Yurttalar
dernei/New Tactics and Strategies in the Human Rights Fight, 2002, 16 pages,
Helsinki Citizens Assembly*****

74

This brochure reflects the joint work between the Helsinki Citizens Assembly and the
Minneapolis, USA-based Center for Victims of Torture (CVT) and TODAIE on the New
Tactics in Human Rights Project.
This work represents a new effort to revive the human rights principles and to strongly urge
that they be taken seriously. Rather than addressing the issues in the human rights area and
the situational analysis, which have to do with human rights violations, it focuses on the
tactics and strategies, developed to overcome the social, individual and institutional
resistances through social and civic solutions in an effort to address the violations. The
major goal of the project is to fully grasp the structure of the threats against human rights,
and to energetically preempt such threats by spreading and sharing the social, political,
cultural and economic tactics to overcome these violations, which have till nowadays
proved their efficiency, but also to develop new effective strategies The brochure also
features impressive examples of tactics applied in different countries.
131. Yurtta Katlm, Sivil Toplum Kurulular ve Yerel Ynetimler Arasnda Ortaklk
ve birlii, Helsinki Yurttalar dernei / Preapred for Print by Taciser Belge, Orhan
Bilgin: Citizens Participation: Partnership and Cooperation Between CSOs and
Local Government, 1997, 139 pages (out of print), Helsinki Citizens Assembly*****
In the introduction and acknowledgments section of Citizens Participation, Taciser Belge
states that there are several reasons for publishing this book. The first reason is to
communicate to the public the experience gained through a project implemented by the
Helsinki Citizens Assembly. The second is to serve as a useful resource to local
governments and non-governmental organizations. The third is to stimulate the
development of similar projects. The fourth is through this project to make aware the
broader public of the core objectives, principles and working methods of the organization
132. Dikkat! Haklarmz/Sheyl Batum, Atilla Nalbant, tar B.Tarhanl, Sibel
nceolu, Yeim Atamer, Ozan Erzden, Turgut Tarhanl: Attention! Our Rights

75

November 1993, 184 pagesa, (out of print) Helsinki Citizens Assembly, Sibel
Publishing House *****
When we say law, in our mind emerges the idea of specific concepts, whose expression is a
subjected to structural rules that we find totally strange. What law books say is almost
incomprehensible, their content is worrying, and yet these are enticing books. Attention!
Our Rights is the first Turkish example of the easy to read law book genre in Europe and
USA, meant to explain legal concepts to non-specialists. The book aims to move law
foreword to those who really need it from its current position of being inaccessible to the
citizens. In its different sections, i.e. Freedom to Pursue Rights, The Privacy of Private
Life, Freedom of Religion and Belief, What is it to be a Woman in Turkey, the book
puts an emphasis on individual rights and freedoms, which are believed to be important.
With the short stories and drawings from Behi Ak and Fato Genosman Attention! Our
Rights is a reference for every citizen
133. Cuntaclk'tan sivil toplum'a Yn ve Ant yazlar, Balam Yaynclk/dris
Kkmer: From the Junta to Civil Society, Writings from Direction and Oath,
Caalolu, stanbul 1994, * Balam Publishing****
Who is making the major decisions in Turkey?
Are the people citizens or subjects?
The intertwining between rulers, prosecutors, judges, and policemen creates new
opportunities. This is the consequence of crime. Evidence stays with the offender!
The development of Kkmers philosophical thoughts on civil society originated in the
first half of the 1960s, with the substantial knowledge he acquired on the founding of the
military junta of colonel Talat Aydemir. At first enticed and attracted by the magical charm
of the Ruler, it was only in the years after the radical questions that were confronting the
young Kkmer mixed with the identify of the serious scientist, that we saw the founder
of the civil society concept.
In this book one can find the answers to questions such as Who we are? What can we
change? published after the 1960s in the journals Yn [Direction] and Ant [Oath]. This

