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Apollo11
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Apollo11wasthefirstspaceflightthatlandedhumans
ontheMoon.MissioncommanderNeilArmstrong
andpilotBuzzAldrinlandedthelunarmoduleEagle
onJuly20,1969,at20:18UTC.Armstrongbecame
thefirsttostepontothelunarsurfacesixhourslater
onJuly21at02:56:15UTCAldrinjoinedhimabout
20minuteslater.Theyspentabouttwoandaquarter
hourstogetheroutsidethespacecraft,andcollected
47.5pounds(21.5kg)oflunarmaterialforreturnto
Earth.MichaelCollinspilotedthecommandmodule
Columbiaaloneinlunarorbitwhiletheywereonthe
Moon'ssurface.ArmstrongandAldrinspentjust
underadayonthelunarsurfacebeforerendezvousing
withColumbiainlunarorbit.
LaunchedbyaSaturnVrocketfromKennedySpace
CenterinMerrittIsland,Florida,onJuly16,Apollo
11wasthefifthmannedmissionofNASA'sApollo
program.TheApollospacecrafthadthreeparts:a
commandmodule(CM)withacabinforthethree
astronauts,andtheonlypartthatlandedbackon
Earthaservicemodule(SM),whichsupportedthe
commandmodulewithpropulsion,electricalpower,
oxygen,andwaterandalunarmodule(LM)thathad
twostagesalowerstageforlandingontheMoon,
andanupperstagetoplacetheastronautsbackinto
lunarorbit.AfterbeingsenttowardtheMoonbythe
SaturnV'supperstage,theastronautsseparatedthe
spacecraftfromitandtraveledforthreedaysuntil
theyenteredintolunarorbit.ArmstrongandAldrin
thenmovedintothelunarmoduleEagleandlandedin
theSeaofTranquility.Theystayedatotalofabout
21.5hoursonthelunarsurface.Theastronautsused
Eagle'supperstagetoliftofffromthelunarsurface
andrejoinCollinsinthecommandmodule.They
jettisonedEaglebeforetheyperformedthemaneuvers
thatblastedthemoutoflunarorbitonatrajectory
backtoEarth.TheyreturnedtoEarthandlandedin
thePacificOceanonJuly24.
BroadcastonliveTVtoaworldwideaudience,
Armstrongsteppedontothelunarsurfaceand
describedtheeventas"onesmallstepfor[a]man,one
giantleapformankind."Apollo11effectivelyended
theSpaceRaceandfulfilledanationalgoalproposed
in1961byU.S.PresidentJohnF.Kennedy:"before
thisdecadeisout,oflandingamanontheMoonand
returninghimsafelytotheEarth."[7]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11#Lunar_surface_operations

Apollo11

NeilArmstrongdescendsaladdertobecomethefirst
humantostepontothesurfaceoftheMoon
Missiontype

Mannedlunarlanding

Operator

NASA[1]

COSPARID

CSM:1969059A
LM:1969059C

SATCAT

CSM:4039
LM:4041

Missionduration

8days,3hours,18minutes,
35seconds
Spacecraftproperties

Spacecraft

ApolloCSM107
ApolloLM5

Manufacturer

CSM:NorthAmericanRockwell
LM:Grumman

Launchmass

100,756pounds(45,702kg)

Landingmass

10,873pounds(4,932kg)
Crew

Crewsize

Members

NeilA.Armstrong
MichaelCollins
EdwinE."Buzz"Aldrin,Jr.

Callsign

CSM:Columbia
LM:Eagle
Onsurface:TranquilityBase
Startofmission

Launchdate

July16,1969,13:32:00UTC
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Contents
1 Framework
1.1 Crew
1.2 Backupcrew
1.3 Supportcrew
1.4 Flightdirectors
1.5 Callsigns
1.6 Insignia
1.7 Mementos
2 Missionhighlights
2.1 Launchandflighttolunarorbit
2.2 Lunardescent
2.3 Landing
2.4 Lunarsurfaceoperations
2.5 Lunarascentandreturn
2.6 Splashdownandquarantine
2.7 Celebration
3 Moonrace
4 Spacecraftlocation
5 40thanniversaryevents
6 Gallery
7 Seealso
8 Notes
9 References
10 Furtherreading
11 Externallinks

Rocket

SaturnVSA506

Launchsite

KennedyLC39A
Endofmission

Recoveredby

USSHornet

Landingdate

July24,1969,16:50:35UTC[2]

Landingsite

NorthPacificOcean
1319N1699W[2]
Orbitalparameters

Referencesystem

Selenocentric

Periselene

100.9kilometers(54.5nmi)[3]

Aposelene

122.4kilometers(66.1nmi)[3]

Inclination

1.25degrees[3]

Period

2hours[3]

Epoch

July19,1969,21:44UTC[3]
Lunarorbiter

Spacecraft
component

Command/ServiceModule

Orbitalinsertion

July19,1969,17:21:50UTC[4]

Departedorbit

July22,1969,04:55:42UTC[4]

Orbits

30

Framework

Lunarlander

Crew
Position

Astronaut

Commander

NeilA.Armstrong
Secondspaceflight

CommandModule
Pilot

MichaelCollins
Secondspaceflight

LunarModulePilot

Edwin"Buzz"E.Aldrin,Jr.
Secondspaceflight

Apollo11wasthesecondallveteranmultiperson
crew(thefirstbeingApollo10)inhumanspaceflight
history.[8]Aprevioussoloveteranflighthadbeen
madeonSoyuz1in1967bySovietcosmonaut
VladimirKomarov.[9]
CollinswasoriginallyslatedtobetheCommand
ModulePilot(CMP)onApollo8butwasremoved
whenherequiredsurgeryonhisbackandwas
replacedbyJimLovell,hisbackupforthatflight.
AfterCollinswasmedicallycleared,hetookwhat
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11#Lunar_surface_operations

Spacecraft
component

LunarModule

Landingdate

July20,1969,20:18:04UTC[5]

Returnlaunch

July21,1969,17:54UTC

Landingsite

MareTranquillitatis
0.67408N23.47297E[6]

Samplemass

21.55kilograms(47.51lb)

SurfaceEVAs

EVAduration

2hours,31minutes40seconds
DockingwithLM

Dockingdate

July16,1969,16:56:03UTC[4]

Undockingdate

July20,1969,17:44:00UTC[4]

DockingwithLMAscentStage
Dockingdate

July21,1969,21:35:00UTC[4]

Undockingdate

July21,1969,23:41:31UTC[4]

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wouldhavebeenLovell'sspotonApollo11asa
veteranofApollo8,LovellwastransferredtoApollo
11'sbackupcrewandpromotedtobackupcommander.

Backupcrew
Position

Astronaut

Commander

JamesA.Lovell,Jr.

CommandModule
Pilot

WilliamA.Anders

LunarModulePilot

FredW.Haise,Jr.

