Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 168

..

A COURSEBOOK ON ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY






,
050303.65 ,
050100
( ())



2012

811.111'373(075.8)
81.2-3-923
13

Contents

R e v i e w e r s:
Ph.D., Professor, the Department of English Lexicology, Moscow State Pedagogical
University, Nataliya N. Morozova.
Dr. Habil., Professor, Head of the Department of English Lexicology, Moscow State
Pedagogical University, Elena A. Nikulina.
Dr. Habil., Professor, Moscow State Linguistic University, Ekaterina E. Golubkova
Ph.D., Moscow State Regional University of Humanities and Social Sciences, S.A. Reztsova
Professor, The Department of English Philology, Moscow State Regional University,
Irina I. Shustilova
Ph.D., Professor, the Department of English Lexicology, Moscow State Pedagogical
University, Marina D. Rezvetsova

..
A Coursebook on English Lexicology : 13
: . / .. . . : : ,
2012. 168 .
ISBN 978-5-9765-1090-6 ()
ISBN 978-5-02-037452-2 ()

Introduction ..........................................................................................................6
1. Word .................................................................................................................8
2. Stylistic Stratication of English Vocabulary. Slang. Barbarisms. ................22
3. Etymology ......................................................................................................36
4. Word-building ................................................................................................50
5. The Meaning of the Word. Semantic Transference. Metaphor and Metonymy
Euphemisms. Neologisms ..............................................................................69
6. Synonyms. Antonyms. Paronyms. Hyperonyms and Hyponyms.
Meronyms ......................................................................................................98
7. Phraseology ..................................................................................................108
8. Some Regional Varieties of English ............................................................127

A Coursebook on English Lexicology is an assortment of exercises on English lexicology, which are aimed at raising students awareness of the notion of the word, it covers
stylistic stratication of the English vocabulary, its etymology, word-building patterns, the
meaning of the word, the major types of semantic transference, systematic relations between
words, English phraseology, some regional varieties of English. Hopefully, it will also aid students in understanding systemic relations between words, namely in differentiating between
paronyms, retronyms, neonyms, various types of synonyms, as well as in activating some
vocabulary items centered around specic thematic elds.
The book is meant for foreign language students, for post-graduate students, teachers
and instructors in English lexicology, as well as for a broader audience of philologists and
linguists.
8 , , ,
, , , , , .
, , ,
, .

, , , .

811.111'373(075.8)
81.2-3-923
ISBN 978-5-9765-1090-6 ()
ISBN 978-5-02-037452-2 ()

Acknowledgements ..............................................................................................4

.., 2012
, 2012

References ........................................................................................................136
Answer Key .....................................................................................................143

811.111'373(075.8)
81.2-3-923
13

Contents

R e v i e w e r s:
Ph.D., Professor, the Department of English Lexicology, Moscow State Pedagogical
University, Nataliya N. Morozova.
Dr. Habil., Professor, Head of the Department of English Lexicology, Moscow State
Pedagogical University, Elena A. Nikulina.
Dr. Habil., Professor, Moscow State Linguistic University, Ekaterina E. Golubkova
Ph.D., Moscow State Regional University of Humanities and Social Sciences, S.A. Reztsova
Professor, The Department of English Philology, Moscow State Regional University,
Irina I. Shustilova
Ph.D., Professor, the Department of English Lexicology, Moscow State Pedagogical
University, Marina D. Rezvetsova

..
A Coursebook on English Lexicology : 13
: . / .. . . : : ,
2012. 168 .
ISBN 978-5-9765-1090-6 ()
ISBN 978-5-02-037452-2 ()

Introduction ..........................................................................................................6
1. Word .................................................................................................................8
2. Stylistic Stratication of English Vocabulary. Slang. Barbarisms. ................22
3. Etymology ......................................................................................................36
4. Word-building ................................................................................................50
5. The Meaning of the Word. Semantic Transference. Metaphor and Metonymy
Euphemisms. Neologisms ..............................................................................69
6. Synonyms. Antonyms. Paronyms. Hyperonyms and Hyponyms.
Meronyms ......................................................................................................98
7. Phraseology ..................................................................................................108
8. Some Regional Varieties of English ............................................................127

A Coursebook on English Lexicology is an assortment of exercises on English lexicology, which are aimed at raising students awareness of the notion of the word, it covers
stylistic stratication of the English vocabulary, its etymology, word-building patterns, the
meaning of the word, the major types of semantic transference, systematic relations between
words, English phraseology, some regional varieties of English. Hopefully, it will also aid students in understanding systemic relations between words, namely in differentiating between
paronyms, retronyms, neonyms, various types of synonyms, as well as in activating some
vocabulary items centered around specic thematic elds.
The book is meant for foreign language students, for post-graduate students, teachers
and instructors in English lexicology, as well as for a broader audience of philologists and
linguists.
8 , , ,
, , , , , .
, , ,
, .

, , , .

811.111'373(075.8)
81.2-3-923
ISBN 978-5-9765-1090-6 ()
ISBN 978-5-02-037452-2 ()

Acknowledgements ..............................................................................................4

.., 2012
, 2012

References ........................................................................................................136
Answer Key .....................................................................................................143

Acknowledgements
The author is deeply indebted to her teacher, instructor and academic
advisor, Dr. Habil., Professor, Elena A. Nikulina for her remarkable forbearance, unswerving support, encouragement and inspiration.
My sincere appreciation goes to Professor Nataliya N. Morozova,
who kindly agreed to read and review the book, bestowed her wise counsel, and suggested the ways to improve and variegate the present work.
I am grateful to Dr. Habil., Professor, Olga G. Chupryna for her comments on some of the contentious issues of the book, which enabled me to
reconsider some of the original statements made in the book.
I appreciate the help and support provided by Professor Marina D.
Resvetzova, who was very kind and benevolent in her comments and
whose love of the Word is shared by the present author.
My appreciation is also due to Dr. Habil., Professor, Ekaterina E.
Golubkova, to Ph.D., S.A. Reztsova, and to Ph.D., Professor, Irina I.
Shustilova for a review of the present book.

Words are mirrors of their times. By looking at the areas in which the vocabulary of a
language is expanding in a given period, we
can form a fairly accurate impression of the
chief preoccupations of society at that time
and the points at which the boundaries of
human endeavor are being advanced.
(John Ayto, 1999. 20th Century Words.
The Story of the New Words in English
over the Last Hundred Years)

Acknowledgements
The author is deeply indebted to her teacher, instructor and academic
advisor, Dr. Habil., Professor, Elena A. Nikulina for her remarkable forbearance, unswerving support, encouragement and inspiration.
My sincere appreciation goes to Professor Nataliya N. Morozova,
who kindly agreed to read and review the book, bestowed her wise counsel, and suggested the ways to improve and variegate the present work.
I am grateful to Dr. Habil., Professor, Olga G. Chupryna for her comments on some of the contentious issues of the book, which enabled me to
reconsider some of the original statements made in the book.
I appreciate the help and support provided by Professor Marina D.
Resvetzova, who was very kind and benevolent in her comments and
whose love of the Word is shared by the present author.
My appreciation is also due to Dr. Habil., Professor, Ekaterina E.
Golubkova, to Ph.D., S.A. Reztsova, and to Ph.D., Professor, Irina I.
Shustilova for a review of the present book.

Words are mirrors of their times. By looking at the areas in which the vocabulary of a
language is expanding in a given period, we
can form a fairly accurate impression of the
chief preoccupations of society at that time
and the points at which the boundaries of
human endeavor are being advanced.
(John Ayto, 1999. 20th Century Words.
The Story of the New Words in English
over the Last Hundred Years)

Introduction
English lexicology is not only a purely theoretical discipline aimed
to upgrade students knowledge of its past, its present and its perspectives
for the future, but is also an in-depth practical course with multiple objectives, namely:
to inspire students curiosity about the past of words;
to help them differentiate between subtle shades of meaning;
to facilitate the recognition of different word-building patterns;
to further the recognition of novel formations, actively used in the
modern media-discourse;
to broaden their repertoire of synonymic ways of referring to reality;
to make students English more authentic and idiomatic;
to ultimately make students interaction with foreigners smoother
and more gratifying, so that it should become a mutually benecial experience.
While writing this book, the author took into account some of the latest trends both in theoretical lexicology and in the lexical changes typical
of modern English. It must also be noted that some sections are covered
in greater detail, while others represent a narrower scale of material. Here
is the rationale behind some of the exercises offered by the author.
The exercises on word-building do not only cover traditional and
typical word-building patterns in English, such as composition and derivation, but also less wide-spread and codied, such as blending (contamination), formations with semi-afxes, combining forms. The rationale
behind including such formations is manifold. Firstly, some of them are
traditionally made use of in the formation of terms (combining forms),
others have gained popularity quite recently and are extensively used in
media-discourse (blending). Secondly, if a word-building pattern becomes
foregrounded, it should not be overlooked. This is the case with blending (or contamination), whose activation is down to several factors: the
condensed and compressed form of blends makes them a very efcient
means of expressing several notions through a single lexeme; it also aids
to create a new notion, more often than not, pragmatically and emotion6

ally charged and/or humorously tinged. Blends are a potential metaphoric


formation: two notions and two words are merged due to some more or
less objective or subjective similarity. The more distant the notions are,
the more striking the emerging blend is likely to be.
The introduction of endocentric, exocentric (bahuvrihi), copulative
and appositional compounds highlights various semantic and structural
types of compound words and deepens students understanding of the
nature and essence of nomination and the features that were chosen as
the basis of nomination whether reecting the essence of the referent
or seemingly supercial. In the latter case the resultant compound is, as a
rule, idiomatic, metaphorical and evokes vivid imagery.
Paraphrasing a text belonging to a different register makes a learner of
English sensitive to formal and informal contexts and to stylistic colouring of
words. Ultimately, it is supposed to inculcate in them a sense of appropriateness of a particular word or an expression and stylistic specics thereof.
Exercises centered around regional varieties of English are meant to
raise students awareness of different types of English and to get them to
understand that they are not to be mixed up. Getting familiar with some of
the dialects of the British Isles may prove to be benecial for learners of
English and to facilitate interaction in case of their travelling abroad.
Finding a Russian equivalent for English idioms as well as constructing proverbs from smaller rearranged blocks does not only expand students knowledge thereof, but also develops their analytical skills and establishes typological characteristics of both languages. The exercise that
involves converting a literally described situation into a metaphoric idiom
provides entertainment, fun, a diversion from the traditional academic exercises and activates students mental skills that involve searching for the
relevant item in the long-term memory and lling a tting slot.
Each section of the book is divided into two parts the Points to
ponder part and the Exercises part. In the rst part some theoretical
questions, tasks as well as theoretical information are provided to facilitate a transition to the second part, which is comprised of exercises that
are related to the topic under consideration.
Many of the exercises are provided with keys, but only those where we
felt learners may have difculty in nding answers on their own or when
access to the pertinent reference sources may not easily be available.
7

Introduction
English lexicology is not only a purely theoretical discipline aimed
to upgrade students knowledge of its past, its present and its perspectives
for the future, but is also an in-depth practical course with multiple objectives, namely:
to inspire students curiosity about the past of words;
to help them differentiate between subtle shades of meaning;
to facilitate the recognition of different word-building patterns;
to further the recognition of novel formations, actively used in the
modern media-discourse;
to broaden their repertoire of synonymic ways of referring to reality;
to make students English more authentic and idiomatic;
to ultimately make students interaction with foreigners smoother
and more gratifying, so that it should become a mutually benecial experience.
While writing this book, the author took into account some of the latest trends both in theoretical lexicology and in the lexical changes typical
of modern English. It must also be noted that some sections are covered
in greater detail, while others represent a narrower scale of material. Here
is the rationale behind some of the exercises offered by the author.
The exercises on word-building do not only cover traditional and
typical word-building patterns in English, such as composition and derivation, but also less wide-spread and codied, such as blending (contamination), formations with semi-afxes, combining forms. The rationale
behind including such formations is manifold. Firstly, some of them are
traditionally made use of in the formation of terms (combining forms),
others have gained popularity quite recently and are extensively used in
media-discourse (blending). Secondly, if a word-building pattern becomes
foregrounded, it should not be overlooked. This is the case with blending (or contamination), whose activation is down to several factors: the
condensed and compressed form of blends makes them a very efcient
means of expressing several notions through a single lexeme; it also aids
to create a new notion, more often than not, pragmatically and emotion6

ally charged and/or humorously tinged. Blends are a potential metaphoric


formation: two notions and two words are merged due to some more or
less objective or subjective similarity. The more distant the notions are,
the more striking the emerging blend is likely to be.
The introduction of endocentric, exocentric (bahuvrihi), copulative
and appositional compounds highlights various semantic and structural
types of compound words and deepens students understanding of the
nature and essence of nomination and the features that were chosen as
the basis of nomination whether reecting the essence of the referent
or seemingly supercial. In the latter case the resultant compound is, as a
rule, idiomatic, metaphorical and evokes vivid imagery.
Paraphrasing a text belonging to a different register makes a learner of
English sensitive to formal and informal contexts and to stylistic colouring of
words. Ultimately, it is supposed to inculcate in them a sense of appropriateness of a particular word or an expression and stylistic specics thereof.
Exercises centered around regional varieties of English are meant to
raise students awareness of different types of English and to get them to
understand that they are not to be mixed up. Getting familiar with some of
the dialects of the British Isles may prove to be benecial for learners of
English and to facilitate interaction in case of their travelling abroad.
Finding a Russian equivalent for English idioms as well as constructing proverbs from smaller rearranged blocks does not only expand students knowledge thereof, but also develops their analytical skills and establishes typological characteristics of both languages. The exercise that
involves converting a literally described situation into a metaphoric idiom
provides entertainment, fun, a diversion from the traditional academic exercises and activates students mental skills that involve searching for the
relevant item in the long-term memory and lling a tting slot.
Each section of the book is divided into two parts the Points to
ponder part and the Exercises part. In the rst part some theoretical
questions, tasks as well as theoretical information are provided to facilitate a transition to the second part, which is comprised of exercises that
are related to the topic under consideration.
Many of the exercises are provided with keys, but only those where we
felt learners may have difculty in nding answers on their own or when
access to the pertinent reference sources may not easily be available.
7

1. Word
Points to ponder
Over the years different denitions of the word
have been suggested, some of them are based on the
purely semantic criterion, others put the premium
on structural, functional, stylistic, communicative or
pragmatic aspects of the word.
Investigate the problems of word denition and answer the following questions (do the tasks suggested):

5. A word is one of the units of speech or writing that native


speakers of a language usually regard as the smallest isolable meaningful element of the language, although linguists
would analyze these further into morphemes (Collins English Dictionary, 6th edition 2007).

Comment on the following denitions of the word and choose the


one which seems the most appropriate to you. Specify the criterion that underlies each denition. Which of the denitions is the
least precise?

6. A word is the smallest unit of language that can be used independently; such a unit represented in writing or printing,
usually separated off by spaces (Chambers Dictionary, 9th
edition, 2003).

1. A word is an uninterrupted string of letters which is preceded by a blank space and followed by a blank space or
punctuation mark.

In Western linguistic tradition it is still fashionable to single out


the morpheme as the minimal unit of communication. What is the
problematic aspect underlying this methodology?
Enumerate structural and semantic characteristics of the word and
say how it differs from a word-combination. Are there any fuzzy
sets (borderline cases)?
How can you prove that washing machine is a word? Supple
some other similar cases of a two-unit word.
Are wrap up and single out cases of one word or are they two
words?
What is the difference between a word and a sentence?

2. A word is an utterance conveying a single meaning.

3. A word is a speech sound or series of speech sounds that


symbolizes and communicates a meaning usually without
being divisible into smaller units capable of independent use
(Merriam-Websters New Collegiate Dictionary, 2008).
8

4. A word is a sound or a combination of sounds, or its representation in writing or printing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of a single morpheme
or of a combination of morphemes (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th edition, 2000).

The notion of word is one of the central in


lexicology. However, there is still no unanimous
opinion as to what the word really is, that is to say,
it is not amenable to an unambiguous denition. The
9

1. Word
Points to ponder
Over the years different denitions of the word
have been suggested, some of them are based on the
purely semantic criterion, others put the premium
on structural, functional, stylistic, communicative or
pragmatic aspects of the word.
Investigate the problems of word denition and answer the following questions (do the tasks suggested):

5. A word is one of the units of speech or writing that native


speakers of a language usually regard as the smallest isolable meaningful element of the language, although linguists
would analyze these further into morphemes (Collins English Dictionary, 6th edition 2007).

Comment on the following denitions of the word and choose the


one which seems the most appropriate to you. Specify the criterion that underlies each denition. Which of the denitions is the
least precise?

6. A word is the smallest unit of language that can be used independently; such a unit represented in writing or printing,
usually separated off by spaces (Chambers Dictionary, 9th
edition, 2003).

1. A word is an uninterrupted string of letters which is preceded by a blank space and followed by a blank space or
punctuation mark.

In Western linguistic tradition it is still fashionable to single out


the morpheme as the minimal unit of communication. What is the
problematic aspect underlying this methodology?
Enumerate structural and semantic characteristics of the word and
say how it differs from a word-combination. Are there any fuzzy
sets (borderline cases)?
How can you prove that washing machine is a word? Supple
some other similar cases of a two-unit word.
Are wrap up and single out cases of one word or are they two
words?
What is the difference between a word and a sentence?

2. A word is an utterance conveying a single meaning.

3. A word is a speech sound or series of speech sounds that


symbolizes and communicates a meaning usually without
being divisible into smaller units capable of independent use
(Merriam-Websters New Collegiate Dictionary, 2008).
8

4. A word is a sound or a combination of sounds, or its representation in writing or printing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of a single morpheme
or of a combination of morphemes (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th edition, 2000).

The notion of word is one of the central in


lexicology. However, there is still no unanimous
opinion as to what the word really is, that is to say,
it is not amenable to an unambiguous denition. The
9

term word usually designates a structure smaller than a word combination, but larger that a single sound segment (Z Amvela E., 2010). This
simple and comprehensible denition is not free from fault: the indenite
article in the English language is a single sound segment and yet it is
denitely a word. Denitions of the word are legion, some of them highlighting structural, notional, functional, phonological and other aspects
of the word (see above). From the structural perspective, a word can be
dened as a unit of language or speech that consists of one or more morphemes at least one of which can be used independently. This is, so to
speak, the ideal scenario, because some words consist of morphemes that
are no longer used in speech independently. Some examples are: receive,
conceive, confer, refer, etc. These words consist of a prex and a remnant
root which is, synchronically, a bound form no longer recognized by the
majority of native speakers as a meaningful element.
According to the notional criterion, the word is dened as a linguistic unit conveying a single notion. This denition purports to distinguish
between a word and a phrase, which conveys not one but at least two
notions. According to the functional criterion the word possesses a fullyedged nominative function. Unlike that of a word, the functions of a
morpheme and a phrase can be, respectively, dened as constitutive and a
poly-nominative, the function of a sentence being predicative-communicative. According to the phonological criterion, the word is a combination
of sounds preceded and followed by pauses and conveying a meaning
which distinguishes it from other words in a language.
One of the most daunting lexicological tasks concerning the word
is to distinguish between a compound word and a word-combination (a
phrase). Some compounds represent the so-called fuzzy sets, that is, language elements whose status veers. What is meant here is that orthographically compounds can be spelt solid, hyphenated and spaced (A. Cruse,
Jackson H., G.G. Bondarchuk): Note that the orthographic treatment of
compounds is by no means consistent. Some are written as one word
(with or without a hyphen between two roots), while others are written as two or more words (emphasis mine) [Jackson H., Z Amvela E.,
2010:92]. Compounds may be spelt either solid (landmark) or hyphenated (land-law) or open (land mass). There may be some variation especially between hyphenated and open compounds: land-crab appears hy10

phenated in COD8 (1990) but open in COD9 [Jackson H., Z Amvela


E., 2010:192]. The almost unpredictable nature of how compounds can or
should be spelt is summed up by R.W. Zandvoort and H.W. Fowler: The
reader of the last and other sections of this handbook cannot fail to have
been struck by a lack of consistency in the use of HYPHENS in the writing of compounds. This lack of consistency is entirely in keeping with
English practice, on which the late H.W. Fowler in his Dictionary of Modern English Usage (a book to be used with care) expresses himself thus:
The chaos prevailing among writers or printers or both regarding the use
of hyphens is discreditable to English education. Logic would, of course,
prescribe that undoubted compounds, like goldsmith, should be spelt as
single words; that a hyphen should be used when the two elements are
only occasionally combined, and, therefore, to some extent preserve their
individuality in combination (she-wolf); and that the two words should
be written apart when they form a group of adjectives + noun, or attrib.
noun + noun, etc., not a compound (the London streets). The very logic
of this division, however, makes it difcult to apply in many cases, with
the result that it is often ignored in cases of less difculty. The best advice
to be given in this matter is: when in doubt, consult the Concise Oxford
Dictionary [Zandvoort, 288:1962].
In the traditional sense, the word consists of at least one free lexical
morpheme, but it can also be made up of a whole series of lexical morphemes, like beer-drinker, theatergoer, segregationist, or denationalization. Leech gives the examples drum-majorettishly and railway-station refreshment room [Lipka, 2002:89].
One of the meaningful differences between a compound and a word
combination is that the meaning of a free phrase can usually be inferred
from its constituents, whereas compounds are characterized semantically
by the fact that they tend to acquire specialized meanings, thus becoming
very much like idioms. Only in rare cases is the meaning of a compound
derived from that of its constituents in the literal sense. In most cases, the
meaning of at least one of the constituents is somehow obscured [Jackson H., Z Amvela E., 2010:94].
Compounds are also prototypically characterized by a single primary
stress that falls on the rst stem of a compound. If a compound, however, consists of three or more morphemes it is rarely the rst stem that
11

term word usually designates a structure smaller than a word combination, but larger that a single sound segment (Z Amvela E., 2010). This
simple and comprehensible denition is not free from fault: the indenite
article in the English language is a single sound segment and yet it is
denitely a word. Denitions of the word are legion, some of them highlighting structural, notional, functional, phonological and other aspects
of the word (see above). From the structural perspective, a word can be
dened as a unit of language or speech that consists of one or more morphemes at least one of which can be used independently. This is, so to
speak, the ideal scenario, because some words consist of morphemes that
are no longer used in speech independently. Some examples are: receive,
conceive, confer, refer, etc. These words consist of a prex and a remnant
root which is, synchronically, a bound form no longer recognized by the
majority of native speakers as a meaningful element.
According to the notional criterion, the word is dened as a linguistic unit conveying a single notion. This denition purports to distinguish
between a word and a phrase, which conveys not one but at least two
notions. According to the functional criterion the word possesses a fullyedged nominative function. Unlike that of a word, the functions of a
morpheme and a phrase can be, respectively, dened as constitutive and a
poly-nominative, the function of a sentence being predicative-communicative. According to the phonological criterion, the word is a combination
of sounds preceded and followed by pauses and conveying a meaning
which distinguishes it from other words in a language.
One of the most daunting lexicological tasks concerning the word
is to distinguish between a compound word and a word-combination (a
phrase). Some compounds represent the so-called fuzzy sets, that is, language elements whose status veers. What is meant here is that orthographically compounds can be spelt solid, hyphenated and spaced (A. Cruse,
Jackson H., G.G. Bondarchuk): Note that the orthographic treatment of
compounds is by no means consistent. Some are written as one word
(with or without a hyphen between two roots), while others are written as two or more words (emphasis mine) [Jackson H., Z Amvela E.,
2010:92]. Compounds may be spelt either solid (landmark) or hyphenated (land-law) or open (land mass). There may be some variation especially between hyphenated and open compounds: land-crab appears hy10

phenated in COD8 (1990) but open in COD9 [Jackson H., Z Amvela


E., 2010:192]. The almost unpredictable nature of how compounds can or
should be spelt is summed up by R.W. Zandvoort and H.W. Fowler: The
reader of the last and other sections of this handbook cannot fail to have
been struck by a lack of consistency in the use of HYPHENS in the writing of compounds. This lack of consistency is entirely in keeping with
English practice, on which the late H.W. Fowler in his Dictionary of Modern English Usage (a book to be used with care) expresses himself thus:
The chaos prevailing among writers or printers or both regarding the use
of hyphens is discreditable to English education. Logic would, of course,
prescribe that undoubted compounds, like goldsmith, should be spelt as
single words; that a hyphen should be used when the two elements are
only occasionally combined, and, therefore, to some extent preserve their
individuality in combination (she-wolf); and that the two words should
be written apart when they form a group of adjectives + noun, or attrib.
noun + noun, etc., not a compound (the London streets). The very logic
of this division, however, makes it difcult to apply in many cases, with
the result that it is often ignored in cases of less difculty. The best advice
to be given in this matter is: when in doubt, consult the Concise Oxford
Dictionary [Zandvoort, 288:1962].
In the traditional sense, the word consists of at least one free lexical
morpheme, but it can also be made up of a whole series of lexical morphemes, like beer-drinker, theatergoer, segregationist, or denationalization. Leech gives the examples drum-majorettishly and railway-station refreshment room [Lipka, 2002:89].
One of the meaningful differences between a compound and a word
combination is that the meaning of a free phrase can usually be inferred
from its constituents, whereas compounds are characterized semantically
by the fact that they tend to acquire specialized meanings, thus becoming
very much like idioms. Only in rare cases is the meaning of a compound
derived from that of its constituents in the literal sense. In most cases, the
meaning of at least one of the constituents is somehow obscured [Jackson H., Z Amvela E., 2010:94].
Compounds are also prototypically characterized by a single primary
stress that falls on the rst stem of a compound. If a compound, however, consists of three or more morphemes it is rarely the rst stem that
11

receives the primary stress: usually, it is the second or the third. Some
examples are: wastepaper basket, twenty-twenty vision. The former has
its accent on the stem paper, the latter on the last constituent vision
(Cambridge Advanced Learners Talking Dictionary).

Exercises:
I
Below are a number of words represented by numbers. Specify
their structural, semantic and functional peculiarities1. What is unusual in their semantics and structure? Is there any connection between these words and text-messaging?
Word

Meaning

24/7

24 hours a day, 7 days a week; I have to work 24/7.


incessant(ly)

411

Data, information (from dial- I like my new colleague, but I


ing 411 on the phone for infor- dont have the 411 on him.
mation)

Money for the purchase of I have got 5 on that pizza.


some item

5150

Insane, crazy. California police Have you gone 5150 to attempt


code for escaped lunatic
to tackle the gangster on your
own?

9-to-5

A job

08/15

Designation for the standard This movie was just o-eight-fmachine gun of the German teen, nothing special
army before WWI, hence the
meaning something very common, nothing special

Illustration

He dropped out of school and


got a 9-to-5

The examples are taken from the dictionary by A. Peckham, 2005, and from the
electronic dictionary PseudoDictionary.com. See references.

12

Word

Meaning

Illustration

10/90
(Also 20/
80, 30/70)

Ten percent of ones hair on the Chris has a 10/90.


top, ninety percent in the back.

11

A word for someone who be- Our school motto is Be an


lieves they are better than ev- 11. It makes me sad.
eryone else, and attempts to get
everyone else to join them by
telling them to be an eleven,
even if they dont want to.

00 (dou- super-suave,
sophisticated, He always acts so 00.
ble O)
brilliant, debonair
1-and-2ed

used to accent victory over another person, usually said in the


process of doing something unexpected or after getting someone to do something that only
aids in your purpose; duped,
betrayed, taken advantage of,
cheated on

While Chris was deliberately


distracted, Justin made the
winning shot and cried out:
Youve got 1-and-2ed!

II
Below are a number of compound words taken from Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary, Websters Third International Dictionary. Name the prototypical
and marginal features of the compounds and say in what way they differ
from a word combination.
Compound Words

Prototypical features Marginal features

Twenty-twenty vision (noun)


Perfect sight, especially as measured by a standard desk
e.g. The optician told me I had
twenty-twenty vision. (Cambridge
Advanced Learners Dictionary)

13

receives the primary stress: usually, it is the second or the third. Some
examples are: wastepaper basket, twenty-twenty vision. The former has
its accent on the stem paper, the latter on the last constituent vision
(Cambridge Advanced Learners Talking Dictionary).

Exercises:
I
Below are a number of words represented by numbers. Specify
their structural, semantic and functional peculiarities1. What is unusual in their semantics and structure? Is there any connection between these words and text-messaging?
Word

Meaning

24/7

24 hours a day, 7 days a week; I have to work 24/7.


incessant(ly)

411

Data, information (from dial- I like my new colleague, but I


ing 411 on the phone for infor- dont have the 411 on him.
mation)

Money for the purchase of I have got 5 on that pizza.


some item

5150

Insane, crazy. California police Have you gone 5150 to attempt


code for escaped lunatic
to tackle the gangster on your
own?

9-to-5

A job

08/15

Designation for the standard This movie was just o-eight-fmachine gun of the German teen, nothing special
army before WWI, hence the
meaning something very common, nothing special

Illustration

He dropped out of school and


got a 9-to-5

The examples are taken from the dictionary by A. Peckham, 2005, and from the
electronic dictionary PseudoDictionary.com. See references.

12

Word

Meaning

Illustration

10/90
(Also 20/
80, 30/70)

Ten percent of ones hair on the Chris has a 10/90.


top, ninety percent in the back.

11

A word for someone who be- Our school motto is Be an


lieves they are better than ev- 11. It makes me sad.
eryone else, and attempts to get
everyone else to join them by
telling them to be an eleven,
even if they dont want to.

00 (dou- super-suave,
sophisticated, He always acts so 00.
ble O)
brilliant, debonair
1-and-2ed

used to accent victory over another person, usually said in the


process of doing something unexpected or after getting someone to do something that only
aids in your purpose; duped,
betrayed, taken advantage of,
cheated on

While Chris was deliberately


distracted, Justin made the
winning shot and cried out:
Youve got 1-and-2ed!

II
Below are a number of compound words taken from Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary, Websters Third International Dictionary. Name the prototypical
and marginal features of the compounds and say in what way they differ
from a word combination.
Compound Words

Prototypical features Marginal features

Twenty-twenty vision (noun)


Perfect sight, especially as measured by a standard desk
e.g. The optician told me I had
twenty-twenty vision. (Cambridge
Advanced Learners Dictionary)

13

Compound Words
House husband (noun)
A man who stays at home and
cleans the house, takes care
of the children, while his wife
goes out to work. (Cambridge
Advanced Learners Dictionary)
Chair lift (noun)
A set of chairs hanging from a
moving wire driven by motor,
which carries people, especially
those who are going skiing, up
and down mountains. (Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary)
Sewing machine (noun)
A machine which is used for
joining together pieces of cloth,
and which has a needle that is
operated either by turning a
handle or by electricity (Cambridge Advanced Learners
Dictionary)
Fork-lift (noun)
A small vehicle which has two
strong bars of metal xed to the
front used for lifting piles of
goods. (Cambridge Advanced
Learners Dictionary)
Hatband (noun)
A strip of material which is
xed around the outside of a hat.
(Cambridge Advanced Learners
Dictionary)

14

Prototypical features Marginal features

Compound Words

Prototypical features Marginal features

Hatchback (noun)
A car which has an extra door
at the back which can be lifted
up to allow things to be put in
(Cambridge Advanced Learners
Dictionary)
Foxglove (noun)
A tall thin plant with white, yellow, pink or purple bell-shaped
owers growing all the way up
its stem (Cambridge Advanced
Learners Dictionary)
Agony aunt
A person who writes in a newspaper or magazine giving advice
in reply to peoples letters about
their personal problems
(Oxford Wordpower Dictionary)

III
The question of whether nonce-words can be regarded as words proper is open to argument. Noncewords are words created ad hoc for one particular
occasion, they have a context-bound meaning and
are created out of laziness (1), with a view to avoid
the obvious (2), for love of precision (3), out of the desire for brevity (4).
The function of nonce-words and the motivation behind their creation
will differ depending on the type of discourse and the sphere of communication in which they appear. In literary genre they are deliberate coinages minted by the author out of stylistic purposes. In everyday colloquial
communication they may be inadvertent slips of the tongue or emerge
because of linguistic laxity, recklessness or lack of linguistic knowledge.
a) Look through the nonce-words below which were coined in
spontaneous everyday communication. Specify the causes of their ap15

Compound Words
House husband (noun)
A man who stays at home and
cleans the house, takes care
of the children, while his wife
goes out to work. (Cambridge
Advanced Learners Dictionary)
Chair lift (noun)
A set of chairs hanging from a
moving wire driven by motor,
which carries people, especially
those who are going skiing, up
and down mountains. (Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary)
Sewing machine (noun)
A machine which is used for
joining together pieces of cloth,
and which has a needle that is
operated either by turning a
handle or by electricity (Cambridge Advanced Learners
Dictionary)
Fork-lift (noun)
A small vehicle which has two
strong bars of metal xed to the
front used for lifting piles of
goods. (Cambridge Advanced
Learners Dictionary)
Hatband (noun)
A strip of material which is
xed around the outside of a hat.
(Cambridge Advanced Learners
Dictionary)

14

Prototypical features Marginal features

Compound Words

Prototypical features Marginal features

Hatchback (noun)
A car which has an extra door
at the back which can be lifted
up to allow things to be put in
(Cambridge Advanced Learners
Dictionary)
Foxglove (noun)
A tall thin plant with white, yellow, pink or purple bell-shaped
owers growing all the way up
its stem (Cambridge Advanced
Learners Dictionary)
Agony aunt
A person who writes in a newspaper or magazine giving advice
in reply to peoples letters about
their personal problems
(Oxford Wordpower Dictionary)

III
The question of whether nonce-words can be regarded as words proper is open to argument. Noncewords are words created ad hoc for one particular
occasion, they have a context-bound meaning and
are created out of laziness (1), with a view to avoid
the obvious (2), for love of precision (3), out of the desire for brevity (4).
The function of nonce-words and the motivation behind their creation
will differ depending on the type of discourse and the sphere of communication in which they appear. In literary genre they are deliberate coinages minted by the author out of stylistic purposes. In everyday colloquial
communication they may be inadvertent slips of the tongue or emerge
because of linguistic laxity, recklessness or lack of linguistic knowledge.
a) Look through the nonce-words below which were coined in
spontaneous everyday communication. Specify the causes of their ap15

pearance. What knowledge does the speaker lack word-wise? Can


these words be regarded as words proper?
Remindful (mindful), insuccess (failure), deplacement (displacement), correctitude (correctness), briskened (quickened),
unquiet (unrest).

b) Consider the following nonce-words selected from the works


by British and American writers. Can these units be regarded as
proper words? Dwell on the rationale behind their coinage and specify the linguistic means of their creation.
They caught him, I say. Hes not a threat anymore.
Thats good! she says, a big falsey-toothy smile opening onto
her face. You are a wonderful job for us. We are all grateful to
you. [Ford, 1996: 87].

Do you feel sometimes that no ones looking out for you anymore? She smiles faintly. The creases at the corners of her
mouth make weals in her cheeks.
Every day. I try to beam back a martyrish look [Ford,
1986:245].

But if Im right, his question is of a much more omenish and


divining nature, having to do with the character of eventuality
[Ford, 1986:98].

They are large women in white, tentish maid-dresses, talking


and swinging big banger purses, waiting for their white ladies
to come and pick them up [Ford, 1986:143].
16

I am confused and sad as no idea if Mark still loves me or not


and scared to ask.
Very lovingful of Mark [Fielding, 2000:78].
So that for our most intimate moments we ended up skulking
around on the sly: rendezvousing for dinner plus surreptitious
hand-holding and smooching in angst-thick public places, then
slipping out to the car and making out in the dark till our lips
were numb and our bodies limp [Ford, 1986:42].
Was nightmare in shoe shop. Just trying on brown squareheeled 70s style shoes in ofce feeling very dj-vu-sque for all
those back-to-school times buying new shoes and ghting with
bloody mom about what they were allowed to be like [Fielding,
2000:45].
Ten minutes later I was sitting in a Mark Darsy-esque white
room in a white robe with a white towel on my head surrounded
by Mum, a swathe of coloured swatches and somebody called
Mary [Fielding, 2000:56].

I looked out my window, stood in my yard sunsets with a sense


of solace and achievement, cleaned my rain gutters, eyed my
shingles, fertilized regularly, spoke to my neighbours the normal applauseless life of us all [Ford, 1996:90].
When it came time to teach, literature seemed wide and indifferentiable not at all distillable and I didnt know where to
start; mostly I would stand at the tall windows distracted as a
camel while one of my students discussed an interesting short
story he had found on his own [Ford, 1986:67].
17

pearance. What knowledge does the speaker lack word-wise? Can


these words be regarded as words proper?
Remindful (mindful), insuccess (failure), deplacement (displacement), correctitude (correctness), briskened (quickened),
unquiet (unrest).

b) Consider the following nonce-words selected from the works


by British and American writers. Can these units be regarded as
proper words? Dwell on the rationale behind their coinage and specify the linguistic means of their creation.
They caught him, I say. Hes not a threat anymore.
Thats good! she says, a big falsey-toothy smile opening onto
her face. You are a wonderful job for us. We are all grateful to
you. [Ford, 1996: 87].

Do you feel sometimes that no ones looking out for you anymore? She smiles faintly. The creases at the corners of her
mouth make weals in her cheeks.
Every day. I try to beam back a martyrish look [Ford,
1986:245].

But if Im right, his question is of a much more omenish and


divining nature, having to do with the character of eventuality
[Ford, 1986:98].

They are large women in white, tentish maid-dresses, talking


and swinging big banger purses, waiting for their white ladies
to come and pick them up [Ford, 1986:143].
16

I am confused and sad as no idea if Mark still loves me or not


and scared to ask.
Very lovingful of Mark [Fielding, 2000:78].
So that for our most intimate moments we ended up skulking
around on the sly: rendezvousing for dinner plus surreptitious
hand-holding and smooching in angst-thick public places, then
slipping out to the car and making out in the dark till our lips
were numb and our bodies limp [Ford, 1986:42].
Was nightmare in shoe shop. Just trying on brown squareheeled 70s style shoes in ofce feeling very dj-vu-sque for all
those back-to-school times buying new shoes and ghting with
bloody mom about what they were allowed to be like [Fielding,
2000:45].
Ten minutes later I was sitting in a Mark Darsy-esque white
room in a white robe with a white towel on my head surrounded
by Mum, a swathe of coloured swatches and somebody called
Mary [Fielding, 2000:56].

I looked out my window, stood in my yard sunsets with a sense


of solace and achievement, cleaned my rain gutters, eyed my
shingles, fertilized regularly, spoke to my neighbours the normal applauseless life of us all [Ford, 1996:90].
When it came time to teach, literature seemed wide and indifferentiable not at all distillable and I didnt know where to
start; mostly I would stand at the tall windows distracted as a
camel while one of my students discussed an interesting short
story he had found on his own [Ford, 1986:67].
17

I think I know exactly what you are getting at.


