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Ji

fEr

Contents
PREFACE xiii
Part

l:

the Fundamentals of Materials

ATOMICBOND'NG 3

1.1
I.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

Introduction

Ionic Bonds

CovalentBonds

MetallicBonds

VanDerWaalsBonding
1.5.1 Hytlrogen Bonding

L6
1.7
i.8
2

BondingEnergies

Solids

SOLIDS 15

State

The Crystalline

12

THE ARCHITECIUREOF

2J,

Thermal Properties of

BondingForces

15

2.1.1 Metallic Crystak,15


2.1.2 lonic

2.1.3
2.1.4

2.2
23
2.4

Crystals 17

Covalent Crystals,21
Ctystals

Md Unit Celh25

Defects and Alomic Movements in Crystalline Solids 26


2.2.1 Defuts inCrysnls,26
2.2.2 Atomic MovemenlE32
The Amorphous
The Polymeric

State

State

37

39

2.4.1 The Polymeric Moleculq39


2.4.2 Thermoplastic Polymery 4I
2.4.3 Eltutomeric Polymers,45
2.4.4 Thermoietting Palyners, 45

2.4.5

2.5
3

Rtgid Rod Polymers,46

The Composite Structure 47

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCIURE 5A

3.1
3.2

Introduction

50

Solidification 50
3.2.

3.2.2

CryS'tnllization from Melts, 5I


Crystaltization ftom Solution, 54

3.3
3.4

Phase Changes on Heating and

55

Diagrams 55
3.4.1 One-comPonentSYstew55
Phase

j.4.2

Two'comPontent SYstems, 56

3.4.3

Synuns with Partinl lmmiscibility,5S


Three' andfour-component Systems 60

3.4.4

3.5
3.6

Cooling

Sinteriig

60

Microstructure
3.6.1

62'

PorositY'62

3.6.2 Grain Size'62


3.6.3 Composite Microstructures,6j

.4

66

SURFACEPRAPERTIES

4.1
4.2
4.3
4'4
4.5
4.6
43
- 4.8

Surface Energy ald SurfaceTension 66

Interfaces 69

Wetting

AdsorPtion 70
Surfactants 72
CaPillarY

Part

Effects

Adhesion
Colloids

73

75

76

4.8.1 Strucnre of

4.8.2

4.9

69

Colloi'ds,76

StabilitY of Colloids'77

The Double

LaYer

79

ll: Behavior ofMaterials Under Stress

5 RESPONSf
5.1

83

OF MATERIALSIOSIRfSS B5

Tension 86

5.1.1 Elatic

Behaviot,ET

5.1-2 lnekatic Behavior,

5.1.i

88

Definifions of,Stress und Strain'91

Propertia'97
5.1-4 Experinental Determirulion of Tewile

5.2
5,3

ComPression

Bendinc

S'i.l

94

96

{ehavlot in Pure Bending96

5.3.2 Failure in Pure Bending'97


5'3.i TYP* of BmdingTests'g7
5.3.4 Linitatiotu in Bending Tests' 99

5.4

vl

Contents

Torsion

100

5.4-1 Stress and Strain Relationships in Torsio4l00


5'4.2 Failare in Torciou 101

5.4.3

Test

Methotls in Tonion 103

5.4.4 Sourcu of Error in TonionTests,

5.5
5.6

Direct Shear
Multiaxial

5.6.1

5.7

loading

104

107

Scratch Hardness, 107

5.7.2 hdentstion Hardnes* lM


5.7.3 MicrohardnessTestSll2
5.7.4 Vkkers Diamorul Pyrnmid,l12

.
6

103

Transverse Stresses,106

Hardness
5.7.1

103

FAILUREAND FRACTURE IT5

6.1.