Inearly1969,AndersacceptedajobwiththeNational
SpaceCouncileffectiveAugust1969andannounced
thathewouldretireasanastronautonthatdate.At
thatpointKenMattinglywasmovedfromthesupport
crewintoparalleltrainingwithAndersasbackup
CommandModulePilotincaseApollo11was
delayedpastitsintendedJulylaunch(atwhichpoint
Anderswouldbeunavailableifneeded)andwould
laterjoinLovell'screwandultimatelybeassignedas
theoriginalApollo13CMP.[10]

Lefttoright:Armstrong,Collins,Aldrin

Apolloprogram
Apollo10

Apollo12

Supportcrew
CharlieDuke,CapsuleCommunicator(CAPCOM)
RonaldEvans(CAPCOM)
OwenK.Garriott(CAPCOM)
DonL.Lind(CAPCOM)
KenMattingly(CAPCOM)
BruceMcCandlessII(CAPCOM)
HarrisonSchmitt(CAPCOM)
BillPogue
JackSwigert

Flightdirectors
CliffCharlesworth(GreenTeam),launchandEVA
GeneKranz(WhiteTeam),lunarlanding
GlynnLunney(BlackTeam),lunarascent

Callsigns
AfterthecrewofApollo10namedtheirspacecraftCharlieBrownandSnoopy,assistantmanagerforpublic
affairsJulianScheerwrotetoMannedSpacecraftCenterdirectorGeorgeM.LowtosuggesttheApollo11crew
belessflippantinnamingtheircraft.Duringearlymissionplanning,thenamesSnowconeandHaystackwere
usedandputinthenewsrelease,[11]butthecrewlaterdecidedtochangethem.
TheCommandModulewasnamedColumbiaaftertheColumbiad,thegiantcannonshell"spacecraft"firedby
agiantcannon(alsofromFlorida)inJulesVerne's1865novelFromtheEarthtotheMoon.[12]TheLunar
ModulewasnamedEagleforthenationalbirdoftheUnitedStates,thebaldeagle,whichisfeatured
prominentlyonthemissioninsignia.
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Insignia
TheApollo11missioninsigniawasdesignedbyCollins,whowanteda
symbolfor"peacefullunarlandingbytheUnitedStates".Hechosean
eagleasthesymbol,putanolivebranchinitsbeak,anddrewalunar
backgroundwiththeEarthinthedistance.NASAofficialssaidthe
talonsoftheeaglelookedtoo"warlike"andaftersomediscussion,the
olivebranchwasmovedtotheclaws.ThecrewdecidedtheRoman
numeralXIwouldnotbeunderstoodinsomenationsandwentwith
"Apollo11"theydecidednottoputtheirnamesonthepatch,soit
would"berepresentativeofeveryonewhohadworkedtowardalunar
landing".[13]Allcolorsarenatural,withblueandgoldbordersaround
thepatch.
WhentheEisenhowerdollarcoinwasreleasedin1971,thepatchdesign
providedtheeagleforitsreverseside.[14]Thedesignwasalsousedfor
thesmallerSusanB.Anthonydollarunveiledin1979,tenyearsafter
theApollo11mission.[15]

Apollo11Command/ServiceModule
Columbiainlunarorbit,
photographedfromtheLunarModule
Eagle

Mementos
NeilArmstrong'spersonalpreferencekitcarriedapieceofwoodfrom
theWrightbrothers'1903airplane'sleftpropellerandapieceoffabric
fromitswing,[16]alongwithadiamondstuddedastronautpinoriginally
Apollo11spaceflownsilverRobbins
giventoDekeSlaytonbythewidowsoftheApollo1crew.Thispinhad
medallion
beenintendedtobeflownonApollo1andgiventoSlaytonafterthe
missionbutfollowingthedisastrouslaunchpadfireandsubsequent
funerals,thewidowsgavethepintoSlaytonandArmstrongtookitonApollo11.[17]

Missionhighlights
Launchandflighttolunarorbit
Inadditiontomany
peoplecrowding
highwaysand
beachesnearthe
launchsite,millions
watchedtheeventon
television,with
NASAChiefof
PublicInformation
SaturnVcarrying
JackKingproviding
Apollo11risespast
commentary.
thelaunchtower
PresidentRichardM.
camera
Nixonviewedthe
proceedingsfromthe
OvalOfficeoftheWhiteHouse.

Tapingat500fpsoftheengineignitionat
EarthseenfromApollo
11justafterleavingEarth launch
orbit(translunar
injection)

ASaturnVlaunchedApollo11fromLaunchPad39A,partoftheLaunchComplex39siteattheKennedy
SpaceCenteronJuly16,1969at13:32:00UTC(9:32:00a.m.EDTlocaltime).ItenteredEarthorbit,atan
altitudeof100.4nauticalmiles(185.9km)by98.9nauticalmiles(183.2km),twelveminuteslater.[1]Afterone
andahalforbits,theSIVBthirdstageenginepushedthespacecraftontoitstrajectorytowardtheMoonwith
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thetranslunarinjection(TLI)burnat16:22:13UTC.About30minuteslaterthecommand/servicemodulepair
separatedfromthislastremainingSaturnVstageanddockedwiththeLunarModulestillnestledintheLunar
ModuleAdaptor.AftertheLunarModulewasextracted,thecombinedspacecraftheadedfortheMoon,while
thethirdstageboosterflewonatrajectorypasttheMoonandintoorbitaroundtheSun.[4]
OnJuly19at17:21:50UTC,Apollo11passedbehindtheMoonandfireditsservicepropulsionenginetoenter
lunarorbit.Inthethirtyorbits[18]thatfollowed,thecrewsawpassingviewsoftheirlandingsiteinthesouthern
SeaofTranquility(MareTranquillitatis)about12miles(19km)southwestofthecraterSabineD(0.67408N,
23.47297E).Thelandingsitewasselectedinpartbecauseithadbeencharacterizedasrelativelyflatand
smoothbytheautomatedRanger8andSurveyor5landersalongwiththeLunarOrbitermappingspacecraft
andunlikelytopresentmajorlandingorextravehicularactivity(EVA)challenges.[19]

Lunardescent
OnJuly20,1969,theLunarModuleEagleseparatedfromthe
CommandModuleColumbia.Collins,aloneaboardColumbia,
inspectedEagleasitpirouettedbeforehimtoensurethecraftwasnot
damaged.
Asthedescentbegan,ArmstrongandAldrinfoundthattheywere
passinglandmarksonthesurfacefoursecondsearlyandreportedthat
theywere"long"theywouldlandmileswestoftheirtargetpoint.
Fiveminutesintothedescentburn,and6,000feet(1,800m)abovethe
surfaceoftheMoon,theLMnavigationandguidancecomputer
distractedthecrewwiththefirstofseveralunexpected"1202"and
"1201"programalarms.InsideMissionControlCenterinHouston,
Texas,computerengineerJackGarmantoldguidanceofficerSteve
Balesitwassafetocontinuethedescent,andthiswasrelayedtothe
crew.Theprogramalarmsindicated"executiveoverflows",meaningthe
guidancecomputercouldnotcompleteallofitstasksinrealtimeand
hadtopostponesomeofthem.[20]
Duetoanerrorinthechecklistmanual,therendezvous
radarswitchwasplacedinthewrongposition.Thiscaused
ittosenderroneoussignalstothecomputer.Theresultwas
thatthecomputerwasbeingaskedtoperformallofits
normalfunctionsforlandingwhilereceivinganextraload
ofspuriousdatawhichusedup15%ofitstime.The
computer(orratherthesoftwareinit)wassmartenoughto
recognizethatitwasbeingaskedtoperformmoretasks
thanitshouldbeperforming.Itthensentoutanalarm,
whichmeanttotheastronaut,I'moverloadedwithmore
tasksthanIshouldbedoingatthistimeandI'mgoingto
keeponlythemoreimportanttasksi.e.,theonesneededfor
landing...Actually,thecomputerwasprogrammedtodo
morethanrecognizeerrorconditions.Acompletesetof
recoveryprogramswasincorporatedintothesoftware.The
software'saction,inthiscase,wastoeliminatelower
prioritytasksandreestablishthemoreimportantones...If
thecomputerhadn'trecognizedthisproblemandtaken
recoveryaction,IdoubtifApollo11wouldhavebeenthe
successfulmoonlandingitwas.[21][a]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11#Lunar_surface_operations