What about?Mr. Tanks says suspiciously staring sharks at
me.
About wondering where I ought to go, I say in as unaggressive,
unsharky, unhomophilic a way as possible. [Ford, 1986:75].
onsequently its a good strategy to set the Markhams adrift...
staring at the greasy motel walls, listening to the trafc drum
past, everyone but them bound for cozy seaside holiday arrangements where youthful, happy, perfect-toothed loved ones wave
greetings from lighted porches, holding big pitches of cold gin
[Ford, 1986:98].

Im way ahead of him emotionally. Ill have my period pretty


soon.
Well, thats good to know, I say, my heart going ker-whonk,
my eyes suddenly hot and unhappily moist not with unhappy
tears, but with unhappy sweat that has busted out on my forehead [Ford, 1986:9].

I literally bashed right into Frank one summer night a year ago,
driving home tired and foggy-eyed from the Red Man Club,
where Id shed till ten [Ford, 1996:96].

Why are you driving so eff-ing slow? he says. Then, in a


mocking old-grannys voice, Everybody passes me, but I get
there just as fast as the rest of them. [Ford, 1986:100].

Her eyes snap at me. She offers me a long-toothed, savage


stare and waves my way as if she knew me from Bogalussa or
Minter City maybe she simply recognizes a fellow southerner
(smth. in the submissive shruggy set of my shoulders) [Ford,
1986:265].

V
Exclamations and interjections can be dened as conventional sound
words that have developed as imitative words that resemble or suggest
the sound2. Going by this denition and one (ones) that you can nd in a
dictionary (dictionaries), say in what way interjections and exclamations
differ from other functional parts of speech.

Because no matter how many emotions his fancy dipolar circuits had allowed him to mimic, he was still at it, a computer.
Even following Eddie this far into riddledoms Twilight Zone
ad caused Blaines sanity to totter [King, 2003:56].

Consider the interjections and exclamations below and express your


opinion of their linguistic status.

Instead I make my old, familiar turn down fragrant, bonneted Hoving Road, a turn I virtually never make these days but
should, since my memories have almost all boiled down to good
ones or at least to tolerable, instructive ones [Ford, 1996:79].
18

Then all at once ve immense jet planes come cracking in over


us, low and ridiculously close together, their wings steady as
knife blades, their smack-shwoosh eruption following a hearts
beat behind [Ford, 1996:8].

Exclamation and Interjections


Ah!
Aha!
Ahchoo!
Ahem!

Function and General Meaning


surprise, joy
surprise, triumph
sneezing
throaty sound to attract attention

2
This is the way Sol Steinmetz and Barbara Ann Kipfer dene exclamations and
interjections (2006).

19

I think I know exactly what you are getting at.


What about?Mr. Tanks says suspiciously staring sharks at
me.
About wondering where I ought to go, I say in as unaggressive,
unsharky, unhomophilic a way as possible. [Ford, 1986:75].
onsequently its a good strategy to set the Markhams adrift...
staring at the greasy motel walls, listening to the trafc drum
past, everyone but them bound for cozy seaside holiday arrangements where youthful, happy, perfect-toothed loved ones wave
greetings from lighted porches, holding big pitches of cold gin
[Ford, 1986:98].

Im way ahead of him emotionally. Ill have my period pretty


soon.
Well, thats good to know, I say, my heart going ker-whonk,
my eyes suddenly hot and unhappily moist not with unhappy
tears, but with unhappy sweat that has busted out on my forehead [Ford, 1986:9].

I literally bashed right into Frank one summer night a year ago,
driving home tired and foggy-eyed from the Red Man Club,
where Id shed till ten [Ford, 1996:96].

Why are you driving so eff-ing slow? he says. Then, in a


mocking old-grannys voice, Everybody passes me, but I get
there just as fast as the rest of them. [Ford, 1986:100].

Her eyes snap at me. She offers me a long-toothed, savage


stare and waves my way as if she knew me from Bogalussa or
Minter City maybe she simply recognizes a fellow southerner
(smth. in the submissive shruggy set of my shoulders) [Ford,
1986:265].

V
Exclamations and interjections can be dened as conventional sound
words that have developed as imitative words that resemble or suggest
the sound2. Going by this denition and one (ones) that you can nd in a
dictionary (dictionaries), say in what way interjections and exclamations
differ from other functional parts of speech.

Because no matter how many emotions his fancy dipolar circuits had allowed him to mimic, he was still at it, a computer.
Even following Eddie this far into riddledoms Twilight Zone
ad caused Blaines sanity to totter [King, 2003:56].

Consider the interjections and exclamations below and express your


opinion of their linguistic status.

Instead I make my old, familiar turn down fragrant, bonneted Hoving Road, a turn I virtually never make these days but
should, since my memories have almost all boiled down to good
ones or at least to tolerable, instructive ones [Ford, 1996:79].
18

Then all at once ve immense jet planes come cracking in over


us, low and ridiculously close together, their wings steady as
knife blades, their smack-shwoosh eruption following a hearts
beat behind [Ford, 1996:8].

Exclamation and Interjections


Ah!
Aha!
Ahchoo!
Ahem!

Function and General Meaning


surprise, joy
surprise, triumph
sneezing
throaty sound to attract attention

2
This is the way Sol Steinmetz and Barbara Ann Kipfer dene exclamations and
interjections (2006).

19

Exclamation and Interjections


Bah!
boo
er
e
Hah?
Ha-ha!
Ho-hum
Huh?
Humph!
Oh!
Ouch!
Phew!
Pshaw!
psst
sh (shh)
tehee
tsk-tsk
tut-tut
ugh

Function and General Meaning


contempt
disapproval or derision
hesitation
disgust
suspicion, interrogation
laughter
boredom
disbelief, confusion
disbelief
surprise, sympathy
sudden pain
disgust or exhaustion
impatience or contempt
unobtrusive sound to call smb.s attention
shushing
snickering laughter
pity or commiseration
disapproval or disdain
aversion or horror

Recommended reading:
.. . .: , 2000.
.. // . , 1975. . 129135.
.. . .: - , 1986.
.. . : , 1993.
.. :
. 3- ., . .: ,
2006.
.. . 4- ., . .: , 2007.
.. . . .: , 1973.

20

.. . .:
. ., 1985.
..
. .: , 1986.
.. : . . . - - . . . .: . ., 1986.
.. : . . . . , 2008.
.. . , 1989.
.. : . .
: . ., 1992.
Bauer L. English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1983.
Lipka L. English Lexicology: lexical structure, word semantics and wordformation. Tbingen: Narr, 2002.
Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present Day English Word Formation. Second Edition. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1969.

Exclamation and Interjections


Bah!
boo
er
e
Hah?
Ha-ha!
Ho-hum
Huh?
Humph!
Oh!
Ouch!
Phew!
Pshaw!
psst
sh (shh)
tehee
tsk-tsk
tut-tut
ugh

Function and General Meaning


contempt
disapproval or derision
hesitation
disgust
suspicion, interrogation
laughter
boredom
disbelief, confusion
disbelief
surprise, sympathy
sudden pain
disgust or exhaustion
impatience or contempt
unobtrusive sound to call smb.s attention
shushing
snickering laughter
pity or commiseration
disapproval or disdain
aversion or horror

Recommended reading:
.. . .: , 2000.
.. // . , 1975. . 129135.
.. . .: - , 1986.
.. . : , 1993.
.. :
. 3- ., . .: ,
2006.
.. . 4- ., . .: , 2007.
.. . . .: , 1973.

20

.. . .:
. ., 1985.
..
. .: , 1986.
.. : . . . - - . . . .: . ., 1986.
.. : . . . . , 2008.
.. . , 1989.
.. : . .
: . ., 1992.
Bauer L. English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1983.
Lipka L. English Lexicology: lexical structure, word semantics and wordformation. Tbingen: Narr, 2002.
Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present Day English Word Formation. Second Edition. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1969.

2. Stylistic Stratication of English Vocabulary.


Slang. Barbarisms
Points to ponder
What are the earmarks of the neutral, colloquial and literary layers
of English vocabulary? Why is it essential to single them out?
Name the pertinent characteristics of the neutral layer. What accounts for its indispensability?
Say whether each neutral word has its colloquial and literary
counterparts? What does it depend on?
What are the peculiarities of common literary and common colloquial words?
Slang has been known to draw both criticisms and scholastic support over the years. Are there any contexts where slang could be
appropriate or should it be regarded as a linguistic pariah to be
avoided by all possible means? Do you think there are any situations (register) when slang words would be suitable in the speech
of an academic?
What denition of slang do you consider the most exhaustive? In
what way does slang differ from colloquial words?
What is enantiosemy and how is it related to slang?
Would you advise people who speak a dialect of English to discard
their dialect if they are going to study in a London university or if
they are required to make a public speech? Why or why not?
Would you consider a person who knows a lot of bookish words and
has an extensive recognition vocabulary as the one who has reached
the heights in language learning and who is truly procient in it?
Should literary high-own words be restricted to the printed page
or is there any place for them in oral speech?
What are the spheres of application and usage of archaic, obsolete
and poetic words? Can a word be simultaneously archaic and poetic?
Why is ofcialese so hard to read, understand and perceive for a
foreign language learner?
What is the difference between slang, jargon and vulgar words?
Can these terms be treated as synonyms?
22

Slang
Over the years slang has been an ample source
of novel lexical items, be it from the structural or
semantic point of view. Across different linguistic
traditions opinions vary as to how slang should be
treated as a vagabond language, which is insensitive to and negligent of language norms, as well as
referents it tends to downgrade or play down, or as the origin of metaphor,
be it poetic or trite. If metaphor it certainly is, the poetic value of slang
could be disputed. Poetry in the traditional sense of the word is aimed
predominantly at elevating the subject or, in case it deserves censure, at
giving its due by revealing some hideous aspects of society. In contrast,
slang tends to bring elevated or neutral subject-matter down to earth,
performing an anti-euphemistic function, it divests the clad, overfeeds
the satiated, makes thin people still thinner and those with receding hairline bald. In other words, it exaggerates the negative and dishonours the
positive. Therefore, one would be well-advised not to resort to it more often than is absolutely indispensible, and when nding oneself in a group
of more than two unfamiliar people to avoid it altogether, otherwise the
social repercussions of blatantly violating the register may be far worse
than apprehended.
One of the most popular means of creating new slang words is semantic readjustment of some existing lexeme, often in such a way that
the basis for the transference is hardly traceable, though in most cases it
is. Thus, one wouldnt have much difculty in deciphering why the affectionate name for womans breasts is girls. After all, they form part
of any girl and are deemed by some as one of the most compelling.
Seriously speaking (or writing), the two most typical types of semantic
transference are not unknown to slang. The above case is an example of
metonymy, namely synecdoche, which is a type of transference when the
whole represents some part or vice versa. The number of slang synonyms
a word may have, seems to depend on the nature of the referent the word
denotes: the more general and vague it is, the more slangish counterparts
a word is likely to have. Another factor is the relative importance or value
of the referent for the speaker the more relevant the item is the more
23

2. Stylistic Stratication of English Vocabulary.


Slang. Barbarisms
Points to ponder
What are the earmarks of the neutral, colloquial and literary layers
of English vocabulary? Why is it essential to single them out?
Name the pertinent characteristics of the neutral layer. What accounts for its indispensability?
Say whether each neutral word has its colloquial and literary
counterparts? What does it depend on?
What are the peculiarities of common literary and common colloquial words?
Slang has been known to draw both criticisms and scholastic support over the years. Are there any contexts where slang could be
appropriate or should it be regarded as a linguistic pariah to be
avoided by all possible means? Do you think there are any situations (register) when slang words would be suitable in the speech
of an academic?
What denition of slang do you consider the most exhaustive? In
what way does slang differ from colloquial words?
What is enantiosemy and how is it related to slang?
Would you advise people who speak a dialect of English to discard
their dialect if they are going to study in a London university or if
they are required to make a public speech? Why or why not?
Would you consider a person who knows a lot of bookish words and
has an extensive recognition vocabulary as the one who has reached
the heights in language learning and who is truly procient in it?
Should literary high-own words be restricted to the printed page
or is there any place for them in oral speech?
What are the spheres of application and usage of archaic, obsolete
and poetic words? Can a word be simultaneously archaic and poetic?
Why is ofcialese so hard to read, understand and perceive for a
foreign language learner?
What is the difference between slang, jargon and vulgar words?
Can these terms be treated as synonyms?
22

Slang
Over the years slang has been an ample source
of novel lexical items, be it from the structural or
semantic point of view. Across different linguistic
traditions opinions vary as to how slang should be
treated as a vagabond language, which is insensitive to and negligent of language norms, as well as
referents it tends to downgrade or play down, or as the origin of metaphor,
be it poetic or trite. If metaphor it certainly is, the poetic value of slang
could be disputed. Poetry in the traditional sense of the word is aimed
predominantly at elevating the subject or, in case it deserves censure, at
giving its due by revealing some hideous aspects of society. In contrast,
slang tends to bring elevated or neutral subject-matter down to earth,
performing an anti-euphemistic function, it divests the clad, overfeeds
the satiated, makes thin people still thinner and those with receding hairline bald. In other words, it exaggerates the negative and dishonours the
positive. Therefore, one would be well-advised not to resort to it more often than is absolutely indispensible, and when nding oneself in a group
of more than two unfamiliar people to avoid it altogether, otherwise the
social repercussions of blatantly violating the register may be far worse
than apprehended.
One of the most popular means of creating new slang words is semantic readjustment of some existing lexeme, often in such a way that
the basis for the transference is hardly traceable, though in most cases it
is. Thus, one wouldnt have much difculty in deciphering why the affectionate name for womans breasts is girls. After all, they form part
of any girl and are deemed by some as one of the most compelling.
Seriously speaking (or writing), the two most typical types of semantic
transference are not unknown to slang. The above case is an example of
metonymy, namely synecdoche, which is a type of transference when the
whole represents some part or vice versa. The number of slang synonyms
a word may have, seems to depend on the nature of the referent the word
denotes: the more general and vague it is, the more slangish counterparts
a word is likely to have. Another factor is the relative importance or value
of the referent for the speaker the more relevant the item is the more
23

slang names it is likely to develop. By way of illustration, the stylistically


neutral lexeme money and the stylistically marked, emotionally tinged
lexeme cool could be furnished. The former seems to have no fewer
than a dozen slang synonyms: bank, Benjamins, bread, cabbage, cake,
cash, change, cheddar, chips, clams, coin, dead presidents, dough, duckets, ow, loot, moola, paper, rice, scratch, smackers. The motivation behind most of the items is more or less transparent: referring to money with
the help of the foodstuffs names reects the relative value thereof during
a particular historical period. Cabbage seems to have been chosen due
to the resemblance in colour. All slang words for money are based on
some existing vocabulary item, that is, apart from the truncated mon,
there is hardly any slangish synonym that would twist the phonetic or
graphic shape of the word money. In contrast, some of the slang words
for cool do play on the phonetic and graphic shape of the word (at least
the rst two): kewl, coo, all that, awesome, badass, bangin, boss, crisp,
da bomb, def, dope, far out, y, fresh, gnarly, groovy, keen, killer, mad,
mint, neat, nifty, phat, pimp, rad, radical, sick, solid, sweet, tight, tubular,
wicked. Unlike the slang words for money mentioned above, some of
the cool counterparts are based on enantiosemy the emergence of a
positive connotation in a word that usually connotes something negative.
This is the case with the cited words badass, dope, gnarly, killer, mad,
sick, wicked. The rationale behind the positive meaning is that originally
the application of such names was based on irony: evaluating something
or a persons activities as good or laudable, one refers to it using a negative word. It could be explained psychologically, however: consciously
or subconsciously one realizes the meanness of some thing and acknowledges it linguistically.
One of the remarkable features of contemporary slang is that, for some
reason, one particular word-building pattern (which is best referred to as
word-creative) is extensively made use of in slang, namely blending (or
contamination). R. Cullen asserts that, some of todays most inventive
neologisms, or new words, have been formed by combining two existing
words. These blends, also called portmanteaux, include the prex of
one word and the sufx of another. The resulting term incorporates the
denitions of both original words, often in clever or amusing waysThe
more we talk and text our conversations, the more we seek to distinguish
24

and express ourselves with unique and creative vocabulary. When we do,
its only a matter of seconds before an interesting new coinage makes its
way around the world [Cullen, 2007:37]. Some of the recent slangish
portmanteaux are denotly (denitely + not: most denitely not), abdomen (ab + abdomen: a abby midsection), irritainment (irritate +
entertainment: the annoying and degrading reality-based entertainment
and media spectacles one nds impossible to resist), mancation (man +
vacation: a mens-only vacation; typically a weekend jaunt during which
men bond and relax during rounds of golf, steak dinners, and plenty of
beer), resolutionary (resolution + revolutionary: a person who makes a
New Years resolution to join a gym and then quits after a few months),
ringxiety (ring + anxiety: the panic and fear induced by one ringing
cell phone in a crowd, causing everyone to scramble for their phone lest
they miss a call). The Little Hiptionary by R. Cullen (2007) contains 61
blends out of 300 slang words, which is approximately 20%. The number
is suggestive of the popularity of blending as a word-building pattern.
There are a number of reasons underlying this popularity, some of them
are purely pragmatic, others psychological, still others are supposedly
down to some peculiarities of referents that are designated with the help
of blending. From pragmatic vantage point, condensed or compressed
information tends to attract more attention and be more memorable. Second, since slang words reect the distorted picture of the referent, which
still bears resemblance to it, it is only convenient to use a model that
admits of creating a paronymic lexeme a derivative word resembling a
dictionary unit and containing graphic, phonetic, morphemic and graphemic deformations simultaneously, one deformity entailing another. Due
to technological progress and constant inow of information as well as
globalization, new objects develop that are characterized by a complex,
previously incompatible properties. The blend camcorder, for instance,
is just such an example. Although a slang word, by denition, can never
be a term, it does not preclude it from lending a dictionary item some additional characteristics that vary on the scale of objectivity, never actually
reaching complete objectivity and veering between mildly subjective to
highly idiosyncratic. This is small wonder, because slang tends to disregard the usual order of things and sometimes, at least verbally, to distort
objects and phenomena, evaluating them either as negligible and despi25

slang names it is likely to develop. By way of illustration, the stylistically


neutral lexeme money and the stylistically marked, emotionally tinged
lexeme cool could be furnished. The former seems to have no fewer
than a dozen slang synonyms: bank, Benjamins, bread, cabbage, cake,
cash, change, cheddar, chips, clams, coin, dead presidents, dough, duckets, ow, loot, moola, paper, rice, scratch, smackers. The motivation behind most of the items is more or less transparent: referring to money with
the help of the foodstuffs names reects the relative value thereof during
a particular historical period. Cabbage seems to have been chosen due
to the resemblance in colour. All slang words for money are based on
some existing vocabulary item, that is, apart from the truncated mon,
there is hardly any slangish synonym that would twist the phonetic or
graphic shape of the word money. In contrast, some of the slang words
for cool do play on the phonetic and graphic shape of the word (at least
the rst two): kewl, coo, all that, awesome, badass, bangin, boss, crisp,
da bomb, def, dope, far out, y, fresh, gnarly, groovy, keen, killer, mad,
mint, neat, nifty, phat, pimp, rad, radical, sick, solid, sweet, tight, tubular,
wicked. Unlike the slang words for money mentioned above, some of
the cool counterparts are based on enantiosemy the emergence of a
positive connotation in a word that usually connotes something negative.
This is the case with the cited words badass, dope, gnarly, killer, mad,
sick, wicked. The rationale behind the positive meaning is that originally
the application of such names was based on irony: evaluating something
or a persons activities as good or laudable, one refers to it using a negative word. It could be explained psychologically, however: consciously
or subconsciously one realizes the meanness of some thing and acknowledges it linguistically.
One of the remarkable features of contemporary slang is that, for some
reason, one particular word-building pattern (which is best referred to as
word-creative) is extensively made use of in slang, namely blending (or
contamination). R. Cullen asserts that, some of todays most inventive
neologisms, or new words, have been formed by combining two existing
words. These blends, also called portmanteaux, include the prex of
one word and the sufx of another. The resulting term incorporates the
denitions of both original words, often in clever or amusing waysThe
more we talk and text our conversations, the more we seek to distinguish
24

and express ourselves with unique and creative vocabulary. When we do,
its only a matter of seconds before an interesting new coinage makes its
way around the world [Cullen, 2007:37]. Some of the recent slangish
portmanteaux are denotly (denitely + not: most denitely not), abdomen (ab + abdomen: a abby midsection), irritainment (irritate +
entertainment: the annoying and degrading reality-based entertainment
and media spectacles one nds impossible to resist), mancation (man +
vacation: a mens-only vacation; typically a weekend jaunt during which
men bond and relax during rounds of golf, steak dinners, and plenty of
beer), resolutionary (resolution + revolutionary: a person who makes a
New Years resolution to join a gym and then quits after a few months),
ringxiety (ring + anxiety: the panic and fear induced by one ringing
cell phone in a crowd, causing everyone to scramble for their phone lest
they miss a call). The Little Hiptionary by R. Cullen (2007) contains 61
blends out of 300 slang words, which is approximately 20%. The number
is suggestive of the popularity of blending as a word-building pattern.
There are a number of reasons underlying this popularity, some of them
are purely pragmatic, others psychological, still others are supposedly
down to some peculiarities of referents that are designated with the help
of blending. From pragmatic vantage point, condensed or compressed
information tends to attract more attention and be more memorable. Second, since slang words reect the distorted picture of the referent, which
still bears resemblance to it, it is only convenient to use a model that
admits of creating a paronymic lexeme a derivative word resembling a
dictionary unit and containing graphic, phonetic, morphemic and graphemic deformations simultaneously, one deformity entailing another. Due
to technological progress and constant inow of information as well as
globalization, new objects develop that are characterized by a complex,
previously incompatible properties. The blend camcorder, for instance,
is just such an example. Although a slang word, by denition, can never
be a term, it does not preclude it from lending a dictionary item some additional characteristics that vary on the scale of objectivity, never actually
reaching complete objectivity and veering between mildly subjective to
highly idiosyncratic. This is small wonder, because slang tends to disregard the usual order of things and sometimes, at least verbally, to distort
objects and phenomena, evaluating them either as negligible and despi25

cable, or elevating the despicable and the negligible. According to The


Little Hiptionary, the spheres that tend to be a draw for blended slang
words are negative feelings about something, poor or unusual quality
of some object.
Another specic feature of modern slang is that converted proper
names are used as common nouns, mostly with some negative evaluative
connotations: How dare you to Lewinsky your way up the corporate ladder! Her skirt is so short you can practically see her Britney. Rumour has
it that guy OJd his wife! [Cullen, 2007:35]. As can be seen from the cited
examples, most of the proper names that have changed their referential
status have a notorious or shameful background and more often than not
are associated with pop-culture. Some of them are used as part of a blend:
Stay away from that girl. Shes a total Paris-ite [Cullen, 2007:34]. Here
the dubious celebrity P. Hilton is compared to a parasite.
Sports, forming an integral part of British and American culture, also
serve as an ample source of slang words: Sports slang, and particularly
words and expressions from the game of baseball, is so deeply ingrained
in our culture that we may not realize the extent to which it peppers our
everyday language. We step up to the plate, pitch ideas, drop the ball, and
play hardball all without setting foot on a eld [Cullen, 2007:114].
Some examples illuminated by The Little Hiptionary are: 1. nutmeg
(v.) in soccer, to kick the ball between the defenders legs, run around
him, and continue dribbling the ball down the eld: Kent was mortied
when Michael nutmegged him in the rst half. 2. Zebra (n.) a referee
wearing a black and white striped uniform: Send this zebra back to the
zoo! the hockey fans jeered. 3. Can of corn (n.) in baseball, an easy-tocatch y ball: Cmon, Mayes! the coach yelled from the dugout. How
could you miss that can of corn? 4. Juice (n.) steroids: Three months after starting his juice regimen, Tyrones muscle mass noticeably increased.
[Cullen, 2007:117, 119, 123].
Sports slang gave rise to a couple dozen words with the meaning of
to beat or to win: bash, beat, belt, blaze, blister, clip, clock, cork, drill,
hammer, house, juice, lace, laser beam, lash, nail, own, paste, pepper,
plank, pole, pound, powder, pown, pummel, ram, rap, rip, scald, school,
scorch, shellack, slap, slug, smack, smash, smoke, spank, sting, stroke,
whack, whang, whip. Some of the expressions referred to as sports slang
26

could be regarded as idioms that have become part and parcel of everyday
parlance, in fact they could be regarded as sports terms that have developed an idiomatic meaning (for more detailed information see E.A. Nikulina, 2005): Caroline sent out party invitations in an attempt to get the ball
90

Means of Forming Slang Words

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

1. Semantic readjustment

86

2. Blending

64

3. Composition

35

4. Conversion

25

5. Derivation

15

6. Graphic Distortion

13

7. Onomatopoeia

8. Shortening

9. Reduplication

10. Lexicalization of a prefix (e.g. Mc-)

11. Incorrect derivation (orientate)

12. Acronym (RIF - reduction in force)

27

cable, or elevating the despicable and the negligible. According to The


Little Hiptionary, the spheres that tend to be a draw for blended slang
words are negative feelings about something, poor or unusual quality
of some object.
Another specic feature of modern slang is that converted proper
names are used as common nouns, mostly with some negative evaluative
connotations: How dare you to Lewinsky your way up the corporate ladder! Her skirt is so short you can practically see her Britney. Rumour has
it that guy OJd his wife! [Cullen, 2007:35]. As can be seen from the cited
examples, most of the proper names that have changed their referential
status have a notorious or shameful background and more often than not
are associated with pop-culture. Some of them are used as part of a blend:
Stay away from that girl. Shes a total Paris-ite [Cullen, 2007:34]. Here
the dubious celebrity P. Hilton is compared to a parasite.
Sports, forming an integral part of British and American culture, also
serve as an ample source of slang words: Sports slang, and particularly
words and expressions from the game of baseball, is so deeply ingrained
in our culture that we may not realize the extent to which it peppers our
everyday language. We step up to the plate, pitch ideas, drop the ball, and
play hardball all without setting foot on a eld [Cullen, 2007:114].
Some examples illuminated by The Little Hiptionary are: 1. nutmeg
(v.) in soccer, to kick the ball between the defenders legs, run around
him, and continue dribbling the ball down the eld: Kent was mortied
when Michael nutmegged him in the rst half. 2. Zebra (n.) a referee
wearing a black and white striped uniform: Send this zebra back to the
zoo! the hockey fans jeered. 3. Can of corn (n.) in baseball, an easy-tocatch y ball: Cmon, Mayes! the coach yelled from the dugout. How
could you miss that can of corn? 4. Juice (n.) steroids: Three months after starting his juice regimen, Tyrones muscle mass noticeably increased.
[Cullen, 2007:117, 119, 123].
Sports slang gave rise to a couple dozen words with the meaning of
to beat or to win: bash, beat, belt, blaze, blister, clip, clock, cork, drill,
hammer, house, juice, lace, laser beam, lash, nail, own, paste, pepper,
plank, pole, pound, powder, pown, pummel, ram, rap, rip, scald, school,
scorch, shellack, slap, slug, smack, smash, smoke, spank, sting, stroke,
whack, whang, whip. Some of the expressions referred to as sports slang
26

could be regarded as idioms that have become part and parcel of everyday
parlance, in fact they could be regarded as sports terms that have developed an idiomatic meaning (for more detailed information see E.A. Nikulina, 2005): Caroline sent out party invitations in an attempt to get the ball
90

Means of Forming Slang Words

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

1. Semantic readjustment

86

2. Blending

64

3. Composition

35

4. Conversion

25

5. Derivation

15

6. Graphic Distortion

13

7. Onomatopoeia

8. Shortening

9. Reduplication

10. Lexicalization of a prefix (e.g. Mc-)

11. Incorrect derivation (orientate)

12. Acronym (RIF - reduction in force)

27

rolling. Lets try to get to rst base by scheduling a meeting. How will we
ever level the playing eld? The most popular spheres which seem to have
subjective gaps to be lled are subculture, business, technology, on-line
slang, sports slang (according to The Little Hiptionary).
The research into the percentage contribution of different word-building patterns as well as semantic processes that participate in the formation
of slang items, based on The Little Hiptionary, revealed the following
statistics3:
The given gures demonstrate that semantic readjustment (86),
blending (64), and composition (35) are the most wide-spread means of
forming slang items. It must be noted that the resultant slang is not necessarily comprised of words, but may also include idiomatic phrases.
To recapitulate, one could say that slang is characterized by a multifaceted nature: in one way it is a repository of metaphors, which when
applied in an appropriate way, may serve to embellish the concept or, conversely, to foreground some hideous aspects that may be played down by
authorities. In the latter case slang performs a purgatory function, disambiguating some notions that are made to look less repugnant. Slang is born
as a result of a highly critical and judgmental attitude towards reality. One
could object to this, however, by saying that youths and adolescents, when
they resort to slang, are not really critical of reality, but, more often than
not, emulate somebody whom they deem as more upbeat, fashionable, or
popular with the peers. This indiscriminate usage of slang is traditionally
looked down upon, since it shows a lack of discretion, discrimination and
selectivity on the part of the speaker. Slang is a double edged-sword no
matter what kind of slang words you use or in what situation (formal/informal register), you have to be prepared to face the consequences of a
possible misapplied word or of somebody taking offence.

1. Although he was very loquacious at the defense, it did not


transpire from his speech how the defendant had appropriated the effect.
2. Scratch my back, and Ill scratch yours. said Oliver.
How do you mean? asked George.
I mean, lend me 5 greenbacks in dough and I leg it.

3. As I arrived, I found a despondent site, the place forlorn,


the walls bearing no vestiges of the recent dwelling.

4. Will you be so kind as to elaborate on the point minutely,


mentioning the pertaining and salient information only,
discarding digressions.

5. The punitive measures are contingent upon your prospective demeanor.

6. Are you in the possession of the wherewithal to purchase


the said article?

7. I presume you have a penchant for a more artistic occupation.

Exercises:
I
Paraphrase the words and expressions in bold using different
stylistic synonyms so that the resultant text belongs to a different register:
3

28

Some of the cases were left out as they did not lend themselves to easy categorization.

II
There are some word forming elements in slang that seem to be
more actively used than others. These are, for instance, the lexical
units monkey, happy and dog. Say what meaning they lend to
the rst element and what the resultant compound means.
29

rolling. Lets try to get to rst base by scheduling a meeting. How will we
ever level the playing eld? The most popular spheres which seem to have
subjective gaps to be lled are subculture, business, technology, on-line
slang, sports slang (according to The Little Hiptionary).
The research into the percentage contribution of different word-building patterns as well as semantic processes that participate in the formation
of slang items, based on The Little Hiptionary, revealed the following
statistics3:
The given gures demonstrate that semantic readjustment (86),
blending (64), and composition (35) are the most wide-spread means of
forming slang items. It must be noted that the resultant slang is not necessarily comprised of words, but may also include idiomatic phrases.
To recapitulate, one could say that slang is characterized by a multifaceted nature: in one way it is a repository of metaphors, which when
applied in an appropriate way, may serve to embellish the concept or, conversely, to foreground some hideous aspects that may be played down by
authorities. In the latter case slang performs a purgatory function, disambiguating some notions that are made to look less repugnant. Slang is born
as a result of a highly critical and judgmental attitude towards reality. One
could object to this, however, by saying that youths and adolescents, when
they resort to slang, are not really critical of reality, but, more often than
not, emulate somebody whom they deem as more upbeat, fashionable, or
popular with the peers. This indiscriminate usage of slang is traditionally
looked down upon, since it shows a lack of discretion, discrimination and
selectivity on the part of the speaker. Slang is a double edged-sword no
matter what kind of slang words you use or in what situation (formal/informal register), you have to be prepared to face the consequences of a
possible misapplied word or of somebody taking offence.

1. Although he was very loquacious at the defense, it did not


transpire from his speech how the defendant had appropriated the effect.
2. Scratch my back, and Ill scratch yours. said Oliver.
How do you mean? asked George.
I mean, lend me 5 greenbacks in dough and I leg it.

3. As I arrived, I found a despondent site, the place forlorn,


the walls bearing no vestiges of the recent dwelling.

4. Will you be so kind as to elaborate on the point minutely,


mentioning the pertaining and salient information only,
discarding digressions.

5. The punitive measures are contingent upon your prospective demeanor.

6. Are you in the possession of the wherewithal to purchase


the said article?

7. I presume you have a penchant for a more artistic occupation.

Exercises:
I
Paraphrase the words and expressions in bold using different
stylistic synonyms so that the resultant text belongs to a different register:
3

28

Some of the cases were left out as they did not lend themselves to easy categorization.

II
There are some word forming elements in slang that seem to be
more actively used than others. These are, for instance, the lexical
units monkey, happy and dog. Say what meaning they lend to
the rst element and what the resultant compound means.
29

Air monkey
Wheel monkey
Car-happy
Dough-happy
Power-happy
Mean dog
Penny dog
Smart dog
III
Australian slang is characterized by the extensive use of the sufx -o, which doesnt have any specic meaning but renders the
stem to which it is attached familiar-colloquial, bordering on derogatory. Using a dictionary of slang (e.g. Oxford Dictionary of Modern
Slang, 2005) nd out what the following words mean:

Beano
Blotto
Cheapo
Combo
Compo
Daddy-o
Doggo
Fatso
Limo
Milko
Nutso
Rabbito
Salvo

30

IV
The sufx -ee, which is traditionally used in
standard English with the meaning of the receiver
of the action, is also wide-spread in slang, but it is
used with the meaning of the doer of the action and
lends to the word a diminutive or a derogatory tinge.
The sufx -er is used in slang in the formation of
compound verbal nouns, it is added twice to the verb stem and to the
postpositive, making the resultant word morphologically and semantically pleonastic.
Using a dictionary of modern slang, establish what the words
below mean:
Cookee, waitee, kissee, forgettee, breaker-upper, goerawarer, reader-in-bedder.

V
Rhyming slang can be dened as a formation of a compound
word, which rhymes with a common word, but which doesnt have
any semantic connection with it. The resultant word is facetious and
humorous. Find out what the rhyming slang words below mean:

Bees-and-honey, boat-race, Brahms and Liszt, bubbleand-squeak, bull and cow, daisy roots, dog-and-bone,
ve-to-two, greengage, ham and beef, hot beef, linendraper, mince-pie, needle and pin, nickel and dime,
Peckham rye, pen and ink, plates of meat, pot and pan,
rabbit-and-talk, rogue and villain, round-the-houses,
Simple Simon, skin and blister, tomfoolery, turtledove, two-and-eight.

31

Air monkey
Wheel monkey
Car-happy
Dough-happy
Power-happy
Mean dog
Penny dog
Smart dog
III
Australian slang is characterized by the extensive use of the sufx -o, which doesnt have any specic meaning but renders the
stem to which it is attached familiar-colloquial, bordering on derogatory. Using a dictionary of slang (e.g. Oxford Dictionary of Modern
Slang, 2005) nd out what the following words mean:

Beano
Blotto
Cheapo
Combo
Compo
Daddy-o
Doggo
Fatso
Limo
Milko
Nutso
Rabbito
Salvo

30

IV
The sufx -ee, which is traditionally used in
standard English with the meaning of the receiver
of the action, is also wide-spread in slang, but it is
used with the meaning of the doer of the action and
lends to the word a diminutive or a derogatory tinge.
The sufx -er is used in slang in the formation of
compound verbal nouns, it is added twice to the verb stem and to the
postpositive, making the resultant word morphologically and semantically pleonastic.
Using a dictionary of modern slang, establish what the words
below mean:
Cookee, waitee, kissee, forgettee, breaker-upper, goerawarer, reader-in-bedder.

V
Rhyming slang can be dened as a formation of a compound
word, which rhymes with a common word, but which doesnt have
any semantic connection with it. The resultant word is facetious and
humorous. Find out what the rhyming slang words below mean:

Bees-and-honey, boat-race, Brahms and Liszt, bubbleand-squeak, bull and cow, daisy roots, dog-and-bone,
ve-to-two, greengage, ham and beef, hot beef, linendraper, mince-pie, needle and pin, nickel and dime,
Peckham rye, pen and ink, plates of meat, pot and pan,
rabbit-and-talk, rogue and villain, round-the-houses,
Simple Simon, skin and blister, tomfoolery, turtledove, two-and-eight.

31

VI
Another characteristic feature of slang is the formation of pseudo-geographical names, aimed to reect some characteristic feature
of a locality. The following words are some such examples. What localities do they stand for?

Bananaland,
Costa del Crime,
Costa Geriatrica.

IX
Barbaric words (or barbarisms) are non-assimilated words that are traceable to Latin or French
(rarely to some other languages) and that are used in
a well-educated persons speech. They also resemble
terms in that they are, rstly, not known by everyone
and, secondly, usually circulate within some specic
professional elds, like jurisdiction or medicine. Below is a list of most
common barbarisms in English.
Consult a dictionary and (1) say what language they come from
and (2) what their current meaning is4:

VII
In slang, nouns denoting colours are used to form compounds.
Predominantly, these are the nouns blue, brown, red, yellow. What do the compounds below mean and what meaning does
the rst element lend to the second one?

Blue funk, blue murder, brown job,


to brown-nose, brown sugar,
red-devil, red eye, red-hot, yellow-belly.

VIII
Some other elements that are used in the formation of slang
words are hard, Mr., de-. What do the following words containing these elements mean?

Hard ticket, hard tail, hard cheese;


Mr. Big, Mr. Clean, Mr. Proper;
de-bag, de-bunny, de-bug.
32

Ad hoc, ad hominem, a fortiori, a priori, a posteriori, alma


mater, bona de, cum laude, curriculum vitae, e pluribus
unum, Ibid, inter alia, mutatis mutandis, per se, prima
facie, quid pro quo, sine die, sine qua non, sui generis,
la carte, amour-propre, bte-noire, bon voyage, carte
blanche, coup de grce, dj vu, enfant terrible, faux pas,
laissez-faire, nom de plume, nouveau riche, par excellence, tour de force.
An inkhorn word is
a pretentious borrowing
considered to be too highown, pedantic, recondite,
or obscure, and therefore
often frowned upon by purists. The attribute
inkhorn was chosen because it used to be associated with academics and writers, and later
became a symbol of their activities. Very often
such words are scientic terms for a neutral or a
colloquial word.
4

For detailed information on barbarisms in English and their meaning see


. , 2003.

33

VI
Another characteristic feature of slang is the formation of pseudo-geographical names, aimed to reect some characteristic feature
of a locality. The following words are some such examples. What localities do they stand for?

Bananaland,
Costa del Crime,
Costa Geriatrica.

IX
Barbaric words (or barbarisms) are non-assimilated words that are traceable to Latin or French
(rarely to some other languages) and that are used in
a well-educated persons speech. They also resemble
terms in that they are, rstly, not known by everyone
and, secondly, usually circulate within some specic
professional elds, like jurisdiction or medicine. Below is a list of most
common barbarisms in English.
Consult a dictionary and (1) say what language they come from
and (2) what their current meaning is4:

VII
In slang, nouns denoting colours are used to form compounds.
Predominantly, these are the nouns blue, brown, red, yellow. What do the compounds below mean and what meaning does
the rst element lend to the second one?