Failure

Theories

115

6.1.1 MaximunShear StrusTheory, 116


6.1.2 Maximum Distottional Strain Energy Theory 1)6

6.2

6.1

.3

Comparison of the Failure Theories,

6.1

.4

Mohr's Strength Theory, 1 17

17

Fracture Mechanics 120

6.2.1 GrifithTheory,l22
6.2.2 Straylntensig Factor; 12j
6.2.3 Comprasive Failurql26
6,2.4 Notch

Sensitivity, 126

6.2.5 CrackVelocity,l2T

6.3
6.4
6.5

The Ductile-BrittleTransition

FractureEnergy 130

EffectofRateofloading
6.5.1

127

131

Effect of Loatling Rate on Briale Materiah 131

6.5.2

Sntic Fatigue,lj3

6.5.j

Effect af Loading Rate on Metals,133

RHEOLOGY OF FLUIDS AND

SOT'DS
'38

7.7
7.2
7.3
7.4

7.5

ElasticandViscousBehavior 138
Simple RheologicalModels 140
Rheology of

Fluids

RheologyofVscoelasticsolids

143

7.4.1 Maxwell Model,143


7.4.2 KelvinModel.l44
7.4.3 Prandt Model,I44
7.4.4 Complex Rheological Modelq

144

Creep of Engineering

7.5.1
7.5.2
7.5.3

Materials

146

Creep in Metals, 147

Creep in Polymers nrul Asphalql4g


Creep in Portl^snd Cement Con$ete ondWood,l50

B FATIGUE 152
i 8.1 Introduction
Contents

141

152

vtl

Failure

The Nature ol Fatigue

8.2

153

8.2.1 Crack htitiation, 153


8.2.2 Crack ProPagotion, 154

lnading

8.3

Types of Fatigue

8.4

Behavior under Fatigue

157

Loading

157

Fatigue

160

The Statistical Nature of


6.b

The Statistical Presentation of Fatigue

8.7

FactorsAffectingFatigueLife
8.7.1 Strusing Conditrons, 164

Data

162

163

8.7.2 MateialProPeftiel169

8.7.i

Environmennl Conditions 169

Experimental Methods in

8.8

8.8.1 Falgw
8.8.2 Fatigue

Fatigue

Test

Procedares,

17j

Concretes
Particulate Composites: Portland Cement and Asphali

Part

lll:

PARTICULATE COMPOSITES 179

lntroduction

9.1

9.2

179

of the Mechania of Particulate


Concepts
-Etwtir
Behavior, 181
9.2.1
9.2.2 Faitute in Particulate CompositeslSj

Structure

9.3

ComPosition and

9.4

InterfacialhoPerties

186

9.5

MechanicalBehavior

187

IO

170

Machines 172

Composites

181

186

AGGREGATES 189

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Composition and

10.3

Characteristics 192

189

Structure

190

1 92
0.3. 1 G eometrical P roP ertiu,
10.3.2 PhYsiul ProPeniet 196
To ughness, I 99
1 0.3.3 Strength and

10.3.4 Other ProPefiies, 199

11

PORTLANDCfMTNICONCRETE

11.1 Introduction
11.2

204

204

The Cementitious Phase 205

of P9rlla1d
11'2.1 Conrposition and Hydration
11.2'2 Microstrucntre

Compositions'2|4
11.2.i Portland Cemens of Different
Adntixtures' z t t
1.2'4 Blendett Cemenls and Minerol
11.2.5 Porosity and Pore Strucnue'2l8

Contents

!erynt'206

and Propertizs of Hydration Protlucts,2l|

177

ll.3

PropertiesofConcrete 222
11.j.1 Fruh Concrete, 223
1.3.2 Befuiuior duing Setting 227
I L3.3 Chemical AdmLrnres, 228
I 1.j.4 Propertia of Hartlened Concrete, 231
1

7L.4

Durability of Corcrete
I 1.4.1 Permeability

24'1.

mtl Diffruivily' 241

11.4.2 Composition of Pore Solutions,24j


I 1.4.3 Chemical Attack, 243
I 1.4.

11.5

4 Phy sical Attach 245

Conosion of Steel in Conc


I 1.5. 1 Conosion Mechaniim,

,"t,

24g

249

11.5.2 Corrosion Protection, 250

lL.6
12

Concrete Mix

Design

252

ASPHALT CEMENTS AND ASPHALT CONCRETE 256

LL.L Introduction

I22

256

Asphalt Cements 257


1

2.2.

