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For every construction project, there must be construction stakeholders that will play
their own commitment to ensure the project completed in a given time with a high quality
outcome. Construction stakeholders here consist of engineers, architect, quantity surveyor,
construction manager of contractor and subcontractor and also the client itself. Each
construction stakeholders have their own roles and responsibilities in every construction
project. For example, the engineers must use their civil engineering knowledge to construct a
structure. Next will be the architect. The role of architect in a construction project is to design
the shape or the structure of the building. For both roles, they have to consider lots of aspects
before planning, designing and constructing the structure or the building. The condition of the
site, the environment or the society for instance.
However, these construction stakeholders also play other roles apart from their
general roles and responsibilities. What it means here is these construction stakeholders have
to play their part towards the occupational safety and health priority. For example, the
building that is going to be built must be safe to live in. Another example will be the
employers should provide the safety equipments to the employees, so that there will be no
injury or accidents occur among the people involved in construction project itself. Apart from
these two examples, the construction stakeholders should be aware of the machinery used and
the workers also should be able to undertake their tasks with confidence.
Ignoring the safety, accidents or injuries may occur. For instance, in 2004, there were three
high-profile accidents took place, causing 13 people died. The caving-in of part of the Nicoll
Highway which was one of Singapores main thoroughfares on April 2004 with the loss of
four lives resulted in extensive disruption to utilities and to the general public. It was caused
by the collapse of the temporary system built to facilitate the construction of the subway
tunnels. As Nicoll Highway sank, gas, water and electricity cables snapped, causing power to
go out for about 15,000 people and 700 businesses in the Marina and Suntec City area.
Tremors were felt at Golden Mile Complex. Tenants and residents in the building were also
The stakeholders responsible for various aspects of occupational safety and health and
there are the occupier, employer, persons at work, manufacturers and suppliers of machinery ,
equipment of hazardous substances use at work, persons who erect, install or modify
machinery or equipment and persons who control the machinery for use at work.



Civil engineer is commonly a career where the engineer needs to apply the civil
engineering background or knowledge to plan and oversee various construction efforts in
many different areas of this field. They will apply the civil engineering principles to ensure
that the structures are constructed in the safest condition.
In terms of safety and health, the engineers need to understand how to have safety and
health controls implemented in an organization. They also must know the fundamentals of
creating organisational cultures that places safety at the top of the organisation priorities.
Management of an organization plays important role in implementing that controls for
hazardous and getting people in an organization to incorporate safety into their operations.
In planning, designing, operations, maintenance or management activities, engineers
should be able to recognize hazardous and implement controls for them. Apart from that,
engineers should know how to eliminate, reduce, controls safety and health risks in a
construction project. If the engineers take for granted of these responsibilities, accidents,
death or any unwanted incidents will occur. For examples, there were buildings collapses in
New York and also in Shanghai. Those collapses of buildings or bridges may lead to death
and injuries. That is why engineers and other stakeholders such as the architect must ensure
before designing and constructing a structure, they have to consider all the safety aspects.
In 1919, there was a great disaster in Boston, Massachusetts when a massive steel
tank, which held approximately 2.4 million gallons of hot molasses ruptured, flooding the
surrounding area. By the time it was done, 21 people were killed, 150 were injured and
millions of dollars in property was destroyed. After lengthy investigation and legal action, it
was found that the safety factor in the design was inadequate. The phenomenon shows that
the term safety is very vital in constructing a building.
Regarding to worker safety, workers motions and activities were studied, together the
effects that performing various tasks had on their bodies. This new trend resulted in the
creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Sometimes
engineering recommendations are made, which might have prevented the accident in the first
place. This is why it can benefit a company to bring in safety consultants before
manufacturing a new design or releasing a product to the public.
For the roads, building, bridges, stadiums, dams and railroads that will be built, they
must have a proper functioning where it is critically important to the public safety. The
criteria of the design must be able to withstand the natural disasters such as the earthquake.