Blue funk, blue murder, brown job,


to brown-nose, brown sugar,
red-devil, red eye, red-hot, yellow-belly.

VIII
Some other elements that are used in the formation of slang
words are hard, Mr., de-. What do the following words containing these elements mean?

Hard ticket, hard tail, hard cheese;


Mr. Big, Mr. Clean, Mr. Proper;
de-bag, de-bunny, de-bug.
32

Ad hoc, ad hominem, a fortiori, a priori, a posteriori, alma


mater, bona de, cum laude, curriculum vitae, e pluribus
unum, Ibid, inter alia, mutatis mutandis, per se, prima
facie, quid pro quo, sine die, sine qua non, sui generis,
la carte, amour-propre, bte-noire, bon voyage, carte
blanche, coup de grce, dj vu, enfant terrible, faux pas,
laissez-faire, nom de plume, nouveau riche, par excellence, tour de force.
An inkhorn word is
a pretentious borrowing
considered to be too highown, pedantic, recondite,
or obscure, and therefore
often frowned upon by purists. The attribute
inkhorn was chosen because it used to be associated with academics and writers, and later
became a symbol of their activities. Very often
such words are scientic terms for a neutral or a
colloquial word.
4

For detailed information on barbarisms in English and their meaning see


. , 2003.

33

Inkhorn terms may be deemed superuous and concealing the notion


they represent.
X
Consider the supposedly inkhorn words below and their more
natural English counterparts, express your attitude to them. Are they
too scientic and redundant, or could their usage be indicative of a
well-bred, well-educated person?
Inkhorn word
abecedarian
abligurition
acronyx
baisemain
batrachoid
blattoid
brevirostrate
bruxomania
buccula
calamistration
causeuse
collation
deoppilate
dompteuse
sedentate
exennium
glabrous
hirci
jactancy
jaculate
kyphotic
natalitious
noop
odontalgia
oxter

34

Meaning in plain English


a person who teaches the alphabet
excessive spending on food and drink
an ingrown ngernail or toenail
a kiss on the hand
like a frog
like a cockroach
having a short nose
the compulsive grinding of one's teeth
a double chin
the act of curling hair
a sofa built for two people
a light informal meal
to remove an obstruction
a woman who trains animals
having no teeth
a gift given at New Year
having no hair
armpit hair
the act of boasting or bragging
to throw or to hurl
hump-backed
pertaining to someone's birthday
the sharp point of the elbow
a tooth ache
to walk arm in arm

Inkhorn word
plangonologist
psellism
quader
quotidian
rosicler
saxify
senectitude
sloken
thrip

Meaning in plain English


a collector of dolls
an indistinct pronunciation, such as produced by a lisp
or by stammering
to multiply a number by itself
occurring every day
the glowing light of dawn
to turn to stone or rock
old age
to quench one's thirst
to snap ones ngers

Recommended reading:
.. . .:
. ., 1973.
.. : ( ). 3- . .: , 1990.
.. . :
. 8- . .: : , 2006.
.. . .: -
, 1958.
.. . .: , 1980.
..
//
. .: , 2010. . 4147.
.. : , , . 4- . .: , 2009.
Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang. N.Y.: Oxford University Press,
2005.
Peckham A. Urban Dictionary: Fularious Street Slang Dened. Kansas
City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC, 2005.
Peckham A. Urban Dictionary: Ridonkulous Street Slang Dened. Kansas
City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing House, LLC, 2007.
Steinmetz S., Kipfer B.A. The Life of Language. The fascinating ways the
words are born, live and die. N.Y.; Toronto; L.: Random House Reference,
2006.

35

Inkhorn terms may be deemed superuous and concealing the notion


they represent.
X
Consider the supposedly inkhorn words below and their more
natural English counterparts, express your attitude to them. Are they
too scientic and redundant, or could their usage be indicative of a
well-bred, well-educated person?
Inkhorn word
abecedarian
abligurition
acronyx
baisemain
batrachoid
blattoid
brevirostrate
bruxomania
buccula
calamistration
causeuse
collation
deoppilate
dompteuse
sedentate
exennium
glabrous
hirci
jactancy
jaculate
kyphotic
natalitious
noop
odontalgia
oxter

34

Meaning in plain English


a person who teaches the alphabet
excessive spending on food and drink
an ingrown ngernail or toenail
a kiss on the hand
like a frog
like a cockroach
having a short nose
the compulsive grinding of one's teeth
a double chin
the act of curling hair
a sofa built for two people
a light informal meal
to remove an obstruction
a woman who trains animals
having no teeth
a gift given at New Year
having no hair
armpit hair
the act of boasting or bragging
to throw or to hurl
hump-backed
pertaining to someone's birthday
the sharp point of the elbow
a tooth ache
to walk arm in arm

Inkhorn word
plangonologist
psellism
quader
quotidian
rosicler
saxify
senectitude
sloken
thrip

Meaning in plain English


a collector of dolls
an indistinct pronunciation, such as produced by a lisp
or by stammering
to multiply a number by itself
occurring every day
the glowing light of dawn
to turn to stone or rock
old age
to quench one's thirst
to snap ones ngers

Recommended reading:
.. . .:
. ., 1973.
.. : ( ). 3- . .: , 1990.
.. . :
. 8- . .: : , 2006.
.. . .: -
, 1958.
.. . .: , 1980.
..
//
. .: , 2010. . 4147.
.. : , , . 4- . .: , 2009.
Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang. N.Y.: Oxford University Press,
2005.
Peckham A. Urban Dictionary: Fularious Street Slang Dened. Kansas
City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC, 2005.
Peckham A. Urban Dictionary: Ridonkulous Street Slang Dened. Kansas
City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing House, LLC, 2007.
Steinmetz S., Kipfer B.A. The Life of Language. The fascinating ways the
words are born, live and die. N.Y.; Toronto; L.: Random House Reference,
2006.

35

3. Etymology
Points to ponder
Name the major landmarks of borrowing into English. What types
of words were borrowed during these periods?
Given that the majority of words are non-native in English (mostly
of Romance origin), why cant we regard English as a Romance
language?
What are the formal signs of words borrowed from Latin, Greek,
French, Scandinavian, Spanish, etc.?
What are the major types of assimilation? What do we call words
that are completely non-assimilated? In what context are they predominately used? How would you characterize a person who uses
such words?
Specify the reasons for borrowing words.
What spheres of life do international words tend to describe?
Name the types of etymological doublets.
Enumerate structural and stylistic characteristics of borrowed
words, particularly learned and terminology.
Comment on the following quotation from Karl Sornig. Express
your opinion:
People have always used words without knowing where they came
from and what they once denoted. Such knowledge would not be of use to
a speaker anyway; on the contrary, the knowledge of obsolete meanings
would most probably interfere with the present semantic rules of usage.
And even if the etymological meaning of a lexeme has been traced and
made public, the actual meaning of the word usually remains uninuenced by this additionally acquired knowledge. Etymological explanations and clarications have absolutely no effect whatsoever upon the
speakers usage (except if he is one of the very few philologists). Despite
their etymological blindness, people know precisely how to use a word,
some are even capable of explicitly describing differentiations in meaning
[Sornig, 1981:11].
36

Many compound and derived English words


that are non-native in origin, in particular, those going down to Greek and Latin, are etymologically
meaningful. Native speakers, however, may no longer be aware of this, because, as a result of the development of the meaning of a word, its semantics may have departed from
its etymology, or, putting it differently, the word no longer means what it
used to.
Below are some examples of such well-known words. Are you surprised at their etymology?:
Atrocious (XII) 1) extremely cruel or wicked: ruthless atrocious
deeds; 2) horrifying or shocking: an atrocious road accident; 3) informal
very bad: detestable atrocious writing. Etymology: formed on Latin ter
black + stem of oculus eye.
Belfry (XIII) bell-tower or chamber. Etymology: Old French berfrei, Frankish * bergfrid, formed on *bergan protect + * friduz peace,
shelter; the etymological meaning being defensive place of shelter.
Brandy (XVII) 1) an alcoholic drink consisting of spirit distilled
from grape wine; 2) a distillation of wines made from other fruits plum
brandy. Etymology: formed on Dutch elliptical brandewijn: branden
burn, roast + wijn wine.
Caprice (XVII) sudden unaccountable turn of mind; work of art of
lively or sportive character. Etymology: formed on Latin caput head +
ericeus urchin.
Crocodile (XIII) 1) any large tropical reptile, such as C. niloticus
(African crocodile), of the family Crocodylidae: order Crocodilia (crocodilians). They have a broad head, tapering snout, massive jaws, and a thick
outer covering of bony plates, 2) any other reptile of the order Crocodilia;
a crocodilian, 3) a) leather made from the skin of any of these animals,
b) (as modier) crocodile shoes, 4) informal a line of people, esp. schoolchildren, walking two by two. Etymology: Greek *krokdrlos, formed
on krk pebble + drilos worm.
37

3. Etymology
Points to ponder
Name the major landmarks of borrowing into English. What types
of words were borrowed during these periods?
Given that the majority of words are non-native in English (mostly
of Romance origin), why cant we regard English as a Romance
language?
What are the formal signs of words borrowed from Latin, Greek,
French, Scandinavian, Spanish, etc.?
What are the major types of assimilation? What do we call words
that are completely non-assimilated? In what context are they predominately used? How would you characterize a person who uses
such words?
Specify the reasons for borrowing words.
What spheres of life do international words tend to describe?
Name the types of etymological doublets.
Enumerate structural and stylistic characteristics of borrowed
words, particularly learned and terminology.
Comment on the following quotation from Karl Sornig. Express
your opinion:
People have always used words without knowing where they came
from and what they once denoted. Such knowledge would not be of use to
a speaker anyway; on the contrary, the knowledge of obsolete meanings
would most probably interfere with the present semantic rules of usage.
And even if the etymological meaning of a lexeme has been traced and
made public, the actual meaning of the word usually remains uninuenced by this additionally acquired knowledge. Etymological explanations and clarications have absolutely no effect whatsoever upon the
speakers usage (except if he is one of the very few philologists). Despite
their etymological blindness, people know precisely how to use a word,
some are even capable of explicitly describing differentiations in meaning
[Sornig, 1981:11].
36

Many compound and derived English words


that are non-native in origin, in particular, those going down to Greek and Latin, are etymologically
meaningful. Native speakers, however, may no longer be aware of this, because, as a result of the development of the meaning of a word, its semantics may have departed from
its etymology, or, putting it differently, the word no longer means what it
used to.
Below are some examples of such well-known words. Are you surprised at their etymology?:
Atrocious (XII) 1) extremely cruel or wicked: ruthless atrocious
deeds; 2) horrifying or shocking: an atrocious road accident; 3) informal
very bad: detestable atrocious writing. Etymology: formed on Latin ter
black + stem of oculus eye.
Belfry (XIII) bell-tower or chamber. Etymology: Old French berfrei, Frankish * bergfrid, formed on *bergan protect + * friduz peace,
shelter; the etymological meaning being defensive place of shelter.
Brandy (XVII) 1) an alcoholic drink consisting of spirit distilled
from grape wine; 2) a distillation of wines made from other fruits plum
brandy. Etymology: formed on Dutch elliptical brandewijn: branden
burn, roast + wijn wine.
Caprice (XVII) sudden unaccountable turn of mind; work of art of
lively or sportive character. Etymology: formed on Latin caput head +
ericeus urchin.
Crocodile (XIII) 1) any large tropical reptile, such as C. niloticus
(African crocodile), of the family Crocodylidae: order Crocodilia (crocodilians). They have a broad head, tapering snout, massive jaws, and a thick
outer covering of bony plates, 2) any other reptile of the order Crocodilia;
a crocodilian, 3) a) leather made from the skin of any of these animals,
b) (as modier) crocodile shoes, 4) informal a line of people, esp. schoolchildren, walking two by two. Etymology: Greek *krokdrlos, formed
on krk pebble + drilos worm.
37

Pedigree (XV) genealogy in tabular form; ones line of ancestors;


family descent. Etymology: formed on Latin ps, ped- foot + de of +
gru crane: cranes foot. So called from the mark three radiating downward lines used to denote succession in a genealogical tree; later forms
show assimilation to degree.

Exercises:
I
Trace the etymology of the words below and state whether the
inner form departed from the current meaning of the word:

Belligerent
Carnival
Haemorrhage
Horoscope
Manicure
Neighbour
Pomegranate
Schizophrenia

Benediction
Garlic
Harbinger
Jeopardy
Marzipan
Nostalgia
Portmanteau
Porcupine

II
The following groups of words have the same root. 1) State how
the words are related etymology-wise; 2) Specify the difference in the
current meaning of the words:

Permission permissiveness
Aggression aggressiveness
Agreement agreeableness
Vice viciousness
Legality legalization
38

Human humane
Miser misery
Longevity longitude oblong
Closeness closure enclosure cloister
Sanity sanitation sanitarian
Minute minutiae minuet

III
The county names of Great Britain are all meaningful in the sense
that they are etymologically motivated. Below are some county names of
Great Britain. Consult an etymological dictionary or an encyclopedia
and trace their etymology:
Derby, Suffolk, Essex, Kent,
Surrey, Sussex, Buckingham,
Oxford, Dorset, Cornwall, Avon,
Gwent, Warwick, Stafford,
Cheshire, Manchester, Man

IV
The Scandinavian lexical legacy is not only comprised of common nouns and adjectives, such as sky, skin, ill, loose, but
also of various place names. Thus, the elements -by, -thorpe and
-thwaite are of Scandinavian origin and are often found in place
names. Consult a dictionary and say what they mean. Here is a list of
geographical names containing these elements:
Carnaby, Ellerby, Rugby, Thirtleby, Barleythorpe, Grimsthorpe, Hamthorpe, Hilderthorpe, Low Claythorpe, Fridaythorpe, Hampsthwaite, Hunderthwaite, Husthwaite.
39

Pedigree (XV) genealogy in tabular form; ones line of ancestors;


family descent. Etymology: formed on Latin ps, ped- foot + de of +
gru crane: cranes foot. So called from the mark three radiating downward lines used to denote succession in a genealogical tree; later forms
show assimilation to degree.

Exercises:
I
Trace the etymology of the words below and state whether the
inner form departed from the current meaning of the word:

Belligerent
Carnival
Haemorrhage
Horoscope
Manicure
Neighbour
Pomegranate
Schizophrenia

Benediction
Garlic
Harbinger
Jeopardy
Marzipan
Nostalgia
Portmanteau
Porcupine

II
The following groups of words have the same root. 1) State how
the words are related etymology-wise; 2) Specify the difference in the
current meaning of the words:

Permission permissiveness
Aggression aggressiveness
Agreement agreeableness
Vice viciousness
Legality legalization
38

Human humane
Miser misery
Longevity longitude oblong
Closeness closure enclosure cloister
Sanity sanitation sanitarian
Minute minutiae minuet

III
The county names of Great Britain are all meaningful in the sense
that they are etymologically motivated. Below are some county names of
Great Britain. Consult an etymological dictionary or an encyclopedia
and trace their etymology:
Derby, Suffolk, Essex, Kent,
Surrey, Sussex, Buckingham,
Oxford, Dorset, Cornwall, Avon,
Gwent, Warwick, Stafford,
Cheshire, Manchester, Man

IV
The Scandinavian lexical legacy is not only comprised of common nouns and adjectives, such as sky, skin, ill, loose, but
also of various place names. Thus, the elements -by, -thorpe and
-thwaite are of Scandinavian origin and are often found in place
names. Consult a dictionary and say what they mean. Here is a list of
geographical names containing these elements:
Carnaby, Ellerby, Rugby, Thirtleby, Barleythorpe, Grimsthorpe, Hamthorpe, Hilderthorpe, Low Claythorpe, Fridaythorpe, Hampsthwaite, Hunderthwaite, Husthwaite.
39

V
Consult an etymological dictionary and state the origin of the
words below. Where possible, specify the period of borrowing:

Cradle, curse, loch, camp, linen, gem, devil, disciple, martyr, mass, offer, alphabet, fever, giant, mount, polite, radish, air, beast, beauty, colour, diet, fest, ower, journey,
judge, oil, soil, tender, literature, art, medicine, gure,
grammar, remedy, romance, surgeon, fragrant, elegance,
baton, accent, adverb, amplitude, demolish, admire, avenue, balcony, opera.
VI
During the Renaissance period a lot of Italian musical terms
were borrowed. Here is a list of some of them. Consult a dictionary
and say what they mean:

Adagio (1746)
Allegretto (1740)
Andante (1742)
Cantata (1724)
Coda (1753)
Concerto (1730)
Divertimento (1759)
Falsetto (1774)
Impresario (1746)
Moderato (1724)
Oratorio (1727)
Pianissimo (1724)
Sotto voce (1737)

40

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

VII
The English Language absorbed a lot of words not only from Romance, Greek and Scandinavian languages. The inuence of Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese and Hindi should not be disregarded.
Study the table below and say in what spheres of life the following borrowed words are used. What notions do they convey? How
important are they for everyday communication?
Arabic
admiral
albatross
alcohol
algebra
amber
assassin
cotton
mattress
mosque
syrup
sultan
zenith
zero

Persian
arsenic
azure
bazaar
caravan
jackal
jasmine
kiosk
lilac
magic
paradise
shawl
spinach
tulip
turban

Hebrew
amen
behemoth
camel
cherub
hallelujah
jubilee
manna
messiah
Sabbath
sapphire
Satan

Chinese
ginseng
kung fu
yin, yan
tea

Japanese
soy
sushi
sake
aikido
judo
sumo
banzai
origami
samurai
karaoke
geisha
kimono
rickshaw
tycoon

Hindi
bandanna
bangle
bungalow
cheetah
chintz
jungle
loot
pajamas
pundit
shampoo
thug
yoga

VIII
Below is a list of words borrowed during the Renaissance from
Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese. Sort them out and allocate each
word to one of the languages. Say what the meaning of each word is:

Bully, cookie, kit, ogle, scoop, scufe,


snufe, track, albino, cocoa, hacienda,
jerk, palaver, mantilla, torero.

41

V
Consult an etymological dictionary and state the origin of the
words below. Where possible, specify the period of borrowing:

Cradle, curse, loch, camp, linen, gem, devil, disciple, martyr, mass, offer, alphabet, fever, giant, mount, polite, radish, air, beast, beauty, colour, diet, fest, ower, journey,
judge, oil, soil, tender, literature, art, medicine, gure,
grammar, remedy, romance, surgeon, fragrant, elegance,
baton, accent, adverb, amplitude, demolish, admire, avenue, balcony, opera.
VI
During the Renaissance period a lot of Italian musical terms
were borrowed. Here is a list of some of them. Consult a dictionary
and say what they mean:

Adagio (1746)
Allegretto (1740)
Andante (1742)
Cantata (1724)
Coda (1753)
Concerto (1730)
Divertimento (1759)
Falsetto (1774)
Impresario (1746)
Moderato (1724)
Oratorio (1727)
Pianissimo (1724)
Sotto voce (1737)

40

________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________

VII
The English Language absorbed a lot of words not only from Romance, Greek and Scandinavian languages. The inuence of Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese and Hindi should not be disregarded.
Study the table below and say in what spheres of life the following borrowed words are used. What notions do they convey? How
important are they for everyday communication?
Arabic
admiral
albatross
alcohol
algebra
amber
assassin
cotton
mattress
mosque
syrup
sultan
zenith
zero

Persian
arsenic
azure
bazaar
caravan
jackal
jasmine
kiosk
lilac
magic
paradise
shawl
spinach
tulip
turban

Hebrew
amen
behemoth
camel
cherub
hallelujah
jubilee
manna
messiah
Sabbath
sapphire
Satan

Chinese
ginseng
kung fu
yin, yan
tea

Japanese
soy
sushi
sake
aikido
judo
sumo
banzai
origami
samurai
karaoke
geisha
kimono
rickshaw
tycoon

Hindi
bandanna
bangle
bungalow
cheetah
chintz
jungle
loot
pajamas
pundit
shampoo
thug
yoga

VIII
Below is a list of words borrowed during the Renaissance from
Dutch, Spanish and Portuguese. Sort them out and allocate each
word to one of the languages. Say what the meaning of each word is:

Bully, cookie, kit, ogle, scoop, scufe,


snufe, track, albino, cocoa, hacienda,
jerk, palaver, mantilla, torero.

41

IX
Cognates are words that are etymologically related. As was mentioned elsewhere, native speakers, however, may no longer be aware of
this connection. Thus, the words fame, infamy infant, infantry
and bandit are etymologically related. Look up their etymology in a
dictionary and trace their connection.
X
Roots which are usually of Latin or Greek origin and emerge in a number or related words, but
are no longer associated with a clear-cut meaning
are called remnant roots. These are such roots
as -fer, -cur-, -aster, punct-, -pyr-, cap, syn- (sym-, syl-), -lev-, fa- (fe-, pha-, phe-). Study their
meaning and say how it is reected in the meaning of the words that
they form.

XI
Some Indo-European remnant roots are characterized by gradation, a process by which root vowels
alternate with each other or occasionally drop out of
the root. There are different types of gradation, but
the most wide-spread are e-gradation, o-gradation
and zero-gradation.
Study the following words with gradations and say how the words
are related semantically.
Root

e-gradation

o-gradation

zero-gradation

kel hollow, cover

cellar

colour

clandestine

gen birth, origin

genetic

gonorrhea

cognate

men think, warn

demented

admonish

mnemonic

pher carry, bear

Christopher

euphoria

pellagra

surplice

hyperbole

parable

cere grow

cereal

increase

gel jelly, ice, solidify

gelatin

glacial

legal

apology

melliuous

molasses

menace

Montana

pel skin, fell


bol throw, reach

-fer:
-cur-:
-aster:
punct-:
-pyr-:
cap-:
syn-:

-lev-:

42

to carry, bring, bear transfer, refer, prefer, confer, infer, offer


run current, concur, incur, occur, recur
star disaster, asteroid, astronaut
point punctuation, punctual, punctilious,
puncture
re; fever pyrotechnics, antipyretic
take, seize captor, capture, captive
(sym-, syl-): together, with synonym, synthesis, syllogism, syllable, symmetry, sympathy,
lift, rise elevate, lever, levy, levity

leg gather, read, study


mel honey
men lead, project, threaten

XII
Doublets are a pair of distinct words that ultimately derive from the
same single source, but diverge along the line of their development. Doublets may resemble each other in form and sometimes in meaning. Doublets are a result of the historical process of borrowing, which involved
acquiring the same or related vocabulary items from different sources,
usually Latin and French.
Study the etymology of the doublets below and say whether the
words are at present semantically related.
43

IX
Cognates are words that are etymologically related. As was mentioned elsewhere, native speakers, however, may no longer be aware of
this connection. Thus, the words fame, infamy infant, infantry
and bandit are etymologically related. Look up their etymology in a
dictionary and trace their connection.
X
Roots which are usually of Latin or Greek origin and emerge in a number or related words, but
are no longer associated with a clear-cut meaning
are called remnant roots. These are such roots
as -fer, -cur-, -aster, punct-, -pyr-, cap, syn- (sym-, syl-), -lev-, fa- (fe-, pha-, phe-). Study their
meaning and say how it is reected in the meaning of the words that
they form.

XI
Some Indo-European remnant roots are characterized by gradation, a process by which root vowels
alternate with each other or occasionally drop out of
the root. There are different types of gradation, but
the most wide-spread are e-gradation, o-gradation
and zero-gradation.
Study the following words with gradations and say how the words
are related semantically.
Root

e-gradation

o-gradation

zero-gradation

kel hollow, cover

cellar

colour

clandestine

gen birth, origin

genetic

gonorrhea

cognate

men think, warn

demented

admonish

mnemonic

pher carry, bear

Christopher

euphoria

pellagra

surplice

hyperbole

parable

cere grow

cereal

increase

gel jelly, ice, solidify

gelatin

glacial

legal

apology

melliuous

molasses

menace

Montana

pel skin, fell


bol throw, reach

-fer:
-cur-:
-aster:
punct-:
-pyr-:
cap-:
syn-:

-lev-:

42

to carry, bring, bear transfer, refer, prefer, confer, infer, offer


run current, concur, incur, occur, recur
star disaster, asteroid, astronaut
point punctuation, punctual, punctilious,
puncture
re; fever pyrotechnics, antipyretic
take, seize captor, capture, captive
(sym-, syl-): together, with synonym, synthesis, syllogism, syllable, symmetry, sympathy,
lift, rise elevate, lever, levy, levity

leg gather, read, study


mel honey
men lead, project, threaten

XII
Doublets are a pair of distinct words that ultimately derive from the
same single source, but diverge along the line of their development. Doublets may resemble each other in form and sometimes in meaning. Doublets are a result of the historical process of borrowing, which involved
acquiring the same or related vocabulary items from different sources,
usually Latin and French.
Study the etymology of the doublets below and say whether the
words are at present semantically related.
43

Capital, cattle, chattel. The words go down to Medieval Latin capitale, meaning property.
Canary, cynic. From Greek kun- dog.
Abbreviate, abridge. From Latin brevis short.
Aptitude, attitude. From Latin aptitd tness.
Castle, chateau. From Latin castrum fort.
Cloak, clock. From Medieval Latin clocca bell. A
cloak was so called because its shape resembled that of
a bell. A clock was a timepiece in which each hour was
marked by the sound of a bell.
Costume, custom. From Latin cnsutdinem
habit, custom.
Coy, quiet. From Latin quitus at rest, in repose.
Faction, fashion. From Latin facti doing or making.
Guarantee, warranty. The former is from Old French
garant warrant, the latter is from Old Norse French
warantie a warrant.
Guardian, warden. The former is from Old French
gardein protector, custodian, the latter is from
Old Norse French wardein guardian, custodian.
Inch, ounce. The former is from Latin uncia twelfth
part (of a foot, pound, etc.), the latter is from Old
French, meaning a twelfth of a pound.
Legal, loyal. From Latin lglis legal.
Poison, potion. From Latin ptin- a poisonous
drink.
Regal, royal. From Latin rglis t for a king.
Tradition, treason. From Latin trditin- delivery,
handing over, surrender.

44

XIII
Eponyms (from Greek eponymous named
for) are words that can be traced back to a proper name (whose bearer is noted for something) but
function as common nouns and may no longer be
capitalized.
Study the following eponyms and say what the sphere of their
application and usage is. Divide them into several groups according
to their origin.
Atlas: a collection of maps. The mythical Atlas fought an unsuccessful
war against Zeus, who condemned him to bear the heavens on his shoulders.
Band-aid : is usually generalized to refer to any small bandage for a
cut or scratch.
Bikini: the islands where the atom bomb was tested.
Boycott: after Charles Boycott, an English land agent in Ireland.
Cardigan: a sweater or jacket that opens down the front. Named after the
7th Earl of Cardigan (J.T. Brundell, 17971868), who wore such a jacket
when he led the heroic Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean
War.
Casanova: after Giovanni Jacopo Casanova de Seingalt, who wrote vividly about his amorous adventures throughout Europe.
Cashmere: ne wool; named for Cashmere (now Kashmir), a region in
the Himalayas where this wool is obtained.
Chauvinism: militant patriotism. Traced back to Nicholas Chauvin, a
wounded French veteran of the Napoleonic Wars famed for his devotion
to Napoleon and the Empire. At rst he was admired, but after Napoleons
downfall he was ridiculed for his excessive patriotism.
Cheddar: a village in Somerset whence the cheese rst came.
Dahlia: after the Swedish botanist Anders Dahl.
Denim: cotton cloth, originally serge, made in the town of Nmes, southern France, hence serge de Nim.
Derby: a stiff felt hat with rounded crown and narrow brim; named for
the Derby, the annual horse race in Britain, at which men wore this kind
45

Capital, cattle, chattel. The words go down to Medieval Latin capitale, meaning property.
Canary, cynic. From Greek kun- dog.
Abbreviate, abridge. From Latin brevis short.
Aptitude, attitude. From Latin aptitd tness.
Castle, chateau. From Latin castrum fort.
Cloak, clock. From Medieval Latin clocca bell. A
cloak was so called because its shape resembled that of
a bell. A clock was a timepiece in which each hour was
marked by the sound of a bell.
Costume, custom. From Latin cnsutdinem
habit, custom.
Coy, quiet. From Latin quitus at rest, in repose.
Faction, fashion. From Latin facti doing or making.
Guarantee, warranty. The former is from Old French
garant warrant, the latter is from Old Norse French
warantie a warrant.
Guardian, warden. The former is from Old French
gardein protector, custodian, the latter is from
Old Norse French wardein guardian, custodian.
Inch, ounce. The former is from Latin uncia twelfth
part (of a foot, pound, etc.), the latter is from Old
French, meaning a twelfth of a pound.
Legal, loyal. From Latin lglis legal.
Poison, potion. From Latin ptin- a poisonous
drink.
Regal, royal. From Latin rglis t for a king.
Tradition, treason. From Latin trditin- delivery,
handing over, surrender.

44

XIII
Eponyms (from Greek eponymous named
for) are words that can be traced back to a proper name (whose bearer is noted for something) but
function as common nouns and may no longer be
capitalized.
Study the following eponyms and say what the sphere of their
application and usage is. Divide them into several groups according
to their origin.
Atlas: a collection of maps. The mythical Atlas fought an unsuccessful
war against Zeus, who condemned him to bear the heavens on his shoulders.
Band-aid : is usually generalized to refer to any small bandage for a
cut or scratch.
Bikini: the islands where the atom bomb was tested.
Boycott: after Charles Boycott, an English land agent in Ireland.
Cardigan: a sweater or jacket that opens down the front. Named after the
7th Earl of Cardigan (J.T. Brundell, 17971868), who wore such a jacket
when he led the heroic Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean
War.
Casanova: after Giovanni Jacopo Casanova de Seingalt, who wrote vividly about his amorous adventures throughout Europe.
Cashmere: ne wool; named for Cashmere (now Kashmir), a region in
the Himalayas where this wool is obtained.
Chauvinism: militant patriotism. Traced back to Nicholas Chauvin, a
wounded French veteran of the Napoleonic Wars famed for his devotion
to Napoleon and the Empire. At rst he was admired, but after Napoleons
downfall he was ridiculed for his excessive patriotism.
Cheddar: a village in Somerset whence the cheese rst came.
Dahlia: after the Swedish botanist Anders Dahl.
Denim: cotton cloth, originally serge, made in the town of Nmes, southern France, hence serge de Nim.
Derby: a stiff felt hat with rounded crown and narrow brim; named for
the Derby, the annual horse race in Britain, at which men wore this kind
45

of hat. The Derby was founded by the 12th Earl of Derby in 1780, after the
county of this name in central England.
Derrick: a crane for lifting heavy weights; originally, a structure for
hanging someone, a gallows, named after Derrick, surname of a noted
hangman of the Tyburn gallows in London during
the 1600s.
Dunce: a stupid person. A clipping from the name
of John Duns Scotus (12651308), a teacher of theology and philosophy at Oxford who challenged the
teachings of Thomas Aquinas. Followers of Aquinas attacked the disciples of Scotus, calling then
Dunses, and nally equating them with fools and
blockheads.
Guillotine: a device with a large blade for beheading people, named for
Joseph Ignace Guillotin (17381814), a French physician who was a member of the Constituent Assembly in 1789 when he proposed that those condemned to death should be beheaded by a machine, which would be quicker
and more humane than the methods used until then by executioners.
Guy: named for the Catholic conspirator, member of the Gunpowder Plot
in Great Britain, 1606. Since he was held up for ridicule, and in Britain
the word still means a person of odd or grotesque appearance, it is apparent that American English has generalized and neutralized the word.
Hector: to bully. Named for Hector, the champion of Troy in The Lliad,
who fought the Greeks.
Jeans: from the Italian city of Genoa, where the cloth was rst made, as
in blue jeans.
Jello : a particular brand of jellied emulsion, is generalized to refer to
any edible substance of the same type.
Nemesis: after the name of a Greek goddess who punished violations of
all forms of rightful order and proper behavior.
Malapropism: a ridiculously inappropriate use of words; named after
Mrs. Malaprop, a character in R. Sheridans comedy The Rivals (1775).
She regularly misapplied words by replacing the intended word with one
that sounded alike.
Maverick: an individualist, a political independent; (earlier) an animal
unmarked with a brand. Named after A. Maverick (18031870), a Texas
rancher who refused to brand his cattle, saying that branding was cruel.
46

His neighbours accused him of lying, since


it allowed Maverick to claim nay unbranded
cattle on the range as his. By the turn of the
century, maverick had taken on the meaning of someone independent and unconventional, especially a politician who breaks
away from his party.
Mentor: a trusted guide, advisor. Named after Mentor, the faithful
friend of Ulysses in Homers Odyssey. The goddess Athene assumes the
form of Mentor when she accompanies Telemachus as a guide and advisor in his search for his father.
Morphine: a drug extracted from opium. Named after Morpheus, the
Roman God of dreams, son of the god of sleep.
Panic: noises which caused fear in the ocks by night were attributed in
Ancient Greece to Pan, the God of misdeeds; a panic is irrational behavior in the herd.
Nicotine: after Jacques Nicot, who introduced tobacco into France in
1560.
Pompadour: an upswept style of hair. Named after the Marquise de
Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV of France, who wore her hair in
this style.
Raglan: a loose overcoat with sleeves extending to the collar. Named
after Lord Raglan (17881855), a British eld marshal who wore such a
coat during the Crimean War.
Sandwich: after the eighteenth-century British nobleman, the Earl of
Sandwich, who brought bread and meat together to provide sustenance
for himself.
Sardonic (alteration of sardinic): coming from the island of Sardinia.
Refers to a type of sarcastic laughter supposed to resemble the grotesque
effects of eating a certain Sardinian plant.
Silhouette: a portrait made by tracing the outline of a prole, gure and
so on. Named after Etienne de Silhouette (17091767), the controller of
nances in France in 1759.
Bork: to attack a political candidate, especially in the media. Named after
Judge Robert H. Bork, whose nomination to the Supreme Court in 1987 was
rejected by the Senate after an extensive media attacks by his opponents.
47

of hat. The Derby was founded by the 12th Earl of Derby in 1780, after the
county of this name in central England.
Derrick: a crane for lifting heavy weights; originally, a structure for
hanging someone, a gallows, named after Derrick, surname of a noted
hangman of the Tyburn gallows in London during
the 1600s.
Dunce: a stupid person. A clipping from the name
of John Duns Scotus (12651308), a teacher of theology and philosophy at Oxford who challenged the
teachings of Thomas Aquinas. Followers of Aquinas attacked the disciples of Scotus, calling then
Dunses, and nally equating them with fools and
blockheads.
Guillotine: a device with a large blade for beheading people, named for
Joseph Ignace Guillotin (17381814), a French physician who was a member of the Constituent Assembly in 1789 when he proposed that those condemned to death should be beheaded by a machine, which would be quicker
and more humane than the methods used until then by executioners.
Guy: named for the Catholic conspirator, member of the Gunpowder Plot
in Great Britain, 1606. Since he was held up for ridicule, and in Britain
the word still means a person of odd or grotesque appearance, it is apparent that American English has generalized and neutralized the word.
Hector: to bully. Named for Hector, the champion of Troy in The Lliad,
who fought the Greeks.
Jeans: from the Italian city of Genoa, where the cloth was rst made, as
in blue jeans.
Jello : a particular brand of jellied emulsion, is generalized to refer to
any edible substance of the same type.
Nemesis: after the name of a Greek goddess who punished violations of
all forms of rightful order and proper behavior.
Malapropism: a ridiculously inappropriate use of words; named after
Mrs. Malaprop, a character in R. Sheridans comedy The Rivals (1775).
She regularly misapplied words by replacing the intended word with one
that sounded alike.
Maverick: an individualist, a political independent; (earlier) an animal
unmarked with a brand. Named after A. Maverick (18031870), a Texas
rancher who refused to brand his cattle, saying that branding was cruel.
46

His neighbours accused him of lying, since


it allowed Maverick to claim nay unbranded
cattle on the range as his. By the turn of the
century, maverick had taken on the meaning of someone independent and unconventional, especially a politician who breaks
away from his party.
Mentor: a trusted guide, advisor. Named after Mentor, the faithful
friend of Ulysses in Homers Odyssey. The goddess Athene assumes the
form of Mentor when she accompanies Telemachus as a guide and advisor in his search for his father.
Morphine: a drug extracted from opium. Named after Morpheus, the
Roman God of dreams, son of the god of sleep.
Panic: noises which caused fear in the ocks by night were attributed in
Ancient Greece to Pan, the God of misdeeds; a panic is irrational behavior in the herd.
Nicotine: after Jacques Nicot, who introduced tobacco into France in
1560.
Pompadour: an upswept style of hair. Named after the Marquise de
Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV of France, who wore her hair in
this style.
Raglan: a loose overcoat with sleeves extending to the collar. Named
after Lord Raglan (17881855), a British eld marshal who wore such a
coat during the Crimean War.
Sandwich: after the eighteenth-century British nobleman, the Earl of
Sandwich, who brought bread and meat together to provide sustenance
for himself.
Sardonic (alteration of sardinic): coming from the island of Sardinia.
Refers to a type of sarcastic laughter supposed to resemble the grotesque
effects of eating a certain Sardinian plant.
Silhouette: a portrait made by tracing the outline of a prole, gure and
so on. Named after Etienne de Silhouette (17091767), the controller of
nances in France in 1759.
Bork: to attack a political candidate, especially in the media. Named after
Judge Robert H. Bork, whose nomination to the Supreme Court in 1987 was
rejected by the Senate after an extensive media attacks by his opponents.
47

Quisling: a traitor who cooperates with the enemy; named after major
Vidkun Quisling, who headed Norways puppet government under the
Nazis in World War II and was executed for treason in 1945.
Sherry: white wine, originally from Xerez, now Jerex de la Frontera in Spain.
The nal s was deleted on a mistaken view that it was the plural sufx.
Solon: a lawgiver. Named for Solon, an Athenian statesman and lawgiver.
Strangelove: a military strategist who plans large-scale nuclear warfare;
named after Dr. Strangelove, a mad military planner in the 1964 motion
picture Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love
the Bomb, directed by St. Kubrick.
Velcro : a fastening consisting of two strips of nylon fabric, one having tiny hooked threads and the other a coarse surface, that form a strong
bond when pressed together.
Xerox : especially as a verb has come to mean to copy by a dry process.
Reborrowing ( ) is the
process when a word is borrowed from one language
into another, and then it is borrowed back into the
original language in a different form or with a different meaning.
Study the examples below and say how the meaning of the reborrowed word differs from its etymon (etymon is the original word to
which a words etymology can be traced).