76

book marks the beginning of the ongoing process of internationalization of the editions.
Kkmer said, I am influenced by the West. I was born with the Ottoman heritage that
at one point due to its political might was able to influence the West and was subsequently
itself influenced by it. But I was born into a society into which had banned thought. It is not
easy to think and as a thinking man, he offered replies and decisions to save the people
in those two famous journals As an economist, he created the decisions.
134. dris Kkmer ansna Trkiye'de sivil toplum araylar,Yayma Hazrlayan:
WALD Demokrasi Kitapl /Ahmet Davutolu et al: In the memory of dris
Kkmer, Civil Society Searches in Turkey, 160 pages, stanbul 2000, Prepared
for Print by Wald Democracy Books*****
Contributers: Ahmet Davutolu, Gven Avc, Kenan Somer, Murat Belge, Ali Akay, Ali
Bula, A. Sava Akat, Aye Kadolu, Etyen Mahupyan, lhan Tekeli, Krat Bumin,
Masis Krkgil, Mir Kaya Canpolat, Ycel Yaman, Zeki Demirkubuz.
This book comprises the proceeding of a round-up meeting, which offers opportunities for
a much bigger discussion within the relevant historical, political, philosophical, identity, etc.
context on the topic of civil society, which carries with itself the sense of emergency by
referring to the work of dris Kkmer, who brought the issue to the agenda years ago but
had no one to discuss it with. The participants kicked off the meeting by asking the
intriguing question Kkmer has asked 35 years ago Why dont we have the civic? and
then moved on to discuss the structural obstacles, inherent in the Eastern, Anatolian culture
that stand in the way of constructing a society, constituted out of free, independent, and
special individuals.
135. Genlik ve kent ynetimi, WALD Akademisi : Mynet : Med-Urbs/Ferzan
Bayramolu Yldrm (ed.): Youth and City Management, stanbul 1994, Wald
Academics Mynet Med Urbs*****

77

Contributors: Ferzan Yldrm, Nermin elen, Melek Gregenli, Sevda Ulutekin, Maria
Tilsiziglou, Nilgn E. Sippel, Hella Hetschger, Azfar Khan, Blent Piyal, Sezen Zeytinolu,
eyda Kozcu.
This is a work that brings together the thoughs, research and experiments on, on one side,
the the opportunities for attainment of the institutional capacity of a truly democratic and
pluralist local government, and on the other side, the development of an internventionist
awareness among cities about their environment, as well as the realization of this potential
through the political process.
136. Sivil Toplum in Kent, Yerel Siyaset ve Demokrasi Seminerleri/The City,
Local Politics and Democracy Seminars in the Service of Civil Society, 352 pages,
stanbul 1999, Prepared for Print by WALD*****
Contributors: Mahmut Mutman, Nuray Mert, Ersin Kalaycolu, Sadun Aren, Mmtaz
Soysal, Abdlmelik Frat, Ahmet svan, lber Ortayl, Ruen Kele, Birgl Ayman Gler, Ali
Bula, Aydn Uur, lhan Tekeli, Oya iti, Ludmila Denisenko, Mete Tunay, Ouz Ik,
Sema Erder, zzettin nder, Ursula Christiansen, Yksel Diner.
This book includes data, positions and suggestions from the City, Local Politics and
Democracy Seminar Series, organized by WALD with the objective to make more people
knowledgeable on the topic of local capture in the long run to bring a broader perspective to
relationships between humans and their place of residence.
137. Solda sivil toplum sylemi, Trkiye ve Ortadou Forumu Vak./M. ulhaolu,
Can Soyer: Civil Society Discourse in the Left, The Turkey and Middle East
Forum Foundation*****
There are always boasters among the ranks of the Turkish left to say that civil society is a
notion we imposed upon everyone. In reality, since a long time the civil society Western
Europe and North of America has left the orbit of the left and has eve become a concept

78

often referred to by the international financial institutions. The fact that the concept is so
deeply entrenched today is due to certain known circles. Today, for example, one of the
conditionalities in World Bank credits is that whatever the project is, it has to be
implemented in cooperation with civil society organizations. Besides, for special reasons
todays ideological-political wave of neoliberal, globalizing, privatization and
deregulation thinking needs the concept of civil society and the civil society
organizations. Finally, it is a pity that despite everything the Turkish Left was not
influenced by the civil society concept and the spread of the rhetoric related to it.
138. Sivil toplum, aydnlar ve demokrasi, z Yaynclk/mer aha: Civil Society,
Intellectuals and Democracy, Sultanahmet, stanbul 1999, Iz Publishing*****