Building Collapse in New York

Building Collapse in Shanghai

Bridge Collapse in Mississippi

An architect creates the overall aesthetics and look of the buildings and other
structures, but the design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings also
must be functional, safe and economical and must suit the needs of the people who use them.
Architect who have three section of roles is required to design a concept of product that
emphasis on safety guidelines either for the public or the during construction phase.
The first section which is design role is where when a person or business wants a
building to be designed and built there are many considerations to be made. The architect
must meet with the client for an initial consultation. This consultation helps the architect
determine the client's structural needs, such as what type of structure it is, how many people
it must house and the main function of the building. In addition to discussing the building
requirements and objectives with the client, the architect must also discuss the client's budget.
A client's budget will have a direct impact on how closely the architect is able to carry out the
client's ideas and, as a result, the architect may use his expertise to make alternate suggestions
that are more in line with the budget. In addition, an architect cannot build a design that may
bring harm to the consumer because that will breach the trust there is for an architect
therefore safety measures must be kept in mind too.
The documentation phase is where the architect is more focused on the construction
site as the design is directed to the expertise on the site. Architectural plans are detailed
drawings of a structure that show what the building will look like, in great detail. In addition
to the plans for the exterior of the building, the architect also creates plans for air
conditioning systems, communication systems and landscaping. If requested, the architect
will include a list of building materials and furnishings for the interior of the structure. When
the architect draws up the plans, he must take into consideration all building codes and
regulations, fire safety codes and accessibility for disabled individuals.
During construction phase, an architect though are not required to do on hands work should
be prepared to do any changes to the design if there is an error that occur during construction.
This is where the architect may participate in the site visiting and produce a cost analysis as
part of the critical decision stage if so to say an error occurs. As many there is to an architect
responsibilities such as being able to stay in the course line for a long time, good in
strategizing and have good communications skill, all of the traits should stay in the safety and
health guidelines.
Architects acknowledges and accepts its statutory responsibility under the terms of the
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, for securing the Health, Safety and Welfare of all its
employees and any other person why may be affected by our work operations. If the architect
belongs to a company, its company will provide adequate and sufficient money, time and any
other resources as necessary to ensure that its meets its Health and Safety responsibilities,
paying particular attention to the provision and maintenance of all equipment, adequate
facilities, handling, storage and transportation.

Besides that, the company needs also fulfill the provision of sufficient information,
training and supervision to enable all the company's employees to avoid hazardous situations
and contribute positively to their own health and safety at work. Creating a healthy working
environment also a must in the safety and health guidelines for an architect for this will
encourage employees to have great teamwork and work as a unit in safety measure. The
inclusion of health and safety into the planning, organization, controlling, monitoring and
review arrangements in its management systems not only will save lives but smooth out the
work process as the company is involved before and after the design is out.
Lastly, the use of suitable and sufficient risk assessment techniques to assess the
health and safety risks applicable to employees and others who may be affected by the
companys work activities is also a priority to the company. A Health, Safety and
Environmental Policy is unlikely to be successful unless it actively involves the people who
work within the company therefore it is important that everyone takes the issue of safety and
health as a serious matter including the architect.

A quantity surveyor is defined as a professional work that is trained in estimating,
controlling and handling all costs related to construction. The role of quantity surveyor on
construction site is to make sure the progress of the project run smoothly and within budget
limits. They are responsible in producing saving and estimating the budget used is the same
as the final amount spent on a project.
Besides saving, quantity surveyor also responsible to estimate the construction cost
such as material cost, labour cost and cost for hiring workers. They also encourage of giving
advises to the engineer and architect about cost effective methodologist and procedure that
determine whether the project is feasible and achievable from an economic standpoint.
Quantity surveyor is the one who prepared the bill of quantities instead of produce
and manage tenders and contract document, clarify and evaluate tenders. They also
evaluating and advising on financial implications and appropriate management actions.
In spite of that, produce and manage tenders and contract document, clarify and evaluate
tenders are all quantity surveyors duties. They compiling cost data for an insurance claim
and cost data for fire insurance valuation as well.
Apart from that, they also carry responsibility regarding to safety and health on the
construction site by doing reporting on safety and health regulation to the project owners. As
a construction project begins, the quantity surveyor researches all health and safety
regulations regarding local and state policies to inform the project construction owners.
The purpose of safety and health regulation is to eliminate or reduce risks. Risk here
means the likelihood of hazard to occur which may cause damage and injury. It is crucial that
none of these health and safety regulations is violated during the construction phase. The
quantity surveyor will meet with construction supervisors to discuss proper ways to disperse
trash. The surveyor will also discuss ways to level off sections of the site's landscape so all
safety regulations are met.
This regulation aim to propose a guideline that can be used by the construction
personnel in order to improve the implementation of risk assessment of hazards. If any
accidents occur, cost will arise and surveyor have to do analyse regarding to compensation
for any claim. Thus, decrease the productivity.


Ensuring safety on a construction site is a complex challenge. Nevertheless a
safety culture must be created to ensure everyones safety.
The development of a safety culture must start at an early age.

In a project, the contractor can uses a subcontractor to carry out some or all of
the work that needed to be done in the project. In terms of safety and health, both parties are
responsible and play a part to ensure that everything has been taken care of.
The contractor has to take over and develop the health and safety plan and coordinate the activities of subcontractors to ensure they comply with health and safety law.
They should also develop the health and safety plan and ensure it contains all the necessary
information for implementation.
They should also arrange competent and adequately resourced subcontractors
and ensure they comply with the provisions of the health and safety plan and its specific
rules. They should also obtain the main findings of subcontractors risk assessments and
details of how they intend to manage their high risk operations.
They should ensure that ALL contractors have information about any risks on
site that the project will bring about. The contractor should ensure that workers on the
project have been given adequate training and information about risks to their health and
safety. They also should ensure that contractors and workers comply with all site rules set out
in the health and safety plan.
The contractor should monitor the health and safety performance of the
persons or companies working on the project. They should also ensure that any information
they have that is required for inclusion in the health and safety file is passed on to the
Planning Supervisor.