French: tenez (to hold): English tennis: French: tennis (the name of the sport)
French: cotte English: riding coat: French: redingote: English: redingote
Greek: knma (movement): French: cinma: Greek
sinem (cinema)
English: animation: Japanese: anime: English anime
(Japanese animation)
English: crack (news, gossip): Irish Gaelic: craic (fun):
English: craic
48

Phono-semantic matching ( ) is an inconspicuous, disguised


borrowing in which a foreign word is rendered by
means of the recipient language, the resultant word
resembling the original word phonetically and semantically. The rationale behind phono-semantic borrowing is as follows:
Recycling obsolete lexical items; camouaging foreign inuence; facilitating learning; playfulness; iconicity; political correctness; attracting
customers (if they are brand-names). Some examples are: the Mandarin
form of World Wide Web is wn wi wng, which literally means
myriad dimensional net; the Icelandic toekni (technology, technique)
is a phono-semantic matching of the Danish teknik, toekni derives
from toeki (tool) and the nominal sufx -ni; Turkish okul is a phonosemantic variant of the French cole (school), okul is derived from
okumak (to read, to study).
In what way does phono-semantic matching differ from loantranslation, or calquing?

Recommended reading:
: - . .
. / .3. , .. , .. .. . 2- .,
. . .: . , 1979.
.. . .: . ., 1986.
Metcalf A. Predicting new words: the secrets of their success. Boston:
Houghton Mifin Company, 2002.
Oxford Concise Dictionary of English Etymology (OCDEE). Oxford,
N.Y., 1996.
Steinmetz S., Kipfer B.A. The Life of Language. The fascinating ways the
words are born, live and die. N.Y.; Toronto; L.: Random House Reference,
2006.
Stockwell R., Minkova D. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Second edition.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

49

Quisling: a traitor who cooperates with the enemy; named after major
Vidkun Quisling, who headed Norways puppet government under the
Nazis in World War II and was executed for treason in 1945.
Sherry: white wine, originally from Xerez, now Jerex de la Frontera in Spain.
The nal s was deleted on a mistaken view that it was the plural sufx.
Solon: a lawgiver. Named for Solon, an Athenian statesman and lawgiver.
Strangelove: a military strategist who plans large-scale nuclear warfare;
named after Dr. Strangelove, a mad military planner in the 1964 motion
picture Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love
the Bomb, directed by St. Kubrick.
Velcro : a fastening consisting of two strips of nylon fabric, one having tiny hooked threads and the other a coarse surface, that form a strong
bond when pressed together.
Xerox : especially as a verb has come to mean to copy by a dry process.
Reborrowing ( ) is the
process when a word is borrowed from one language
into another, and then it is borrowed back into the
original language in a different form or with a different meaning.
Study the examples below and say how the meaning of the reborrowed word differs from its etymon (etymon is the original word to
which a words etymology can be traced).

French: tenez (to hold): English tennis: French: tennis (the name of the sport)
French: cotte English: riding coat: French: redingote: English: redingote
Greek: knma (movement): French: cinma: Greek
sinem (cinema)
English: animation: Japanese: anime: English anime
(Japanese animation)
English: crack (news, gossip): Irish Gaelic: craic (fun):
English: craic
48

Phono-semantic matching ( ) is an inconspicuous, disguised


borrowing in which a foreign word is rendered by
means of the recipient language, the resultant word
resembling the original word phonetically and semantically. The rationale behind phono-semantic borrowing is as follows:
Recycling obsolete lexical items; camouaging foreign inuence; facilitating learning; playfulness; iconicity; political correctness; attracting
customers (if they are brand-names). Some examples are: the Mandarin
form of World Wide Web is wn wi wng, which literally means
myriad dimensional net; the Icelandic toekni (technology, technique)
is a phono-semantic matching of the Danish teknik, toekni derives
from toeki (tool) and the nominal sufx -ni; Turkish okul is a phonosemantic variant of the French cole (school), okul is derived from
okumak (to read, to study).
In what way does phono-semantic matching differ from loantranslation, or calquing?

Recommended reading:
: - . .
. / .3. , .. , .. .. . 2- .,
. . .: . , 1979.
.. . .: . ., 1986.
Metcalf A. Predicting new words: the secrets of their success. Boston:
Houghton Mifin Company, 2002.
Oxford Concise Dictionary of English Etymology (OCDEE). Oxford,
N.Y., 1996.
Steinmetz S., Kipfer B.A. The Life of Language. The fascinating ways the
words are born, live and die. N.Y.; Toronto; L.: Random House Reference,
2006.
Stockwell R., Minkova D. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Second edition.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

49

4. Word-building
Points to ponder
What is the smallest meaningful indivisible unit in language? In
what way can the status of this unit vary? What other types of
units do you know?
Dene a productive word-building pattern and name the types of
productive patterns in English. Say what accounts for their productivity.
Does the dichotomy productive non-productive equal the dichotomy central-marginal?
Say what derivation, composition and shortening are and specify
their major types.
What do the terms aphaeresis, syncope and apocope refer
to? Give examples.
Can the meaning of a derivative or a compound be deduced from
the meaning of their constituents?
Why does one and the same sufx or prex can lend different
meanings to the stem? What does it depend on?
Why is conversion so typical of English? What types of semantic
shift regularly occur in converted words? What part of speech
seems to be most prone to conversion?
What is the difference between semi-afxes and combining
forms? Which type of morpheme is more productive in modern
English and why?
What other terms for shortening do you know?
In what situations do people tend to reduplicate words or to apply
reduplicated words?
What is blending? Specify the structural and semantic types of
blends. Say in what types of discourse they are most commonly
used. Name all the possible reasons for their usage. Enumerate all
the synonymic terms for blending. What term do Russian scholars seem to give preference to and Western ones? How can you
explain this diversity of terms for blending. Do you know the
name of the writer who popularized this word-building pattern?
50

Exercises
I
Going by the given denitions of the stem and the root, identify
them in the following English words:
Stem is the part of a word that remains when inflections are removed, it serves as a derivational basis for other words.
Root is the core part of a word that carries its primary meaning, it
is left over when a prefix or a suffix has been removed from it.

Unmentionables, smallest, serendipity,


supercilious, director, discredit, disability, eventuality, meticulousness, friendship, parturition, capability, mileage

II
Specify the word-building pattern of the underlined words.
1. What is the make of your car?
2. My hairdresser did a good perm to my hair.

3. At rst the password to Harry Potters dorm was balderdash,


but then it was changed into gobbledegook

4. I cant administer a dressing to your wound because the nature


of injury might be conducive to the formation of pus if its not
exposed to the sun and fresh air said the nurse.
51

4. Word-building
Points to ponder
What is the smallest meaningful indivisible unit in language? In
what way can the status of this unit vary? What other types of
units do you know?
Dene a productive word-building pattern and name the types of
productive patterns in English. Say what accounts for their productivity.
Does the dichotomy productive non-productive equal the dichotomy central-marginal?
Say what derivation, composition and shortening are and specify
their major types.
What do the terms aphaeresis, syncope and apocope refer
to? Give examples.
Can the meaning of a derivative or a compound be deduced from
the meaning of their constituents?
Why does one and the same sufx or prex can lend different
meanings to the stem? What does it depend on?
Why is conversion so typical of English? What types of semantic
shift regularly occur in converted words? What part of speech
seems to be most prone to conversion?
What is the difference between semi-afxes and combining
forms? Which type of morpheme is more productive in modern
English and why?
What other terms for shortening do you know?
In what situations do people tend to reduplicate words or to apply
reduplicated words?
What is blending? Specify the structural and semantic types of
blends. Say in what types of discourse they are most commonly
used. Name all the possible reasons for their usage. Enumerate all
the synonymic terms for blending. What term do Russian scholars seem to give preference to and Western ones? How can you
explain this diversity of terms for blending. Do you know the
name of the writer who popularized this word-building pattern?
50

Exercises
I
Going by the given denitions of the stem and the root, identify
them in the following English words:
Stem is the part of a word that remains when inflections are removed, it serves as a derivational basis for other words.
Root is the core part of a word that carries its primary meaning, it
is left over when a prefix or a suffix has been removed from it.

Unmentionables, smallest, serendipity,


supercilious, director, discredit, disability, eventuality, meticulousness, friendship, parturition, capability, mileage

II
Specify the word-building pattern of the underlined words.
1. What is the make of your car?
2. My hairdresser did a good perm to my hair.

3. At rst the password to Harry Potters dorm was balderdash,


but then it was changed into gobbledegook

4. I cant administer a dressing to your wound because the nature


of injury might be conducive to the formation of pus if its not
exposed to the sun and fresh air said the nurse.
51

5. This regulation can be accepted mutatis mutandis.


6. I think you need a good shake.
Im not drinking it.
Certainly not. What I mean is
that you need a proper telling-off, man.
7. Do you need a hand?
Sorry?
I mean, shall I help you?

8. I dont want to act as a go-between or a middleman in you row.

9. If the said subject fails to clarify the provenance


of these possessions, the ramications will include a legal action on my clients behalf.

III
Analyze the underlined words from the point of view of their
morphemic structure
Mr. Moon, with the air of a man who has remembered something
which he had overlooked, shoved a sock in his guests mouth and
resumed his packing. He was what might be called an impressionist packer. His aim appeared to be speed rather than neatness.
He bundled his belongings in, closed the bag with some difculty
and stepping to the window opened it. Then he climbed out onto
the fire-escape, dragged his suitcase after him and was gone.
(P.G. Wodehouse)
52

The Rev. Thomas was a man of extreme nervous temperament. He


was, par excellence, a fusser and when he fussed, his digestive apparatus collapsed and he suffered agonizing pains. (Agatha Christie)

To Forsyte imagination that house now was a sort of Chinese pillbox, a series of layers in the last of which was Timothy. One did not
reach him, or so it was reported by members of the family who, out
of old-time habit or absent-mindedness would drive up once in a
blue moon and ask after their surviving uncle. (John Galsworthy)

IV
Spot cases of conversion in the sentences below.
1. I kept glancing at the les of kopjes which, seen from a different angle, seemed to change with every step so that even
known landmarks, like a big mountain that has sentinelled my
world since I rst became conscious of it, showed an unfamiliar sunlit valley among its foothills (D. Lessing, The Old
Chief Mshlanga, 1956, P. 9).

2. And then he grinned, too widely, and lowered his face to


the gurine, and crushed its head in his teeth, chomping and
chewing widely, swallowing in lumps. His teeth ground the
china to a ne powder, which dusted the lower part of his
face (N. Gaiman, Neverwhere, 1996, P. 210).
3. We played in the sandpit for a little while, and then he went
down the slide a few times, and then he had a ride on one of
those wooden horses that have a big spring coming out of
the bottom of them so you can wobble around (N. Hornby,
Slam, 2007, P. 234).
53

5. This regulation can be accepted mutatis mutandis.


6. I think you need a good shake.
Im not drinking it.
Certainly not. What I mean is
that you need a proper telling-off, man.
7. Do you need a hand?
Sorry?
I mean, shall I help you?

8. I dont want to act as a go-between or a middleman in you row.

9. If the said subject fails to clarify the provenance


of these possessions, the ramications will include a legal action on my clients behalf.

III
Analyze the underlined words from the point of view of their
morphemic structure
Mr. Moon, with the air of a man who has remembered something
which he had overlooked, shoved a sock in his guests mouth and
resumed his packing. He was what might be called an impressionist packer. His aim appeared to be speed rather than neatness.
He bundled his belongings in, closed the bag with some difculty
and stepping to the window opened it. Then he climbed out onto
the fire-escape, dragged his suitcase after him and was gone.
(P.G. Wodehouse)
52

The Rev. Thomas was a man of extreme nervous temperament. He


was, par excellence, a fusser and when he fussed, his digestive apparatus collapsed and he suffered agonizing pains. (Agatha Christie)

To Forsyte imagination that house now was a sort of Chinese pillbox, a series of layers in the last of which was Timothy. One did not
reach him, or so it was reported by members of the family who, out
of old-time habit or absent-mindedness would drive up once in a
blue moon and ask after their surviving uncle. (John Galsworthy)

IV
Spot cases of conversion in the sentences below.
1. I kept glancing at the les of kopjes which, seen from a different angle, seemed to change with every step so that even
known landmarks, like a big mountain that has sentinelled my
world since I rst became conscious of it, showed an unfamiliar sunlit valley among its foothills (D. Lessing, The Old
Chief Mshlanga, 1956, P. 9).

2. And then he grinned, too widely, and lowered his face to


the gurine, and crushed its head in his teeth, chomping and
chewing widely, swallowing in lumps. His teeth ground the
china to a ne powder, which dusted the lower part of his
face (N. Gaiman, Neverwhere, 1996, P. 210).
3. We played in the sandpit for a little while, and then he went
down the slide a few times, and then he had a ride on one of
those wooden horses that have a big spring coming out of
the bottom of them so you can wobble around (N. Hornby,
Slam, 2007, P. 234).
53

4. The prohibition against um probably grew into a general


expectation of awless speaking with the advent of the radio.
The popularity of the technology exploded in the 1920s in a
way that contemporary Americans who witnessed the rise of
the Internet would recognize (M. Erard, Slips, Stumbles and
Verbal Blunders and What They Mean, 2007, P. 128).
5. Take a moment to map out your own sphere of inuence.
Where is it strongest, beginning with the sphere of your formal
authority? (Power, Inuence and Persuasion, 1992, P. 41).

6. If lists of universals show that languages do not vary freely, do


they imply that languages are restricted by the structure of the
brain? Not directly. First, one must rule our two alternative explanations (S. Pinker, The Language Instinct, 1994, P. 234).

7. I met a couple out walking two large black dogs of uncertain genetic background. The dogs were romping playfully
in the tall grass, but, as always, happens, at the rst sight of
me their muscles tautened, their eyes turned a glowing red
(B. Bryson, Notes from a Small Island, 1998, P. 113).
8. He sat with the package on his knees, aware of the passengers glances, and somehow knew the colour was a giveaway
(I. McEwan, The Innocent, 1999, P. 92).
9. The place emptied rapidly. The horizontal diggers, the tunneling sergeants, had long departed. The British vertical men had
left just as the excitement was growing, and no one noticed
them go (I. McEwan, The Innocent, 1999, P. 114).
54

V
In an endocentric compound the head word
is described by the rst modifying component; in
exocentric compounds both components refer to an
unexpressed semantic head, this type of compound
is traditionally called bahuvrihi, the meaning of
such a compound is, par excellence, based on metonymic transference.
In copulative compounds both parts describe the complex nature of the
referent, that is, the referent simultaneously possesses two, very often
opposed, qualities (e.g. bittersweet). In appositional compounds both
parts provide equal descriptions for the referent (actor-director)).
Dene the type of compound endocentric, exocentric, copulative, appositional:

Milkman, blindfold, straphanger, longlegs, whitecollar, bullnch, backstage, backlog, backdrop,


tadpole, pinpoint, greenback, tall-boy, highbrow,
sweetmeats, sweetheart, headache, backpack, ladybird, treadmill, dough-nut, nightmare, pigtail.

VI
Match the left-hand word with the right hand-hand word to
form a compound. Say whether its idiomatic or non-idiomatic. What
do the words mean?
Pigeon
Salt
FreeDead
Dumb
Field
Jay

day
walk
mark
lizard
thing
hole
for-all
55

4. The prohibition against um probably grew into a general


expectation of awless speaking with the advent of the radio.
The popularity of the technology exploded in the 1920s in a
way that contemporary Americans who witnessed the rise of
the Internet would recognize (M. Erard, Slips, Stumbles and
Verbal Blunders and What They Mean, 2007, P. 128).
5. Take a moment to map out your own sphere of inuence.
Where is it strongest, beginning with the sphere of your formal
authority? (Power, Inuence and Persuasion, 1992, P. 41).

6. If lists of universals show that languages do not vary freely, do


they imply that languages are restricted by the structure of the
brain? Not directly. First, one must rule our two alternative explanations (S. Pinker, The Language Instinct, 1994, P. 234).

7. I met a couple out walking two large black dogs of uncertain genetic background. The dogs were romping playfully
in the tall grass, but, as always, happens, at the rst sight of
me their muscles tautened, their eyes turned a glowing red
(B. Bryson, Notes from a Small Island, 1998, P. 113).
8. He sat with the package on his knees, aware of the passengers glances, and somehow knew the colour was a giveaway
(I. McEwan, The Innocent, 1999, P. 92).
9. The place emptied rapidly. The horizontal diggers, the tunneling sergeants, had long departed. The British vertical men had
left just as the excitement was growing, and no one noticed
them go (I. McEwan, The Innocent, 1999, P. 114).
54

V
In an endocentric compound the head word
is described by the rst modifying component; in
exocentric compounds both components refer to an
unexpressed semantic head, this type of compound
is traditionally called bahuvrihi, the meaning of
such a compound is, par excellence, based on metonymic transference.
In copulative compounds both parts describe the complex nature of the
referent, that is, the referent simultaneously possesses two, very often
opposed, qualities (e.g. bittersweet). In appositional compounds both
parts provide equal descriptions for the referent (actor-director)).
Dene the type of compound endocentric, exocentric, copulative, appositional:

Milkman, blindfold, straphanger, longlegs, whitecollar, bullnch, backstage, backlog, backdrop,


tadpole, pinpoint, greenback, tall-boy, highbrow,
sweetmeats, sweetheart, headache, backpack, ladybird, treadmill, dough-nut, nightmare, pigtail.

VI
Match the left-hand word with the right hand-hand word to
form a compound. Say whether its idiomatic or non-idiomatic. What
do the words mean?
Pigeon
Salt
FreeDead
Dumb
Field
Jay

day
walk
mark
lizard
thing
hole
for-all
55

Land
Lounge
Nay
Play
Way

cellar
bell
pan
say
lay

VII
The word-building pattern of contamination,
also known as blending and telescoping, was traditionally a marginal model in English. At the beginning of the XXI century, however, the pattern is
gradually gathering momentum and is extensively
used in advertising. Contamination (or blending) consists in creating a
new, as a rule occasional, word formed from morphemic splinters of two
or more lexemes.
A) Try to guess from the context what products the given names
advertise.
B) Name the source-words of blends.
C) Say what the rationale behind each blend is.
1. Chewels
a. chewing transparent candies
b. candies in the form of a jewel
c. sugarless liquid-centre chewing gum
2. Charmaternity
a. nursing and maternity bras
b. utensils for child-feeding
c. apparel for pregnant women
3. Crystalace
a. tiles
b. exquisite lace
c. decorative ledges patterned after lace
4. Pleascent
a. perfume
56

b. hair permanent
c. herbal shampoo
5. Scriptip
a. markers
b. erasers
c. correction liquid
6. Slimderella
a. rubber girdles
b. tights
c. pills for losing weight
7. Softint
a. hair colouring
b. paintbrushes
c. markers
VIII
Assign the blends below to one of the seven thematic groups and
dene their components? The thematic groups are as follows: 1) journalism, 2) advertising, 3) politics and business, 4) cinematography,
5) culinary, 6) students slang, 7) computer (all blends are real):

Appeteasing, Chindia, europreneurs, amBUSHed,


pandaplomacy, aquamatic, aristicat, cosmedicake, fabulash, lmusical, cinemagnate, docufantasy, autoslobile, basketbrawl, frappuccino, lamburger, D-graded,
examnesia, herbacue, qualitea, Indy-pendence, netpreneurs, n(euro)sis, diplonomics, dramassassin, fuelishness, tragicomedy, clamato, crunchips, croissandwich,
Bushonomics, blog, emoticon, netiquette, netizen.

IX
Organize the following words into groups taking into account
their word-building patterns composition, derivation, formations
57

Land
Lounge
Nay
Play
Way

cellar
bell
pan
say
lay

VII
The word-building pattern of contamination,
also known as blending and telescoping, was traditionally a marginal model in English. At the beginning of the XXI century, however, the pattern is
gradually gathering momentum and is extensively
used in advertising. Contamination (or blending) consists in creating a
new, as a rule occasional, word formed from morphemic splinters of two
or more lexemes.
A) Try to guess from the context what products the given names
advertise.
B) Name the source-words of blends.
C) Say what the rationale behind each blend is.
1. Chewels
a. chewing transparent candies
b. candies in the form of a jewel
c. sugarless liquid-centre chewing gum
2. Charmaternity
a. nursing and maternity bras
b. utensils for child-feeding
c. apparel for pregnant women
3. Crystalace
a. tiles
b. exquisite lace
c. decorative ledges patterned after lace
4. Pleascent
a. perfume
56

b. hair permanent
c. herbal shampoo
5. Scriptip
a. markers
b. erasers
c. correction liquid
6. Slimderella
a. rubber girdles
b. tights
c. pills for losing weight
7. Softint
a. hair colouring
b. paintbrushes
c. markers
VIII
Assign the blends below to one of the seven thematic groups and
dene their components? The thematic groups are as follows: 1) journalism, 2) advertising, 3) politics and business, 4) cinematography,
5) culinary, 6) students slang, 7) computer (all blends are real):

Appeteasing, Chindia, europreneurs, amBUSHed,


pandaplomacy, aquamatic, aristicat, cosmedicake, fabulash, lmusical, cinemagnate, docufantasy, autoslobile, basketbrawl, frappuccino, lamburger, D-graded,
examnesia, herbacue, qualitea, Indy-pendence, netpreneurs, n(euro)sis, diplonomics, dramassassin, fuelishness, tragicomedy, clamato, crunchips, croissandwich,
Bushonomics, blog, emoticon, netiquette, netizen.

IX
Organize the following words into groups taking into account
their word-building patterns composition, derivation, formations
57

with semi-afxes, combining forms ( ),


blending:
zestimate (v.); womenomics (n.); inland (adv.); webonoics (n.); stressresistant (adj.); headrst (adv.); waiike (adj.); semicircle (n.); telegenic
(adj.); enslave (v.); telephone (n.) ; washave (v.); toycoon (n.); overdo
(v.); squarectangle (n.); carjack (v.); outwit (v.); eurepair (n.); whitecollar (n.); clamburger (n.); ensnare (v.); anticlockwise (adv.); bootique (n.);
booklegger (n.); tragicomic (adj.); torrible (adj.); slimnastics (n.); roundwich (n.); treetop (n.); quicktionary (n.); homicide (n.); qatnapper (n.);
pupcorn (n.); irregardless (adj.); leadvantage (n.); genomics (n.); classociation (n.); copelessness (n.); St. Petersburg; Edinburgh; buttlegger (n.);
disctraction (n.); attraction (n.); netsomnia (n.); nescape (n.); motorcade
(n.); butterine (n.); bushonomics (n.); brewtal (adj.); clockwise (adv.);
parapsychology (n.); eavesdrop (v.); outcastaway (n.) ; newseum (n.);
technocrat (n.); moneymoon (n.); childlike (adj.); telephone (n.); desktop
(n.); defendamins (n.); brathlete (n.).

blending

B) Describe the word-building pattern of each word:

to feel towny; Spanish acquistadores (about Mexican


banks); a big falsey-toothy smile; to be pally with
smb; webonomics; laboRATory; a question of omenish nature; travelocity; meritocracy; retronym; women
in tentish dresses; pill-gotten gains; $tar; to feel lovingful of smb.; propheteering; x-ray; radar; laser; to
feel dj-vu-sque; dancercise; winterval; prequel; PFInancial services; to lead an applauseless life; an oletimey pitcher of tea; medicase; car-clogged highway;
n(euro)sis; kidult; bucket-eared; kyatastrophe; razorthin whisper; badvantage; blog; to speak in a clenchedteethedly way; glocalisation; bachelord; replicant;
delicate spindly-thin boors; misunderestimate; taxicology; cyberspace; contradictate; robotics; ashy-darty
look, eyes; Beatles; weekend-empty place; stressure;
xenocide.

combining forms

composition

derivation
formations with
semi-afxes

X
A) Allocate the selected words into three groups contaminated,
occasional, neological. Can the word simultaneously belong to several groups?
58

XI
Some elements of a word may receive an unprecedented boost in usage in combination with rootwords. Although originally found as part of a single
word, they become fashionable and wide-spread due
to the topicality of the notion they convey. These are
such elements as franken-, e-, (o)rexia, eco-, Mc-, -speak,
(a)thon, -gate and some others. The number of such words is currently on the increase, therefore it is hardly possible to enumerate all of
them. The status of these word-building elements is hard to dene, for
convenience sake, we choose to refer to them as vogue neo-semi-afxes ( -). They are not afxes proper as they
appeared relatively recently and as a result are rarely registered by dic59

with semi-afxes, combining forms ( ),


blending:
zestimate (v.); womenomics (n.); inland (adv.); webonoics (n.); stressresistant (adj.); headrst (adv.); waiike (adj.); semicircle (n.); telegenic
(adj.); enslave (v.); telephone (n.) ; washave (v.); toycoon (n.); overdo
(v.); squarectangle (n.); carjack (v.); outwit (v.); eurepair (n.); whitecollar (n.); clamburger (n.); ensnare (v.); anticlockwise (adv.); bootique (n.);
booklegger (n.); tragicomic (adj.); torrible (adj.); slimnastics (n.); roundwich (n.); treetop (n.); quicktionary (n.); homicide (n.); qatnapper (n.);
pupcorn (n.); irregardless (adj.); leadvantage (n.); genomics (n.); classociation (n.); copelessness (n.); St. Petersburg; Edinburgh; buttlegger (n.);
disctraction (n.); attraction (n.); netsomnia (n.); nescape (n.); motorcade
(n.); butterine (n.); bushonomics (n.); brewtal (adj.); clockwise (adv.);
parapsychology (n.); eavesdrop (v.); outcastaway (n.) ; newseum (n.);
technocrat (n.); moneymoon (n.); childlike (adj.); telephone (n.); desktop
(n.); defendamins (n.); brathlete (n.).

blending

B) Describe the word-building pattern of each word:

to feel towny; Spanish acquistadores (about Mexican


banks); a big falsey-toothy smile; to be pally with
smb; webonomics; laboRATory; a question of omenish nature; travelocity; meritocracy; retronym; women
in tentish dresses; pill-gotten gains; $tar; to feel lovingful of smb.; propheteering; x-ray; radar; laser; to
feel dj-vu-sque; dancercise; winterval; prequel; PFInancial services; to lead an applauseless life; an oletimey pitcher of tea; medicase; car-clogged highway;
n(euro)sis; kidult; bucket-eared; kyatastrophe; razorthin whisper; badvantage; blog; to speak in a clenchedteethedly way; glocalisation; bachelord; replicant;
delicate spindly-thin boors; misunderestimate; taxicology; cyberspace; contradictate; robotics; ashy-darty
look, eyes; Beatles; weekend-empty place; stressure;
xenocide.

combining forms

composition

derivation
formations with
semi-afxes

X
A) Allocate the selected words into three groups contaminated,
occasional, neological. Can the word simultaneously belong to several groups?
58

XI
Some elements of a word may receive an unprecedented boost in usage in combination with rootwords. Although originally found as part of a single
word, they become fashionable and wide-spread due
to the topicality of the notion they convey. These are
such elements as franken-, e-, (o)rexia, eco-, Mc-, -speak,
(a)thon, -gate and some others. The number of such words is currently on the increase, therefore it is hardly possible to enumerate all of
them. The status of these word-building elements is hard to dene, for
convenience sake, we choose to refer to them as vogue neo-semi-afxes ( -). They are not afxes proper as they
appeared relatively recently and as a result are rarely registered by dic59

tionaries; nor should they be called combining forms (as some linguists
suggest), because combining forms are restricted to Latin and Greek roots,
often found in combination with each other; calling them roots is also
dubious, for they hardly ever function in speech independently, and even
if they occasionally do, this is rather an exception than the rule. It seems
that referring to them as semi-afxes is most appropriate, inasmuch as
their meaning is more precise and concrete than that of afxes.
Below are a number of words containing vogue neo-semi-afxes.
Study them closely, trace the word that caused them to appear and
say what they currently mean.
Adspeak, artspeak, businesspeak, computerspeak, femspeak,
videospeak, gayspeak, technospeak, doublespeak, litcritspeak,
videospeak, discospeak, Olymspeak, Pentagonspeak, Freudspeak, bureaucratspeak
e-Bay, e-commerce, e-trade, e-cards, e-medicine, e-nancing,
e-gold, e-library, e-pals, e-mentoring, e-music, e-museum, ehow, e-boat

iTools, iTunes, iFilm, iVillage, iWon, iEarn, iPad, iPod, iOS


Frankenfood, Frankenbeans, Frankencorn, Frankenfruit, Frankenrice, Frankenplants, Frankenword

McJob, McFashion, McTheatre, McNews, McWord


Bikeathon, talkathon, walkathon, telethon, discothon, Bachathon
Nannygate, oilgate, Irangate, Hollywoodgate
60

XII
Study the following back-formed words, specify their meaning,
say what word they are derived from. Check whether any of them are
registered by dictionaries. What accounts for their lack of representation in dictionaries?

sculpt, intuit, liaise, enthuse, donate, surveille, diagnose, swindle, escalate, sleaze,
grunge, embeds, to jell, to automate, to
jubilate, to emote, laze, televise

XIII
Clipping, or shortening, or contraction is a productive way of wordbuilding in English. Reect on the following clippings and say which
of them are entrenched in the English word-stock and which are only
emerging as fully-edged independent words. What does it depend on?
Which words are used in a clipped form exclusively without its full part
any longer emerging in communication? Which clippings have a different
meaning from their non-truncated counterparts?
Bi
Bra
Champ
Chimp
Condo
Coop
Disco
Exam
Frank
Hippo

bisexual
brassiere
champion
chimpanzee
condominium
cooperative
discotheque
examination
frankfurter
hippopotamus
61

tionaries; nor should they be called combining forms (as some linguists
suggest), because combining forms are restricted to Latin and Greek roots,
often found in combination with each other; calling them roots is also
dubious, for they hardly ever function in speech independently, and even
if they occasionally do, this is rather an exception than the rule. It seems
that referring to them as semi-afxes is most appropriate, inasmuch as
their meaning is more precise and concrete than that of afxes.
Below are a number of words containing vogue neo-semi-afxes.
Study them closely, trace the word that caused them to appear and
say what they currently mean.
Adspeak, artspeak, businesspeak, computerspeak, femspeak,
videospeak, gayspeak, technospeak, doublespeak, litcritspeak,
videospeak, discospeak, Olymspeak, Pentagonspeak, Freudspeak, bureaucratspeak
e-Bay, e-commerce, e-trade, e-cards, e-medicine, e-nancing,
e-gold, e-library, e-pals, e-mentoring, e-music, e-museum, ehow, e-boat

iTools, iTunes, iFilm, iVillage, iWon, iEarn, iPad, iPod, iOS


Frankenfood, Frankenbeans, Frankencorn, Frankenfruit, Frankenrice, Frankenplants, Frankenword

McJob, McFashion, McTheatre, McNews, McWord


Bikeathon, talkathon, walkathon, telethon, discothon, Bachathon
Nannygate, oilgate, Irangate, Hollywoodgate
60

XII
Study the following back-formed words, specify their meaning,
say what word they are derived from. Check whether any of them are
registered by dictionaries. What accounts for their lack of representation in dictionaries?

sculpt, intuit, liaise, enthuse, donate, surveille, diagnose, swindle, escalate, sleaze,
grunge, embeds, to jell, to automate, to
jubilate, to emote, laze, televise

XIII
Clipping, or shortening, or contraction is a productive way of wordbuilding in English. Reect on the following clippings and say which
of them are entrenched in the English word-stock and which are only
emerging as fully-edged independent words. What does it depend on?
Which words are used in a clipped form exclusively without its full part
any longer emerging in communication? Which clippings have a different
meaning from their non-truncated counterparts?
Bi
Bra
Champ
Chimp
Condo
Coop
Disco
Exam
Frank
Hippo

bisexual
brassiere
champion
chimpanzee
condominium
cooperative
discotheque
examination
frankfurter
hippopotamus
61

Lab
Lunch
Max
Mayo
Piano
Porn
Reg
Rep
Cute
Gator
Quake
Copter
Margarine
Possum
Cello

laboratory
luncheon
maximum
mayonnaise
pianoforte
pornography
regulation
reputation
acute
alligator
earthquake
helicopter
oleomargarine
opossum
violoncello

Diminutive sufxes are not very productive or


wide-spread in English, however, they are found in
a number of words. These words may be registered
by dictionaries, in which case they, more often than
not, have a meaning of their own. They may also be
created ad hoc, on the spur of the moment, in which case, however, the
speaker should go by the rules of morphological collocation, according to
which each diminutive can be added to a particular kind of stem. Some of
the diminutives have the remnant status, native speakers may no longer
be aware of their diminutive nature or meaning, as they are borrowed and
non-productive.
The functions of diminutives are manifold: 1) endearment and affection; 2) familiarity or intimacy; 3) condescension or dismissal; 4) a
smaller (a small) size or dimension; 5) the young of animals or pets
XIV
Study the diminutives suggested below, specify the principle of
their classication and establish the meaning they render to the stem.
Translate the words into Russian:
62

let: booklet, piglet, rivulet, starlet


et(te): kitchenette, cigarette, launderette, diskette, novelette, nymphet, statuette, towelette
ie (-y): doggie, kitty, laddie, lassie, sweetie
ling: duckling, darling, princeling, gosling, fosterling, hireling, underling, sapling, lordling,
godling
cule, -culus, -ule: animalcule, calculus, capsule,
corpuscule, globule, granule, module, molecule
el: bowel, chapel, colonel, fennel, hovel, spinel,
tunnel
elle (-ella): membranelle, novella, umbrella
ing: farthing, tithing
kin: bodkin, gherkin, lambkin, manikin, napkin,
babykins
ock: bullock, hillock, paddock, tussock

In English, as indeed in any other language,


there are a number of words used particularly by
little children or by their care-givers when talking
to them. These words are united under the heading
baby-talk or motherese. Such words are often
reduplicated, short and are based on the distortion of ordinary words. Interestingly, baby-talk is also resorted to by pet-owners when talking to
their pets, by lovers exchanging endearments and by nurses taking care
of their patients, particularly, of terminally-ill ones. The attitude towards
such words is ambiguous: on the one hand, they may be indicative of
affection and care, but on the other hand, they have been stigmatized as
infantile, superuous, shallow and lacking gravity. In fact, their abun63

Lab
Lunch
Max
Mayo
Piano
Porn
Reg
Rep
Cute
Gator
Quake
Copter
Margarine
Possum
Cello

laboratory
luncheon
maximum
mayonnaise
pianoforte
pornography
regulation
reputation
acute
alligator
earthquake
helicopter
oleomargarine
opossum
violoncello

Diminutive sufxes are not very productive or


wide-spread in English, however, they are found in
a number of words. These words may be registered
by dictionaries, in which case they, more often than
not, have a meaning of their own. They may also be
created ad hoc, on the spur of the moment, in which case, however, the
speaker should go by the rules of morphological collocation, according to
which each diminutive can be added to a particular kind of stem. Some of
the diminutives have the remnant status, native speakers may no longer
be aware of their diminutive nature or meaning, as they are borrowed and
non-productive.
The functions of diminutives are manifold: 1) endearment and affection; 2) familiarity or intimacy; 3) condescension or dismissal; 4) a
smaller (a small) size or dimension; 5) the young of animals or pets
XIV
Study the diminutives suggested below, specify the principle of
their classication and establish the meaning they render to the stem.
Translate the words into Russian:
62

let: booklet, piglet, rivulet, starlet


et(te): kitchenette, cigarette, launderette, diskette, novelette, nymphet, statuette, towelette
ie (-y): doggie, kitty, laddie, lassie, sweetie
ling: duckling, darling, princeling, gosling, fosterling, hireling, underling, sapling, lordling,
godling
cule, -culus, -ule: animalcule, calculus, capsule,
corpuscule, globule, granule, module, molecule
el: bowel, chapel, colonel, fennel, hovel, spinel,
tunnel
elle (-ella): membranelle, novella, umbrella
ing: farthing, tithing
kin: bodkin, gherkin, lambkin, manikin, napkin,
babykins
ock: bullock, hillock, paddock, tussock

In English, as indeed in any other language,


there are a number of words used particularly by
little children or by their care-givers when talking
to them. These words are united under the heading
baby-talk or motherese. Such words are often
reduplicated, short and are based on the distortion of ordinary words. Interestingly, baby-talk is also resorted to by pet-owners when talking to
their pets, by lovers exchanging endearments and by nurses taking care
of their patients, particularly, of terminally-ill ones. The attitude towards
such words is ambiguous: on the one hand, they may be indicative of
affection and care, but on the other hand, they have been stigmatized as
infantile, superuous, shallow and lacking gravity. In fact, their abun63

dant usage may indicate absence of true love and care whenever they are
automatically retrieved to refer to almost anything under the sun. Terminally-ill patients have been known to resent the application of such words
towards themselves, as well as the not-so-little children.
XV
Below are some examples of baby-talk words or motherese. Specify their word-building peculiarities and say in what context their application could be appropriate.
Beddy-bye: the time for a baby to go to bed
Binkie: a pacier
Blankie: a babys blanket
Boo-boo: a minor injury
Choo-choo: a railroad train
Da-da: father
Din-din: dinner
Icky: sticky or disgusting
Jammies: pyjamas
Nana: grandma
Oopsy-daisy: said on tossing a bay upside-down
Owie: a minor injury
Piggie: a babys nger or toe
Teeny-weeny: very small, tiny
Tummy: stomach
Tush: buttocks
Wawa: water
Yucky: sticky or disgusting
Yummy: tasty, delicious

XVI
Onomatopoeic words are represented sparingly in the English
word stock, however, a number of them play an important role in
everyday communication, most of them are also registered by dic64

tionaries. Below is a list of onomatopoeic words produced by animals.


Which of the sounds seem unusual to you?
A bee buzz
A bird chirp, chirrup
A small bird peep, tweet
A cat purr
BOW-WOW!
A cow moo
A crow caw WOOF!
A dog bow-wow, woof
A donkey he-haw
A dove or a pigeon coo
A goose honk
A grasshopper chirr
A hen clucks
A horse neigh, whinny
An owl hoot
A pig oink
A snake hiss
A sheep baa
A turkey gobble

XVII
Paraphrase the following onomatopoeic words and translate
them into Russian. What other word-building patterns (if any) are
used in the formation of such words?

Babble, blab, gab, holler, jabber, natter, stutter, susurrate,


tattle, whine, yada-yada-yada,
yap, gargle, gurgle, ululate, zap,
sizzle, wheeze, whiz, chug, clipclip, ip-op
65

dant usage may indicate absence of true love and care whenever they are
automatically retrieved to refer to almost anything under the sun. Terminally-ill patients have been known to resent the application of such words
towards themselves, as well as the not-so-little children.
XV
Below are some examples of baby-talk words or motherese. Specify their word-building peculiarities and say in what context their application could be appropriate.
Beddy-bye: the time for a baby to go to bed
Binkie: a pacier
Blankie: a babys blanket
Boo-boo: a minor injury
Choo-choo: a railroad train
Da-da: father
Din-din: dinner
Icky: sticky or disgusting
Jammies: pyjamas
Nana: grandma
Oopsy-daisy: said on tossing a bay upside-down
Owie: a minor injury
Piggie: a babys nger or toe
Teeny-weeny: very small, tiny
Tummy: stomach
Tush: buttocks
Wawa: water
Yucky: sticky or disgusting
Yummy: tasty, delicious

XVI
Onomatopoeic words are represented sparingly in the English
word stock, however, a number of them play an important role in
everyday communication, most of them are also registered by dic64

tionaries. Below is a list of onomatopoeic words produced by animals.