TheEagleinlunarorbitafter
separatingfromColumbia

CAPCOMCharlesDuke,withbackup
pilotsJamesLovellandFredHaise
listeninginduringApollo11's
descent

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LetterfromMargaretH.Hamilton,Directorof
ApolloFlightComputerProgrammingMITDraper
Laboratory,Cambridge,Massachusetts[25],titled
"ComputerGotLoaded",publishedinDatamation,
March1,1971

Landing
WhenArmstrongagainlookedoutside,hesawthatthecomputer's
landingtargetwasinaboulderstrewnareajustnorthandeastofa300
meter(980ft)diametercrater(laterdeterminedtobeWestcrater,named
foritslocationinthewesternpartoftheoriginallyplannedlanding
ellipse).Armstrongtooksemiautomaticcontrol[26]and,withAldrin
callingoutaltitudeandvelocitydata,landedat20:17:40UTCon
SundayJuly20withabout25secondsoffuelleft.[5]
Apollo11landedwithlessfuelthanothermissions,andtheastronauts
encounteredaprematurelowfuelwarning.Thiswaslaterfoundtobe
theresultofgreaterpropellant'slosh'thanexpected,uncoveringafuel
sensor.Onsubsequentmissions,extraantisloshbaffleswereaddedto
thetankstopreventthis.[5]

LandingontheMoon,July20,1969

Throughoutthedescent,Aldrinhadcalledoutnavigationdatato
Armstrong,whowasbusypilotingtheLM.Afewmomentsbeforethe
landing,alightinformedAldrinthatatleastoneofthe67inch(170cm)
probeshangingfromEagle'sfootpadshadtouchedthesurface,andhe
said:"Contactlight!"Threesecondslater,EaglelandedandArmstrong
said"Shutdown."Aldrinimmediatelysaid"Okay,enginestop.ACA
outofdetent."Armstrongacknowledged"Outofdetent.Auto"and
Aldrincontinued"Modecontrolbothauto.Descentenginecommand
overrideoff.Enginearmoff.413isin."
CharlesDuke,CAPCOMduringthelandingphase,acknowledgedtheir
landingbysaying"Wecopyyoudown,Eagle."
ArmstrongacknowledgedAldrin'scompletionofthepostlanding
checklistwith"Enginearmisoff",beforerespondingtoDukewiththe
words,"Houston,TranquilityBasehere.TheEaglehaslanded."
Armstrong'sunrehearsed[27]changeofcallsignfrom"Eagle"to
"TranquilityBase"emphasizedtolistenersthatlandingwascomplete
andsuccessful.Dukemispronouncedhisreplyasheexpressedtherelief
atMissionControl:"Roger,TwanTranquility,wecopyyouonthe
ground.Yougotabunchofguysabouttoturnblue.We'rebreathing
again.Thanksalot."[5][28]
Twoandahalfhoursafterlanding,beforepreparationsbeganforthe
EVA,AldrinradioedtoEarth:

LandingsiteofApollo11atSeaof
Tranquility

TheApollo11landingsitevisualized
inthreedimensionsusing
photographyandastereodigital
elevationmodelfromtheLRO
camera.

ThisistheLMpilot.I'dliketotakethisopportunitytoaskeverypersonlisteningin,whoeverand
wherevertheymaybe,topauseforamomentandcontemplatetheeventsofthepastfewhoursand
togivethanksinhisorherownway.[29]
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Hethentookcommunionprivately.AtthistimeNASAwasstillfightingalawsuitbroughtbyatheistMadalyn
MurrayO'Hair(whohadobjectedtotheApollo8crewreadingfromtheBookofGenesis)demandingthattheir
astronautsrefrainfrombroadcastingreligiousactivitieswhileinspace.Assuch,Aldrinchosetorefrainfrom
directlymentioningtakingcommunionontheMoon.AldrinwasanelderattheWebsterPresbyterianChurch,
andhiscommunionkitwaspreparedbythepastorofthechurch,theRev.DeanWoodruff.Aldrindescribed
communionontheMoonandtheinvolvementofhischurchandpastorintheOctober1970editionof
GuidepostsmagazineandinhisbookReturntoEarth.WebsterPresbyterianpossessesthechaliceusedonthe
MoonandcommemoratestheeventeachyearontheSundayclosesttoJuly20.[30]
Thescheduleforthemissioncalledfortheastronautstofollowthelandingwithafivehoursleepperiodasthey
hadbeenawakesinceearlymorning.However,theyelectedtoforgothesleepperiodandbeginthepreparations
fortheEVAearly,thinkingthattheywouldbeunabletosleep.

Lunarsurfaceoperations
TheastronautsplannedplacementoftheEarlyApolloScientific
ExperimentPackage(EASEP)[31]andtheU.S.flagbystudyingtheir
landingsitethroughEagle'stwintriangularwindows,whichgavethem
a60fieldofview.Preparationrequiredlongerthanthetwohours
scheduled.Armstronginitiallyhadsomedifficultiessqueezingthrough
thehatchwithhisPortableLifeSupportSystem(PLSS).Accordingto
veteranMoonwalkerJohnYoung,aredesignoftheLMtoincorporatea
smallerhatchhadnotbeenfollowedbyaredesignofthePLSS
backpack,sosomeofthehighestheartratesrecordedfromApollo
astronautsoccurredduringLMegressandingress.[32][33]
SeveralbooksindicateearlymissiontimelineshadBuzzAldrinrather
thanNeilArmstrongasthefirstmanontheMoon.[34]

AmountedslowscanTVcamera
showsArmstrongasheclimbsdown
theladdertosurface

At02:39UTConMondayJuly21,1969,Armstrongopenedthehatch,
andat02:51UTCbeganhisdescenttothelunarsurface.TheRemote
ControlUnitcontrolsonhischestkepthimfromseeinghisfeet.
Climbingdowntheninerungladder,ArmstrongpulledaDringto
deploytheModularEquipmentStowageAssembly(MESA)folded
againstEagle'ssideandactivatetheTVcamera,andat02:56:15UTC
hesethisleftfootonthesurface.[35][36]Thefirstlandingusedslowscan
televisionincompatiblewithcommercialTV,soitwasdisplayedona
specialmonitorandaconventionalTVcameraviewedthismonitor,
significantlyreducingthequalityofthepicture.[37]Thesignalwas
ArmstrongneartheLM.Most
receivedatGoldstoneintheUnitedStatesbutwithbetterfidelityby
photographstakenduringthesurface
HoneysuckleCreekTrackingStationinAustralia.Minuteslaterthefeed
operationswerebyArmstronganddo
wasswitchedtothemoresensitiveParkesradiotelescopein
notincludehimintheframe
Australia.[38]Despitesometechnicalandweatherdifficulties,ghostly
blackandwhiteimagesofthefirstlunarEVAwerereceivedand
broadcasttoatleast600millionpeopleonEarth.[39]Althoughcopiesofthisvideoinbroadcastformatwere
savedandarewidelyavailable,recordingsoftheoriginalslowscansourcetransmissionfromthelunarsurface
wereaccidentallydestroyedduringroutinemagnetictapereuseatNASA.
Whilestillontheladder,ArmstronguncoveredaplaquemountedontheLMDescentStagebearingtwo
drawingsofEarth(oftheWesternandEasternHemispheres),aninscription,andsignaturesoftheastronauts
andPresidentNixon.Theinscriptionread:

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Theplaqueleftontheladderof
Eagle

HeremenfromtheplanetEarthfirstsetfootupontheMoon,July1969A.D.Wecameinpeacefor
allmankind.
Afterdescribingthesurfacedustas"veryfinegrained"and"almostlikeapowder,"[36]sixandahalfhoursafter
landing,[1]ArmstrongsteppedoffEagle'sfootpadanddeclared,"That'sonesmallstepfor[a]man,onegiant
leapformankind."[b][40][41][42][43]
Armstrongintendedtosay"That'sonesmallstepforaman",buttheword"a"isnotaudibleinthe
transmission,andthuswasnotinitiallyreportedbymostobserversofthelivebroadcast.Whenlaterasked
abouthisquote,Armstrongsaidhebelievedhesaid"foraman",andsubsequentprintedversionsofthequote
includedthe"a"insquarebrackets.Oneexplanationfortheabsencemaybethathisaccentcausedhimtoslur
thewords"fora"togetheranotheristheintermittentnatureoftheaudioandvideolinkstoEarth,partly
becauseofstormsnearParkesObservatory.Morerecentdigitalanalysisofthetapeclaimstorevealthe"a"
mayhavebeenspokenbutobscuredbystatic.[44][45]
That'sonesmallstep...
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AboutsevenminutesaftersteppingontotheMoon'ssurface,Armstrongcollectedacontingencysoilsample
usingasamplebagonastick.Hethenfoldedthebagandtuckeditintoapocketonhisrightthigh.Thiswasto
guaranteetherewouldbesomelunarsoilbroughtbackincaseanemergencyrequiredtheastronautstoabandon
theEVAandreturntotheLM.[46]
Twelveminutesafterthecontingencysamplewascollected,[1]AldrinjoinedArmstrongonthesurface,and
describedtheviewwiththesimplephrase,"Magnificentdesolation."[36]
InadditiontofulfillingPresidentKennedy'smandatetolandamanontheMoonbeforetheendofthe
1960s,[47]Apollo11wasanengineeringtestoftheApollosystemtherefore,Armstrongsnappedphotosofthe
LMsoengineerswouldbeabletojudgeitspostlandingcondition.HeremovedtheTVcamerafromtheMESA
andmadeapanoramicsweep,thenmounteditonatripod68feet(21m)fromtheLM.TheTVcameracable
remainedpartlycoiledandpresentedatrippinghazardthroughouttheEVA.

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Armstrongsaidthatmovinginthelunargravity,onesixthofEarth's,
was"evenperhapseasierthanthesimulations...It'sabsolutelyno
troubletowalkaround."[36]Aldrinjoinedhimonthesurfaceandtested
methodsformovingaround,includingtwofootedkangaroohops.The
PLSSbackpackcreatedatendencytotipbackwards,butneither
astronauthadseriousproblemsmaintainingbalance.Lopingbecamethe
preferredmethodofmovement.Theastronautsreportedthatthey
neededtoplantheirmovementssixorsevenstepsahead.Thefinesoil
wasquiteslippery.Aldrinremarkedthatmovingfromsunlightinto
Eagle'sshadowproducednotemperaturechangeinsidethesuit,though
thehelmetwaswarmerinsunlight,sohefeltcoolerinshadow.[36]
TheastronautsplantedaspeciallydesignedU.S.flagonthelunar
AldrinposesontheMoon,allowing
surface,inclearviewoftheTVcamera.Sometimelater,President
Armstrongtophotographbothof
RichardNixonspoketothemthroughatelephoneradiotransmission
themusingthevisor'sreflection
whichNixoncalled"themosthistoricphonecallevermadefromthe
WhiteHouse."[48]Nixonoriginallyhadalongspeechpreparedtoread
duringthephonecall,butFrankBorman,whowasattheWhiteHouseasaNASAliaisonduringApollo11,
convincedNixontokeephiswordsbrief,torespectthelunarlandingasKennedy'slegacy.[49]Armstrong
thankedthePresident,andgaveabriefreflectiononthesignificanceofthemoment:

PresidentNixonspeakstoArmstrong
andAldrinontheMoon

Nixon:Hello,NeilandBuzz.I'mtalkingtoyoubytelephonefromthe
OvalRoomattheWhiteHouse.Andthiscertainlyhastobethemost
historictelephonecallevermade.Ijustcan'ttellyouhowproudweall
areofwhatyou'vedone.ForeveryAmerican,thishastobetheproudest
dayofourlives.Andforpeopleallovertheworld,Iamsuretheytoo
joinwithAmericansinrecognizingwhatanimmensefeatthisis.
Becauseofwhatyouhavedone,theheavenshavebecomeapartof
man'sworld.AndasyoutalktousfromtheSeaofTranquility,it
inspiresustoredoubleoureffortstobringpeaceandtranquilityto
Earth.Foronepricelessmomentinthewholehistoryofman,allthe
peopleonthisEartharetrulyone:oneintheirprideinwhatyouhave
done,andoneinourprayersthatyouwillreturnsafelytoEarth.

Armstrong:Thankyou,Mr.President.It'sagreathonorandprivilege
forustobehere,representingnotonlytheUnitedStates,butmenofpeaceofallnations,andwithinterestand
curiosity,andmenwithavisionforthefuture.It'sanhonorforustobeabletoparticipateheretoday.
TheMESAfailedtoprovideastableworkplatformandwasinshadow,
slowingworksomewhat.Astheyworked,themoonwalkerskickedup
graydustwhichsoiledtheouterpartoftheirsuits,theintegrated
thermalmeteoroidgarment.
TheydeployedtheEASEP,whichincludedapassiveseismographanda
LunarRangingRetroreflector(LRRR).ThenArmstrongwalked196
feet(60m)fromtheLMtosnapphotosattherimofLittleWestCrater
whileAldrincollectedtwocoretubes.Heusedthegeologicalhammer
topoundinthetubestheonlytimethehammerwasusedonApollo
11.Theastronautsthencollectedrocksamplesusingscoopsandtongs
onextensionhandles.Manyofthesurfaceactivitiestooklongerthan
expected,sotheyhadtostopdocumentingsamplecollectionhalfway
throughtheallotted34minutes.