The contractor and the subcontractor should be able to co-operate and coordinate with one another at all times. In particular, the contractor should provide all parties
involved with the information, instruction and training on anything that may affect health and
safety. The contractor and the subcontractor both should be aware of their health and safety
procedure and policies.
There are several safety measures that the contractor and the subcontractor can
take to ensure the safety of their employees. The first one is they should identify the
requirements of each specific job and assesses the risks involved in that particular job.
The second is they can consult their staffs and/or unions to gain their take on
improving the health and safety measures in the construction site. The third safety measure
that the contractor or the subcontractor can do is decided the information and training that is
required by their employees to ensure that their safety and health are well taken care of.
Legislation must be in place to ensure the safety of personnel on the work
place. It is basic principles of good health and safety management on a construction site, and
what most other large companies have practiced for many years. The use of these techniques
leads to cost effective accident avoidance and prevention of ill health. Safety is a matter of
life and death. Neglected could result in loss of life. It could be yours.

The client is a person or the organisation who commissions the design and
construction of a construction project. The constructions client develops a construction
project from concept to commissioning, ensuring that the needs of the owners, customers and
the community are met. In spite of that, the client also provides the designers, advisers, or
contractor with information relevant to health and safety, such as existing drawings, surveys
of the site, a description of hazards known specifically to the client, and so on. The role of
clients is not confined to health and safety.
In the early stage of the preparation and during the design of the construction, the
client should keep the safety file available for inspection by persons involved in any
subsequent construction work. It is to ensure they know and care about their own safety in the
construction area. Besides that, the client has to appoint to planning supervisor and also the
principal contractor. The planning supervisor is to co-ordinate and manages health and safety
during this stage. One of the planning supervisors duties are to ensure that a pre-tender stage
health and safety plan is prepared before arrangements are made for the principal contractor
to carry out or manage construction work. Meanwhile, the principal contractor is then
required to develop the health and safety plan before work starts on site and keep it up to date
throughout the construction phase.
Other than that, a copy of the preliminary Safety and Health Plan should be provided
to prospective and actual PSCSs. As the client, they must ensure that any designer, adviser or
contractor engaged to do any work is professional and has adequate provision for health and
safety. Moreover, the site information needed to the design team including details of any
contamination, site hazards, underground structures or services, overhead obstructions and
access details must be provided as well as the health and safety management of the project
construction work.
From the design work of the construction that made by the designers, the client must
be checked as it consider the health and safety to the construction work or not. Not only that,
construction phase cannot be started unless there are enough and suitable welfare facilities
and also a construction phase plan in place for the safety of the workers that involve in the
construction project.
Then, the co-ordination of the client between the designers or contractors must be
well co-operate as they must work together in order to manage the construction project
successfully done. The injuries, overspending at a later stage and misunderstandings can all
be kept to a minimum the well communicate and co-operate as much as possible. One of the
role of the client is consider the timeframes required for the safe completion of the project.
Instead, failing to allow for adequate time for the design, planning and construction is likely
to mean more chance of it being unsafe or of a poor quality.


During the construction stage, the client must ensure the head contractor has prepared
a suitable health and safety plan before start to do construction work. On this stage, the
principal contractor takes the responsibility to co-ordinate and manages the health and safety
issues during the construction work. Instead of that, client must satisfied that any contractors
carrying out construction work are competent and have made proper provision for health and
safety such as by seeking advice from other advisers or organisations as to the ongoing
competency of people contracted to do any of the work.
Other than that, client must provide the ongoing advice and information, if requested,
regarding the head contractors health and safety plan such as by advising them of any
changes to planned activities. In order to manage the project runs smoothly, they must ensure
that the designers, advisers and other contractors must continue to carry out their duties and
co-ordinate with others on the project such as by requesting regular written activity reports.
Meanwhile, the building programme must be allowed the sufficient time to carry out the
construction phase safely so that the construction project construct with well-built and have a
great quality.


In conclusion, every construction project, each stakeholder must play their own roles
to ensure the project can be finished on time and produced in a high quality. Be it the
engineers, architect, quantity surveyor, construction manager of contractor, subcontractor and
also the client. Apart from their general roles in construction project, they have other
responsibilities when it comes to safety and health priority. It means here that they also have
to ensure the safety and health of the organization and the society. We rely on these
professional people to construct or design the buildings where the buildings are safe to live
Apart from that, there is also an organization where the safety and health of the
employees are being one of the priorities of the company. That organization is Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Creating this kind of organization is to ensure all
the workers are safe because once accidents or injuries happen to the workers, it will affect
the productivity and the progression of the construction project itself.



6) http://www.bredemeyer.com/pdf_files/ArchitectRole.PDF
7) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architect
8) http://www.eprints.qut.edu.au/.../7b._Guide_to_Best_Practice_for_Safer_Constructio
9) http://www.osh.dol.govt.nz/order/catalogue/ipp/const-safety-mgmt.pdf
10) http://epppublications.com/Documents/10-1-1.pdf
11) http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1532896&show=pdf
12) https://webapps.hsa.ie/CIRW/help.php