The discussions related to the democratizing issue are placing the nations intellectuals
along a stark division line. Civil society is no longer derived from a theory. Will the rise in
the demand of democracy be enough to overcome the meaningless polarization between
state and civil society? This book of Dr. mer aha analyzes this issue from a scientific
point of view...
Contrary to the wide-spread view, civil society is an apolitical concept for the achievement
of seemingly political goals in a field outside of the political realm. This work comes
forward with opposite claims with respect to civil society and confronts the beautifying of
civil society. Going a few steps forward, and recognizing that the civil society concept has
been taken from the vocabulary of the Left, it is recommended that it be left where it
belongs.
Contrary to the defenders of the anti-statist view, the civil society discourse is in essence a
statist one, a discourse that not only shrinks in size the state arena, but also views the
belittled image of the state as constant and envisages that it does not change...
From a civil society perspective the state is the organizational structure to balance and
reconcile the conflicts. In capitalist societies, the division between state and civil society is
present and thus the birth of structural democracy is given. The civil society discourse is an

79

arena for political issues and can thus be described as areas with the state where technical
decisions are being produced. It is possible to say that the civil society discourse is the
expression of the crisis of a special ideology in Western democracies.
M. ulhaolu
139. Avrupa nsan Haklar Szlemesinin Trkiye'de Olaanst Hal Rejimine Etkisi,
Beta, stanbul/Sevtap Yoku: Impact of the European Human Rights Convention
on Turkeys State of Emergency, Istanbul, September 1996, Beta****
Human rights law outlines the borderline between state sovereignty and international
dominance. Human rights are conceived as the backbone of democracy. It is however the
responsibility of the national sovereignty to put human rights and democracy to use. From
this point of view, human rights are determined by national and international law.
140. Sivil taatsizlik, Demokrasi Kitapl / Civil Disobedience, Prepared for Print by
Hayrettin kesiz, 277 pages, stanbul 1999, Democracy Books***
Contributors: Ylmaz Aliefendiolu, Tayfun Atay, Sabri Bykdvenci, Yasin Ceylan, Ergin
Cinmen, Adnan Griz, Hseyin Hatemi, brahim Kabolu, Oktay Konyar, Hayrettin
kesiz, Senih zay, Doan zlem, Ali Yaar Sarbay, Nail Satlgan, Sami Seluk,
Alaeddin enel, Mete Tunay, Ali Vahit Turhan, Nkhet Turgut.
This book covers the presentations and discussions from an interdisciplinary colloquium on
the topic of civil disobedience, organized by WALD in 1997. Publications such as Bergama,
Saturday Mothers, Freedom of Thought, A Minute of Darkness for Light, etc. which often
make headlines in recent years are discussed from the point of view of social sciences and
philosophy and presented in a mock court with jurists, raised against the prosecutor with a
particular focus on the multifaceted character of penal law studies and rulings. The purpose
is to prepare the ground for future activists.

80

141. Tanzimattan gnmze stanbul'da sivil toplum kurulular, Trkiye Ekonomik


ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakf /Ahmet N. Ycekk, lter Turan, Mehmet . Alkan:
Civil Society Organizations in Istanbul from Tanzimat Period (1839-1876) till
Nowadays, Beikta, stanbul 1998, Turkeys Economic and Social History
Foundation*****
Contents:
Acknowlegments, Preface
METE TUNCAY: Concepts related to Civil Society Organizations
CEML OKTAY: Civil Society Organizations in Istanbuls Life.
AHMET N. YCEKK: Civil Society Organizations from 19-th Century Ottoman Society
to Contemporary Turkey and Political and Sosiological Relations.
AHMET N. YCEKK: The stages of development of Civil Society Organizations
MEHMET . ALKAN: The Legal Framework of Civil Society Organizations (1839-1945)
AHMET N. YCEKK: Classifacition of Organizations in Turkey in 14 categories and the
Process of their Development
MEHMET . ALKAN: Civil Society Organizations in Istanbul
AHMET N. YCEKK: Legal Personal in Turkish Law
AHMET N. YCEKK: Civil Society Organizations in Istanbul 1946-1971
ILTER TURAN: Organizations in Istanbul 1972-1996
142. Tarihsel ve kurumsal aamalariyla sivil toplum ve Trkiye gerei, Bayrak
Yay. /A. Osman: The Historical and Institutional Development Process of Civil Society
and its Future in Turkey, 2000, Bayrak Publishing House***
The super structure of a modern civil society offers the natural associational structure for
humankind, which wants to enhance the state of society, stimulate economic life, upgrade
the political and cultural level. Modern civil society is not a compulsory or forceful thing
but a free association centered around the desire for change, eagerness and effort... While
the political society is the opposite in the area of governance or state to the civil society,
which takes place in the liberal area. Hegel considers the achievement of the level of a
rational modern civil/political society as the utmost point of history or the end of it.