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Aldrinbootprintpartofan
experimenttotestthepropertiesof
thelunarregolith
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Threenewmineralswerediscoveredintherocksamplescollectedby
theastronauts:armalcolite,tranquillityite,andpyroxferroite.
ArmalcolitewasnamedafterArmstrong,Aldrin,andCollins.
Duringthisperiod,MissionControlusedacodedphrasetowarn
Armstrongthathismetabolicrateswerehighandthatheshouldslow
down.Hewasmovingrapidlyfromtasktotaskastimeranout.
However,asmetabolicratesremainedgenerallylowerthanexpectedfor
bothastronautsthroughoutthewalk,MissionControlgrantedthe
astronautsa15minuteextension.[50]Ina2010interview,Armstrong,
whohadwalkedamaximumof196feet(60m)fromtheLM,explained
thatNASAlimitedthefirstmoonwalk'stimeanddistancebecausethere
wasnoempiricalproofofhowmuchcoolingwatertheastronauts'PLSS
backpackswouldconsumetohandletheirbodyheatgenerationwhile
workingontheMoon.[51]

Mapshowinglandingsiteandphotos
taken

Lunarascentandreturn
AldrinenteredEaglefirst.Withsomedifficultytheastronautsliftedfilm
andtwosampleboxescontaining21.55kilograms(47.5lb)oflunar
surfacematerialtotheLMhatchusingaflatcablepulleydevicecalled
theLunarEquipmentConveyor.ArmstrongremindedAldrinofabagof
memorialitemsinhissuitpocketsleeve,andAldrintossedthebag
downArmstrongthenjumpedtotheladder'sthirdrungandclimbed
intotheLM.AftertransferringtoLMlifesupport,theexplorers
lightenedtheascentstageforreturntolunarorbitbytossingouttheir
PLSSbackpacks,lunarovershoes,oneHasselbladcamera,andother
equipment.TheythenpressurizedtheLMandsettleddowntosleep.[52]
PresidentNixon'sspeechwriterWilliamSafirehadpreparedInEventof
MoonDisasterforthePresidenttoreadontelevisionintheeventthe
AldrinnexttothePassiveSeismic
Apollo11astronautswerestrandedontheMoon.[53]Thecontingency
ExperimentPackagewithEaglein
planoriginatedinamemofromSafiretoNixon'sWhiteHouseChiefof
thebackground
StaffH.R.Haldeman,inwhichSafiresuggestedaprotocolthe
administrationmightfollowinreactiontosuchadisaster.[54][55]
Wikisourcehasoriginal
Accordingtotheplan,MissionControlwould"closedown
textrelatedtothisarticle:
communications"withtheLM,andaclergymanwould"commendtheir
InEventofMoon
soulstothedeepestofthedeep"inapublicrituallikenedtoburialat
Disaster
sea.ThelastlineofthepreparedtextcontainedanallusiontoRupert
Brooke'sFirstWorldWarpoem,"TheSoldier".[55]Theplanincludedpresidentialtelephonecallstothe
astronauts'wives.
Whilemovingwithinthecabin,Aldrinaccidentallydamagedthecircuitbreakerthatwouldarmthemain
engineforliftofffromtheMoon.Therewasconcernthiswouldpreventfiringtheengine,strandingthemon
theMoon.Fortunately,afelttippenwassufficienttoactivatetheswitch.[52]Hadthisnotworked,theLunar
Modulecircuitrycouldhavebeenreconfiguredtoallowfiringtheascentengine.[56]
Afteraboutsevenhoursofrest,thecrewwasawakenedbyHoustontoprepareforthereturnflight.Twoanda
halfhourslater,at17:54UTC,theyliftedoffinEagle'sascentstagetorejoinCollinsaboardColumbiainlunar
orbit.

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Aftermorethan21totalhoursonthelunarsurface,theyhadleftbehindscientificinstrumentsthatincludeda
retroreflectorarrayusedfortheLunarLaserRangingExperimentandaPassiveSeismicExperimentPackage
usedtomeasuremoonquakes.TheyalsoleftanApollo1missionpatch,andamemorialbagcontainingagold
replicaofanolivebranchasatraditionalsymbolofpeaceandasiliconmessagedisk.Thediskcarriesthe
goodwillstatementsbyPresidentsEisenhower,Kennedy,Johnson,andNixonandmessagesfromleadersof73
countriesaroundtheworld.ThediscalsocarriesalistingoftheleadershipoftheUSCongress,alistingof
membersofthefourcommitteesoftheHouseandSenateresponsiblefortheNASAlegislation,andthenames
ofNASA'spastandpresenttopmanagement.[57](Inhis1989book,MenfromEarth,Aldrinsaysthattheitems
includedSovietmedalscommemoratingCosmonautsVladimirKomarovandYuriGagarin.)Also,accordingto
DekeSlayton'sbookMoonshot,Armstrongcarriedwithhimaspecialdiamondstuddedastronautpinfrom
Slayton.
FilmtakenfromtheLMAscentStageuponliftofffromtheMoon
revealstheAmericanflag,plantedsome25feet(8m)fromthedescent
stage,whippingviolentlyintheexhaustoftheascentstageengine.
Aldrinlookedupintimetowitnesstheflagtopple:[1]"Theascentstage
oftheLMseparated...Iwasconcentratingonthecomputers,andNeil
wasstudyingtheattitudeindicator,butIlookeduplongenoughtosee
theflagfallover."[18]SubsequentApollomissionsusuallyplantedthe
Americanflagsatleast100feet(30m)fromtheLMtopreventthem
beingblownoverbytheascentengineexhaust.
AfterrendezvouswithColumbia,Eagle'sascentstagewasjettisoned
intolunarorbitonJuly21,1969,at23:41UTC.JustbeforetheApollo
Eagle'sascentstageapproaching
12flight,itwasnotedthatEaglewasstilllikelytobeorbitingthe
Columbia
Moon.LaterNASAreportsmentionedthatEagle'sorbithaddecayed,
resultinginitimpactinginan"uncertainlocation"onthelunar
surface.[58]ThelocationisuncertainbecausetheEagleascentstagewasnottrackedafteritwasjettisoned,and
thelunargravityfieldissufficientlynonuniformtomaketheorbitofthespacecraftunpredictableafterashort
time.NASAestimatedthattheorbithaddecayedwithinmonthsandwouldhaveimpactedontheMoon.
OnJuly23,thelastnightbeforesplashdown,thethreeastronautsmadeatelevisionbroadcastinwhichCollins
commented:
...TheSaturnVrocketwhichputusinorbitisanincrediblycomplicatedpieceofmachinery,every
pieceofwhichworkedflawlessly...Wehavealwayshadconfidencethatthisequipmentwillwork
properly.Allthisispossibleonlythroughtheblood,sweat,andtearsofanumberofapeople...All
youseeisthethreeofus,butbeneaththesurfacearethousandsandthousandsofothers,andtoall
ofthose,Iwouldliketosay,"Thankyouverymuch."
Aldrinadded:
ThishasbeenfarmorethanthreemenonamissiontotheMoonmore,still,thantheeffortsofa
governmentandindustryteammore,even,thantheeffortsofonenation.Wefeelthatthisstands
asasymboloftheinsatiablecuriosityofallmankindtoexploretheunknown...Personally,in
reflectingontheeventsofthepastseveraldays,aversefromPsalmscomestomind."WhenI
considertheheavens,theworkofThyfingers,theMoonandthestars,whichThouhastordained
WhatismanthatThouartmindfulofhim?"
Armstrongconcluded:

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Theresponsibilityforthisflightliesfirstwithhistoryandwiththegiantsofsciencewhohave
precededthiseffortnextwiththeAmericanpeople,whohave,throughtheirwill,indicatedtheir
desirenextwithfouradministrationsandtheirCongresses,forimplementingthatwillandthen,
withtheagencyandindustryteamsthatbuiltourspacecraft,theSaturn,theColumbia,theEagle,
andthelittleEMU,thespacesuitandbackpackthatwasoursmallspacecraftoutonthelunar
surface.WewouldliketogivespecialthankstoallthoseAmericanswhobuiltthespacecraftwho
didtheconstruction,design,thetests,andputtheirheartsandalltheirabilitiesintothosecraft.To
thosepeopletonight,wegiveaspecialthankyou,andtoalltheotherpeoplethatarelisteningand
watchingtonight,Godblessyou.GoodnightfromApollo11.[18]
OnthereturntoEarth,abearingattheGuamtrackingstationfailed,potentiallypreventingcommunicationon
thelastsegmentoftheEarthreturn.Aregularrepairwasnotpossibleintheavailabletimebutthestation
director,CharlesForce,hadhistenyearoldsonGregusehissmallhandstoreachintothehousingandpackit
withgrease.GreglaterwasthankedbyArmstrong.[59]