Which of the sounds seem unusual to you?
A bee buzz
A bird chirp, chirrup
A small bird peep, tweet
A cat purr
BOW-WOW!
A cow moo
A crow caw WOOF!
A dog bow-wow, woof
A donkey he-haw
A dove or a pigeon coo
A goose honk
A grasshopper chirr
A hen clucks
A horse neigh, whinny
An owl hoot
A pig oink
A snake hiss
A sheep baa
A turkey gobble

XVII
Paraphrase the following onomatopoeic words and translate
them into Russian. What other word-building patterns (if any) are
used in the formation of such words?

Babble, blab, gab, holler, jabber, natter, stutter, susurrate,


tattle, whine, yada-yada-yada,
yap, gargle, gurgle, ululate, zap,
sizzle, wheeze, whiz, chug, clipclip, ip-op
65

The sufx -ee has a productive status in modern English, a surprisingly large number of words are
formed with its help. It is regularly found in journalistic articles, however, its meaning may be ambiguous. It renders to the word the meaning of either the
recipient of the action (1) or the doer of the action (2) (the actor).
XVIII
Sort out the following words with the -ee sufx and allocate
them to either the rst (1) or the second (2) group. Specify the criteria
that you go by when differentiating between the groups.
Adaptee, electee, examinee, franchisee, mergee, rescuee, transportee, appellee, mortgagee, educatee, releasee, addressee, deportee, nominee, trainee, absentee, escapee, riteree, returnee.
XIX
Consider the following derivatives, single out the sufx and say
to what part of speech the stem of the derivative belongs.

Mileage, breakage, spillage; Moroccan, Egyptian, Iranian; attendance, disturbance, performance, elegance,
relevance, vigilance; assistant, attendant, consultant; accountancy, privacy; mouthful, pocketful, tablespoonful;
comedian, historian, Freudian; heroism, idealism; originality, personality, superiority; clumsiness; manliness,
politeness; agreeable, understandable, manageable; customary, honorary, momentary; bearded, bow-legged, bigheaded; ashen, golden, leaden; collectible, convertible,
digestible; angelic, artistic, heroic; childish; endish,
shortish, whitish; cloudy, greedy, earthy, jazzy; skyward,
northward, rearward; clockwise, healthwise, salarywise,
testwise; freshen, quicken, hearten, strengthen.
66

Reduplication consists in repeating the stem


either verbatim or introducing phonetic and graphic changes. Reduplicated words perform different
functions, such as: indicating plurality, repetition,
customary activity, increase of size, added intensity,
continuance. There are two basic types of reduplicatives: tautonyms and
ricochet words (these terms are upheld by E.C. Brewer, S. Steinmetz,
B.A. Kipfer). In tautonyms the repeated stem is not modied, in ricochet
words it is modied. The popularity and relative productivity of reduplicatives is explained psychologically by the fact that the repetition of sound
is pleasurable to the ear. Reduplicatives may also be loan words, in which
case they are often of terminological character: e.g. beriberi (disease of
the nerves caused by vitamin deciency, from Sinhalese beri weakness), mahimahi (dolphin, from Hawaiian mahi strong), ylangylang
(an East Indian tree or its oil, from Tagalog), couscous (semolina dish,
from Arabic), lavalava (a Polynesian garment, from Samoan clothing).
XX
Study the reduplicatives below, specify their type and function
and say in what sphere of communication they are predominantly
used.

Choo-choo, doo-doo, pee-pee; honey-bunny, itty-bitty,


itsy-bitsy, lovey-dovey;
Dilly-dally, im-am, hobnob, shilly-shally, wishywashy; boogie-woogie, chit-chat, pitter-patter, seesaw, walkie-talkie; knick-knack, hodge-podge, mishmash, pell-mell; riff-raff, fuddy-duddy, helter-skelter,
higgledy-piggledy, nitty-gritty, roly-poly, super-duper,
teeny-weeny, willy-nilly.

Recommended reading:
.. (

67

The sufx -ee has a productive status in modern English, a surprisingly large number of words are
formed with its help. It is regularly found in journalistic articles, however, its meaning may be ambiguous. It renders to the word the meaning of either the
recipient of the action (1) or the doer of the action (2) (the actor).
XVIII
Sort out the following words with the -ee sufx and allocate
them to either the rst (1) or the second (2) group. Specify the criteria
that you go by when differentiating between the groups.
Adaptee, electee, examinee, franchisee, mergee, rescuee, transportee, appellee, mortgagee, educatee, releasee, addressee, deportee, nominee, trainee, absentee, escapee, riteree, returnee.
XIX
Consider the following derivatives, single out the sufx and say
to what part of speech the stem of the derivative belongs.

Mileage, breakage, spillage; Moroccan, Egyptian, Iranian; attendance, disturbance, performance, elegance,
relevance, vigilance; assistant, attendant, consultant; accountancy, privacy; mouthful, pocketful, tablespoonful;
comedian, historian, Freudian; heroism, idealism; originality, personality, superiority; clumsiness; manliness,
politeness; agreeable, understandable, manageable; customary, honorary, momentary; bearded, bow-legged, bigheaded; ashen, golden, leaden; collectible, convertible,
digestible; angelic, artistic, heroic; childish; endish,
shortish, whitish; cloudy, greedy, earthy, jazzy; skyward,
northward, rearward; clockwise, healthwise, salarywise,
testwise; freshen, quicken, hearten, strengthen.
66

Reduplication consists in repeating the stem


either verbatim or introducing phonetic and graphic changes. Reduplicated words perform different
functions, such as: indicating plurality, repetition,
customary activity, increase of size, added intensity,
continuance. There are two basic types of reduplicatives: tautonyms and
ricochet words (these terms are upheld by E.C. Brewer, S. Steinmetz,
B.A. Kipfer). In tautonyms the repeated stem is not modied, in ricochet
words it is modied. The popularity and relative productivity of reduplicatives is explained psychologically by the fact that the repetition of sound
is pleasurable to the ear. Reduplicatives may also be loan words, in which
case they are often of terminological character: e.g. beriberi (disease of
the nerves caused by vitamin deciency, from Sinhalese beri weakness), mahimahi (dolphin, from Hawaiian mahi strong), ylangylang
(an East Indian tree or its oil, from Tagalog), couscous (semolina dish,
from Arabic), lavalava (a Polynesian garment, from Samoan clothing).
XX
Study the reduplicatives below, specify their type and function
and say in what sphere of communication they are predominantly
used.

Choo-choo, doo-doo, pee-pee; honey-bunny, itty-bitty,


itsy-bitsy, lovey-dovey;
Dilly-dally, im-am, hobnob, shilly-shally, wishywashy; boogie-woogie, chit-chat, pitter-patter, seesaw, walkie-talkie; knick-knack, hodge-podge, mishmash, pell-mell; riff-raff, fuddy-duddy, helter-skelter,
higgledy-piggledy, nitty-gritty, roly-poly, super-duper,
teeny-weeny, willy-nilly.

Recommended reading:
.. (

67

): . . . . . ,
1993.
.. : . . . . . ., 1996.
..
. .: , 1986.
.. : .
. .: : , 2007.
.. : . . . . .,
1987.
.. (
: . ... - . . ., 1997.
.. . , 1989.
Algeo J. Blends, a structural and systemic view // American Speech.
Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1977. 52. . 4764.
Bauer L. English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1983.
Bauer L. Introducing Linguistic Morphology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1988.
Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present Day English Word Formation. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1960.
Pound L. Blends: Their Relation to English Word Formation. Heidelberg,
1914.
Stockwell R., Minkova D. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Dick Thurners Portmanteau Dictionary (PD). Blend Words in the English
Language, Including Trademarks and Brand Names. Jefferson, North Carolina:
McFarland & Company, 1993.

5. The Meaning of the Word. Semantic Transference.


Metaphor and Metonymy. Euphemisms. Neologisms
Points to ponder
What is the difference between the meaning of the word and the
concept (notion)?
Is there any connection between the referent and its sign? What
types of linguistic motivation can you single out?
In the ancient linguistic tradition of Greece it was customary to
distinguish between the theory of thesei and fusei5. These
theories represent the results of the research into whether there
is a natural connection between the word and its referent or not.
According to the former, words are arbitrary signs and they do not
reect the properties of objects they nominate. The latter theory,
conversely, postulates a natural connection between the word and
its referent. Which theory do you personally support? Ground
your choice.
Specify the types of analysis of the semantics of the word. Which
type do you nd the most efcient one? What are the constraints
of the componential analysis? What semantic groups of words is
it mostly applicable to?
Do you agree that the context is the ultimate sieve for the meaning of the word?
Name the types of semantic components of the word. What is
the pragmatic component of the word? What other types of
information6 that a word conveys do you know?
Why do words develop new meanings and what does it result in?
Specify the types of metaphoric and metonymic transference.
Metaphor and metonymy, which are based on different types of
transference, sometimes go hand in hand, this phenomenon is
5
The word thesei comes form Greek and means convention, the word fusei is
also of Greek origin, where it means nature.
6
The term types of information is used by prof. A.A. Reformatskij.

69

): . . . . . ,
1993.
.. : . . . . . ., 1996.
..
. .: , 1986.
.. : .
. .: : , 2007.
.. : . . . . .,
1987.
.. (
: . ... - . . ., 1997.
.. . , 1989.
Algeo J. Blends, a structural and systemic view // American Speech.
Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1977. 52. . 4764.
Bauer L. English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1983.
Bauer L. Introducing Linguistic Morphology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1988.
Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present Day English Word Formation. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1960.
Pound L. Blends: Their Relation to English Word Formation. Heidelberg,
1914.
Stockwell R., Minkova D. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Dick Thurners Portmanteau Dictionary (PD). Blend Words in the English
Language, Including Trademarks and Brand Names. Jefferson, North Carolina:
McFarland & Company, 1993.

5. The Meaning of the Word. Semantic Transference.


Metaphor and Metonymy. Euphemisms. Neologisms
Points to ponder
What is the difference between the meaning of the word and the
concept (notion)?
Is there any connection between the referent and its sign? What
types of linguistic motivation can you single out?
In the ancient linguistic tradition of Greece it was customary to
distinguish between the theory of thesei and fusei5. These
theories represent the results of the research into whether there
is a natural connection between the word and its referent or not.
According to the former, words are arbitrary signs and they do not
reect the properties of objects they nominate. The latter theory,
conversely, postulates a natural connection between the word and
its referent. Which theory do you personally support? Ground
your choice.
Specify the types of analysis of the semantics of the word. Which
type do you nd the most efcient one? What are the constraints
of the componential analysis? What semantic groups of words is
it mostly applicable to?
Do you agree that the context is the ultimate sieve for the meaning of the word?
Name the types of semantic components of the word. What is
the pragmatic component of the word? What other types of
information6 that a word conveys do you know?
Why do words develop new meanings and what does it result in?
Specify the types of metaphoric and metonymic transference.
Metaphor and metonymy, which are based on different types of
transference, sometimes go hand in hand, this phenomenon is
5
The word thesei comes form Greek and means convention, the word fusei is
also of Greek origin, where it means nature.
6
The term types of information is used by prof. A.A. Reformatskij.

69

known as metaphtonymy, for example, the adjective black in


black despair can be treated as a case of metaphtonymy? Can
you explain why?
Give examples of broadening and narrowing of meaning and degeneration and elevation of meaning. Why can the last two terms
be regarded as arbitrary and imprecise?
Comment of the following statement by Karl Sornig and specify
the functions that a metaphor serves:
the capability to use and create metaphoric language can be regarded as a most delicate indicator of communicative competence for
a certain language. The capability and propensity for that kind of handling language creatively might very well be considered a universal of
language use. Metaphoric replacement of words for each other is a deliberate process which is brought about by the deletion of certain semantic features while other features from the feature-potential are selected
and foregrounded, viz. those that would bring certain peculiarities of a
certain denotation (whose real name has been suppressed and substituted) to the attention of the interlocutor. Focusing on a certain semantic
aspect serves at the same time as an evaluative assessment of the concept
denoted and an invitation to the recipient to comply with this assessment.
Thus, metaphorization serves the evaluative/connotative processing of
expressive means from the speakers evaluation of situational reality, and
it tries to inuence the recipients interpretation of that same situation
[Sornig, 1981:36].

The cognitive theory of metaphor by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson


According to the cognitive theory of metaphor
worked out by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, our perception of the world is metaphorically structured and
this is reected in the language. In the frame of this
conception, metaphor can be dened as understanding the essence of one thing through the essence of another. Cognitive
metaphor emerges as a result of interaction of the target domain (the
70

concept we intend to convey) and the source domain (the word by means
of which we describe the target word). Thus, in the sentence Time is
money the word time is the target word and the word money is the
source word.
All cognitive metaphors are structural because one concept is structured in terms of another, for instance argument is war, time is
money, ideas are objects, communication is sending. Structural
metaphors can be orientational if they form an opposition: happy is
up sad is down, virtue is up depravity is down, rational is up emotional is down. Ontological metaphors emerge when
events, actions, emotions, ideas are perceived as material matter and substances, for instance the mind is a brittle object, an argument is a
journey, the path of a journey is a surface.
Types of metaphors
Structural
Argument is war

Orientational
Ontological
Happy is up sad is The mind is a brittle obdown
ject

Your claims are indefen- Im feeling up.


sible.

His mind snapped.

He attacked every weak That boosted my spirits. He broke under crosspoint in my argument.
examination.
Ive never won an argu- My spirits rose.
ment with him.
You disagree?
shoot!

Ok, You are in high spirits.


Im feeling down.

She is easily crushed.


The experience shattered
him.
Im going to pieces.

Hes really low these


days.
My spirits sank.

Is there any difference between a metaphor and a cognitive metaphor? Can a metaphor be not cognitive?
71

known as metaphtonymy, for example, the adjective black in


black despair can be treated as a case of metaphtonymy? Can
you explain why?
Give examples of broadening and narrowing of meaning and degeneration and elevation of meaning. Why can the last two terms
be regarded as arbitrary and imprecise?
Comment of the following statement by Karl Sornig and specify
the functions that a metaphor serves:
the capability to use and create metaphoric language can be regarded as a most delicate indicator of communicative competence for
a certain language. The capability and propensity for that kind of handling language creatively might very well be considered a universal of
language use. Metaphoric replacement of words for each other is a deliberate process which is brought about by the deletion of certain semantic features while other features from the feature-potential are selected
and foregrounded, viz. those that would bring certain peculiarities of a
certain denotation (whose real name has been suppressed and substituted) to the attention of the interlocutor. Focusing on a certain semantic
aspect serves at the same time as an evaluative assessment of the concept
denoted and an invitation to the recipient to comply with this assessment.
Thus, metaphorization serves the evaluative/connotative processing of
expressive means from the speakers evaluation of situational reality, and
it tries to inuence the recipients interpretation of that same situation
[Sornig, 1981:36].

The cognitive theory of metaphor by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson


According to the cognitive theory of metaphor
worked out by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson, our perception of the world is metaphorically structured and
this is reected in the language. In the frame of this
conception, metaphor can be dened as understanding the essence of one thing through the essence of another. Cognitive
metaphor emerges as a result of interaction of the target domain (the
70

concept we intend to convey) and the source domain (the word by means
of which we describe the target word). Thus, in the sentence Time is
money the word time is the target word and the word money is the
source word.
All cognitive metaphors are structural because one concept is structured in terms of another, for instance argument is war, time is
money, ideas are objects, communication is sending. Structural
metaphors can be orientational if they form an opposition: happy is
up sad is down, virtue is up depravity is down, rational is up emotional is down. Ontological metaphors emerge when
events, actions, emotions, ideas are perceived as material matter and substances, for instance the mind is a brittle object, an argument is a
journey, the path of a journey is a surface.
Types of metaphors
Structural
Argument is war

Orientational
Ontological
Happy is up sad is The mind is a brittle obdown
ject

Your claims are indefen- Im feeling up.


sible.

His mind snapped.

He attacked every weak That boosted my spirits. He broke under crosspoint in my argument.
examination.
Ive never won an argu- My spirits rose.
ment with him.
You disagree?
shoot!

Ok, You are in high spirits.


Im feeling down.

She is easily crushed.


The experience shattered
him.
Im going to pieces.

Hes really low these


days.
My spirits sank.

Is there any difference between a metaphor and a cognitive metaphor? Can a metaphor be not cognitive?
71

Exercises:
I
Paraphrase the sentences and/or translate them into Russian,
thereby demonstrating different meanings of the italicized words.
Academic (noun/adjective)
1. When academics convene, their elaborations are usually lengthy
and heated.
2. I did not expect to be given the job for lack of academic credentials, so the employer was taking a risk hoping that on-the-premises
vocational training would do the trick.
3. This is an academic debate, what you are saying is ungrounded.

Anecdotal (adj.)
1. There is extensive anecdotal evidence that the rst-born child in
the family tend to have a higher IQ.
2. I hear that the district is crime-infested, do you personally have
any anecdotal evidence? Oh, yes, I was once mugged as I was going home later than usual.

Arguable (adj.), arguably (adverb)


1. There are some arguable issues still unsolved.
2. It is arguable that she is the best tennis-player.
3. She is arguably the best tennis-player.

Babushka (noun)
1. The young lady covered her head with a babushka and entered
the church.
2. A kind babushka told me that I should take bus 35 to reach my
destination.
72

To commit (smth., oneself) (verb)


1. He is considering the offer but he has not yet committed.
2. The number of crimes committed by women in handling is much
higher than the number of crimes committed by men.

Epithet (noun)
1. One of the stylistic devices used for the embellishment of speech
is an epithet, which is placed attributively before a noun.
2. Dont shout epithets at me.

Advise (verb)
1. The doctor advised me to stay in bed for at least two days
for me not to get any complications.
2. I am here to advise you that I expect the contention to
be settled within a few days.

Treatment (noun)
1. I look down on your treatment of senior citizens: it is customary
in our country to give up your seat for an elderly person, which you
always fail to do.
2. Your treatment of the famous actress was unjust: she is a celebrity
who blundered, but is she fair game to be preyed on? (a letter from
some reader of a journal addressed to the author of an article about
a well-known actress).

Ultimate (adj.)
1. The contest will be the ultimate test of your ability to come rst.
2. L Oreal is the ultimate mascara (an advertisement).
II
Insert the right word or expression. The words to be inserted
are:
73

Exercises:
I
Paraphrase the sentences and/or translate them into Russian,
thereby demonstrating different meanings of the italicized words.
Academic (noun/adjective)
1. When academics convene, their elaborations are usually lengthy
and heated.
2. I did not expect to be given the job for lack of academic credentials, so the employer was taking a risk hoping that on-the-premises
vocational training would do the trick.
3. This is an academic debate, what you are saying is ungrounded.

Anecdotal (adj.)
1. There is extensive anecdotal evidence that the rst-born child in
the family tend to have a higher IQ.
2. I hear that the district is crime-infested, do you personally have
any anecdotal evidence? Oh, yes, I was once mugged as I was going home later than usual.

Arguable (adj.), arguably (adverb)


1. There are some arguable issues still unsolved.
2. It is arguable that she is the best tennis-player.
3. She is arguably the best tennis-player.

Babushka (noun)
1. The young lady covered her head with a babushka and entered
the church.
2. A kind babushka told me that I should take bus 35 to reach my
destination.
72

To commit (smth., oneself) (verb)


1. He is considering the offer but he has not yet committed.
2. The number of crimes committed by women in handling is much
higher than the number of crimes committed by men.

Epithet (noun)
1. One of the stylistic devices used for the embellishment of speech
is an epithet, which is placed attributively before a noun.
2. Dont shout epithets at me.

Advise (verb)
1. The doctor advised me to stay in bed for at least two days
for me not to get any complications.
2. I am here to advise you that I expect the contention to
be settled within a few days.

Treatment (noun)
1. I look down on your treatment of senior citizens: it is customary
in our country to give up your seat for an elderly person, which you
always fail to do.
2. Your treatment of the famous actress was unjust: she is a celebrity
who blundered, but is she fair game to be preyed on? (a letter from
some reader of a journal addressed to the author of an article about
a well-known actress).

Ultimate (adj.)
1. The contest will be the ultimate test of your ability to come rst.
2. L Oreal is the ultimate mascara (an advertisement).
II
Insert the right word or expression. The words to be inserted
are:
73

Attested, growth (used attributively), street, sky, table, installments, with, nonce (used attributively), ux, band, scruple (v.),
under the guidance, assistance, renamed, they, feature, change,
ux, blazoned, yuppies, stunt (used attributively), cryptic, editorial, chair, on the wing, transferred (the second form of the verb
to transfer), customarily, chronicle(v.), ancestors, xerographically, host.

A community is known by the language it keeps, and its wordsthe


times. Like the rings of a tree, our vocabulary bears to our past.
While our linguistic still dwelled on the European continent, they discovered the paved road (via strata) of the Romans, and borrowed the
second half of the Latin term to become our Having translated themselves to the British Isles, they played to the Danes, who paid for the
hospitality with words like and and to the Normans, who brought
with them and As English speakers went on to meet new situations
and developing new manners and morals, the vocabulary of English went
on changing, too. In 1941 Dwight L. Bolinger, who had been writing a
column on new words for a magazine published in Los Angeles, his
work to American Speech and it Among the New Words. Bolinger
continued to edit the until 1944, when it came of I. Willis Russell,
who looked after it for forty-two years, until his death in 1985. During
the rst fty years of the features publication in American Speech, it
appeared in 113 , with 222 persons acknowledged as contributors of
citations or other
The rst monolingual English dictionaries recorded hard words
exclusively, and so were mainly glossaries of unusual new words in the
language intended to help ambitious of the seventeenth century keep
up the knowledge explosion of their day. In that sense, Among the
New Words is in a very old tradition.
The aim of Among the New Words is more detached. When American Speech began publication, it had a motto on its cover: They
haif said. Quhat say they? Lat thame say. The motto (traceable to an
inscription over a door at Marshal College in Aberdeen, but with ante74

cedents going back to magical amulets of the late Classical period) has
several interpretations. But most probably it was intended as a statement
ofpolicy: The aim of American Speech was to observe and record the
language of the populace, without concern for correcting it to be descriptive, not prescriptive, in its approach to the subject, to glory in the
vernacular.
The aim of Among the New Words has always been to catchin
our vocabulary , to record it, to marvel at it, and when possible to explain it. The feature has been a dispassionate, albeit sometimes amused,
observer of the lexical and social of our society.
On the other hand, Among the New Words does not to include
words that would not usually appear in any general dictionary: words
and words.
New contributors join every year. They watch for words that strike
them as new uses in whatever material they read or listen to. Because
printed evidence is easy to gather, most of the new words arefrom
newspapers, magazines and books.
If the material is not disposable, the preferred method of collecting
is to copy the page (with source information author, title, place, publisher, date, and page number added by hand as necessary), and then to
treat the copies in the same way as tear sheets7.
III
Reformulate the sentences below using the word in bold, which
can be changed in any way (for instance, made a derivative or a compound). The word can be any part of speech. Mind that the words
and expressions can belong to any register. The rst one (o) has been
done for you.
0) The ofce was temporarily closed because they planned to change
the interior.
furbish
Possible answer: The ofce was temporarily closed because it was
being refurbished.
7

The text is an abridged excerpt from the introduction to Fifty Years among the
New Words by J. Algeo.

75

Attested, growth (used attributively), street, sky, table, installments, with, nonce (used attributively), ux, band, scruple (v.),
under the guidance, assistance, renamed, they, feature, change,
ux, blazoned, yuppies, stunt (used attributively), cryptic, editorial, chair, on the wing, transferred (the second form of the verb
to transfer), customarily, chronicle(v.), ancestors, xerographically, host.

A community is known by the language it keeps, and its wordsthe


times. Like the rings of a tree, our vocabulary bears to our past.
While our linguistic still dwelled on the European continent, they discovered the paved road (via strata) of the Romans, and borrowed the
second half of the Latin term to become our Having translated themselves to the British Isles, they played to the Danes, who paid for the
hospitality with words like and and to the Normans, who brought
with them and As English speakers went on to meet new situations
and developing new manners and morals, the vocabulary of English went
on changing, too. In 1941 Dwight L. Bolinger, who had been writing a
column on new words for a magazine published in Los Angeles, his
work to American Speech and it Among the New Words. Bolinger
continued to edit the until 1944, when it came of I. Willis Russell,
who looked after it for forty-two years, until his death in 1985. During
the rst fty years of the features publication in American Speech, it
appeared in 113 , with 222 persons acknowledged as contributors of
citations or other
The rst monolingual English dictionaries recorded hard words
exclusively, and so were mainly glossaries of unusual new words in the
language intended to help ambitious of the seventeenth century keep
up the knowledge explosion of their day. In that sense, Among the
New Words is in a very old tradition.
The aim of Among the New Words is more detached. When American Speech began publication, it had a motto on its cover: They
haif said. Quhat say they? Lat thame say. The motto (traceable to an
inscription over a door at Marshal College in Aberdeen, but with ante74

cedents going back to magical amulets of the late Classical period) has
several interpretations. But most probably it was intended as a statement
ofpolicy: The aim of American Speech was to observe and record the
language of the populace, without concern for correcting it to be descriptive, not prescriptive, in its approach to the subject, to glory in the
vernacular.
The aim of Among the New Words has always been to catchin
our vocabulary , to record it, to marvel at it, and when possible to explain it. The feature has been a dispassionate, albeit sometimes amused,
observer of the lexical and social of our society.
On the other hand, Among the New Words does not to include
words that would not usually appear in any general dictionary: words
and words.
New contributors join every year. They watch for words that strike
them as new uses in whatever material they read or listen to. Because
printed evidence is easy to gather, most of the new words arefrom
newspapers, magazines and books.
If the material is not disposable, the preferred method of collecting
is to copy the page (with source information author, title, place, publisher, date, and page number added by hand as necessary), and then to
treat the copies in the same way as tear sheets7.
III
Reformulate the sentences below using the word in bold, which
can be changed in any way (for instance, made a derivative or a compound). The word can be any part of speech. Mind that the words
and expressions can belong to any register. The rst one (o) has been
done for you.
0) The ofce was temporarily closed because they planned to change
the interior.
furbish
Possible answer: The ofce was temporarily closed because it was
being refurbished.
7

The text is an abridged excerpt from the introduction to Fifty Years among the
New Words by J. Algeo.

75

1. If you were less impulsive, you wouldnt have made that sudden
decision.
snap
2. I dont very much fancy people who are excessively polite to
someone, especially someone who is in a superior position to
them.
crawl
3. He acts so unnaturally in public, making a speech for him is an
insurmountable task.
inhibit
4. It is obvious that you have taken the wrong decision. Why are
you keeping saying you didnt?
pig
5. When the child saw an array of various toys displayed in the
shop-window, he started crying and demanding that his mother
should buy one for him.
tantrum
6. When we saw the price of the article, we had a feeling of doubt
about whether to buy it or to shop around.
reservation
7. He failed to explain to me properly what I was supposed to do,
his instructions were vague, as a result, I feel very confused.
muddle
8. The elderly man said he was no longer keen on exercising regularly.
work
9. Although he was not an athlete, he was quite interested in skating.
into
10. Sometimes he feels bitter and resentful because he is not as assertive as his brother.
chip
11. The workload I am facing now is much more than I can handle,
therefore I feel nervous and confused.
uster
76

12. He always will insist on very small differences, which are, in my


opinion, unimportant.
hairs
13. Because he stumbled over the word several times and was never
able to get it the right way, his colleagues started to make fun of
him.
mickey
14. The government is trying to make us see that the economic crisis
is less important than it really is.
play
15. We are quite well-off, although we dont have money to burn.
comfortable
16. She has a natural ability to cook things well, although she never
actually learnt how to do it.
air
17. As he was top of the class, I didnt have any doubts that he was
going to pass the exam.
foregone
IV
Choose the word which best completes each sentence.
1. He must have known the truth, but he didnt let
a) In b) on c) at d) about
2. He is wealthy, but is not very happy in his personal life. It just
goes tothat money isnt everything.
a) Tell b) mention c) show d) indicate
3. Long holidays are not the only reason why I have taken up teaching, but it has a.on it.
a) Inuence b) impact c) bearing d) affect
4. The wedding part of Bill and Joan proved to be a draw. A lot of
peopleit.
a) Stormed b) attacked c) crashed d) gatecrashed
5. I dont like to, but who presented you with such an expensive
necklace?
a) Interfere b) intervene c) investigate d) pry
77

1. If you were less impulsive, you wouldnt have made that sudden
decision.
snap
2. I dont very much fancy people who are excessively polite to
someone, especially someone who is in a superior position to
them.
crawl
3. He acts so unnaturally in public, making a speech for him is an
insurmountable task.
inhibit
4. It is obvious that you have taken the wrong decision. Why are
you keeping saying you didnt?
pig
5. When the child saw an array of various toys displayed in the
shop-window, he started crying and demanding that his mother
should buy one for him.
tantrum
6. When we saw the price of the article, we had a feeling of doubt
about whether to buy it or to shop around.
reservation
7. He failed to explain to me properly what I was supposed to do,
his instructions were vague, as a result, I feel very confused.
muddle
8. The elderly man said he was no longer keen on exercising regularly.
work
9. Although he was not an athlete, he was quite interested in skating.
into
10. Sometimes he feels bitter and resentful because he is not as assertive as his brother.
chip
11. The workload I am facing now is much more than I can handle,
therefore I feel nervous and confused.
uster
76

12. He always will insist on very small differences, which are, in my


opinion, unimportant.
hairs
13. Because he stumbled over the word several times and was never
able to get it the right way, his colleagues started to make fun of
him.
mickey
14. The government is trying to make us see that the economic crisis
is less important than it really is.
play
15. We are quite well-off, although we dont have money to burn.
comfortable
16. She has a natural ability to cook things well, although she never
actually learnt how to do it.
air
17. As he was top of the class, I didnt have any doubts that he was
going to pass the exam.
foregone
IV
Choose the word which best completes each sentence.
1. He must have known the truth, but he didnt let
a) In b) on c) at d) about
2. He is wealthy, but is not very happy in his personal life. It just
goes tothat money isnt everything.
a) Tell b) mention c) show d) indicate
3. Long holidays are not the only reason why I have taken up teaching, but it has a.on it.
a) Inuence b) impact c) bearing d) affect
4. The wedding part of Bill and Joan proved to be a draw. A lot of
peopleit.
a) Stormed b) attacked c) crashed d) gatecrashed
5. I dont like to, but who presented you with such an expensive
necklace?
a) Interfere b) intervene c) investigate d) pry
77

6. Shes terribly, she always asks impertinently personal questions.


a) foxy b) nosey c) handy d) hairy
7. He is very assertive and has a air for management, I am sure
hell go
a) places b) to heaven c) far d) straight
8. Try as I would, I couldnt book an apartment for three, I drew
aat all the hotels I phoned.
a) Ticket b) ill luck c) blank d) blanket
9. I feel that I have beenout of the position, because they preferred
to hire a younger woman.
a) done b) made c) taken d) uprooted
10. He is a real fanatic, I would even go as far as to say that he is a ,
for it is impossible to discuss politics or religion with him without
getting involved in a heated argument.
a) craze b) bigot c) madman d) lunatic
11. Thats an interesting point youve touched upon. Will you?
a) elaborate b) develop c) continue d) hang on
V
Trace the evolution of the meaning of the words below. Specify
the type of transference.

5. Redolent (adjective) 1. (archaic) Having a pleasant smell.


2. Full of a specied fragrance (e.g. air redolent of seaweed).
3. Suggesting a particular quality, evocative (e.g. a city redolent of antiquity)

6. Satellite (noun) 1. A celestial body orbiting another of larger


size. 2. Somebody or something subordinate or dependent (e.g.
a satellite nation) 3. An obsequious follower

7. Furious (adjective) 1. Exhibiting or goaded by uncontrollable


anger. 2. Having a stormy or turbulent appearance (e.g. furious
bursts of ame) 3. Intense (e.g. the furious growth of tropical
vegetation)

1. Crush (noun) 1. A crowding together, especially of many people. 2. A soft drink made from the juice of fresh fruit (e.g. an orange crush). 3. (informal) an infatuation with smb., especially
smb. unsuitable or unattainable

8. Embark (verb) 1. To go on board a ship or aircraft 2. (on,


upon) To make a start on something (e.g. He embarked on a
new career).

2. Crusade (noun) 1. Any of the medieval Christian military


expeditions to win the Holy Land from the Muslims. 2. A reforming enterprise undertaken with zeal and enthusiasm (e.g. a
moral crusade).

9. Brood (verb) 1. (of a bird) To sit on eggs in order to hatch


them 2. (on, over, about) To dwell gloomily on or worry over
or about something; to be in a state of depression. 3. To hover
or seem to hover menacingly (e.g. the brooding cliffs).

3. Invite (verb) 1. To request smth. or the presence of smb., especially formally or politely. 2. To increase the likelihood of
smth., often unintentionally (e.g. His actions invite trouble)
78

4. Invest (verb) 1. To commit money to a particular use. 2. To


devote time or effort to smth. for future advantages.

VI
What meaning do the given postpositives (postpositions) lend to
the verb-stem?
79

6. Shes terribly, she always asks impertinently personal questions.


a) foxy b) nosey c) handy d) hairy
7. He is very assertive and has a air for management, I am sure
hell go
a) places b) to heaven c) far d) straight
8. Try as I would, I couldnt book an apartment for three, I drew
aat all the hotels I phoned.
a) Ticket b) ill luck c) blank d) blanket
9. I feel that I have beenout of the position, because they preferred
to hire a younger woman.
a) done b) made c) taken d) uprooted
10. He is a real fanatic, I would even go as far as to say that he is a ,
for it is impossible to discuss politics or religion with him without
getting involved in a heated argument.
a) craze b) bigot c) madman d) lunatic
11. Thats an interesting point youve touched upon. Will you?
a) elaborate b) develop c) continue d) hang on
V
Trace the evolution of the meaning of the words below. Specify
the type of transference.

5. Redolent (adjective) 1. (archaic) Having a pleasant smell.


2. Full of a specied fragrance (e.g. air redolent of seaweed).
3. Suggesting a particular quality, evocative (e.g. a city redolent of antiquity)

6. Satellite (noun) 1. A celestial body orbiting another of larger


size. 2. Somebody or something subordinate or dependent (e.g.
a satellite nation) 3. An obsequious follower

7. Furious (adjective) 1. Exhibiting or goaded by uncontrollable


anger. 2. Having a stormy or turbulent appearance (e.g. furious
bursts of ame) 3. Intense (e.g. the furious growth of tropical
vegetation)

1. Crush (noun) 1. A crowding together, especially of many people. 2. A soft drink made from the juice of fresh fruit (e.g. an orange crush). 3. (informal) an infatuation with smb., especially
smb. unsuitable or unattainable

8. Embark (verb) 1. To go on board a ship or aircraft 2. (on,


upon) To make a start on something (e.g. He embarked on a
new career).

2. Crusade (noun) 1. Any of the medieval Christian military


expeditions to win the Holy Land from the Muslims. 2. A reforming enterprise undertaken with zeal and enthusiasm (e.g. a
moral crusade).

9. Brood (verb) 1. (of a bird) To sit on eggs in order to hatch


them 2. (on, over, about) To dwell gloomily on or worry over
or about something; to be in a state of depression. 3. To hover
or seem to hover menacingly (e.g. the brooding cliffs).

3. Invite (verb) 1. To request smth. or the presence of smb., especially formally or politely. 2. To increase the likelihood of
smth., often unintentionally (e.g. His actions invite trouble)
78

4. Invest (verb) 1. To commit money to a particular use. 2. To


devote time or effort to smth. for future advantages.

VI
What meaning do the given postpositives (postpositions) lend to
the verb-stem?
79

9. Mobile phones gradually took from pagers.


10. The meeting will last for about 15 more minutes, but I cant chair
it any longer, because Im urgently needed in the ofce, so will
you takeas my deputy?
Up - top, double, pep, wrap (e.g. a discussion)
Down - put (e.g. a dog), pin (e.g. a robber), go
(e.g. a computer).
In pitch (informal), cut, usher (e.g. a new era).
Out jut, count, lash (at smb.), draw (e.g. meetings), want.
Around switch (e.g. classrooms), potter, skirt.
Off shake (e.g. the police car), work (e.g. anger,
frustration), cut (e.g. electricity), cordon, round,
switch.

VII
Fill in the blanks with suitable postpositives:
1. He had been speaking for twenty minutes when Larry came
and he broke
2. Allergic people should not eat too many nuts or else they may
break in a rash.
3. No matter how hard he tries to control himself, his ery temper
breaks now and then and gives his true disposition
4. The peddler did me of all my salary.
5. Do not do me, its unfair to criticize me now that it turned out
that my assistance was invaluable.
6. For a child of twelve months it is an insurmountable task to do the
buttons
7. Given the chance to do it, what would you change in the preparation for the press-conference?
8. Its inadmissible to take it on somebody when you are tired,
angry or in a bad mood.
80

VIII
Find cases of metaphor in the passages below. Say what the metaphor draws on. If the metaphor is cognitive, specify its type.
1. I went to see the village again, about a year afterwards. There was
nothing there. Mounds of red mud, where the huts had been, had
long swathes of rotting thatch over them, veined with the red galleries of the white ants. The pumpkin vines rioted everywhere:
it was a festival of pumpkins. The bushes were crowding up, the
new grass sprang vivid green (D. Lessing, The Old Chief Mshlanga, 1956, P. 14).

2. The warmth of that re spread through Gwen, enveloping her in


a sweet golden aura that seemed in her mind to outshine the pale,
cold light of the moon. Laying her head down on her arms, she
began to cry again, but these tears sprang from a different well,
one deeper and purer than she had ever imagined existed. They
were tears of joy, for she knew that she had loved Joram unselfishly (M. Weis, T. Hickman, The Dark Sword Trilogy, Vol. II,
P. 228).

3. As chief librarian in charge of records for over thirty years, he


considered the entire history of British international affairs his
private domain. He made a speciality of ferreting out policy blunders and scandalous intriguesthat had been swept under the
carpet of secrecy (C. Cussler, Night Probe, 2003, P. 59).

81

9. Mobile phones gradually took from pagers.


10. The meeting will last for about 15 more minutes, but I cant chair
it any longer, because Im urgently needed in the ofce, so will
you takeas my deputy?
Up - top, double, pep, wrap (e.g. a discussion)
Down - put (e.g. a dog), pin (e.g. a robber), go
(e.g. a computer).
In pitch (informal), cut, usher (e.g. a new era).
Out jut, count, lash (at smb.), draw (e.g. meetings), want.
Around switch (e.g. classrooms), potter, skirt.
Off shake (e.g. the police car), work (e.g. anger,
frustration), cut (e.g. electricity), cordon, round,
switch.