81

World order at the beginning of the 21-st century comes at another crossroad: on one side,
the civil/political societies that point towards further upward development of history and, on
the other side, the underdeveloped, poverty-stricken and experiencing various tensions
nations, which are under history or pre-history conditions...
In his new book Ali Gevgili analyzes Turkeys 200-year heritage from the point of view of
more specifically civil society, state structure, and more generally, world views and mass
media communication. The author looks into the Ottoman and Republic periods within the
context of the renewal activities related to Ankara and the Atatrk reforms. When coming to
the 21-st century, Gevgili raises the issues about Turkeys way of gradually moving forward
into history.
143. Hemehrilik ve ehirde Siyaset Keiren rnei/Aya Kurtolu: Common
Township Keiren as an Example of City Politics, stanbul 2004, letisim
Publishing House/*****
Local politics has stayed in the shadow of big, national politics. However, it represents a
relationship, which effects the daily life millions of people... The continuation of this
relationship in the towns and cities is in fact the capillary for big politics. In this book
Aya Kurtolu examines how politics works in the big city through the example of the
Ankara Keireen. By overcoming the standard dominant categories of the language of the
real politics, of journalism, and established political science, the author looks at what kind
of socialization is allowed by politics relations. For example, how do within the context of
these relationships social relations and positions lead to cultural capital, which is the
origin of political profit... We thus observe the formation of a specific political community,
and the transition from planning on political representation to its realization. The writer
subjects to conceptual discussion the rich observations made on the pitfalls of common
township, family relations, relatives relations, identity relations and how they work in the
process of local political socialization. The work offers a broad horizon to the political
anthropology method, which views politics as a multi-dimensional human activity.

82

144. Gelecein Sesi Trk-Yunan Yurtta Diyalou, stanbul Bilgi niversitesi


Yaynlar, inceleme-aratrma/Compiled by Taciser Ula Belge: The Voice of the
Future: Turkis-Greek Citizen s Dialogue, 178 pages, research, Istanbul Bilgi
University Publishing*****
Contributors: Zlf Livaneli, Herkl Millas, Murat Belge, Kemal Kirii, Ali arkolu,
Niyazi Kizilyrek, nsal zbilenler, Fatma Azgin, Mehmet Ali Birand, Irene Banias, Maria
Demesticha, Yiit Aksakolu, Elin Macar, Orhan Silier, Fikret Toksz, Akin Atauz, Niki
Roubani, Zeynep Oral,Halis Aydintaba, Nilfer Tarikahya, Soli zel, Bahar Rumelili,
David Barchard

Today foreign policy issues are no longer under the sole domain of governments and
diplomats. As is the case with many other topics, which concern society, when deciding on
foreign policy issues, support from the public is sought. In this processs Civil Society
Organizations (CSOs) play an importnat role in foreign politicy affairs.
This book addresses the relations neigbouring Turkey and Greece owe to CSOs.
In the near past until approximately the 1980s CSOs did not represent in terms of numbers
important stakeholders. But after 2000 CSOs have begun to actively take part in many areas
ranging from peace to education, to local government, environment, business, history,
culture and arts. With the passage of tiem the intercation and collaboration between CSOs
in both countries become more focused, and a new ground for dialogue was established.
How was this ground established? How did the partnership between CSOs in both countries
get started and how did it develop? What is the significance of the friendship between
Turkey and Greece for the European Union? How can we benefit from our past experience?