Splashdownandquarantine
OnJuly24,theastronautsreturnedhomeaboardtheCommandModule
Columbiajustbeforedawnlocaltime(16:51UTC[4])at
1319N1699W,inthePacificOcean2,660km(1,440nmi)eastof
WakeIsland,380km(210nmi)southofJohnstonAtoll,and24km
(13nmi)fromtherecoveryship,USSHornet.[1]
At16:44UTCthedrogueparachuteshadbeendeployedandseven
minuteslatertheCommandModulestruckthewaterforcefully.During
splashdown,theCommandModulelandedupsidedownbutwasrighted
within10minutesbyflotationbagstriggeredbytheastronauts.
"Everything'sokay.Ourchecklistiscomplete.Awaitingswimmers",
wasArmstrong'slastofficialtransmissionfromtheColumbia.Adiver
fromtheNavyhelicopterhoveringaboveattachedaseaanchortothe
CommandModuletopreventitfromdrifting.Additionaldivers
attachedflotationcollarstostabilizethemoduleandpositionraftsfor
astronautextraction.Thoughthechanceofbringingbackpathogens
fromthelunarsurfacewasconsideredremote,itwasconsidereda
possibilityandNASAtookgreatprecautionsattherecoverysite.Divers
providedtheastronautswithBiologicalIsolationGarments(BIGs)
whichwerewornuntiltheyreachedisolationfacilitiesonboardthe
Hornet.Additionally,astronautswererubbeddownwithasodium
hypochloritesolutionandtheCommandModulewipedwithBetadineto
removeanylunardustthatmightbepresent.Theraftcontaining
decontaminationmaterialswasthenintentionallysunk.[60]
AsecondSeaKinghelicopterhoistedtheastronautsaboardonebyone,
whereaNASAflightsurgeongaveeachabriefphysicalcheckduring
the0.5nauticalmiles(930m)tripbacktotheHornet.

ColumbiafloatsontheoceanasNavy
diversassistinretrievingthe
astronauts

TheastronautsintheirBiological
IsolationGarmentsaboardthe
USSHornet

AftertouchdownontheHornet,theastronautsexitedthehelicopter,
leavingtheflightsurgeonandthreecrewmen.Thehelicopterwasthen
loweredintohangarbay#2wheretheastronautswalkedthe30feet(9.1m)totheMobileQuarantineFacility
(MQF)wheretheywouldbegintheir21daysofquarantine.ThispracticewouldcontinuefortwomoreApollo
missions,Apollo12andApollo14,beforetheMoonwasproventobebarrenoflifeandthequarantineprocess
dropped.[60][61]
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PresidentRichardNixonwasaboardHornettopersonallywelcomethe
astronautsbacktoEarth.Hetoldtheastronauts,"Asaresultofwhat
you'vedone,theworldhasneverbeenclosertogetherbefore."[62]After
Nixondeparted,theHornetwasbroughtalongsidethefiveton
CommandModulewhereitwasplacedaboardbytheship'scrane,
placedonadollyandmovednexttotheMQF.TheHornetsailedfor
PearlHarborwheretheCommandModuleandMQFwereairliftedto
theMannedSpacecraftCenter.[60]

ThecrewofApollo11inquarantine
afterreturningtoEarth,visitedby
RichardNixon

InaccordancewiththerecentlypassedExtraTerrestrialExposureLaw,
theastronautswereplacedinquarantineforfearthattheMoonmight
containundiscoveredpathogensandthattheastronautsmighthavebeen
exposedtothemduringtheirMoonwalks.However,afteralmostthree
weeksinconfinement(firstintheirtrailerandlaterintheLunar
ReceivingLaboratoryattheMannedSpacecraftCenter),theastronauts
weregivenacleanbillofhealth.[63]OnAugust10,1969,theastronauts
exitedquarantine.

Celebration
OnAugust13,theyrodeinparadesintheirhonorinNewYork,
Chicago,andLosAngeles.OnthesameeveninginLosAngelesthere
wasanofficialStateDinnertocelebratetheflight,attendedbymembers
ofCongress,44governors,theChiefJusticeoftheUnitedStates,and
ambassadorsfrom83nationsattheCenturyPlazaHotel.President
RichardNixonandVicePresidentSpiroT.Agnewhonoredeach
astronautwithapresentationofthePresidentialMedalofFreedom.This
celebrationwasthebeginningofa45day"GiantLeap"tourthat
broughttheastronautsto25foreigncountriesandincludedvisitswith
prominentleaderssuchasQueenElizabethIIoftheUnitedKingdom.
ManynationshonoredthefirstmannedMoonlandingwithspecial
featuresinmagazinesorbyissuingApollo11commemorativepostage
stampsorcoins.[64][65]

ParadeinNewYorkCity

OnSeptember16,1969,thethreeastronautsspokebeforeajointsessionofCongressonCapitolHill.They
presentedtwoUSflags,onetotheHouseofRepresentativesandtheothertotheSenate,thathadbeencarried
tothesurfaceoftheMoonwiththem.

Moonrace
TheSovietUnionwassecretlyattemptingtocompetewiththeUSinlandinga
manontheMoonbuthadbeenhamperedbyrepeatedfailuresindevelopment
ofalaunchercomparabletotheSaturnV.[66]Meanwhile,theytriedtobeatthe
UStoreturnlunarmaterialtotheEarthbymeansofunmannedprobes.On
July13,threedaysbeforeApollo11'slaunch,theylaunchedLuna15,which
reachedlunarorbitbeforeApollo11.Duringdescent,amalfunctioncaused
Luna15tocrashinMareCrisiumabouttwohoursbeforeArmstrongand
Aldrintookofffromthesurface.TheJodrellBankObservatoryradio
telescopeinEnglandwaslaterdiscoveredtohaverecordedtransmissionsfrom
Luna15duringitsdescent,andthiswaspublishedinJuly2009onthe40th
anniversaryofApollo11.[67]

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Artist'simpressionofLuna15

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Spacecraftlocation
TheCommandModuleColumbiais
displayedattheNationalAirandSpace
Museum,Washington,D.C.Itisinthe
centralMilestonesofFlightexhibition
hallinfrontoftheJeffersonDrive
entrance,sharingthemainhallwith
otherpioneeringflightvehiclessuchas
theWrightFlyer,theSpiritofSt.Louis,
theBellX1,theNorthAmericanX15,
MercuryspacecraftFriendship7,and
Gemini4.Armstrong'sandAldrin's
CommandModuleColumbiaatthe
LunarModulelandingsite
spacesuitsaredisplayedinthe
NationalAirandSpaceMuseum
photographedbytheLROin
museum'sApollototheMoonexhibit.
2012
Thequarantinetrailer,theflotation
collar,andtherightingspheresare
displayedattheSmithsonian'sStevenF.UdvarHazyCenterannexnearWashingtonDullesInternational
AirportinVirginia.
In2009,theLunarReconnaissanceOrbiter(LRO)imagedthevariousApollolandingsitesonthesurfaceofthe
Moon,forthefirsttimewithsufficientresolutiontoseethedescentstagesofthelunarmodules,scientific
instruments,andfoottrailsmadebytheastronauts.
InMarch2012AmazonfounderJeffBezoslocatedtheF1enginesthatlaunchedApollo11intospace.The
engineswerefoundbelowtheAtlanticOcean'ssurfacethroughtheuseofadvancedsonarscanning.Histeam
broughtatleastoneofthefiveenginestothesurface.[68]InJuly2013,itwasconfirmedthroughserialnumbers
(2044)thatF1enginepartsbroughtupfromthedepthsoftheAtlanticOceanwerefromtheApollo11
launch.[69]