VII
Fill in the blanks with suitable postpositives:
1. He had been speaking for twenty minutes when Larry came
and he broke
2. Allergic people should not eat too many nuts or else they may
break in a rash.
3. No matter how hard he tries to control himself, his ery temper
breaks now and then and gives his true disposition
4. The peddler did me of all my salary.
5. Do not do me, its unfair to criticize me now that it turned out
that my assistance was invaluable.
6. For a child of twelve months it is an insurmountable task to do the
buttons
7. Given the chance to do it, what would you change in the preparation for the press-conference?
8. Its inadmissible to take it on somebody when you are tired,
angry or in a bad mood.
80

VIII
Find cases of metaphor in the passages below. Say what the metaphor draws on. If the metaphor is cognitive, specify its type.
1. I went to see the village again, about a year afterwards. There was
nothing there. Mounds of red mud, where the huts had been, had
long swathes of rotting thatch over them, veined with the red galleries of the white ants. The pumpkin vines rioted everywhere:
it was a festival of pumpkins. The bushes were crowding up, the
new grass sprang vivid green (D. Lessing, The Old Chief Mshlanga, 1956, P. 14).

2. The warmth of that re spread through Gwen, enveloping her in


a sweet golden aura that seemed in her mind to outshine the pale,
cold light of the moon. Laying her head down on her arms, she
began to cry again, but these tears sprang from a different well,
one deeper and purer than she had ever imagined existed. They
were tears of joy, for she knew that she had loved Joram unselfishly (M. Weis, T. Hickman, The Dark Sword Trilogy, Vol. II,
P. 228).

3. As chief librarian in charge of records for over thirty years, he


considered the entire history of British international affairs his
private domain. He made a speciality of ferreting out policy blunders and scandalous intriguesthat had been swept under the
carpet of secrecy (C. Cussler, Night Probe, 2003, P. 59).

81

4. The third day broke, bleak and windy. At sunrise the Ents voices
rose to a great clamour and then died down again. As the morning
wore on, the wind fell and the air grew heavy with expectancy
The afternoon came, and then, going west towards the mountains,
sent out long yellow beams between the cracks and ssures of
the clouds. Suddenly they were aware that everything was quiet;
the whole forest stood in listening silence (J. R.R. Tolkien, The
Lord of the Rings, Part two, The Two Towers, 1994, P. 99).

9. Everything Ive written so far about Los Angeles is true, as far


as I know. But everything Ive written so far is also profoundly
inaccurate. If you think of LA as a room, it would be fair to say
that Ive been deliberately neglecting an elephant sitting by itself
in the corner. Lots of Angelenos choose to do the same they
behave as if the elephant werent there, or they pretend its no
bigger than a mouse. But soon I think they wont have a choice.
The elephant is not aggressive. It just keeps on growing [Mark
Abley, The Prodigal Tongue, 2009:129].

5. The Butters were a family of large, inbred, indeterminately numerous individuals who lived seasonally in a collection of shanty
homes in an area of perpetual wooded gloom known as the Bottoms along the swampy margins of the Raccoon River (B. Bryson,
The Life and Times of the Thunderbolt Kid, 2007, P. 73).

10. He leaned back. Somewhere in the house there was the sound of
rushing water. The radiator rattled and the rain knocked with soft
ngers at the window [Remarque, 1971:69].

6. Some people argue that because God is a caring deity ill health
and suffering must also have an origin in divine care. From this
proceeds the widespread understanding that disease and physical
suffering are the means by which God puries the soul (I. Mortimer, The Time Travellers Guide to Medieval England, 2007,
P. 190).
7. The glass of the kitchen window-panes rattled in their frames and
then the rumble of the guns rolled down from the north. Once
again the German guns were hunting along the ridges, clamouring and barking like wild dogs (Wilbur Smith The Burning
Shore, 1997, P. 48)
8. Centaine shivered. Death that word again. Death was all around
them. On the ridges over there where for the moment the sound
of the guns was just a low rumble, death in the sky above them
(Wilbur Smith The Burning Shore, 1997, P. 68)
82

11. A huge old chestnut tree stretched its naked arms upward toward
the wet sky [Remarque, 1971:85].
12. I am sitting here with a woman between pale chrysanthemums
and a bottle of calvados, and the shadow of love rises, trembling,
lonesome, strange and sad, it too an exile from the safe gardens
of the past, shy and wild and quick as if it had no right [Remarque, 1971:146].
13. She calls that joy! To be driven by multiple dark propellers, in a
gust of breathless desire for repossession joy? Outside there is a
moment of joy, the dew at the window, the ten minutes of silence
before the day stretches out its claws [Remarque, 1971:248].

IX
Specify the functions performed by the following cases of metonymy:
1. He looked across the room toward Albert. The feathered hat was
just explaining to him very audibly why he was such a swine, at the same
83

4. The third day broke, bleak and windy. At sunrise the Ents voices
rose to a great clamour and then died down again. As the morning
wore on, the wind fell and the air grew heavy with expectancy
The afternoon came, and then, going west towards the mountains,
sent out long yellow beams between the cracks and ssures of
the clouds. Suddenly they were aware that everything was quiet;
the whole forest stood in listening silence (J. R.R. Tolkien, The
Lord of the Rings, Part two, The Two Towers, 1994, P. 99).

9. Everything Ive written so far about Los Angeles is true, as far


as I know. But everything Ive written so far is also profoundly
inaccurate. If you think of LA as a room, it would be fair to say
that Ive been deliberately neglecting an elephant sitting by itself
in the corner. Lots of Angelenos choose to do the same they
behave as if the elephant werent there, or they pretend its no
bigger than a mouse. But soon I think they wont have a choice.
The elephant is not aggressive. It just keeps on growing [Mark
Abley, The Prodigal Tongue, 2009:129].

5. The Butters were a family of large, inbred, indeterminately numerous individuals who lived seasonally in a collection of shanty
homes in an area of perpetual wooded gloom known as the Bottoms along the swampy margins of the Raccoon River (B. Bryson,
The Life and Times of the Thunderbolt Kid, 2007, P. 73).

10. He leaned back. Somewhere in the house there was the sound of
rushing water. The radiator rattled and the rain knocked with soft
ngers at the window [Remarque, 1971:69].

6. Some people argue that because God is a caring deity ill health
and suffering must also have an origin in divine care. From this
proceeds the widespread understanding that disease and physical
suffering are the means by which God puries the soul (I. Mortimer, The Time Travellers Guide to Medieval England, 2007,
P. 190).
7. The glass of the kitchen window-panes rattled in their frames and
then the rumble of the guns rolled down from the north. Once
again the German guns were hunting along the ridges, clamouring and barking like wild dogs (Wilbur Smith The Burning
Shore, 1997, P. 48)
8. Centaine shivered. Death that word again. Death was all around
them. On the ridges over there where for the moment the sound
of the guns was just a low rumble, death in the sky above them
(Wilbur Smith The Burning Shore, 1997, P. 68)
82

11. A huge old chestnut tree stretched its naked arms upward toward
the wet sky [Remarque, 1971:85].
12. I am sitting here with a woman between pale chrysanthemums
and a bottle of calvados, and the shadow of love rises, trembling,
lonesome, strange and sad, it too an exile from the safe gardens
of the past, shy and wild and quick as if it had no right [Remarque, 1971:146].
13. She calls that joy! To be driven by multiple dark propellers, in a
gust of breathless desire for repossession joy? Outside there is a
moment of joy, the dew at the window, the ten minutes of silence
before the day stretches out its claws [Remarque, 1971:248].

IX
Specify the functions performed by the following cases of metonymy:
1. He looked across the room toward Albert. The feathered hat was
just explaining to him very audibly why he was such a swine, at the same
83

time rhythmically rapping on the table with her umbrella [Remarque,


1971:64].
2. She did not put it on. She simply hung it around her shoulders. It
was an inexpensive mink, possible an imitation but it did not look cheap
on her.
3. In Vienna ve years, it was not yet expensive, I could live cheaply; but it cost me two Renoirs and a Degas pastel. In Prague I lived on and
ate up a Sisley and ve drawings [Remarque, 1971:347].
4. Number twelve is dead, Veber. Now you call the police [Remarque,
1971:438].
X
Differentiate between cases of metaphor and metonymy.
The jacket of the book
The roof of the tongue
The cover of the night
A wedge of a melon
A lump of sugar
A lockjaw
A train of thought
A ight of fantasy

A hint of brandy
A spoiler
Fishngers
The brow of the hill
The crest of the wave
The cheek to ask for smth.
To hate smb.s guts
The eye of the storm
The heel of the sock

Euphemisms are indirect words and word combinations that are used instead of a harsher word or
expression to gloss over or conceal the notion that the
latter word or expression conveys. Euphemisms can
be classied according to various criteria: according
to their origin and current sphere of application (politics, medicine), according to their stylistic characteristics and word-building peculiarities
(idioms, slang words, blends, shortenings, terms).
XI
Match the left-hand euphemisms with their right-hand meaning
and specify the linguistic strategy that underlies each euphemism.
84

To neutralize
Pro-life
Pro-choice
John
Correction ofcer
Adult bookstore
Grass
Lived-in
Road apples
The C-word
To buy the farm
Sanitation engineers
Middlescence
Senior moment
Halitosis

toilet
horse manure
untidy
cancer
elderly
prison guard
bad breath
to die
a lapse of memory
to kill
pro-abortion
anti-abortion
pornographic bookstore
garbage collectors
marijuana

As technology develops, some words may acquire a narrower or reduced meaning, the process and
its result known as specialization. Thus, the advent
of the computer and its evolution introduced into the
language a number of specialized meanings for older
words, traditionally used in a more general sense.
XII
Study the table of computer and Internet terms below, specify
the type of transference and say what specialization resulted in.
Computer and
Meaning and Description
Internet Terms
blend
1. A drawing program command that computes the intermediate shapes between two selected objects. The blend
command is used to make the smooth highlights on a rendering of a three-dimensional object. In many ways, the
blend command is like morphing special effects seen on
television commercials. With its help, one could make the
letter C, for example, turn into a cat.
2. A photopaint program lter that smooths colours and removes texture over a selected area.
3. A piece of digital art in which several images have been
combined seamlessly into a visually interesting whole.

85

time rhythmically rapping on the table with her umbrella [Remarque,


1971:64].
2. She did not put it on. She simply hung it around her shoulders. It
was an inexpensive mink, possible an imitation but it did not look cheap
on her.
3. In Vienna ve years, it was not yet expensive, I could live cheaply; but it cost me two Renoirs and a Degas pastel. In Prague I lived on and
ate up a Sisley and ve drawings [Remarque, 1971:347].
4. Number twelve is dead, Veber. Now you call the police [Remarque,
1971:438].
X
Differentiate between cases of metaphor and metonymy.
The jacket of the book
The roof of the tongue
The cover of the night
A wedge of a melon
A lump of sugar
A lockjaw
A train of thought
A ight of fantasy

A hint of brandy
A spoiler
Fishngers
The brow of the hill
The crest of the wave
The cheek to ask for smth.
To hate smb.s guts
The eye of the storm
The heel of the sock

Euphemisms are indirect words and word combinations that are used instead of a harsher word or
expression to gloss over or conceal the notion that the
latter word or expression conveys. Euphemisms can
be classied according to various criteria: according
to their origin and current sphere of application (politics, medicine), according to their stylistic characteristics and word-building peculiarities
(idioms, slang words, blends, shortenings, terms).
XI
Match the left-hand euphemisms with their right-hand meaning
and specify the linguistic strategy that underlies each euphemism.
84

To neutralize
Pro-life
Pro-choice
John
Correction ofcer
Adult bookstore
Grass
Lived-in
Road apples
The C-word
To buy the farm
Sanitation engineers
Middlescence
Senior moment
Halitosis

toilet
horse manure
untidy
cancer
elderly
prison guard
bad breath
to die
a lapse of memory
to kill
pro-abortion
anti-abortion
pornographic bookstore
garbage collectors
marijuana

As technology develops, some words may acquire a narrower or reduced meaning, the process and
its result known as specialization. Thus, the advent
of the computer and its evolution introduced into the
language a number of specialized meanings for older
words, traditionally used in a more general sense.
XII
Study the table of computer and Internet terms below, specify
the type of transference and say what specialization resulted in.
Computer and
Meaning and Description
Internet Terms
blend
1. A drawing program command that computes the intermediate shapes between two selected objects. The blend
command is used to make the smooth highlights on a rendering of a three-dimensional object. In many ways, the
blend command is like morphing special effects seen on
television commercials. With its help, one could make the
letter C, for example, turn into a cat.
2. A photopaint program lter that smooths colours and removes texture over a selected area.
3. A piece of digital art in which several images have been
combined seamlessly into a visually interesting whole.

85

Computer and
Meaning and Description
Internet Terms
Boot
To start up a computer. The term boot (earlier bootstraps)
derives from the idea that the computer has to to pull itself
up by the bootstraps, that is, load into memory a small program that enables it to load larger programs.
Bottleneck

Cinnamon bun
Client

Ear

Efciency

Justication

Node

86

The part of a computer system that slows down its performance, such as a slow disk drive, slow modem, or overloaded
network. Finding and remedying bottlenecks is much more
worthwhile than simply speeding up parts of the computer
that are already fast.
The symbol @
1. A computer that receives services from another computer. For example, when you browse the World Wide Web,
your computer is a client of the computer that hosts the
web page.
2. An operating system component that enables a computer
to access a particular types of service.
1. The small stroke on the right side of the letter g.
2. A small box of information on either side of a headline.
In newspapers, an ear is commonly used for the weather
forecasts.
The conservation of scarce resources. In order to measure
efciency, you have to decide which resources you want to
conserve. For example, one program may be more efcient
than another if it uses less memory, and another program
may be more efcient in terms of speed; the question is
whether you would rather conserve memory or time.
The insertion of extra space between words in lines of type
so that the left and the right margins are even and smooth.
Most word processors and desktop publishing programs can
automatically do the computations necessary to justify type.
Problems arise only when the column width is too narrow
or too large. Then you will get rivers of white space running
down the column.
1. An individual computer in a network
2. A point on a curve or line that helps dene the shape of
the line

Computer and
Meaning and Description
Internet Terms
Permission
An attribute of a le that indicates who is allowed to read
or modify it
River
A series of white spaces between words that appear to ow
from line to line in a printed document. Rivers result from
trying to justify type when the columns are too narrow or the
available soft-ware or printer is not versatile enough.
Slave
The dependent unit in a pair of linked machines.

The appearance of new words is often inuenced by technological progress; when technology
advances there may appear new versions of the preexisting product or thing, in this case new words are
required to nominate the novelty. New words for
old or outmoded objects have come to be known
as retronyms. Retronyms are almost always represented by an attributive word-combination, in which the rst element is key to disclosing
the essence of an outdated object. The classical example is the retronym
acoustic guitar, which emerged when guitar was replaced by an electric
guitar, that is, by its more advanced version. Interestingly, retronyms, despite referring to old-fashioned notions, often have positive connotations,
unlike many of their more advanced counterparts (called neonyms).
XIII
Below are a number of neonyms. Study them closely and nd out
their retronym counterparts. Which of the retronyms are characterized by positive connotations?
Neonym

Retronym

Digital computer
Digital watch
Liquid soap
Colour television
Disposable diapers

87

Computer and
Meaning and Description
Internet Terms
Boot
To start up a computer. The term boot (earlier bootstraps)
derives from the idea that the computer has to to pull itself
up by the bootstraps, that is, load into memory a small program that enables it to load larger programs.
Bottleneck

Cinnamon bun
Client

Ear

Efciency

Justication

Node

86

The part of a computer system that slows down its performance, such as a slow disk drive, slow modem, or overloaded
network. Finding and remedying bottlenecks is much more
worthwhile than simply speeding up parts of the computer
that are already fast.
The symbol @
1. A computer that receives services from another computer. For example, when you browse the World Wide Web,
your computer is a client of the computer that hosts the
web page.
2. An operating system component that enables a computer
to access a particular types of service.
1. The small stroke on the right side of the letter g.
2. A small box of information on either side of a headline.
In newspapers, an ear is commonly used for the weather
forecasts.
The conservation of scarce resources. In order to measure
efciency, you have to decide which resources you want to
conserve. For example, one program may be more efcient
than another if it uses less memory, and another program
may be more efcient in terms of speed; the question is
whether you would rather conserve memory or time.
The insertion of extra space between words in lines of type
so that the left and the right margins are even and smooth.
Most word processors and desktop publishing programs can
automatically do the computations necessary to justify type.
Problems arise only when the column width is too narrow
or too large. Then you will get rivers of white space running
down the column.
1. An individual computer in a network
2. A point on a curve or line that helps dene the shape of
the line

Computer and
Meaning and Description
Internet Terms
Permission
An attribute of a le that indicates who is allowed to read
or modify it
River
A series of white spaces between words that appear to ow
from line to line in a printed document. Rivers result from
trying to justify type when the columns are too narrow or the
available soft-ware or printer is not versatile enough.
Slave
The dependent unit in a pair of linked machines.

The appearance of new words is often inuenced by technological progress; when technology
advances there may appear new versions of the preexisting product or thing, in this case new words are
required to nominate the novelty. New words for
old or outmoded objects have come to be known
as retronyms. Retronyms are almost always represented by an attributive word-combination, in which the rst element is key to disclosing
the essence of an outdated object. The classical example is the retronym
acoustic guitar, which emerged when guitar was replaced by an electric
guitar, that is, by its more advanced version. Interestingly, retronyms, despite referring to old-fashioned notions, often have positive connotations,
unlike many of their more advanced counterparts (called neonyms).
XIII
Below are a number of neonyms. Study them closely and nd out
their retronym counterparts. Which of the retronyms are characterized by positive connotations?
Neonym

Retronym

Digital computer
Digital watch
Liquid soap
Colour television
Disposable diapers

87

Cordless drill
Laptop computer
Digital camera
Ballpoint pen
Softcover book
Water polo
Machine-readable
Machine translation
Laser printer
Automatic transmission
Peroxide blonde
Articial language (machine language)
Cable television
Electron microscope
Radio telescope
E-book
Electronic journalist
Jet plane
Push-button phone
Dried egg (articial egg)
Water skiing
Single-parent family
Drive-in theatre
Skim milk

Different terms are used to refer to novel lexemes in a language, such as neologisms, lexical
innovations, neo-lexemes, etc., the prevailing being the term neologisms. Although this term is not
by all means new, there is still no unanimous opinion
among linguists and pundits as to its semantics. The noted Russian linguist N.Z. Kotelova suggests several linguistic theories that disclose its
essence. Another linguist, T.V. Popova, refers to these theories as stylistic, psycholinguistic, lexicographic, denotative, structural and
historical.
88

Let us outline them in some detail. According to the st theory (stylistic), neologisms are stylistically-marked words (that is, negatively
marked along the line of neutrality), their meanings and phraseological
units, whose usage and application entails a novelty effect. Psycholinguistic theory denes neologism as a linguistic unit that has not been
previously encountered by a native speaker in his experience [Togoeva,
1999:88]. This theory brings to the fore the subjective individual novelty
of a word. Proponents of this theory underline that most neologisms are
not represented in dictionaries. According to the lexicographical theory,
neologisms are words registered by neological dictionaries. The theory is
open to argument, since it is hardly possible to enter all new words in a
neo-dictionary, which would make it bulky and non-selective.
The denotational theory posits that neologisms are words referring
to a new notion or realia. For all its convenience, the theory disregards
purely linguistic reasons for the appearance of new words, among which
are: the penchant for expressivity, creativity and evaluative nominations,
linguistic economy and analogical extensions.
Adherents of the structural theory believe that neologisms are words
that are new from the point of view of their form, structure. This theory
does not count derived words built with the help of known afxes as neologisms, because such innovations are relatively easy to decode and
interpret if one knows the meaning of the stem and the appended afx.
Professor T.V. Popova considers the historical theory as the most appropriate, as it takes into account the period of time when a new word emerges,
consequently, it is possible to speak of neologisms of the 18th, 19th and,
indeed, any century. Within the framework of this theory, the notion of
neologisms is relative, a word can be regarded as new in one or several
aspects. The following criteria of a words novelty are taken into account:
1) Novelty for all native speakers
2) Novelty for a particular national language
3) Novelty for a particular genre of speech
4) Speech novelty or language novelty
5) Structural, semantic or stylistic novelty
A neologism, thus, can be dened as a word, its meaning, or a phraseological unit (an idiom) that exists in a particular language or its genre
and that did not exist earlier [Popova, 2005:12].
89

Cordless drill
Laptop computer
Digital camera
Ballpoint pen
Softcover book
Water polo
Machine-readable
Machine translation
Laser printer
Automatic transmission
Peroxide blonde
Articial language (machine language)
Cable television
Electron microscope
Radio telescope
E-book
Electronic journalist
Jet plane
Push-button phone
Dried egg (articial egg)
Water skiing
Single-parent family
Drive-in theatre
Skim milk

Different terms are used to refer to novel lexemes in a language, such as neologisms, lexical
innovations, neo-lexemes, etc., the prevailing being the term neologisms. Although this term is not
by all means new, there is still no unanimous opinion
among linguists and pundits as to its semantics. The noted Russian linguist N.Z. Kotelova suggests several linguistic theories that disclose its
essence. Another linguist, T.V. Popova, refers to these theories as stylistic, psycholinguistic, lexicographic, denotative, structural and
historical.
88

Let us outline them in some detail. According to the st theory (stylistic), neologisms are stylistically-marked words (that is, negatively
marked along the line of neutrality), their meanings and phraseological
units, whose usage and application entails a novelty effect. Psycholinguistic theory denes neologism as a linguistic unit that has not been
previously encountered by a native speaker in his experience [Togoeva,
1999:88]. This theory brings to the fore the subjective individual novelty
of a word. Proponents of this theory underline that most neologisms are
not represented in dictionaries. According to the lexicographical theory,
neologisms are words registered by neological dictionaries. The theory is
open to argument, since it is hardly possible to enter all new words in a
neo-dictionary, which would make it bulky and non-selective.
The denotational theory posits that neologisms are words referring
to a new notion or realia. For all its convenience, the theory disregards
purely linguistic reasons for the appearance of new words, among which
are: the penchant for expressivity, creativity and evaluative nominations,
linguistic economy and analogical extensions.
Adherents of the structural theory believe that neologisms are words
that are new from the point of view of their form, structure. This theory
does not count derived words built with the help of known afxes as neologisms, because such innovations are relatively easy to decode and
interpret if one knows the meaning of the stem and the appended afx.
Professor T.V. Popova considers the historical theory as the most appropriate, as it takes into account the period of time when a new word emerges,
consequently, it is possible to speak of neologisms of the 18th, 19th and,
indeed, any century. Within the framework of this theory, the notion of
neologisms is relative, a word can be regarded as new in one or several
aspects. The following criteria of a words novelty are taken into account:
1) Novelty for all native speakers
2) Novelty for a particular national language
3) Novelty for a particular genre of speech
4) Speech novelty or language novelty
5) Structural, semantic or stylistic novelty
A neologism, thus, can be dened as a word, its meaning, or a phraseological unit (an idiom) that exists in a particular language or its genre
and that did not exist earlier [Popova, 2005:12].
89

XIV
There are various criteria underlying the classication of neologisms,
such as the year of their emergence, the word-building pattern used in
their creation, the sphere of their application and usage, etc.
Below are a number of neologisms selected by the year of their
appearance. Comment on their meaning and word-building pattern
and speculate on their prospective longevity, going by the criteria
suggested by R. Fischer (1998):
1) Frequency of usage. After a new word is introduced, it starts to be
used more frequently. After some time, the frequency reaches its
peak, and then either levels off or goes gradually down. This is the
stage when the word has completed the process of standardization.
2) A variety of contexts in which the new word is used. If a novel
word appears in different texts and in different genres, it means
that standardization is in full swing. In case the application of the
word is conned to a social or a geographical dialect, standardization is absent.
3) Absence or presence of graphic markers, such as capitals, bold
fonts, italics, hyphen, etc. If these markers are present, standardization is either close to nil or is nascent. If the word is standardized,
these markers are either absent or only one type of marker prevails.
4) The meaning of the word. If the word becomes polysemantic
or develops a metaphorical meaning, it is on the way to standardization. If the words meaning is constantly explained and
paraphrased by means of synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms and
hyperonyms, its standardization is not completed, therefore it has
slim chances of taking root in the language.
5) If a novel word is used as a proper name, for example as a trade
mark name, it has more chances of catching on, as it facilitates the
words recognition.
6) Word-building productivity. If a novel word becomes a derivational basis for other words, it testies to the completion of
standardization.
7) Syntactic function. Standardization entails the usage of a novel
word as an attribute before a noun.
8) Topicality. The degree of standardization increases if the word is
rarely used as the theme of an article.
90

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

bushlips:
insincere political rhetoric
interview without coffee:
a formal disciplinary meeting or ofcial reprimand; a dressing-down.
mother of all:
greatest
area boy:
a hoodlum or street thug
lilywhite:
a person without a police record; someone who does
not trigger suspicions
McJob:
An unstimulating low-paying job
Babymoon:
a planned period of calm spent together by a justborn baby and its parents;
occasionally, time spent by parents
without their baby.
Chalk:
the personnel
and equipment that
make up the load of an aircraft.
dress down day:
a workday when employees are allowed to dress casually
love-cum-arranged marriage:
matrimony between a mutually acceptable and consenting couple that has
been facilitated by the couples parents.
go postal:
to act irrationally and violently as a result of work-stress
Jesus year:
a persons 33rd year of life

1990

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

1991
1992

1993

1994

1995

91

XIV
There are various criteria underlying the classication of neologisms,
such as the year of their emergence, the word-building pattern used in
their creation, the sphere of their application and usage, etc.
Below are a number of neologisms selected by the year of their
appearance. Comment on their meaning and word-building pattern
and speculate on their prospective longevity, going by the criteria
suggested by R. Fischer (1998):
1) Frequency of usage. After a new word is introduced, it starts to be
used more frequently. After some time, the frequency reaches its
peak, and then either levels off or goes gradually down. This is the
stage when the word has completed the process of standardization.
2) A variety of contexts in which the new word is used. If a novel
word appears in different texts and in different genres, it means
that standardization is in full swing. In case the application of the
word is conned to a social or a geographical dialect, standardization is absent.
3) Absence or presence of graphic markers, such as capitals, bold
fonts, italics, hyphen, etc. If these markers are present, standardization is either close to nil or is nascent. If the word is standardized,
these markers are either absent or only one type of marker prevails.
4) The meaning of the word. If the word becomes polysemantic
or develops a metaphorical meaning, it is on the way to standardization. If the words meaning is constantly explained and
paraphrased by means of synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms and
hyperonyms, its standardization is not completed, therefore it has
slim chances of taking root in the language.
5) If a novel word is used as a proper name, for example as a trade
mark name, it has more chances of catching on, as it facilitates the
words recognition.
6) Word-building productivity. If a novel word becomes a derivational basis for other words, it testies to the completion of
standardization.
7) Syntactic function. Standardization entails the usage of a novel
word as an attribute before a noun.
8) Topicality. The degree of standardization increases if the word is
rarely used as the theme of an article.
90

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

bushlips:
insincere political rhetoric
interview without coffee:
a formal disciplinary meeting or ofcial reprimand; a dressing-down.
mother of all:
greatest
area boy:
a hoodlum or street thug
lilywhite:
a person without a police record; someone who does
not trigger suspicions
McJob:
An unstimulating low-paying job
Babymoon:
a planned period of calm spent together by a justborn baby and its parents;
occasionally, time spent by parents
without their baby.
Chalk:
the personnel
and equipment that
make up the load of an aircraft.
dress down day:
a workday when employees are allowed to dress casually
love-cum-arranged marriage:
matrimony between a mutually acceptable and consenting couple that has
been facilitated by the couples parents.
go postal:
to act irrationally and violently as a result of work-stress
Jesus year:
a persons 33rd year of life

1990

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

1991
1992

1993

1994

1995

91

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

prebuttal:
1996
preemptive rebuttal
chocolate foot:
the foot favored to use or to start with
when running, biking, or kicking; ones
dominant foot.
millennium bug:
1997
the bug predicted to affect all computers at the start of the millennium
foot fault: in jurisprudence, a minor
criminal or procedural violation; a
legal misstep
senior moment:
1998
a momentary lapse of memory due to
old age
babalog:
a young, Westernized social group
or individual concerned with wealth,
pop culture fads, appearance, material
goods, or other supercialities.
eat up the camera:
in movies, to be appealing or engaging
on screen
horse blanket:
a large, complex, or comprehensive
report or chart.
cybersquat:
1999
to register a Web address with the intention to sell it at a prot
chad:
2000
a scrap of paper torn off a ballot that
invalidates it and upsets a presidential
election
dub-dub:
a restaurant server or waiter.

92

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

second-hand speech:
overheard cell-phone conversation in
public places
Asiental:
An Asian of unknown or unspecic
nationality.
vlog:
a blog that contains video material.
feather lift:
a delicate method of cosmetic surgery
involving implanted cords that lift and
pull
gurgitator:
a person who participates in eating
competitions
exitarian:
a vegetarian who occasionally eats
meat
red state:
a state who residents favour conservative Republicans in the political map
of the United States
phish:
to induce someone to reveal private
information by means of deceptive email
wardrobe malfunction:
an unanticipated exposure of bodily
parts
mufn top:
the bulge of esh hanging over the top
of low-rider jeans
staycation:
a vacation spent at home or nearby.
vacation deprivation
foregoing vacation days because of
busyness at work.

2001

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

93

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

prebuttal:
1996
preemptive rebuttal
chocolate foot:
the foot favored to use or to start with
when running, biking, or kicking; ones
dominant foot.
millennium bug:
1997
the bug predicted to affect all computers at the start of the millennium
foot fault: in jurisprudence, a minor
criminal or procedural violation; a
legal misstep
senior moment:
1998
a momentary lapse of memory due to
old age
babalog:
a young, Westernized social group
or individual concerned with wealth,
pop culture fads, appearance, material
goods, or other supercialities.
eat up the camera:
in movies, to be appealing or engaging
on screen
horse blanket:
a large, complex, or comprehensive
report or chart.
cybersquat:
1999
to register a Web address with the intention to sell it at a prot
chad:
2000
a scrap of paper torn off a ballot that
invalidates it and upsets a presidential
election
dub-dub:
a restaurant server or waiter.

92

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

second-hand speech:
overheard cell-phone conversation in
public places
Asiental:
An Asian of unknown or unspecic
nationality.
vlog:
a blog that contains video material.
feather lift:
a delicate method of cosmetic surgery
involving implanted cords that lift and
pull
gurgitator:
a person who participates in eating
competitions
exitarian:
a vegetarian who occasionally eats
meat
red state:
a state who residents favour conservative Republicans in the political map
of the United States
phish:
to induce someone to reveal private
information by means of deceptive email
wardrobe malfunction:
an unanticipated exposure of bodily
parts
mufn top:
the bulge of esh hanging over the top
of low-rider jeans
staycation:
a vacation spent at home or nearby.
vacation deprivation
foregoing vacation days because of
busyness at work.

2001

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

93

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

empty spam:
a spam message that contains passages
from classic literature, but no discernible advertisement, phishing attempt,
or malicious code.
sub-zero:
a dress size smaller than size 0
smexting:
sending text messages while standing
outside on a smoking break.
ninja loan:
a loan or mortgage given to a person
who has no income, no job, and no assets.
multi-dadding:
having multiple children with multiple
men.
quake lake:
a lake formed when an earthquake
causes landslides that block a large
river
Obamacon:
a conservative voter who supports
Democratic candidate Barack Obama
in the 2008 U.S. presidential election
recessionista:
a person who dresses stylishly on a
tight budget.
DDo$
a scheme where a ne or fee is paid
using a massive number of small electronic payments, particularly when
each payment generates a transaction
cost greater than the payment itself.
cookprint:
the energy and other resources used
while preparing meals.

2006

94

2007

2008

2009

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

deather:
2009
a person who believes that U.S. health
care reform will lead to more deaths,
particularly among the elderly.
psychache:
2010
extreme psychological pain
upgradation:
the state of being upgraded; the act or
an instance of upgrading
eco-bling:
ineffective green technology, particular equipment added on to an existing
building that does little to reduce the
buildings use of natural resources.

The Pragmatic Component in the Meaning


of the Word
The classic understanding of pragmatics was
formulated by Ch. Morris who posited that pragmatics is the relationship of the sign towards its interpreters. The pragmatic component of meaning reveals itself in the process
of communication, is originally occasional and may retain an emergent
status for some time. The specic feature of the words pragmatic component is that if the word which bears it recurs in communication, this
meaning may become systematic and codied. V.I. Zabotkina points out
that all innovations, unless they are terms and have only the denotative
component, possess the pragmatic sememes of being rhematic, new from
the point of view of time and voguish.
A pragmatically-charged word may also change its function depending on the social status of the person who uses it. Thus, the usage of such
a word by a superordinate towards his/her subordinate is not deemed as
an admonition, or a reprimand, conversely, the usage of such a word by a
subordinate towards his/her superordinate is regarded as an insult.
Some of the important pragmatic sememes are those of gender, age,
ethnic and social status. These sememes are rarely registered by general95

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

empty spam:
a spam message that contains passages
from classic literature, but no discernible advertisement, phishing attempt,
or malicious code.
sub-zero:
a dress size smaller than size 0
smexting:
sending text messages while standing
outside on a smoking break.
ninja loan:
a loan or mortgage given to a person
who has no income, no job, and no assets.
multi-dadding:
having multiple children with multiple
men.
quake lake:
a lake formed when an earthquake
causes landslides that block a large
river
Obamacon:
a conservative voter who supports
Democratic candidate Barack Obama
in the 2008 U.S. presidential election
recessionista:
a person who dresses stylishly on a
tight budget.
DDo$
a scheme where a ne or fee is paid
using a massive number of small electronic payments, particularly when
each payment generates a transaction
cost greater than the payment itself.
cookprint:
the energy and other resources used
while preparing meals.

2006

94

2007

2008

2009

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

Neologism and Its Meaning

Year

Word-building peculiarities
and estimated longevity

deather:
2009
a person who believes that U.S. health
care reform will lead to more deaths,
particularly among the elderly.
psychache:
2010
extreme psychological pain
upgradation:
the state of being upgraded; the act or
an instance of upgrading
eco-bling:
ineffective green technology, particular equipment added on to an existing
building that does little to reduce the
buildings use of natural resources.

The Pragmatic Component in the Meaning


of the Word
The classic understanding of pragmatics was
formulated by Ch. Morris who posited that pragmatics is the relationship of the sign towards its interpreters. The pragmatic component of meaning reveals itself in the process
of communication, is originally occasional and may retain an emergent
status for some time. The specic feature of the words pragmatic component is that if the word which bears it recurs in communication, this
meaning may become systematic and codied. V.I. Zabotkina points out
that all innovations, unless they are terms and have only the denotative
component, possess the pragmatic sememes of being rhematic, new from
the point of view of time and voguish.
A pragmatically-charged word may also change its function depending on the social status of the person who uses it. Thus, the usage of such
a word by a superordinate towards his/her subordinate is not deemed as
an admonition, or a reprimand, conversely, the usage of such a word by a
subordinate towards his/her superordinate is regarded as an insult.
Some of the important pragmatic sememes are those of gender, age,
ethnic and social status. These sememes are rarely registered by general95

purpose dictionaries, that is, they are not part of the words denotative or
connotative component.
XV
Dwell on the pragmatic component of the meaning of the words
bellow. With what stylistic characteristics does the pragmatic component go hand in hand?

thickhead
rubblehead
puddinghead
knucklehead
crackhead
chickenhead
bonehead

hay-head
hash-head
airhead
grasshead
pot-head
tea head
weedhead
dust-head

atom-buster
balloon-buster
belly buster
brush buster
button-buster
cop-buster
crime buster
gangbuster
ghost buster
kidney-buster
knuckle-buster
molly-buster
need-buster
racket buster
sin-buster
spy-buster
tank-buster
trust-buster
union-buster

Recommended reading:
.. . .: , 1974.
.. . .: . ., 1987.
.. ( vs ) // c : . . : -
. .. , 2008. C. 98109.

96

.. . .:
. ., 1989.
.. : . -
. . ., 1991.
.. / . , 1996. . 8391.
.. . .: ,
2004.
.3.
// . ., 1978. . 89.
.. .
. .: , 1981.
.. -
// : . . .
. .. . , 1990. . 1529.
.. : , , . 4-
. .: , 2009.
.. : . : -. , 2005.
.. : // : . / . . .. . , 1999. . 75101.
.. :
/ . .. . 2- ., . .: , 2002.
.. : . . ... - . . ., 2006.
Algeo J. Fifty Years among the New Words. A Dictionary of Neologisms.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms. N.Y.: Barrons Educational
Series, 2006.
Fischer R. Lexical Change in Present-Day English. A corpus-Based Study
of the Motivation, Institutionalization, and Productivity of Creative Neologisms. Tbingen, 1998.
Harrison M. Word Perfect. Vocabulary for Fluency. Edinburgh: Nelson,
1990.
Lakoff G., Johnson M. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1980.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE). L.: Longman
Group Ltd., 1995.

97

purpose dictionaries, that is, they are not part of the words denotative or
connotative component.
XV
Dwell on the pragmatic component of the meaning of the words
bellow. With what stylistic characteristics does the pragmatic component go hand in hand?

thickhead
rubblehead
puddinghead
knucklehead
crackhead
chickenhead
bonehead

hay-head
hash-head
airhead
grasshead
pot-head
tea head
weedhead
dust-head

atom-buster
balloon-buster
belly buster
brush buster
button-buster
cop-buster
crime buster
gangbuster
ghost buster
kidney-buster
knuckle-buster
molly-buster
need-buster
racket buster
sin-buster
spy-buster
tank-buster
trust-buster
union-buster

Recommended reading:
.. . .: , 1974.
.. . .: . ., 1987.
.. ( vs ) // c : . . : -
. .. , 2008. C. 98109.

96

.. . .:
. ., 1989.
.. : . -
. . ., 1991.
.. / . , 1996. . 8391.
.. . .: ,
2004.
.3.
// . ., 1978. . 89.
.. .
. .: , 1981.
.. -
// : . . .
. .. . , 1990. . 1529.
.. : , , . 4-
. .: , 2009.
.. : . : -. , 2005.
.. : // : . / . . .. . , 1999. . 75101.
.. :
/ . .. . 2- ., . .: , 2002.
.. : . . ... - . . ., 2006.
Algeo J. Fifty Years among the New Words. A Dictionary of Neologisms.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms. N.Y.: Barrons Educational
Series, 2006.
Fischer R. Lexical Change in Present-Day English. A corpus-Based Study
of the Motivation, Institutionalization, and Productivity of Creative Neologisms. Tbingen, 1998.
Harrison M. Word Perfect. Vocabulary for Fluency. Edinburgh: Nelson,
1990.
Lakoff G., Johnson M. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1980.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE). L.: Longman
Group Ltd., 1995.

