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BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES

IN LEARNING AND TEACHING


"Theories of learning deals with the ways in which an organism learns. Theories of
teaching deals with ways in which a person influences an organism to learn."
I.

The Meaning of Learning


1.

The process by which some aspects of human behavior is acquired or changed


through an individual's encounter with events in the environment (E.P. Bettinghaus).

2.

A change in the state relationship between:


- a stimulus that the organism perceives, and
- a response that the organism makes, either overtly or covertly (Berlo).

II.

Requirements/Ingredients of the Learning Process


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

III.

The existence of a stimulus.


The perception of a stimulus by the organism.
Interpretation of the stimulus.
Trial response to the stimulus.
Perception of the consequences of the trial response.
Re-interpretation of the consequences and the making of further responses.
Development of stable stimulus-response relationship habit.

Principles of Learning
1.

Self-activity or Active-response
an effective way to change the behavior of people is to have them participate
actively in doing what is to be learned

2.

Practice or Repetition
a learning activity experienced many times tends to be remembered longer and to be
recalled easier, "practice makes perfect"

3.

Association
"Experiences that occur together tend to recur together." To bring about change
requires more than that pointing out the advantage of a new variety or techniques but
"breaking the spell" of the old.

4.

Timing
Learning takes place more readily when a fact is taught either at the time or just
before the time when it can be immediately used.

5.

Satisfaction
We tend to remember those things which bring satisfaction and avoid those which
bring annoyance.

6.

Reward
It tends to maintain and strengthen any connection which leads to them.

7.

Motivation
Without drives, an organism does not behave, and hence does not learn. Meaningful
learning is easier than senseless learning by permitting or making the learner see the
end sought by practice and experiment.

8.

Apperception
Learner perceives new in terms of old. Previous learning always sets the stage for
subsequent learning.

9.

Transfer
A person learns through transfer to the extent that the abilities acquired in one
situation help in another. Application of a perceived relationship to another situation
in which it is applicable is the equivalent of transfer or training.

10.

Readiness
When an individual is ready to act, it is painful for him not to act; but when he is not
ready to act, it is equally painful for him to act.

11.

Set
Past experience keeps individual from using objects in different ways. A bad
attitude retards learning, favorable attitude accelerate learning. Post failures are
"sets".

12.

Retention or Use and Disuse


When something learned is used, it is remembered; but when it is not used, it is
forgotten. Do not rely on "one shot treatments". This is related to practice.

13.

Individual Differences
No two individuals are exactly alike, people vary in their ability to benefit from one
teaching method or technique.

14.

Contrast
We tend to remember best those things which sharp contrast to one another.

15.

Recency
The more recent an experience is, the more readily it can be recalled.

IV.

Principles of Teaching
1.

Clarifying objectives of instruction facilitates goal setting by students. When


students understand what you hope to achieve in teaching, they will be in a better
position to set realistic goals for themselves. Realistic goal setting by the students
encourages them to learn.

2.

Motivating students is essential for securing consistent pupil effort. Know the
idiosyncracies for your clientele if possible.

3.

Supplying a model facilitates the responses of the learner, initiative learning.

4.

Proper sequencing of the subject matter enables the students to understand


information initially, think productively about it and use it in new situation. Logical
organizations of the subject matter is therefore essential.

5.

Guiding initial trials is essential in establishing correct responses and avoiding


habitual errors.

6.

Managing practice effectively, not merely repeating the same activity, is essential to
goal attainment in the psychomotor and cognitive domains and to improve
performance in most fields.

7.

Providing for individual differences by making available materials and activities


suited to help individual permits each learner to learn more efficiently.

8.

Evaluating student performance can reinforce desirable learning.

9.

Providing for recall and long term retention through systematic revise of verbal
material and spaced practice of skills is essential.

10.

Helping students apply knowledge and skills in new situations facilitates long term
retention and use.

"Observance of the theories of teaching and theories of learning results in authentic


or permanent learning instead of spurious or temporary learning."