1 Int o duction,

257.

12.2.2 Composition and Strucnre, 258


12.2.3 Properties;261

12.2.4 Grailing of Asphalt Cements, 267

12.3 LiquidAtphalts

268

12.4

Binder-Aggregate

Bonding

72.5

Asphalt Concrete Mixtures 270

269

2.5.
I ntro duction, 270
12.5.2 Composition and Stracture, 271

12.5.i ResponsetoAppliedLoads'272
12.5.4 Raponse to Moisnre,275
12.5.5 Response

Temperaare, 276

12.5.6 Response to Chenicals2TT


12.5.7

Atlditivu

and Fiuers,277

12.5.8 Mix Design Methods,279

Part

tV

13

STEEL 283

Steel, Wood, Polymers, and Composites 281

l3.L

Introduction

13.2

CompositionandStructure 284

283

13.2.1 Composition, 284


I 3.2.2 Micr o suucure, 284

I3.3

Strengthening Mechanisms 289


13.3.1 Ailoying,299

l\ork (Strdn) Hardming,290


3 H eat Treatment" 291

13.3.2
1 3. 3.

13.4

MechanicalProperties 295
1 3.4.

Contents

Stress- S train B ehuviot 296

tx

13.4.2 Fracture Energy (Toughnus ), 296

13.4.i We&ability,299

13.5

Corosion and Conosion Protection 300


I 3.5.1 Conosion Mechani.sm 304

1j.5.2 Forns of Conosion,3|l

li.5.3 Conosion

13.6
14

Control, 302

Classification and Properties of Structural Steels 303

WOODANDTIMBER 309

1,4.I Introduction
14.2

309

The Structure of

Wood

310

14.2.1 Macro*ructure of Wood,

31

4.2.2 M icr ostrrcture. of Woo d, j 1 2


14.2.3 Molecular Structure of Wood,314
1

14.2.4 CellWoll Sttuctue inWood 317

14.3

The Engineering Properties of

Wood

318

14.3.1 Orthotropic Nawre af Wood,318


14.j.2 Effects of Relative Density,3l8
14.3.3 Effects of Moisture Content,3l9
14.3.4 Mechanical Propertizs of Wood,322

14.4

Defects and Other Nonuniformities in Wood. 328

145

Effects of Flaws on Mechanicat Properties of

14.6 Grading

Timber

332

14,6.1 WualGradingj32
14.6.2 Meclnnical Grading, 332
14.6.3 Description of Visual Stras Grades' 332

74.7

Design Properties 334

14.8

Wood-based ComPosites 337


14.8.1 Plywood"3iT
14.8.2 Gluetl-laminated Timber 339
4.8.i Manufactured Wood Protfucts, 339

14.9 DurabilitY

341

14.9'1 Fire,341
14.9.2 DecaY'342

14.9.3 Termites,343
I 4.9. 4 ltlurine B o rets, 3 44
14.9.5 Presemative Treatments, 344

15

POLYMERSAND PLASTICS 346

15,1 Intrsduction 346


15.2 Classification and Properties

.
'

Fillers

346

15.3

Additives and

15.4

Properties for Civil EngineeringApplications 353

353

5.4.1 M echaniul Performance, 5 4


j54
15.4.2 Thermal anil Fire Performance'
15.4.3 Weathering and Durability, 355

15.4.4 Atlhesion,356

Contents

329

16

EIBER.REINFORCEDCOMPOS'IES

L6.L Introduction
L6.2

359

359

Mechanics of Eber-reinforced Composites 363


16.2.1 OveraII Mcchdniul Behavior, 363
16.2.2 Bonding367
16,2.3 Influmce of Bowling on Composite Behavior,
16.2.4 Effect of Fiber Oientation,369

16.3

Fibers aad

Matrices

i69

371

SOIUI'ONS TO NUMERICALPRABLEMS 374


TNDEX 377

Contents

XI