40thanniversaryevents
OnJuly15,2009,Life.comreleasedaphotogalleryof
previouslyunpublishedphotosoftheastronautstakenbyLife
photographerRalphMorsepriortotheApollo11launch.[70]
FromJuly1624,2009,NASAstreamedtheoriginalmission
audioonitswebsiteinrealtime40yearstotheminuteafterthe
eventsoccurred.[71]Inaddition,itisintheprocessofrestoring
thevideofootageandhasreleasedapreviewofkey
moments.[72]
OnJuly20,2009,thecrewofArmstrong,Aldrin,andCollins
MikeSimons,directoroftheNational
metwithU.S.PresidentBarackObamaattheWhiteHouse.[73]
ElectronicsMuseum,assemblesanApolloTV
"Weexpectthatthereis,aswespeak,anothergenerationofkids
camerafordisplayattheNewseum
outtherewhoarelookingupattheskyandaregoingtobethe
nextArmstrong,CollinsandAldrin",Obamasaid."Wewantto
makesurethatNASAisgoingtobethereforthemwhentheywanttotaketheirjourney."[74]
TheJohnF.KennedyPresidentialLibraryandMuseumsetupaFlashwebsitethatrebroadcaststhe
transmissionsofApollo11fromlaunchtolandingontheMoon.[75]

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AgroupofBritishscientistsinterviewedaspartoftheanniversaryeventsreflectedonthesignificanceofthe
Moonlanding:
Itwascarriedoutinatechnicallybrilliantwaywithriskstaken...thatwouldbeinconceivablein
theriskaverseworldoftoday...TheApolloprogrammeisarguablythegreatesttechnical
achievementofmankindtodate...nothingsinceApollohascomeclose[to]theexcitementthat
wasgeneratedbythoseastronautsArmstrong,Aldrinandthe10otherswhofollowedthem.[76]
OnAugust7,2009,anactofCongressawardedthethreeastronautsaCongressionalGoldMedal,thehighest
civilianawardintheUnitedStates.ThebillwassponsoredbyFloridaSen.BillNelsonandFloridaRep.Alan
Grayson.[77][78]
InJuly2010,airtogroundvoicerecordingsandfilmfootageshotinMissionControlduringtheApollo11
powereddescentandlandingwasresynchronisedandreleasedforthefirsttime.[79]

Gallery

Spectatorscampouttowatchthe Seatingcredentialissuedto
launch
viewersoftheApollo11launch

Collins,AldrinandArmstrong
consultwithpadleaderGuenter
WendtafterCountdown
DemonstrationTest

LaunchControlCenterbefore
liftoff

RolloutofSaturnVAS505
fromtheVehicleAssembly
Buildingtothelaunchpad

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TheEarthasseenfromApollo
11onthethirddayout

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NeilArmstrongdescribesthe
Moon'ssurfacebeforesetting
footonit

PresidentNixonspeaksto
ArmstrongandAldrinfromthe
OvalOffice

NeilArmstrong'scertification:"I
certifythatthisWorldScout
Badgewascarriedtothesurface
oftheMoononman'sfirstlunar
landing,ApolloXI,July20,
1969."

TheWashingtonPoston
Monday,July21,1969:"'The
EagleHasLanded'TwoMen
WalkontheMoon"

FirstManontheMoon
CommemorativeIssueof1969

Apollo11crewattheWhite
Housein2004

Seealso
Apollo11flight,artistconcept(anillustratedtimeline)
Apollo11inpopularculture
Apollo11missingtapes
ApolloGuidanceComputer
GoogleMoon
ListofmanmadeobjectsontheMoon
Listofspacewalksandmoonwalks19651999
Moonlandingconspiracytheories
WernhervonBraun

Notes
a.Duringthemission,thecausewasdiagnosedastherendezvousradarswitchbeinginthewrongposition,causingthe
computertoprocessdatafromboththerendezvousandlandingradarsatthesametime,asstatedintheletter.[2][22]
However,softwareengineerDonEylesconcludedina2005GuidanceandControlConferencepaperthattheproblem
wasactuallyduetoahardwaredesignbugpreviouslyseenduringtestingofthefirstunmannedLMforApollo5.
Havingtherendezvousradaron(sothatitwaswarmedupincaseofanemergencylandingabort)shouldhavebeen
irrelevanttothecomputer,butanelectricalphasingmismatchbetweentwopartsoftherendezvousradarsystemcould
causethestationaryantennatoappeartothecomputerasditheringbackandforthbetweentwopositions,depending
uponhowthehardwarerandomlypoweredup.Theextraspuriouscyclestealing,astherendezvousradarupdatedan
involuntarycounter,causedthecomputeralarms.[23]TheApolloonboardflightsoftwareforboththeCMandLM
wasdevelopedusinganasynchronousexecutivesothathigherpriorityjobscouldinterruptlowerpriorityjobs.The
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sequencethatoccurredintheApollo11landingwassuccessfulbecauseofitsglobalerrordetectionandrecovery
system.Thisincludedtherestartcapabilityto"killandstartoveragain"andrecomputeandthedisplayinterface
routines("prioritydisplays")providingtheability,inthecaseofanemergency,tointerruptnominaldisplayswith
higherpriorityalarmdisplays.Stepspreviouslytakentocreatesolutionsthattookadvantageofthis
multiprogrammingenvironmentsuggestedsolutionsformultiprocessing.Althoughonlyoneprocessisactively
executingatagiventimeinamultiprogrammingenvironment,otherprocessesinthesamesystemsleepingor
waitingexistinparallelwiththeexecutingprocess.Withthisasabackdrop,theprioritydisplaymechanismswere
created,essentiallychangingthemanmachineinterfacebetweentheastronautsandtheonboardflightsoftwarefrom
synchronoustoasynchronousdisplayssothatamissioncouldbereconfiguredinrealtimeshoulditbecomenecessary
todoso.[24]
b.ANASAtranscriptexplainsthatthe"a"articlewasintended,whetherornotitwassaid[36]theintentionwasto
contrastaman(anindividual'saction)andmankind(asaspecies).