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The book has collected articles of the civil society leaders, specialists, artists, writers, and
academia representatives that seek answers these questions. The book comprises the
contributions of 22 Turkish, Greek, English, and Turksih Cypriot writers. Given the fact
that the international public opinion does not sufficiently follow developments in Turkey,
the book was published both in Englih and Turkish.
XIII Institutions of Memory and Museology
145. Kent, Toplum, Mze, Basm Tarihi, Ekim 2001, Tarih Vakfi/ Burak Madran:
Town, Society, Museum, October 2001, Hisory Edition, The History
Foundation*****
The efforts of the History Foundation to set up the Istanbul Museum and the Social History
Center played an extremely positive role on the dissemination of the concept of
contemporary museology in Turkey. Particular focus deserve the theoretical and conceptual
measures aimed at developing a museum model reaching out to society, overcoming the
notion that museums are place to visit, and turning museums into user-friendly spaces.
Apart from the exhibitions and research projects carried out with the objective to contribute
to the practice of museology, a major role was played by the international conferences on
topics ranging from town, to society and museums. Of these, two The Symposium on the
Problems Surrounding the Establishment a Social History Museum and Workshop on
Town and Social History Museums, have offered important insights into the workings of
the Istanbul Museum Project and made key worldwide contributions. This book is a
selection of some of the papers offered at this conference.
146. Mzecilikte Yeni Yaklamlar/Zeynel Abidin Kzlyaprak: New Approaches in
Museology, 203 pages, December 2000*****
The major topic of the Third International History Conference, organize by the History
Foundation was New Approaches to Museology and History Writing. The conference
brought together the new dimensions historiography and museology have reached and

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accomplished interesting results based on the globalization-localization discussions, related


to the topic. As Dr. Ilhan Tekeli put it, In todays quickly developing world, both
museology and historiography experience a period of rapid change. Such type of change in
a time of reformulation is open to professional exchange. Placed in a state of such
conceptual openness, societal actors participate in the process of making new concepts.
This book includes the museology-related reports from the above mentioned conference.
The book displays openly the outcomes of the intense observation and scrutiny made
possible through the new assessment approaches to museology and presented by national
and foreign specialists in the area of globalization and localization. Thus, it becomes one of
the most important reference sources for people interested in the subject; while featuring the
international experience in the area, the book is likely to engage all of the rest, who have
never taken an interest in museology, different from that to be visitors.
XIV Pluralism
147. Modernleme ve okkltrllk letiim Yaynlar, 2001, Trke-ngilizce
/Modernization and Multiculturalism, 312 pages, Turkish-English, Iletisim
Publishing House*****
World progress, the rise of the nationalism, identity policies, the issue of the other, etc.
belong to an old discussion of the center, likely to last for a long time. In circumstances
under which identity policies clash with each other, it seems meaningful to create policies
on living together. Multi-culturalism is regarded as one of the key concepts for the
sustenance of a democratic society, for modernization and living together.
Modernization and Multiculturalism, published by the letisim Publishing House aims to
shed light upon these key concepts. This book comprises the reports, presented at the
conference, organized by the Helsinki Citizens Assembly in March 2000 in Istanbul under
the heading A Wider Europe: Modernization and Pluralism. The forums participants
representing Turkeys various ethnic and religious identities or ones who work in the area of

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the subject matter, discussed the major items in the process of Turkeys accession to
Europe, such as nationalism, modernization, and pluralism.
XV The Reconstruction of the Turkish Left
148. Trkiye'de Sosyalizmin Tarihine Katk/Kerim Sadi: Contributions to the History
of Socialism in Turkey, stanbul 1994, letiim Publishing House *****
Kerim Sadi (his real name is Nevzat Cerrahlar), who is the first to research the history of
the Turkish Left, collected his studies in a volume in 1975 and published them under the
name of A. Cerraholu. He passed away before he could publish the second volume. Mete
Tuncay selected contributions, which continue to hold importance from both volumes, and
classified them according to topics and dates. In this way Contributions to the History of
Socialism in Turkey is an enlarged and new edition. The publication of this book
commemorates and pays due respect to Kerim Sadi, who devoted his entire life to defend
socialist values and criticize the mistakes made under the banner of socialism. It also offers
valuables and difficult to find elsewhere sources on the history of the Turkish Left, which is
worth learning about and thinking over.
149. Sosyalizm, Trkiye ve Gelecek, Birikim Yaynlar/Murat Belge: Socialism Turkey
and the Future, stanbul 1989, Birikim Publishers*****