97

6. Synonyms. Antonyms. Paronyms.


Hyperonyms and Hyponyms. Meronyms
Points to ponder
What are criteria for synonymy and what are the major types of
synonyms?
Why are synonyms not always interchangeable in the context?
What are the semantic characteristics of synonyms that make
them in a way opposed to each other?
Name the types of connotations by which synonyms usually differ.
In what way does stylistic connotation differ from all the other
types?
How are semantic characteristics of synonyms linked to their syntactic peculiarities?
What part of speech is more prone to having synonyms?
What is the dominant synonym?
What words from stylistic point of view do not admit (or hardly
admit) of any synonyms?
What are antonyms? What groups of antonyms can there be distinguished?
Dene the term paronym and give examples of paronyms. Does
the presence of paronyms in a language facilitate language acquisition or impede it?
What kind of an error will occur if one substitutes a word for a
similar sounding word which has, however, no semantic connection with it?
What are hyperonyms, hyponyms and co-hyponyms? Does the
relationship of inclusion characterize all words in a language?
What is the difference between hyperonymic-hyponymic organization of words and thematic elds? Illustrate the difference
with your own examples.
98

Exercises:
I
Supply both a derived antonym and an antonym which contains a
different root for the following adjectives (variants are admissible).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Famous
Sensitive
Faithful
Proper
Trustful
Moral
Safe
Wise
Standard
Protable
Continuous
Clear
Material

_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________

_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________

II
The following adjectives (or participles II) (in bold) are either
synonyms or are semantically connected. Going by the illustrations,
pinpoint the contexts in which each of them is used. Specify the type
of connotation by which they differ.
1. It is immaterial whether you were present there or not, you
knew about the gathering, so you could have prevented it. Those
who believe in God, claim that the provenance of the universe
is non-material. Spiritual needs are to be put ahead of corporeal
ones.
2. It is unclear to me why you should choose to please both your
friends, when one is denitely in the wrong. But he that hides a
dark soul and foul thoughts benighted walks under the midday
sun (J. Milton, cited in NPED). She was in a foul temper. Ill get
99

6. Synonyms. Antonyms. Paronyms.


Hyperonyms and Hyponyms. Meronyms
Points to ponder
What are criteria for synonymy and what are the major types of
synonyms?
Why are synonyms not always interchangeable in the context?
What are the semantic characteristics of synonyms that make
them in a way opposed to each other?
Name the types of connotations by which synonyms usually differ.
In what way does stylistic connotation differ from all the other
types?
How are semantic characteristics of synonyms linked to their syntactic peculiarities?
What part of speech is more prone to having synonyms?
What is the dominant synonym?
What words from stylistic point of view do not admit (or hardly
admit) of any synonyms?
What are antonyms? What groups of antonyms can there be distinguished?
Dene the term paronym and give examples of paronyms. Does
the presence of paronyms in a language facilitate language acquisition or impede it?
What kind of an error will occur if one substitutes a word for a
similar sounding word which has, however, no semantic connection with it?
What are hyperonyms, hyponyms and co-hyponyms? Does the
relationship of inclusion characterize all words in a language?
What is the difference between hyperonymic-hyponymic organization of words and thematic elds? Illustrate the difference
with your own examples.
98

Exercises:
I
Supply both a derived antonym and an antonym which contains a
different root for the following adjectives (variants are admissible).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Famous
Sensitive
Faithful
Proper
Trustful
Moral
Safe
Wise
Standard
Protable
Continuous
Clear
Material

_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________

_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________
_______________

II
The following adjectives (or participles II) (in bold) are either
synonyms or are semantically connected. Going by the illustrations,
pinpoint the contexts in which each of them is used. Specify the type
of connotation by which they differ.
1. It is immaterial whether you were present there or not, you
knew about the gathering, so you could have prevented it. Those
who believe in God, claim that the provenance of the universe
is non-material. Spiritual needs are to be put ahead of corporeal
ones.
2. It is unclear to me why you should choose to please both your
friends, when one is denitely in the wrong. But he that hides a
dark soul and foul thoughts benighted walks under the midday
sun (J. Milton, cited in NPED). She was in a foul temper. Ill get
99

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
100

what I want by fair means or foul. The ship ran foul of a hidden
reef. The archeologists stumbled upon a foul copy of a manuscript. The water in the well was contaminated, it was a life-hazard to drink it. There are many synonyms for the word-building
pattern of blending, one being contamination. For instance,
the word shamateur (sham + amateur) can be referred to as contaminated.
The dotted line on the graph indicates the hypothetical development of the trend. All day long we had intermittent rain, so we
chose not to go and do the sights. The signal was intermittent
and I couldnt make out what he was saying. A discontinuous
morpheme is the one that changes its grammatical meaning by
way of an inner exion.
The newspaper is believed to be unprotable for at least the
past decade (cited in CCED). I was in a disadvantageous position as compared to my better-equipped rivals. I am particularly
unfavourable to the idea that we should abandon our original
plan.
Youd better avoid climbing the perilous cliffs. It was a perilous journey lying through the woods, impregnable mountains
and marshy lands. It is hazardous to health to smoke, drink
or eat too much canned food. The harmful effects of these byproducts are yet to be discovered. Its a risky business to invest
in failing companies. Its risky to presume that the storm wont
change its direction. This machine is unsafe, it may jam any
moment.
Most traditional cultures believe that abortion is immoral as it
nips the life in the bud. Those who think that moral considerations
do not apply can be described as amoral.
Depraved and evil-minded criminals will stop at nothing to get
what they want. Films featuring sick and perverted people should
be banished from the market. I dont want you to learn the twisted
notion that life is a bed of roses. A thwarted plan will never succeed.
Reckless driving is a potential risk to the driver, his passenger
and pedestrians. You were indiscreet in saying that I have weight

problems. It was careless of you to leave the gas turned on there


could have been an explosion.
9. Have you heard about the infamous massacre of the innocents?
The man was infamous in the vicinity for his extremist views.
The writer is ill-reputed for making indecent allusions in his
book. Our guide said that we should avoid the disreputable pat
of the city.
10. The woman criticized her husband for being insensitive about her
predicament. After the leaders callous disregard of the soldiers
plea to retreat, a riot ensued. The suit is insensitive to radiation.
11. A gullible man is easily taken in. Credulous citizens should be
put wise as to the means that some con-men use to wiggle money
out of them.
III
Read the following texts. Choose the right word for each context
to complete the text below.
If you are invited to remain/to stay/to linger some time in the court
of a great lord, you will end up spending a lot of time standing/staying/posing around. When this happens, do not sit down until the most
important person present gives you permission/allowance/authorization/green light to do so. This is not necessarily the lord; if the
king or queen or any other superior is visiting/attending/ frequenting the same house, and is present, then the social courtesies/politenesses/pleasantries/
endearments of rank are automatically due to the king or queen, not
the man whose house this is. If a man who is superior/higher/more
advanced in rank to you enters, move back and make room for him
to stand nearer the lord or lady than you. When doing all this standing
around do not let your eyes wander/travel/distract around the room
[I. Mortimer, The Time Travellers Guide to Medieval England,
2007, P. 89].

101

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.
100

what I want by fair means or foul. The ship ran foul of a hidden
reef. The archeologists stumbled upon a foul copy of a manuscript. The water in the well was contaminated, it was a life-hazard to drink it. There are many synonyms for the word-building
pattern of blending, one being contamination. For instance,
the word shamateur (sham + amateur) can be referred to as contaminated.
The dotted line on the graph indicates the hypothetical development of the trend. All day long we had intermittent rain, so we
chose not to go and do the sights. The signal was intermittent
and I couldnt make out what he was saying. A discontinuous
morpheme is the one that changes its grammatical meaning by
way of an inner exion.
The newspaper is believed to be unprotable for at least the
past decade (cited in CCED). I was in a disadvantageous position as compared to my better-equipped rivals. I am particularly
unfavourable to the idea that we should abandon our original
plan.
Youd better avoid climbing the perilous cliffs. It was a perilous journey lying through the woods, impregnable mountains
and marshy lands. It is hazardous to health to smoke, drink
or eat too much canned food. The harmful effects of these byproducts are yet to be discovered. Its a risky business to invest
in failing companies. Its risky to presume that the storm wont
change its direction. This machine is unsafe, it may jam any
moment.
Most traditional cultures believe that abortion is immoral as it
nips the life in the bud. Those who think that moral considerations
do not apply can be described as amoral.
Depraved and evil-minded criminals will stop at nothing to get
what they want. Films featuring sick and perverted people should
be banished from the market. I dont want you to learn the twisted
notion that life is a bed of roses. A thwarted plan will never succeed.
Reckless driving is a potential risk to the driver, his passenger
and pedestrians. You were indiscreet in saying that I have weight

problems. It was careless of you to leave the gas turned on there


could have been an explosion.
9. Have you heard about the infamous massacre of the innocents?
The man was infamous in the vicinity for his extremist views.
The writer is ill-reputed for making indecent allusions in his
book. Our guide said that we should avoid the disreputable pat
of the city.
10. The woman criticized her husband for being insensitive about her
predicament. After the leaders callous disregard of the soldiers
plea to retreat, a riot ensued. The suit is insensitive to radiation.
11. A gullible man is easily taken in. Credulous citizens should be
put wise as to the means that some con-men use to wiggle money
out of them.
III
Read the following texts. Choose the right word for each context
to complete the text below.
If you are invited to remain/to stay/to linger some time in the court
of a great lord, you will end up spending a lot of time standing/staying/posing around. When this happens, do not sit down until the most
important person present gives you permission/allowance/authorization/green light to do so. This is not necessarily the lord; if the
king or queen or any other superior is visiting/attending/ frequenting the same house, and is present, then the social courtesies/politenesses/pleasantries/
endearments of rank are automatically due to the king or queen, not
the man whose house this is. If a man who is superior/higher/more
advanced in rank to you enters, move back and make room for him
to stand nearer the lord or lady than you. When doing all this standing
around do not let your eyes wander/travel/distract around the room
[I. Mortimer, The Time Travellers Guide to Medieval England,
2007, P. 89].

101

One other contribution/input/share to the English vocabulary from


Gullivers Travels is Lilliputian, meaning miniature. Many who have
never made it to Book IV still have enjoyed Book I, where Gulliver nds himself shipwrecked/forlorn/devastated/run aground on
an island where everyone and everything is one-twelfth his size
That Lilliputian term and most of the other words from the languages
Gulliver encounters/meetsremain within the covers of the book.
But because Gullivers story of Lilliput is so well-known/illustrious/
reputable, Lilliputian has entered/penetrated our vocabulary; and
yahoo is so successful that it is known even among those who have
no knowledge of Swifts book [A. Metcalf, Predicting New Words,
2002, P. 57].

Though speech input/contribution is necessary for speech development/evolution, a mere soundtrack is not sufcient. Deaf parents of
hearing children were once advised to have the children watch a lot of
television. In no case did the children learn/study/acquire English.
Without already knowing the language, it is difcult for a child to
gure out/make out/discern what the characters in those odd, unresponsive televised worlds are talking about. Live human speakers
tend/try/strive to talk about the here and now in the presence of children [S. Pinker, The Language Instinct, 1994, P. 278].

IV
Find the dominant synonym and name the type of connotation
by which synonyms below differ. In what context would you use each
of the synonyms?:
Brave courageous valiant bold fearless intrepid;
stupid dim dazed slow witted;
talkative verbose loquacious eloquent voluble;
clever intelligent sensible sagacious acute wise;
merry lively jolly cheerful jovial cheery joyous;
sad mournful doleful wistful grievous dismal
rueful.
102

to respect to esteem to revere to honour;


to ght to knock to hit to strike;
to live to dwell to reside to subsist;
to eat to consume to devour gobble gorge sup wolf;
expose uncover bare disclose divulge reveal unveil.

clothes apparel garment;


stoutness corpulence plumpness obesity;
illness sickness disease ailment malady malaise;
noise murmur roar din uproar hubbub racket
clamour.
Antonyms are words of the same part of speech but with contrastive meanings. Traditionally, the following types of antonyms are distinguished (H. Jackson, E. Z Amvela): gradable, contradictory (complementary), and converses.
gradable:
beautiful ugly; expensive cheap; fast slow; hot cold; increase decrease; long short; love hate; rich poor; sweet sour;
wide narrow. They are called gradable because they represent a continuum on a scale and consequently allow comparison, for example: My
hair is longer /shorter than yours. I love a good book more than I love
a good newspaper. These adjectives can be modied by intensifying
adverbs: very long, extremely hot, extraordinary beautiful. They do not
represent absolute values.
contradictory (complementary):
asleep awake; dead alive; on off; permit forbid; remember forget; shut open; true false; win lose. These antonyms are in
the relation of oppositeness: one state excludes the other: if you lose a contest, then you do not win it; being alive is incompatible with being dead.
converse antonyms:
above below; before after; behind in front of; buy sell;
give receive; husband wife; parent child; speak listen.
103

One other contribution/input/share to the English vocabulary from


Gullivers Travels is Lilliputian, meaning miniature. Many who have
never made it to Book IV still have enjoyed Book I, where Gulliver nds himself shipwrecked/forlorn/devastated/run aground on
an island where everyone and everything is one-twelfth his size
That Lilliputian term and most of the other words from the languages
Gulliver encounters/meetsremain within the covers of the book.
But because Gullivers story of Lilliput is so well-known/illustrious/
reputable, Lilliputian has entered/penetrated our vocabulary; and
yahoo is so successful that it is known even among those who have
no knowledge of Swifts book [A. Metcalf, Predicting New Words,
2002, P. 57].

Though speech input/contribution is necessary for speech development/evolution, a mere soundtrack is not sufcient. Deaf parents of
hearing children were once advised to have the children watch a lot of
television. In no case did the children learn/study/acquire English.
Without already knowing the language, it is difcult for a child to
gure out/make out/discern what the characters in those odd, unresponsive televised worlds are talking about. Live human speakers
tend/try/strive to talk about the here and now in the presence of children [S. Pinker, The Language Instinct, 1994, P. 278].

IV
Find the dominant synonym and name the type of connotation
by which synonyms below differ. In what context would you use each
of the synonyms?:
Brave courageous valiant bold fearless intrepid;
stupid dim dazed slow witted;
talkative verbose loquacious eloquent voluble;
clever intelligent sensible sagacious acute wise;
merry lively jolly cheerful jovial cheery joyous;
sad mournful doleful wistful grievous dismal
rueful.
102

to respect to esteem to revere to honour;


to ght to knock to hit to strike;
to live to dwell to reside to subsist;
to eat to consume to devour gobble gorge sup wolf;
expose uncover bare disclose divulge reveal unveil.

clothes apparel garment;


stoutness corpulence plumpness obesity;
illness sickness disease ailment malady malaise;
noise murmur roar din uproar hubbub racket
clamour.
Antonyms are words of the same part of speech but with contrastive meanings. Traditionally, the following types of antonyms are distinguished (H. Jackson, E. Z Amvela): gradable, contradictory (complementary), and converses.
gradable:
beautiful ugly; expensive cheap; fast slow; hot cold; increase decrease; long short; love hate; rich poor; sweet sour;
wide narrow. They are called gradable because they represent a continuum on a scale and consequently allow comparison, for example: My
hair is longer /shorter than yours. I love a good book more than I love
a good newspaper. These adjectives can be modied by intensifying
adverbs: very long, extremely hot, extraordinary beautiful. They do not
represent absolute values.
contradictory (complementary):
asleep awake; dead alive; on off; permit forbid; remember forget; shut open; true false; win lose. These antonyms are in
the relation of oppositeness: one state excludes the other: if you lose a contest, then you do not win it; being alive is incompatible with being dead.
converse antonyms:
above below; before after; behind in front of; buy sell;
give receive; husband wife; parent child; speak listen.
103

Each word in these pairs of antonyms expresses the converse meaning of the other. In the case of sentences with, for instance, buy and
sell the same transaction is expressed from different perspectives: e.g. I
bought the owers from Mary. Mark sold me the owers. Similarly, with
the nouns husband and wife, a sentence may express the relationship
in converse ways: e.g. Helen is Johns wife John is Helens husband.
The same is true for prepositions like above and below: The semolina is on the shelf above the buckwheat. The buckwheat is on the shelf
below the semolina.
V
Distinguish between gradable, contradictory and converse antonyms:
light dark; clever stupid; early late; to move to stand; pure
contaminated; to go to come; to leave to arrive; a teacher a pupil.
VI
Find the hyperonym for the following words. Under what heading can the words be subsumed:
1. Tongs, pliers, tweezers
2. Vest, half-slip, full-slip, camisole, chemise
3. Earmuffs, mittens, windbreaker
4. Lapel, shoelace, hem
5. Striped, checked, polka dot, solid, print, plaid
6. Right tackle, anker, quarterback
VII
Choose the odd one out:
1. Swings, seesaw, slide, teeter
2. Pickaxe, sledgehammer, shovel, scaffolding
3. Stingray, ounder, swordsh, sea horse
4. Cut, bruise, burn, rickets
5. Stapler, paper clips, staple remover, pencil sharpener
6. Cashews, peanuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, chestnuts
104

The general names for a group of objects or animate beings are not always easy to learn or to remember. Apart from such recurring names as a school
(or shoal) of sh, a ock of birds, a clutch of
eggs, there are a number of less well-known, such
as bale, bevy, drove, exaltation, parliament, pride.

VIII
Specify which groups of animals the following general words refer to:

A bale of
A bevy of
A drove of
An exaltation of
A parliament of
A pride of

tigers
larks
owls
quail
oxen
turtles

IX
The semantic relation of meronymy can be represented by a hierarchy of superordinate and subordinate terms, but, unlike the relationship of hyponymy, which is a kind of relationship, meronymy
is the part of relation. In the case of meronymy
the superordinate term is not a more general way of
talking about its meronyms, rather, it represents an
entity in its totality. The parts of the entity are its meronyms, and they
make up the whole.
Study the examples below and specify which type of semantic relationship is observed between the words that of hyponymy or that
of meronymy. Translate all the words into Russian.
105

Each word in these pairs of antonyms expresses the converse meaning of the other. In the case of sentences with, for instance, buy and
sell the same transaction is expressed from different perspectives: e.g. I
bought the owers from Mary. Mark sold me the owers. Similarly, with
the nouns husband and wife, a sentence may express the relationship
in converse ways: e.g. Helen is Johns wife John is Helens husband.
The same is true for prepositions like above and below: The semolina is on the shelf above the buckwheat. The buckwheat is on the shelf
below the semolina.
V
Distinguish between gradable, contradictory and converse antonyms:
light dark; clever stupid; early late; to move to stand; pure
contaminated; to go to come; to leave to arrive; a teacher a pupil.
VI
Find the hyperonym for the following words. Under what heading can the words be subsumed:
1. Tongs, pliers, tweezers
2. Vest, half-slip, full-slip, camisole, chemise
3. Earmuffs, mittens, windbreaker
4. Lapel, shoelace, hem
5. Striped, checked, polka dot, solid, print, plaid
6. Right tackle, anker, quarterback
VII
Choose the odd one out:
1. Swings, seesaw, slide, teeter
2. Pickaxe, sledgehammer, shovel, scaffolding
3. Stingray, ounder, swordsh, sea horse
4. Cut, bruise, burn, rickets
5. Stapler, paper clips, staple remover, pencil sharpener
6. Cashews, peanuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, chestnuts
104

The general names for a group of objects or animate beings are not always easy to learn or to remember. Apart from such recurring names as a school
(or shoal) of sh, a ock of birds, a clutch of
eggs, there are a number of less well-known, such
as bale, bevy, drove, exaltation, parliament, pride.

VIII
Specify which groups of animals the following general words refer to:

A bale of
A bevy of
A drove of
An exaltation of
A parliament of
A pride of

tigers
larks
owls
quail
oxen
turtles

IX
The semantic relation of meronymy can be represented by a hierarchy of superordinate and subordinate terms, but, unlike the relationship of hyponymy, which is a kind of relationship, meronymy
is the part of relation. In the case of meronymy
the superordinate term is not a more general way of
talking about its meronyms, rather, it represents an
entity in its totality. The parts of the entity are its meronyms, and they
make up the whole.
Study the examples below and specify which type of semantic relationship is observed between the words that of hyponymy or that
of meronymy. Translate all the words into Russian.
105

spice
cinnamon
cloves
parsley
dill
basil
bay leaf
ginger

fabric
silk
chintz
velvet
crepe-dechine
corduroy

garment
seam
hem
lining
lapel

garment
frock
dress
cape
tunic
gown

feeling
premonition
anticipation
foreboding
prescience

.. . .: -
, 1958.
.. . .: , 1980.
.. : . .
: . ., 1992.
Cruse A. Meaning in Language. An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford; N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Harrison M. Word Perfect. Vocabulary for Fluency. Edinburgh: Nelson,
1990.

cook
boil
stew
fry
roast
simmer
grill
poach
braise

mushroom
fly agaric (death cap)
toadstool
chanterelle
brown cap boletus
orange cap boletus (aspen mushroom)
cep boletus (squirrels bread)

church
altar
choir
nave
transept
crypt
vault

glasses
earpiece
arm
lens
bridge
hinge
frame

Recommended reading:
.., .., .. : English Lexicology. .: , 2004.
.. . .:
. ., 1973.

106

spice
cinnamon
cloves
parsley
dill
basil
bay leaf
ginger

fabric
silk
chintz
velvet
crepe-dechine
corduroy

garment
seam
hem
lining
lapel

garment
frock
dress
cape
tunic
gown

feeling
premonition
anticipation
foreboding
prescience

.. . .: -
, 1958.
.. . .: , 1980.
.. : . .
: . ., 1992.
Cruse A. Meaning in Language. An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. Oxford; N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Harrison M. Word Perfect. Vocabulary for Fluency. Edinburgh: Nelson,
1990.

cook
boil
stew
fry
roast
simmer
grill
poach
braise

mushroom
fly agaric (death cap)
toadstool
chanterelle
brown cap boletus
orange cap boletus (aspen mushroom)
cep boletus (squirrels bread)

church
altar
choir
nave
transept
crypt
vault

glasses
earpiece
arm
lens
bridge
hinge
frame

Recommended reading:
.., .., .. : English Lexicology. .: , 2004.
.. . .:
. ., 1973.

106

7. Phraseology
Points to ponder
What criteria are applied in singling out phraseological units?
In what way does a phraseological unit differ from a word, a free
word-combination, a sentence?
Are the terms phraseological unit and idiom synonymous?
How is phraseology dened in Western linguistic tradition?
Elaborate on the various types of classication of phraseological
units.
How does a person speak if he speaks idiomatic English? Does it
imply that he/she necessarily uses a lot of phraseological units?
How are the notions of metaphor, slang and phraseological units
connected?
What is the relationship between phraseological units and proverbs?
Why does a writer sometimes choose to transform phraseological
units? What effect does it produce?
What are the sources of phraseological units? How do they originate?
What is a terminological phraseological unit ()?
In linguistic tradition there exist broad and narrow understanding of phraseology. In the narrow
sense of the term, phraseology forms part of lexicology and focuses on xed and semi-xed word-combinations that are characterized by the nominative
function and whose meanings are partially or completely transferred. In the broad sense of the term,
phraseology is an independent discipline whose realm of study, tasks and
goals were described by Prof. A.V. Kunin. Phraseological units are examples of secondary nomination: their meaning emerges on the basis of
108

metaphoric and/or metonymic transference. The salient features of phraseological units comprise expressivity and evaluation, structural stability
and pre-fabricated nature: every time the need for their usage arises, they
are not created out of the inventory of linguistic units, but are retrieved
from the long-term memory as a whole unit that has a unique structure
and meaning.
An all-embracing classication of phraseological units was worked
out by Academician V.V. Vinogradov. This classication is based on the
degree of semantic fusion of the components. Hence, the terms for each
of the three subgroups:
1. Phraseological fusions are characterized by a complete transference of meaning, absolute structural stability and are demotivated.
It means that tracing their etymology presents a challenge even to
etymological dictionaries: the cats whiskers and the bees knees,
at sixes and sevens, etc.
2. Phraseological unities are also characterized by transference
of meaning and structural stability. However, they are clearly
motivated: to keep ones card close to ones chest, to bark up
the wrong tree, to be a slowcoach, to be quick off the mark,
etc.
3. Phraseological combinations are less stable, transparent in meaning, and one of its components is used in the direct sense: to take
advantage, to lose hope, to have a walk, etc.
There exist a number of synonymic terms of the expression phraseological unit, such as: set expressions, set phrases, xed word-groups,
collocations.
In Russian linguistic tradition the preference is given to the term
phraseological unit, whereas western scholars usually use the term
idiom, which is broader in meaning, however, and can be dened as,
rst, a phrase which means something different from the meanings
of the separate words from which it is formed, and, second, the way
of expression typical of a person or a group in their use of language
[Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture, 1993:655].
Hence, one can say the idiom of the young, the idiom of popular music, etc.
109

7. Phraseology
Points to ponder
What criteria are applied in singling out phraseological units?
In what way does a phraseological unit differ from a word, a free
word-combination, a sentence?
Are the terms phraseological unit and idiom synonymous?
How is phraseology dened in Western linguistic tradition?
Elaborate on the various types of classication of phraseological
units.
How does a person speak if he speaks idiomatic English? Does it
imply that he/she necessarily uses a lot of phraseological units?
How are the notions of metaphor, slang and phraseological units
connected?
What is the relationship between phraseological units and proverbs?
Why does a writer sometimes choose to transform phraseological
units? What effect does it produce?
What are the sources of phraseological units? How do they originate?
What is a terminological phraseological unit ()?
In linguistic tradition there exist broad and narrow understanding of phraseology. In the narrow
sense of the term, phraseology forms part of lexicology and focuses on xed and semi-xed word-combinations that are characterized by the nominative
function and whose meanings are partially or completely transferred. In the broad sense of the term,
phraseology is an independent discipline whose realm of study, tasks and
goals were described by Prof. A.V. Kunin. Phraseological units are examples of secondary nomination: their meaning emerges on the basis of
108

metaphoric and/or metonymic transference. The salient features of phraseological units comprise expressivity and evaluation, structural stability
and pre-fabricated nature: every time the need for their usage arises, they
are not created out of the inventory of linguistic units, but are retrieved
from the long-term memory as a whole unit that has a unique structure
and meaning.
An all-embracing classication of phraseological units was worked
out by Academician V.V. Vinogradov. This classication is based on the
degree of semantic fusion of the components. Hence, the terms for each
of the three subgroups:
1. Phraseological fusions are characterized by a complete transference of meaning, absolute structural stability and are demotivated.
It means that tracing their etymology presents a challenge even to
etymological dictionaries: the cats whiskers and the bees knees,
at sixes and sevens, etc.
2. Phraseological unities are also characterized by transference
of meaning and structural stability. However, they are clearly
motivated: to keep ones card close to ones chest, to bark up
the wrong tree, to be a slowcoach, to be quick off the mark,
etc.
3. Phraseological combinations are less stable, transparent in meaning, and one of its components is used in the direct sense: to take
advantage, to lose hope, to have a walk, etc.
There exist a number of synonymic terms of the expression phraseological unit, such as: set expressions, set phrases, xed word-groups,
collocations.
In Russian linguistic tradition the preference is given to the term
phraseological unit, whereas western scholars usually use the term
idiom, which is broader in meaning, however, and can be dened as,
rst, a phrase which means something different from the meanings
of the separate words from which it is formed, and, second, the way
of expression typical of a person or a group in their use of language
[Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture, 1993:655].
Hence, one can say the idiom of the young, the idiom of popular music, etc.
109

Exercises:
I
Specify the function the following proverbs and sayings perform. Explain what they mean in English and/or nd their Russian equivalent.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Dont count your chickens before they are hatched.


One swallow does not make a summer.
Dont cross your bridges before you come to them.
After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile.
All are good lasses, but whence come the bad wives?
Ask no questions and you will be told no lies
Better a lean peace than a fat victory
A cock is valiant on his own dunghill.
Empty vessels make the greatest sound.
He that has no children knows not what love is.
He that will not when he may, when he will he shall
have nay

II
Construct a proverb from the given constituents:
1. would, the fruit, climb, that, eat, must, the tree, he
____________________________________________
2. is, policy, honesty, the best
____________________________________________
3. bad, is, a, supper, breakfast, but, a, hope, good
____________________________________________
4. mud, you, enough, of it, will, stick, if, throw, some
____________________________________________
5. is, with, bait, is, a, silly, that, twice, the, sh, same, it,
caught
____________________________________________
6. think, sheep, heavy, lazy, its, wool
____________________________________________
7. heavy, makes, a, heart, light, purse
____________________________________________
III
110

III
Explain the meaning of the phraseological units below. Say
whether they are fusions, combinations or unities. Consult a dictionary if necessary.
To pull a fast one, to be in the red, to
take the biscuit, to be on the make, to
make a meal out of something, to keep
ones card close to ones chest, to bark
up the wrong tree, to be a slowcoach,
to be quick off the mark (to be slow
off the mark), to be middle-of-theroad, to pour oil on troubled waters,
to be the cats whiskers and the bees
knees, to buy a pig in a poke, to get a nger in every pie.

IV
Paraphrase the sentences:

1. There are more holes in your project than in a Swiss cheese.


2. This history essay is a complete dogs breakfast. 3. When
he entered the room, I realized he had heard everything, and
I got egg on my face. 4. We took his story with a pinch of salt.
5. When the personnel manager asked him why he was
leaving, he answered that he had bigger sh to fry elsewhere. 6. I chose not to spill the beans about my prospective promotion, because I am a little superstitious.
7. July was fed up with playing second ddle to her
boss, so she walked out. 8. Getting a second degree is
important, because you get a second string to your bow.
9. The spokesmans report struck a chord with the audience.
10. When Larry said he had done all his homework, his father answered that he was going to cast an eye over his essay.
11. When Jane heard the coveted words I carry a torch
for you, she was on cloud nine. 12. I asked you to buy
chicken, not veal. Sorry, I got my wires crossed.

111

Exercises:
I
Specify the function the following proverbs and sayings perform. Explain what they mean in English and/or nd their Russian equivalent.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Dont count your chickens before they are hatched.


One swallow does not make a summer.
Dont cross your bridges before you come to them.
After dinner sit a while, after supper walk a mile.
All are good lasses, but whence come the bad wives?
Ask no questions and you will be told no lies
Better a lean peace than a fat victory
A cock is valiant on his own dunghill.
Empty vessels make the greatest sound.
He that has no children knows not what love is.
He that will not when he may, when he will he shall
have nay

II
Construct a proverb from the given constituents:
1. would, the fruit, climb, that, eat, must, the tree, he
____________________________________________
2. is, policy, honesty, the best
____________________________________________
3. bad, is, a, supper, breakfast, but, a, hope, good
____________________________________________
4. mud, you, enough, of it, will, stick, if, throw, some
____________________________________________
5. is, with, bait, is, a, silly, that, twice, the, sh, same, it,
caught
____________________________________________
6. think, sheep, heavy, lazy, its, wool
____________________________________________
7. heavy, makes, a, heart, light, purse
____________________________________________
III
110

III
Explain the meaning of the phraseological units below. Say
whether they are fusions, combinations or unities. Consult a dictionary if necessary.
To pull a fast one, to be in the red, to
take the biscuit, to be on the make, to
make a meal out of something, to keep
ones card close to ones chest, to bark
up the wrong tree, to be a slowcoach,
to be quick off the mark (to be slow
off the mark), to be middle-of-theroad, to pour oil on troubled waters,
to be the cats whiskers and the bees
knees, to buy a pig in a poke, to get a nger in every pie.

IV
Paraphrase the sentences:

1. There are more holes in your project than in a Swiss cheese.


2. This history essay is a complete dogs breakfast. 3. When
he entered the room, I realized he had heard everything, and
I got egg on my face. 4. We took his story with a pinch of salt.
5. When the personnel manager asked him why he was
leaving, he answered that he had bigger sh to fry elsewhere. 6. I chose not to spill the beans about my prospective promotion, because I am a little superstitious.
7. July was fed up with playing second ddle to her
boss, so she walked out. 8. Getting a second degree is
important, because you get a second string to your bow.
9. The spokesmans report struck a chord with the audience.
10. When Larry said he had done all his homework, his father answered that he was going to cast an eye over his essay.
11. When Jane heard the coveted words I carry a torch
for you, she was on cloud nine. 12. I asked you to buy
chicken, not veal. Sorry, I got my wires crossed.

111

V
Finish the proverbs. Some of them rhyme.

1. Bad news has... 2. Be slow to promise and quick to 3. Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a 4. Betwixt and
5. Children and fools must not play with edged 6. Envy
shoots at others and wounds7. Follow the river and you'll
get to the 8. Forced kindness deserves no 9. Great boast,
small 10. Great spenders are bad 11. He that mischief
hatches, mischief12. Hedge between keeps friendship
13. If things were to be done twice, all would be14. Little
strokes fell great 15. No herb will cure 16.The darkest
place is under the.
Phraseological units are, as is well known, set
expressions with a transferred meaning. If understood literally, which sometimes happens to foreigners, little children or those who dont know the
language well enough, they either mean something
completely different or appear nonsensical.
VI
Below is the literal understanding of some well-known English
idioms. Work out what kind of idiom is meant in each case.
1. There is an unpleasant smell in the room, as if a rat has
died somewhere.
2. My feet are very cold.
3. They say that there is a land when everyone nods.
4. I have eaten a lot of beans today, my stomach is full of
them.
5. As he was going home, he saw a vehicle and some
things fell off its back.
112

6. The other day I visited my friends garden and he led


me up its path to see the dahlias that grew at the back.
7. As I was driving, my hand slipped off the steering wheel
and the car ended in a muddy groove .
8. The man was so tall and the ceiling so low that he could
easily reach it and hit his head against it.
9. I asked my Granny to tie a knot, but she couldnt do it
properly.

VII
Below are some of the sources of idioms in English. Say what
each item means and think of the possible contexts in which they
could be used.
Family and children
Chip off the old rock
Spitting image
Smb.s middle name
Put through the mangle
Household name

Sports and Games


To be on the ball
To take a rain check
To touch base
The real McCoy
Who ate all the pies?
From pillar to post
To turn the tables on smb.
The cards are stacked against smb.
To pass the buck

Food and cooking


Big cheese
To nail jelly to the wall
To go pear-shaped
Eye-candy
On the back burner
To put a nger in every pie

Manners, moods and mores


Age before beauty
To keep ones shirt on
To blow ones top
To take umbrage
A wet blanket
To take an early bath

113

V
Finish the proverbs. Some of them rhyme.

1. Bad news has... 2. Be slow to promise and quick to 3. Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a 4. Betwixt and
5. Children and fools must not play with edged 6. Envy
shoots at others and wounds7. Follow the river and you'll
get to the 8. Forced kindness deserves no 9. Great boast,
small 10. Great spenders are bad 11. He that mischief
hatches, mischief12. Hedge between keeps friendship
13. If things were to be done twice, all would be14. Little
strokes fell great 15. No herb will cure 16.The darkest
place is under the.
Phraseological units are, as is well known, set
expressions with a transferred meaning. If understood literally, which sometimes happens to foreigners, little children or those who dont know the
language well enough, they either mean something
completely different or appear nonsensical.
VI
Below is the literal understanding of some well-known English
idioms. Work out what kind of idiom is meant in each case.
1. There is an unpleasant smell in the room, as if a rat has
died somewhere.
2. My feet are very cold.
3. They say that there is a land when everyone nods.
4. I have eaten a lot of beans today, my stomach is full of
them.
5. As he was going home, he saw a vehicle and some
things fell off its back.
112

6. The other day I visited my friends garden and he led


me up its path to see the dahlias that grew at the back.
7. As I was driving, my hand slipped off the steering wheel
and the car ended in a muddy groove .
8. The man was so tall and the ceiling so low that he could
easily reach it and hit his head against it.
9. I asked my Granny to tie a knot, but she couldnt do it
properly.

VII
Below are some of the sources of idioms in English. Say what
each item means and think of the possible contexts in which they
could be used.
Family and children
Chip off the old rock
Spitting image
Smb.s middle name
Put through the mangle
Household name

Sports and Games


To be on the ball
To take a rain check
To touch base
The real McCoy
Who ate all the pies?
From pillar to post
To turn the tables on smb.
The cards are stacked against smb.
To pass the buck

Food and cooking


Big cheese
To nail jelly to the wall
To go pear-shaped
Eye-candy
On the back burner
To put a nger in every pie

Manners, moods and mores


Age before beauty
To keep ones shirt on
To blow ones top
To take umbrage
A wet blanket
To take an early bath

113

Popular culture and the arts


To make smb.s day
To jump on the bandwagon
To pull out all the stops
Back to the drawing board
To paint smb. warts and all

Fables
Sour grapes
Halcyon days
To add insult to injury

Drink
Wake up and smell the coffee
Small potatoes
Small beer
To be meat and drink to smb.
Ill drink to that
Drinking in the last chance
saloon

Proverbs
Tread on the worm and it will turn
Ill-gotten gains never prosper
Live fast, die young
All is fair in love and war
It takes all sorts to make a world
Great minds think alike
The pen is mightier than the sword
Marry in haste, repent at leisure

Quotations and allusions


Speak softly and carry a big stick
(Theodore Roosevelt)
Coughs and sneezes spread
diseases (the Second World War
Ministry of Health slogan)
Diamonds are a girls best friends
(a song by Leo Robin and Jule
Styne, 1953)
Catch-22 (the title of the novel by
Joseph Heller, 1961)

W. Shakespeare
Salad days (Antony and Cleopatra)
It beggars description (Antony and Cleopatra)
Method in smb.s madness (Hamlet)
All Greek to me (Julius Caeser)
To gild the lily (King John)
More sinned against than sinning (King Lear)
The milk of human kindness (Macbeth)
A foregone conclusion (Othello)
The seamy side (Othello)
Spare the rod and spoil the child (Taming of the Shrew)

114

VIII
Match the idiom on the left with its explanation on the right (the
right column contains three extra explanations)
To be taken to task
Against the grain
To lay it on thick
To be like putty in smb.s hands
Run of the mill
To shoot the messenger
Bread and circuses
The dog ate my homework
To have the Midas touch
Whats the damage?
To keep smb. posted
Sinking feeling
Armed to the teeth
To have a chip on ones shoulder
To pick up the gauntlet
To pass muster
A shot in the dark
Son of a gun
Flotsam and jetsam
To leave no stone unturned
A jaundiced eye
To be on the same wavelength
The acid test
A sight for sore eyes
To keep ones nose clean

to be in despair
American dream
to be reprimanded
to atter
to control smb. completely
the wrong way
visual, sensual entertainment
to be lucky, to bring prot
a childish excuse for not having your work
done
A feeling caused by anxiety or apprehension
How much does it cost?
to keep smb. informed
fully prepared
average, middle of the road
not to welcome bad news
to explore every possible way
to pass inspection
to bear a grudge, to be resentful
to accept a challenge
a wild guess
the ultimate proof of smth.
odds and ends
a rogue or rascal
to understand smb. completely
trying to stay out of trouble by not getting
involved in any sort of wrong-doing
a person or thing that one is pleased or relieved to see
cynical, resentful, bitter
a prejudiced view, a critical or resentful
manner

115

Popular culture and the arts


To make smb.s day
To jump on the bandwagon
To pull out all the stops
Back to the drawing board
To paint smb. warts and all

Fables
Sour grapes
Halcyon days
To add insult to injury

Drink
Wake up and smell the coffee
Small potatoes
Small beer
To be meat and drink to smb.
Ill drink to that
Drinking in the last chance
saloon

Proverbs
Tread on the worm and it will turn
Ill-gotten gains never prosper
Live fast, die young
All is fair in love and war
It takes all sorts to make a world
Great minds think alike
The pen is mightier than the sword
Marry in haste, repent at leisure

Quotations and allusions


Speak softly and carry a big stick
(Theodore Roosevelt)
Coughs and sneezes spread
diseases (the Second World War
Ministry of Health slogan)
Diamonds are a girls best friends
(a song by Leo Robin and Jule
Styne, 1953)
Catch-22 (the title of the novel by
Joseph Heller, 1961)

W. Shakespeare
Salad days (Antony and Cleopatra)
It beggars description (Antony and Cleopatra)
Method in smb.s madness (Hamlet)
All Greek to me (Julius Caeser)
To gild the lily (King John)
More sinned against than sinning (King Lear)
The milk of human kindness (Macbeth)
A foregone conclusion (Othello)
The seamy side (Othello)
Spare the rod and spoil the child (Taming of the Shrew)

114

VIII
Match the idiom on the left with its explanation on the right (the
right column contains three extra explanations)
To be taken to task
Against the grain
To lay it on thick
To be like putty in smb.s hands
Run of the mill
To shoot the messenger
Bread and circuses
The dog ate my homework
To have the Midas touch
Whats the damage?
To keep smb. posted
Sinking feeling
Armed to the teeth
To have a chip on ones shoulder
To pick up the gauntlet
To pass muster
A shot in the dark
Son of a gun
Flotsam and jetsam
To leave no stone unturned
A jaundiced eye
To be on the same wavelength
The acid test
A sight for sore eyes
To keep ones nose clean

to be in despair
American dream
to be reprimanded
to atter
to control smb. completely
the wrong way
visual, sensual entertainment
to be lucky, to bring prot
a childish excuse for not having your work
done
A feeling caused by anxiety or apprehension
How much does it cost?
to keep smb. informed
fully prepared
average, middle of the road
not to welcome bad news
to explore every possible way
to pass inspection
to bear a grudge, to be resentful
to accept a challenge
a wild guess
the ultimate proof of smth.
odds and ends
a rogue or rascal
to understand smb. completely
trying to stay out of trouble by not getting
involved in any sort of wrong-doing
a person or thing that one is pleased or relieved to see
cynical, resentful, bitter
a prejudiced view, a critical or resentful
manner

115

IX
Supply a pertinent phraseological unit that the pictures below
illustrate.