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38.Sarkissian,JohnM.(2001)."OnEagle'sWings:TheParkesObservatory'sSupportoftheApollo11Mission".
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39.Sarkissian,JohnM.(2001)."OnEagle'sWings:TheParkesObservatory'sSupportoftheApollo11Mission"(PDF).
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41."Armstrong'gotMoonquoteright' ".BBCNews.London.October2,2006.RetrievedJune13,2013.Newsstoryon
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44.Adams,Cecil."DidastronautNeilArmstrongmuffhishistoric"onesmallstep"line?".
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50.Jones,EricM.,ed.(1995)."EASEPDeploymentandCloseout".Apollo11LunarSurfaceJournal.NASA.Retrieved
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Furtherreading
Cappellari,J.O.Jr.(MayJune1972).WhereontheMoon?AnApolloSystemsEngineeringProblem.Bell
SystemTechnicalJournal.51.NewYork:AmericanTelephoneandTelegraphCompany.pp.9551127.
OCLC17779623.
Barbour,JohnAndrews(1969).FootprintsontheMoon.WritersandeditorsoftheAssociatedPress.
ManuscriptbyJohnBarbour.NewYork.AssociatedPress.OCLC26341.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11#Lunar_surface_operations

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French,FrancisBurgess,Colin(2007).IntheShadowoftheMoon:AChallengingJourneyto
Tranquility,19651969.OutwardOdyssey:APeople'sHistoryofSpaceflight.ForewordbyWalter
Cunningham.Lincoln,Nebraska:UniversityofNebraskaPress.ISBN9780803211285.
Rahman,Tahir(2008).WeCameinPeaceforAllMankind:TheUntoldStoryoftheApollo11Silicon
Disc(1sted.).OverlandPark,Kansas:LeathersPublishing.ISBN9781585974412.
Foryoungreaders
Aldrin,Buzz(2005).ReachingfortheMoon.PaintingsbyWendellMinor(1sted.).NewYork:
HarperCollins.40pages.ISBN0060554460.
Floca,Brian(2009).Moonshot:TheFlightofApollo11.NewYork:AtheneumBooksforYoungReaders.
48pages.ISBN9781416950462.
Thimmesh,Catherine(2006).TeamMoon:How400,000PeopleLandedApollo11ontheMoon.New
York:HoughtonMifflinCompany.80pages.ISBN9780618507573.

Externallinks
"Apollo11transcripts"(http://apollo11.spacelog.org/)atSpacelog
WikimediaCommonshas
(http://spacelog.org/)
mediarelatedtoApollo11.
"MagnificentDesolation:TheApollo11MoonwalkPictures"(htt
p://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11_eva_thumbs.html)byApollo
LunarSurfaceJournal(http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj)contributorJosephO'Dea.Completegalleryof
Apollo11EVApictures.
"Apollo11"(http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo11info.html)Detailedmissioninformation
byDr.DavidR.Williams,NASAGoddardSpaceFlightCenter
"Apollo11"(http://blaisephoto.fr/photographiesdelamissionapollo11nasa.php)PhotographerBlaise
Thirard'spresentationofApollo11photographs
Sylvester,RachelCoates,Sam."MenontheMoon".TheTimes.London.Archivedfromtheoriginalon
May31,2010.RetrievedMay24,2013.OriginalreportsfromTheTimes(London)
"Apollo40thAnniversary".NASA.July2009.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonJuly18,2009.Retrieved
July18,2009.NASAwebsitehonoringthemission
"Theuntoldstory:howonesmallsilicondiscdeliveredagiantmessagetotheMoon"(http://www.collect
space.com/news/news111507a.html)atcollectSPACE.com
"ApolloAnniversary:MoonLanding'InspiredWorld'"(http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/0
7/0714_040714_moonlanding.html)NationalGeographicNews,July16,200435thanniversaryof
Apollo11StevenDick,NASA'schiefhistorian:"...athousandyearsfromnow,thatstepmaybe
consideredthecrowningachievementofthe20thcentury."
"TenThingsYouDidn'tKnowAbouttheApollo11MoonLanding"(http://www.popsci.com/militaryavi
ationampspace/article/200906/40yearslatertenthingsyoudidntknowaboutapolloiimoonlandin
g)byCraigNelson,PopularMechanics,July13,2009
"CoverageoftheFlightofApollo11(1969)"(http://www.radiotapes.com/specialpostings.html#Apollo
11)providedbyToddKosovichforRadioTapes.com.Radiostationrecordings(airchecks)coveringthe
flightofApollo11.
"SpaceMissions"(http://buzzaldrin.com/theman/spacemissions/)atBuzzAldrin'sofficialwebsite
NASAreports
"ApolloProgramSummaryReport".NASAHistoryProgramOffice.NASA.April1975.Archivedfrom
theoriginalonSeptember29,2006.RetrievedSeptember23,2006.200+pages
Ertel,Ivan(19691978).TheApolloSpacecraft:AChronology.IIV.Morse,M.L.Bays,J.K.Brooks,
C.G.Newkirk,R.W.Washington,D.C.:NASA.LCCN69060008.OCLC23818.NASASP4009.
RetrievedSeptember23,2006.
"Apollo11MissionReport"(PDF).NASA.1971.230pages
"EP72LogofApollo11".NASAHistoryProgramOffice.NASA.RetrievedJanuary16,2006.
Timelineofthemission,from"OneGiantLeapforMandkind,"(http://history.nasa.gov/ap1135ann/inde
x.htm)2004.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_11#Lunar_surface_operations

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Multimedia
" 'TotheMoonandBack':LIFECoverstheApollo11Mission".Time.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonJuly
20,2013.RetrievedJuly20,2013.LifemagazineSpecialEdition,August11,1969
"Apollo11:ScenesFromtheMoon".ArchivedfromtheoriginalonJuly17,2009.RetrievedJune13,
2013.slideshowbyLifemagazine
Garner,Robert(ed.)."Apollo11PartialRestorationHDVideos(Downloads)".NASA.Retrieved
June13,2013.Remasteredvideosoftheoriginallanding.
Jones,EricM.Jones,ed.(1995)."Apollo11LunarSurfaceJournal".Apollo11LunarSurfaceJournal.
NASA.RetrievedSeptember23,2006.Transcriptsandaudioclipsofimportantpartsofthemission
Jones,EricM.Glover,Ken,eds.(19952009)."Apollo11ImageLibrary".Apollo11LunarSurface
Journal.NASA.RetrievedSeptember23,2006.Hundredsofhighresolutionimagesofthemission,
includingassembledpanoramas.
"ApolloMissionTraverseMaps".USGS.ArchivedfromtheoriginalonSeptember24,2006.Retrieved
September23,2006.Severalmapsshowingroutesofmoonwalks
GoogleMoon(http://moon.google.com/)withlunarlandingsitestagged
ApolloLunarSurfaceVRPanoramas(http://moonpans.com/vr)atmoonpans.com
ApolloImageArchive(http://apollo.sese.asu.edu/)atArizonaStateUniversity
Apollolaunchandmissionvideos(http://www.apollotv.net/)atApolloTV.net
Realtimeaudiovisualrecreationofthelunarmodulelanding(http://www.firstmenonthemoon.com/)with
audiofeedsfromthecrewofApollo11andGroundControl
MoonwalkOneApollo11:NeilArmstrongTheFirstManontheMoon1969NASADocumentary
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JCcyoqKjpQ)onYouTube
TheEagleHasLanded:TheFlightofApollo11&NeilArmstrongLandingontheMoonNASA
Documentary(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keoF8YmTjWg)onYouTube
Apollo11"ForAllofMankind":NeilArmstrongLandingOnTheMoonNASADocumentary(https://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeG8QUs5I0I)onYouTube
VideoofApollo11launch(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7H1QIGscePs)onYouTube
Apollo11RestoredEVAPart1(https://vimeo.com/14275570)(1hofrestoredfootage)
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