Marx is a thinker, who has explored the eradication of exploitation, domination, hegemony,
and the development of a society where all people are equal and free. Since Marx wrote, the
world experienced major changes. The aim to bring social organization upwards to the
highest level is still valid; however, the methods suggested to accomplish this are not the
same. Standing behind slogans such as the only power that can do this is the proletariat or
the only method to achieve this it is proletariat dictatorship, etc. we believe to be
defending Marxism. In all other cases, we are just defending the second or third level of
Marxism. However, when one takes a look, they will see that that by applying this methods

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society has not reached the outlined level; and it is precisely the method, which has become
the major obstacle. What are we then going to defend? The structure of the communist
society, based on liberty and solidarity, drawn by Marx or the inadequate to the ongoing
historical process organizational structures? By defending which one, we will stay closer to
Marx ? In this book I try to support the idea of a long-term fight of a socialist party that
represents blue and white collar workers, which can not rely only on the proletariat, while it
has an important role to play; whose activities are strongly supported by society, and which
offers to the masses the prospect of enlightenment and realism in the future.
150. Trkiye'de Sol Akmlar 1, BDS Yaynlar /Mete Tunay: Left movements in
Turkey 1 (1908-1925), BDS Publishers*****

In this research, I have tried to trace left thinking through a certain period of Turkish
history. In the preface of the book I have explained what I mean by left and why I have
limited myself to the period between 1908 and 1925. I must state straightforward that I do
not support the view that since the 1960s the left in Turkey has been an important
movement. Yet, limited as they may be in this century, the few contacts the left has had with
the problems of Turkish society, are worth knowing for our outlook to the future.
The aim of this study is to look at Turkish left movements from a political theory point of
view and to make an intellectual riddle. Yet, due to the fact that the selected years have not
been sufficiently clarified, the answers that I found were few. I believe, however, that the
picture, drawn by me would be used as a starting point, criticized and corrected by other
researchers, finally it would become closer to reality. Although the material that I found was
not enough, I did not sacrifice honesty and I was careful enough not to mix policy measures
with the drawn historical portrait. It is, however, normal that the words written by me in the
preface and the comments made at the end reflect my own personal opinion.
151. Trkiye'de Sol Akmlar 2/Mete Tunay: Left Movements in Turkey 2 (19251936), October 1992, stanbul, First Edition, BDS Publishers*****

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(Preface)
Similar to when I last published the previous volume in 1991, which has to do with the
1908-1925 time period before, when I was publishing this second volume I first thought of
publishing the documents and the main part separately. Subsequently, I change my mind
and published the two parts together.
I have tried to produce a simple chronological sequencing of the story of this period, which
is largely linked with the Turkish Communist Party (TCP). The information, which I hoped
to use to further and broaden the story, is repeated in the documents. That is the reason why,
the narrative for each year has to be read in conjunction with the documents pertaining to
this year. Due to the fact that between 1925 and 1936 the Left was banned by the law and
went underground, the collecting of these documents and their proceeding took me more
time than I anticipated. I could not obtain the reports that the opposition clique had to send
to the Comintern. Additionally, my access was hindered by the fact that in 1936 the
Comintern took the separatist decision towards TCP. The existence and contents of these
documents has to be inferred indirectly. Also, most of the documents that I found were
rubbed out copies. It is almost impossible to extract meaning from the duplicates of old
hand written documents.
The major sources related to this volume have to be gathered in the TCP archive and the
Turkish Section of the Old Comintern Library. I could not reach directly either of the two
collections based in Moscow. I however hope that one day I will get permission from the
authorities to work on them. Similar to before 1925 and after 1936, the history of the Left
between 1925 and 1936 can researched in an objective manner only after these sources are
released. I did not add texts extrapolated from books such as International Communist
Documents: Turkey Series of Aydnlk Publishers. I limited myself to referring to them in
the historical narratives. For the time being, that is all I can produce. I would like to thank
everyone who helped me find and read these documents offered in this book.

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