1.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

116

7.

117

IX
Supply a pertinent phraseological unit that the pictures below
illustrate.

1.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

116

7.

117

X
There are a number of phraseological units in English that are
centered around the thematic eld parts of the body. Consult a
dictionary of phraseological units and try to trace the origin of each
unit. Does your dictionary explain the motivation behind the part of
the body that was chosen as one of the components of the phraseological unit?

13.

14.

15.

Parts of Phraseological
Meaning
the body
unit
as constituent
elements
of a phraseological
unit
Arm, leg
To cost an arm To be very expensive
and a leg
Elbow
More power to An expression of
your elbow!
praise or encouragement to someone
Fingers

Mouth

118

Example

The new house cost me an


arm and a leg.
I am writing a new novel
now.
Well, more power to your
elbow.
To put some- To postpone some- Once you decide to nd a
new job, do not put it on the
thing on the thing indenitely
long nger
long nger

To work ones
ngers to the
bone
To look as if
butter wouldnt
melt in smb.s
mouth

To be extremely hard- When I started my career,


working
I worked my gingers to the
bone.

To look innocent but He looks as if butter


to be capable of do- wouldnt melt in his mouth,
ing unpleasant things but I know better and do not
trust him too far.
To give nancial support to activities or
causes that one be- I believe in charity and am
To put money lieves are right
going to help the homeless
where
ones
by putting my money where
mouth is
my mouth is.

119

X
There are a number of phraseological units in English that are
centered around the thematic eld parts of the body. Consult a
dictionary of phraseological units and try to trace the origin of each
unit. Does your dictionary explain the motivation behind the part of
the body that was chosen as one of the components of the phraseological unit?

13.

14.

15.

Parts of Phraseological
Meaning
the body
unit
as constituent
elements
of a phraseological
unit
Arm, leg
To cost an arm To be very expensive
and a leg
Elbow
More power to An expression of
your elbow!
praise or encouragement to someone
Fingers

Mouth

118

Example

The new house cost me an


arm and a leg.
I am writing a new novel
now.
Well, more power to your
elbow.
To put some- To postpone some- Once you decide to nd a
new job, do not put it on the
thing on the thing indenitely
long nger
long nger

To work ones
ngers to the
bone
To look as if
butter wouldnt
melt in smb.s
mouth

To be extremely hard- When I started my career,


working
I worked my gingers to the
bone.

To look innocent but He looks as if butter


to be capable of do- wouldnt melt in his mouth,
ing unpleasant things but I know better and do not
trust him too far.
To give nancial support to activities or
causes that one be- I believe in charity and am
To put money lieves are right
going to help the homeless
where
ones
by putting my money where
mouth is
my mouth is.

119

Parts of
the body
as constituent
elements
of a phraseological
unit

Phraseological
unit

Teeth

To do something To just manage to do


by the skin of smth. almost failing
To do smth. with a lot
ones teeth
of energy and enthuTo sink ones siasm
teeth into smth.

Foot, feet

Ear

120

Meaning

Example

I escaped the predicament


by the skin of my teeth
When he got promoted, he
immediately sank his teeth
into the new job

To have itchy To nd it difcult to


stay in one place, to
feet
like travelling and
discovering
new
places
To be clumsy or awkward in ones moveTo have two left ments
To have a small but
feet
successful start in
something
A foot in the
door

I can never stay long anywhere. Ive got itchy feet.

To keep ones To make sure that one


ear
to
the is aware of what is
happening around
ground
To suddenly pay attention to what is being said
To prick up
ones ears

When he found himself in


that new organization, he
had to keep his ear to the
ground.
When the students heard the
word exam, they pricked
up their ears.

I am sorry for inadvertently


pushing you forward, I seem
to have two left feet.
Its difcult to get a foot in
the door in any profession
nowadays.

Parts of Phraseological
Meaning
the body
unit
as constituent
elements
of a phraseological
unit
Shoulder
To have a chip To feel resentful for
on ones shoul- being treated unfairly,
especially because of
der
their background
Used to refer to a
child or young person
who thinks and acts
like an older more
An old head on experienced person
young shoulders To make a lot of effort
in order to achieve
smth.

Example

Now that she hasnt been


promoted, she has a chip on
her shoulder, because she
thinks its because of her
ethnic origin

When little Emily started to


rebuke her elder brother for
coming back home late, her
mother said that she had an
old head on young shoulders
Ill have to put my shoulders
to the wheel to prepare the
room for the coming guests

To put ones
shoulders to the
wheel

XI
There are quite a number of idioms containing the names of animals as their constituent elements. Consult a dictionary or try to
work out from the illustrative examples what each of the following
idioms means.
1. cat gets ones tongue: The cat got my tongue at the meeting and
I could not say anything. One cannot speak because of shyness.
2. not to have enough room to swing a cat: My apartment was so
small that there was not enough room to swing a cat.
3. there is more than one way to skin a cat: If your strategy in
fullling the task does not work, remember that there is more than
one way to skin a cat.
121

Parts of
the body
as constituent
elements
of a phraseological
unit

Phraseological
unit

Teeth

To do something To just manage to do


by the skin of smth. almost failing
To do smth. with a lot
ones teeth
of energy and enthuTo sink ones siasm
teeth into smth.

Foot, feet

Ear

120

Meaning

Example

I escaped the predicament


by the skin of my teeth
When he got promoted, he
immediately sank his teeth
into the new job

To have itchy To nd it difcult to


stay in one place, to
feet
like travelling and
discovering
new
places
To be clumsy or awkward in ones moveTo have two left ments
To have a small but
feet
successful start in
something
A foot in the
door

I can never stay long anywhere. Ive got itchy feet.

To keep ones To make sure that one


ear
to
the is aware of what is
happening around
ground
To suddenly pay attention to what is being said
To prick up
ones ears

When he found himself in


that new organization, he
had to keep his ear to the
ground.
When the students heard the
word exam, they pricked
up their ears.

I am sorry for inadvertently


pushing you forward, I seem
to have two left feet.
Its difcult to get a foot in
the door in any profession
nowadays.

Parts of Phraseological
Meaning
the body
unit
as constituent
elements
of a phraseological
unit
Shoulder
To have a chip To feel resentful for
on ones shoul- being treated unfairly,
especially because of
der
their background
Used to refer to a
child or young person
who thinks and acts
like an older more
An old head on experienced person
young shoulders To make a lot of effort
in order to achieve
smth.

Example

Now that she hasnt been


promoted, she has a chip on
her shoulder, because she
thinks its because of her
ethnic origin

When little Emily started to


rebuke her elder brother for
coming back home late, her
mother said that she had an
old head on young shoulders
Ill have to put my shoulders
to the wheel to prepare the
room for the coming guests

To put ones
shoulders to the
wheel

XI
There are quite a number of idioms containing the names of animals as their constituent elements. Consult a dictionary or try to
work out from the illustrative examples what each of the following
idioms means.
1. cat gets ones tongue: The cat got my tongue at the meeting and
I could not say anything. One cannot speak because of shyness.
2. not to have enough room to swing a cat: My apartment was so
small that there was not enough room to swing a cat.
3. there is more than one way to skin a cat: If your strategy in
fullling the task does not work, remember that there is more than
one way to skin a cat.
121

4. to have a cow: My father had a cow when I confessed that I


hadnt dome my homework.
5. until the cows come home: My parents will come back very late
tonight, so we can talk until the cows come home.
6. every dog has his day: Remember that one day you will be rewarded: every dog has his day.
7. to be in the doghouse: I am in the doghouse with my teacher,
because I didnt prepare properly for the test.
8. to put on the dog: We put on the dog for our wedding anniversary party.
9. to see a man about a dog: She left the table in the restaurant and
said that she had to see a man about a dog.
10. The tail is wagging the dog: It seems that his personal assistant
controls everything in the ofce. Its like the tail wagging the dog.
11. by shanks mare: Despite the distance being great, I went the
whole way by shanks mare.
12. to get off ones high horse: I wish my friend would get off his
high horse and begin to be more mindful of others feelings.
13. to put the cart before the horse: planning a party before you
even know who you are going to invite is putting the cart before
the horse.
14. to make a monkey out of somebody: You made a monkey out of
me when you started arguing with me in front of my colleagues.
monkey see, monkey do: It is monkey see, monkey do for you:
you copy everything that I do.
a monkey on ones back: I was a monkey on my back when I
failed to get a job three times running.
to be more fun than a barrel of monkeys: Everybody adores
Jack because he is more fun than a barrel of monkeys.
XII
Comment on the following idiomatic statements about love.
Which of them seem contentious to you? What perception of love is
reected in the statements?
Course of true love never did run smooth (from Shakespeares
play, A Midsummer Night's Dream.)
122

One cannot love and be wise.


When poverty comes in at the door, love ies out of the window
(Alternatively: When the wolf comes in at the door, love creeps
out of the window).
Love begets love.
Love me, love my dog.
Love will nd a way.
Whom the gods love die young.
XIII
Idiomatic expressions enjoy popularity with writers, playwrights
and lm directors. Study the following titles of books, lms and musicals and explain the meaning of each phraseological unit. Why would
writers, playwrights and lm directors choose an idiomatic name for
their creations?
An American Dream (a novel and a lm adaptation)
Lord of the ies (a book title and a lm)
Ants in the pants (a lm title)
Cakes and ale (a book title and a lm)
Blackboard Jungle (a lm title)
Cat on a hot tin roof (a lm title)
On dangerous ground (a lm title)
Seventh heaven (a lm title)
The Seventh Seal (a lm title)
Time out of joint (a novel)
Salad Days (a musical by Julian Slade)
Mortal Coil (Star Trek: Voyager episode)
The Asphalt Jungle, (a novel and a lm adaptation)
XIV
Below are idiomatic expressions that contain words (underlined)
not used outside the pertinent idiom. Consult a dictionary (either a
general-purpose or a dictionary of idioms) and trace the etymology of
these words. Specify the meaning of each idiomatic expression.
1. to smash/blow smth. to smithereens: (informal) to destroy something by breaking it into very small pieces, or with an explosion.
123

4. to have a cow: My father had a cow when I confessed that I


hadnt dome my homework.
5. until the cows come home: My parents will come back very late
tonight, so we can talk until the cows come home.
6. every dog has his day: Remember that one day you will be rewarded: every dog has his day.
7. to be in the doghouse: I am in the doghouse with my teacher,
because I didnt prepare properly for the test.
8. to put on the dog: We put on the dog for our wedding anniversary party.
9. to see a man about a dog: She left the table in the restaurant and
said that she had to see a man about a dog.
10. The tail is wagging the dog: It seems that his personal assistant
controls everything in the ofce. Its like the tail wagging the dog.
11. by shanks mare: Despite the distance being great, I went the
whole way by shanks mare.
12. to get off ones high horse: I wish my friend would get off his
high horse and begin to be more mindful of others feelings.
13. to put the cart before the horse: planning a party before you
even know who you are going to invite is putting the cart before
the horse.
14. to make a monkey out of somebody: You made a monkey out of
me when you started arguing with me in front of my colleagues.
monkey see, monkey do: It is monkey see, monkey do for you:
you copy everything that I do.
a monkey on ones back: I was a monkey on my back when I
failed to get a job three times running.
to be more fun than a barrel of monkeys: Everybody adores
Jack because he is more fun than a barrel of monkeys.
XII
Comment on the following idiomatic statements about love.
Which of them seem contentious to you? What perception of love is
reected in the statements?
Course of true love never did run smooth (from Shakespeares
play, A Midsummer Night's Dream.)
122

One cannot love and be wise.


When poverty comes in at the door, love ies out of the window
(Alternatively: When the wolf comes in at the door, love creeps
out of the window).
Love begets love.
Love me, love my dog.
Love will nd a way.
Whom the gods love die young.
XIII
Idiomatic expressions enjoy popularity with writers, playwrights
and lm directors. Study the following titles of books, lms and musicals and explain the meaning of each phraseological unit. Why would
writers, playwrights and lm directors choose an idiomatic name for
their creations?
An American Dream (a novel and a lm adaptation)
Lord of the ies (a book title and a lm)
Ants in the pants (a lm title)
Cakes and ale (a book title and a lm)
Blackboard Jungle (a lm title)
Cat on a hot tin roof (a lm title)
On dangerous ground (a lm title)
Seventh heaven (a lm title)
The Seventh Seal (a lm title)
Time out of joint (a novel)
Salad Days (a musical by Julian Slade)
Mortal Coil (Star Trek: Voyager episode)
The Asphalt Jungle, (a novel and a lm adaptation)
XIV
Below are idiomatic expressions that contain words (underlined)
not used outside the pertinent idiom. Consult a dictionary (either a
general-purpose or a dictionary of idioms) and trace the etymology of
these words. Specify the meaning of each idiomatic expression.
1. to smash/blow smth. to smithereens: (informal) to destroy something by breaking it into very small pieces, or with an explosion.
123

2. spick and span new: new and fresh and therefore neat and clean.
3. to run amok (amuck): to indulge in physical violence while in a
state of frenzy.
4. sac and soc: the conveyance of rights in private jurisdiction to the
grantee.
5. of that ilk: of the same family, of the same kind.
XV
Consider the following denitions and explanations of English idioms taken from Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Try to work
out what idiom is described in each case. Sometimes the words that constitute an idiom are echoed in the denition, which serves as a clue.
Denition and explanation of some
English idioms
Compassion, sympathy. The affections
were once supposed to be the outcome of
certain secretions of organs. The head was
regarded as the seat of understanding, the
heart was the seat of affection and memory (hence learning by heart), the bowels
were the seat of mercy, and the spleen was
the seat of passion or anger.
To change from ones usual habits. In former times an artist would break the mould
of a high-quality cast so that it could not
be replicated by others.
To be wastefully extravagant and luxurious;
to gain advantages from two sides at once.
Pre-recorded laughter that is dubbed on to
radio and television comedy programmes.
It is the modern equivalent of the claques
who were hired to clap and cheer at theatre
performances and is a device of American
origin. It was rst heard in Britain in the
American television comedy show I Love
Lucy (1955).

124

Idiom being described

Denition and explanation of some


English idioms

Idiom being described

To be in the state of doubt or suspense


with regard to the outcome of a situation,
not knowing on which side the scales of
fate may descend.
An American expression meaning to begin ones professional career. Shingle,
a kind of wooden tile, refers to the small
signboard
To submit to punishment or misfortune
meekly and without murmuring

XVI
Below are well-known English proverbs and sayings. However,
only the second part is retained. Supply the rst part. The number of
words contained in the beginning is indicated.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

_______________(6 words missing) the one-eyed man is king


_______________(3 words missing) is another mans poison
_______________(3 words missing) always goes barefoot
_______________(4 words missing) that dance lightly
_______________(3 words missing) hinder good counsel
_______________(6 words missing) a morsel may slip
_______________(3 words missing) we learn to do ill
_______________(1 word missing) is mans true touchstone
_______________(2 words missing) thinks her own gosling a
swan
_______________(2 words missing) and then desire
_______________(1 word is missing) always rushes to the fore
_______________(1 word is missing) are thieves of time
_______________(5 words are missing) and then the puppys
eyes are open.
125

2. spick and span new: new and fresh and therefore neat and clean.
3. to run amok (amuck): to indulge in physical violence while in a
state of frenzy.
4. sac and soc: the conveyance of rights in private jurisdiction to the
grantee.
5. of that ilk: of the same family, of the same kind.
XV
Consider the following denitions and explanations of English idioms taken from Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Try to work
out what idiom is described in each case. Sometimes the words that constitute an idiom are echoed in the denition, which serves as a clue.
Denition and explanation of some
English idioms
Compassion, sympathy. The affections
were once supposed to be the outcome of
certain secretions of organs. The head was
regarded as the seat of understanding, the
heart was the seat of affection and memory (hence learning by heart), the bowels
were the seat of mercy, and the spleen was
the seat of passion or anger.
To change from ones usual habits. In former times an artist would break the mould
of a high-quality cast so that it could not
be replicated by others.
To be wastefully extravagant and luxurious;
to gain advantages from two sides at once.
Pre-recorded laughter that is dubbed on to
radio and television comedy programmes.
It is the modern equivalent of the claques
who were hired to clap and cheer at theatre
performances and is a device of American
origin. It was rst heard in Britain in the
American television comedy show I Love
Lucy (1955).

124

Idiom being described

Denition and explanation of some


English idioms

Idiom being described

To be in the state of doubt or suspense


with regard to the outcome of a situation,
not knowing on which side the scales of
fate may descend.
An American expression meaning to begin ones professional career. Shingle,
a kind of wooden tile, refers to the small
signboard
To submit to punishment or misfortune
meekly and without murmuring

XVI
Below are well-known English proverbs and sayings. However,
only the second part is retained. Supply the rst part. The number of
words contained in the beginning is indicated.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

_______________(6 words missing) the one-eyed man is king


_______________(3 words missing) is another mans poison
_______________(3 words missing) always goes barefoot
_______________(4 words missing) that dance lightly
_______________(3 words missing) hinder good counsel
_______________(6 words missing) a morsel may slip
_______________(3 words missing) we learn to do ill
_______________(1 word missing) is mans true touchstone
_______________(2 words missing) thinks her own gosling a
swan
_______________(2 words missing) and then desire
_______________(1 word is missing) always rushes to the fore
_______________(1 word is missing) are thieves of time
_______________(5 words are missing) and then the puppys
eyes are open.
125

Recommended reading:
.. . .:
. ., 1986.
.. - // . .: . , 1987.
.. . .:
, 2003.
.. - . .: , 2005.
. . .: . ,
2003.
Jackson H., Z Amleva Etienne. Words, Meaning and Vocabulary. An Introduction to Modern English lexicology. L.; N.Y.: Continuum, 2010.
Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. L.: Cassell Publishers, 2001.

8. Some Regional Varieties of English


Points to ponder
Is there any difference between a regional variety and a dialect?
Amass all the possible evidence to disclaim that American English is a separate language.
What are some of the potential causes for misunderstanding between a Briton and an American?
What groups of Americanisms can there be distinguished?
Does a Welshman or a Scot have any difculty in understanding
each other? If yes, what are the possible causes for misunderstanding? Are they mostly of phonetic, grammatical, lexical or
idiomatic character?

Exercises
I
Suggest American variants for the British English words below:
British English
Pocket money
Aluminium
Hair grip
Chest of drawers
Holdall
Candy oss
Nappy
Hall of residence
Conscription
Curtains
Chips
Interval
Marrow

American English

127

Recommended reading:
.. . .:
. ., 1986.
.. - // . .: . , 1987.
.. . .:
, 2003.
.. - . .: , 2005.
. . .: . ,
2003.
Jackson H., Z Amleva Etienne. Words, Meaning and Vocabulary. An Introduction to Modern English lexicology. L.; N.Y.: Continuum, 2010.
Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. L.: Cassell Publishers, 2001.

8. Some Regional Varieties of English


Points to ponder
Is there any difference between a regional variety and a dialect?
Amass all the possible evidence to disclaim that American English is a separate language.
What are some of the potential causes for misunderstanding between a Briton and an American?
What groups of Americanisms can there be distinguished?
Does a Welshman or a Scot have any difculty in understanding
each other? If yes, what are the possible causes for misunderstanding? Are they mostly of phonetic, grammatical, lexical or
idiomatic character?

Exercises
I
Suggest American variants for the British English words below:
British English
Pocket money
Aluminium
Hair grip
Chest of drawers
Holdall
Candy oss
Nappy
Hall of residence
Conscription
Curtains
Chips
Interval
Marrow

American English

127

Nail varnish
Nil, nought
trolley
Trainers
Noughts and crosses
Tights
Whisky
Solicitor
Saltcellar
Number plate
Pavement

away from my apartment building, so I went there and bought


some anointment.
8. What do you usually wear? Well, usually something casual and
nothing fancy: a pair of sneakers, corduroy pants or sweatpants,
a sweatshirt or a cardigan. If the occasion is formal, then a threepiece suit or a tuxedo.
III
The Scots lexicon derives from Gaelic, Norwegian and French8. Particularly noteworthy Scottishisms are represented by the following lexemes: dominie (teacher), high-heid yin (boss), kirk (church),
pinkie (little nger), swither (hesitate).
Find British English equivalents for the legal Scottishisms below:

II
Figure out who is likely to speak an American or a Briton?
Which words helped you to do it?
1. When the shopping cart was lled to overowing, I found out that
there were not enough banknotes in my billfold.
2. Harry bought a local newspaper at the newsagents and headed
for the railway. He intended to travel on foot, but as he passed a
dozen terraced houses and realized he was nowhere near the station, he decided to go by the tube. He reached the station on time
and promptly found his carriage.
3. When little Mary was asked what her favourite food was, she answered: popsicles, jell-o, French fries and cotton candy.
4. Some parents do not immediately buy a crib for their newborn
baby and let it sleep in a baby carriage.
5. When I saw the road sigh detour in front of me, I got frustrated,
for it meant that I would have to forgo the expressway and travel
by some bumpy country lanes.
6. Since the advent of the cellular phone telephone kiosks have decreased in number and lost their popularity.
7. I once confused the cold and the hot faucets and got scolding hot
water running onto my hands. Luckily, the druggists is not far
128

Aliment
Arbiter
Apprehension
Extortion
Fire-raising
Culpable homicide
Defender

_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________

IV
There are not so many distinctively Welsh words
in English, some example are Duw (stands for
god in exclamations), del (dear, a term of endearment), nain (grandma), taid (grandpa). The
number of Irishisms, however, is higher: to blather
(to talk nonsense), to cog (to cheat), freet (superstition), garda (police), insleeper (overnight visitor), kink (a t of coughing), mannerly (well-mannered). One of the peculiarities of Irish English is the
8

For more detailed information on regional varieties of English see The Cambridge
Encyclopedia of the English Language, second edition, D. Crystal, 2003.

129

Nail varnish
Nil, nought
trolley
Trainers
Noughts and crosses
Tights
Whisky
Solicitor
Saltcellar
Number plate
Pavement

away from my apartment building, so I went there and bought


some anointment.
8. What do you usually wear? Well, usually something casual and
nothing fancy: a pair of sneakers, corduroy pants or sweatpants,
a sweatshirt or a cardigan. If the occasion is formal, then a threepiece suit or a tuxedo.
III
The Scots lexicon derives from Gaelic, Norwegian and French8. Particularly noteworthy Scottishisms are represented by the following lexemes: dominie (teacher), high-heid yin (boss), kirk (church),
pinkie (little nger), swither (hesitate).
Find British English equivalents for the legal Scottishisms below:

II
Figure out who is likely to speak an American or a Briton?
Which words helped you to do it?
1. When the shopping cart was lled to overowing, I found out that
there were not enough banknotes in my billfold.
2. Harry bought a local newspaper at the newsagents and headed
for the railway. He intended to travel on foot, but as he passed a
dozen terraced houses and realized he was nowhere near the station, he decided to go by the tube. He reached the station on time
and promptly found his carriage.
3. When little Mary was asked what her favourite food was, she answered: popsicles, jell-o, French fries and cotton candy.
4. Some parents do not immediately buy a crib for their newborn
baby and let it sleep in a baby carriage.
5. When I saw the road sigh detour in front of me, I got frustrated,
for it meant that I would have to forgo the expressway and travel
by some bumpy country lanes.
6. Since the advent of the cellular phone telephone kiosks have decreased in number and lost their popularity.
7. I once confused the cold and the hot faucets and got scolding hot
water running onto my hands. Luckily, the druggists is not far
128

Aliment
Arbiter
Apprehension
Extortion
Fire-raising
Culpable homicide
Defender

_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________

IV
There are not so many distinctively Welsh words
in English, some example are Duw (stands for
god in exclamations), del (dear, a term of endearment), nain (grandma), taid (grandpa). The
number of Irishisms, however, is higher: to blather
(to talk nonsense), to cog (to cheat), freet (superstition), garda (police), insleeper (overnight visitor), kink (a t of coughing), mannerly (well-mannered). One of the peculiarities of Irish English is the
8

For more detailed information on regional varieties of English see The Cambridge
Encyclopedia of the English Language, second edition, D. Crystal, 2003.

129

usage of the diminutive sufx -een (y/ei in British English): children,


girleen. There are also a number of Irish idioms.
a) Match the idioms below with their British explanatory counterpart:

Youll knock a while out of it


Hed put the day astray on you
He is the rest of myself

He would waste your day


He is related to me
It will last you for a while

b) Find the correct ending for the Irish comparative idioms below. Can you trace any rationale behind the idiomatic comparison?:
As often as
As mean as
As fat in the forehead as
As sharp a tongue as

get out
a hen
would shave a mouse
ngers and toes

V
Immigration to the African continent from Britain began at the start
of the nineteenth century, when several thousand settlers arrived from
south-east England. This area had already been colonized by the Dutch
in the seventeenth century. Today around 10 percent of the population of
South Africa speak English as their rst language. South African English
is a distinct regional variety, with a vocabulary drawn from Afrikaans,
from native African languages and from developments and adaptations
of English words9.
Below are four groups of words of South African English. Find
out what they mean and say in what way their usage is restricted.
Which of the words and in what contexts could you ever use?
9

Examples for the following four exercises have been taken from Jackson H., Z
Amvela Words, Meaning and Vocabulary. An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology, 2010.

130

South African English Words


Words used in British and American
English:
Aardvark
Apartheid
Eland
Trek
Veld
Words Restricted to South African
English:
Bakkie
Kloof
Lekker
Platteland
Verkrampter
voorkamer
Words from African Languages that
Have Entered South African English:
Gogga
Indaba
Muti
Sangoma
Tsotsi
Words form English that are Peculiar
to South Africa:
Bioscope
Bottle store
Camp
Matchbox
Robot

Meaning

VI
English has been spoken in India since the seventeenth century.
Nowadays it is the second ofcial language of India, along with Hindi.
Around 30 million people in India use English with some regularity (circa
4 per cent of the population).
Study the following groups of Indian English and say which of
the words (if any) are used in British and/or American English:
131

usage of the diminutive sufx -een (y/ei in British English): children,


girleen. There are also a number of Irish idioms.
a) Match the idioms below with their British explanatory counterpart:

Youll knock a while out of it


Hed put the day astray on you
He is the rest of myself

He would waste your day


He is related to me
It will last you for a while

b) Find the correct ending for the Irish comparative idioms below. Can you trace any rationale behind the idiomatic comparison?:
As often as
As mean as
As fat in the forehead as
As sharp a tongue as

get out
a hen
would shave a mouse
ngers and toes

V
Immigration to the African continent from Britain began at the start
of the nineteenth century, when several thousand settlers arrived from
south-east England. This area had already been colonized by the Dutch
in the seventeenth century. Today around 10 percent of the population of
South Africa speak English as their rst language. South African English
is a distinct regional variety, with a vocabulary drawn from Afrikaans,
from native African languages and from developments and adaptations
of English words9.
Below are four groups of words of South African English. Find
out what they mean and say in what way their usage is restricted.
Which of the words and in what contexts could you ever use?
9

Examples for the following four exercises have been taken from Jackson H., Z
Amvela Words, Meaning and Vocabulary. An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology, 2010.

130

South African English Words


Words used in British and American
English:
Aardvark
Apartheid
Eland
Trek
Veld
Words Restricted to South African
English:
Bakkie
Kloof
Lekker
Platteland
Verkrampter
voorkamer
Words from African Languages that
Have Entered South African English:
Gogga
Indaba
Muti
Sangoma
Tsotsi
Words form English that are Peculiar
to South Africa:
Bioscope
Bottle store
Camp
Matchbox
Robot

Meaning

VI
English has been spoken in India since the seventeenth century.
Nowadays it is the second ofcial language of India, along with Hindi.
Around 30 million people in India use English with some regularity (circa
4 per cent of the population).
Study the following groups of Indian English and say which of
the words (if any) are used in British and/or American English:
131

Indian English words

Meaning

Words borrowed into Indian English


from Portuguese:
any of the four major hereditary classCaste
es, namely the Brahman, Kshatriya,
Vaisya, and Sudra into which Hindu
society is divided

Indian English words

Meaning

Words composed from one element of


English origin and one element from a
local language:
Village bank
Grameen bank
Policewala

Policeman

a Spanish-American farm labourer or


unskilled worker

Tifn box

Lunch-box

Bamboo

any tall treelike tropical or semitropical fast-growing grass of the genus


Bambusa

English words that have developed


new meanings or have been adapted to
new forms:
Classmate
Batch-mate

Curry

a spicy dish of oriental, esp. of Indian


origin that is made in many ways but
usually consists of meat or sh prepared in a hot piquant sauce

Peon

Mango

a tropical Asian anacardiaceous evergreen tree, Mangifera indica, cultivated in the tropics for its fruit

Pundit

an expert

Sahib

(in India) a form of address or title


placed after a mans name or designation, used as a mark of respect

Arabic and Persian:


Mogul

an important or powerful person

Sepoy

(formerly) an Indian soldier in the service of the British

Shroff

a moneychanger or banker

Vakeel

lawyer

132

Drumstick

Green vegetable

Condole

Offer condolences

Head-bath

Washing ones hair

Prepone

Opposite of postpone

VII
For almost a century Australia was used as a penal colony (from
the end of the eighteenth till the middle of the twentieth century), the
fact that partially determined the specics of modern Australian English. When simultaneously free emigrants started to arrive in Australia,
Australian English was enriched and variegated. Nowadays Australian
English has around ten thousand distinct words taken from a variety
of sources. The language of the rst settlers was drawn from a number
of British English dialects as well as underworld slang. These are such
words as cobber (friend), dinkum (genuine), larrikin (hooligan), shake
(steal). As settlers encountered new ora, fauna and geographical features, they either invented words for them or borrowed them from the
aboriginal languages.
Study the Australian English words below and say what sphere
of life they refer to:
133

Indian English words

Meaning

Words borrowed into Indian English


from Portuguese:
any of the four major hereditary classCaste
es, namely the Brahman, Kshatriya,
Vaisya, and Sudra into which Hindu
society is divided

Indian English words

Meaning

Words composed from one element of


English origin and one element from a
local language:
Village bank
Grameen bank
Policewala

Policeman

a Spanish-American farm labourer or


unskilled worker

Tifn box

Lunch-box

Bamboo

any tall treelike tropical or semitropical fast-growing grass of the genus


Bambusa

English words that have developed


new meanings or have been adapted to
new forms:
Classmate
Batch-mate

Curry

a spicy dish of oriental, esp. of Indian


origin that is made in many ways but
usually consists of meat or sh prepared in a hot piquant sauce

Peon

Mango

a tropical Asian anacardiaceous evergreen tree, Mangifera indica, cultivated in the tropics for its fruit

Pundit

an expert

Sahib

(in India) a form of address or title


placed after a mans name or designation, used as a mark of respect

Arabic and Persian:


Mogul

an important or powerful person

Sepoy

(formerly) an Indian soldier in the service of the British

Shroff

a moneychanger or banker

Vakeel

lawyer

132

Drumstick

Green vegetable

Condole

Offer condolences

Head-bath

Washing ones hair

Prepone

Opposite of postpone

VII
For almost a century Australia was used as a penal colony (from
the end of the eighteenth till the middle of the twentieth century), the
fact that partially determined the specics of modern Australian English. When simultaneously free emigrants started to arrive in Australia,
Australian English was enriched and variegated. Nowadays Australian
English has around ten thousand distinct words taken from a variety
of sources. The language of the rst settlers was drawn from a number
of British English dialects as well as underworld slang. These are such
words as cobber (friend), dinkum (genuine), larrikin (hooligan), shake
(steal). As settlers encountered new ora, fauna and geographical features, they either invented words for them or borrowed them from the
aboriginal languages.
Study the Australian English words below and say what sphere
of life they refer to:
133

Australian English Words


Realia They Describe
Dingo (brolga) bird
Morwong sh
Billabong stagnant pool in a
stream
Dillybag a small bag made of
plaited grass, often used for carrying food
Outback the remote bush country
of Australia
Backblocks bush or remote farming area far distant from city amenities
Stockman (squatter) sheep or
cattle farmer
Rouseabout unskilled labourer
Sundowner tramp seeking shelter
at sundown
Fossick search for gold in abandoned areas
Mullock waste material from a
mine
Nugget thick-set or stocky
VIII
A large inux of British settlers began to arrive in New Zealand starting from the middle of the nineteenth century, after the treaty of Waitangi
with Maori chiefs in 1840 was signed. Words describing local geographical features, ora and fauna are taken from native Maori dialects. The
other group of New Zealand words is represented by adaptations and extensions of British English words, these words have developed over the
years.
Study the two groups below. Which of the words are familiar to
you:
134

Words describing local geographical features, ora and fauna, and


words relating to Maori culture

New Zealand words represented by


adaptations and extensions of British English words

Kowai, totara trees

Back (clipped from bachelor) a holiday cottage

Kumara sweet potato

Chilly bin cool box

Takahe bird

Private bag number a post ofce box

Katipo spider

State house council house

Tuatara lizard

University graduation a capping


ceremony

Ariki chief
Haka war dance
Pa village
Tangi ceremonial funeral
Tohunga Maori learned in traditional lore
Wahine woman or wife
Waka canoe
Pakeha white person
Aroha affection, sympathy
Kuri an unpleasant person

Recommended reading:
Jackson H., Z Amvela E. Words, Meaning and Vocabulary. An Introduction to modern English Lexicology. L.; N.Y.: ontinuum, 2010.
Steinmetz S., Kipfer B.A. The Life of Language. The fascinating ways the
words are born, live and die. N.Y.; Toronto; L.: Random House Reference,
2006.
Stockwell R., Minkova D. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Second edition.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

135

Australian English Words


Realia They Describe
Dingo (brolga) bird
Morwong sh
Billabong stagnant pool in a
stream
Dillybag a small bag made of
plaited grass, often used for carrying food
Outback the remote bush country
of Australia
Backblocks bush or remote farming area far distant from city amenities
Stockman (squatter) sheep or
cattle farmer
Rouseabout unskilled labourer
Sundowner tramp seeking shelter
at sundown
Fossick search for gold in abandoned areas
Mullock waste material from a
mine
Nugget thick-set or stocky
VIII
A large inux of British settlers began to arrive in New Zealand starting from the middle of the nineteenth century, after the treaty of Waitangi
with Maori chiefs in 1840 was signed. Words describing local geographical features, ora and fauna are taken from native Maori dialects. The
other group of New Zealand words is represented by adaptations and extensions of British English words, these words have developed over the
years.
Study the two groups below. Which of the words are familiar to
you:
134

Words describing local geographical features, ora and fauna, and


words relating to Maori culture

New Zealand words represented by


adaptations and extensions of British English words

Kowai, totara trees

Back (clipped from bachelor) a holiday cottage

Kumara sweet potato

Chilly bin cool box

Takahe bird

Private bag number a post ofce box

Katipo spider

State house council house

Tuatara lizard

University graduation a capping


ceremony

Ariki chief
Haka war dance
Pa village
Tangi ceremonial funeral
Tohunga Maori learned in traditional lore
Wahine woman or wife
Waka canoe
Pakeha white person
Aroha affection, sympathy
Kuri an unpleasant person

Recommended reading:
Jackson H., Z Amvela E. Words, Meaning and Vocabulary. An Introduction to modern English Lexicology. L.; N.Y.: ontinuum, 2010.
Steinmetz S., Kipfer B.A. The Life of Language. The fascinating ways the
words are born, live and die. N.Y.; Toronto; L.: Random House Reference,
2006.
Stockwell R., Minkova D. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Second edition.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

135

References
1. .., .., .. . English Lexicology. .: , 2004.
2. .. . .: , 1974.
3. .. . .:
. ., 1973.
4. .. : ( ). 3- . .: , 1990.
5. .. . :
. 8- . .: : , 2006.
6. .. . .: . ., 1987.
7. .. ( vs ) //
: . . : . .. , 2008. C. 98109.
8. .. . .: -
, 1958.
9. .. . .: , 1980.
10. .. :
. . . . , 1998.
11. .. . .: , 2000.
12. .. . .:
. ., 1989.
13. .. : . -
. . ., 1991.
14. .. // . , 1996. . 8391.
15. ..
(
): . . . . . ,
1993.
16. .. . .: ,
2004.
17. .3.
// . ., 1978.
. 89.
18. .. .
. .: , 1981.

136

19. .. - // : . . .
. .. . , 1990. . 1529.
20. .. . .:
. ., 1986.
21. ..
// . .: , 2010. . 41
47.
22. .. . .: , 1982.
23. .. : , , . 4-
. .: , 2009.
24. .. : . . . . . ., 1996.
25. .. : , , . 4- . .: , 2009.
26. .. . .: .
., 1974.
27. .. . .: , 2004.
28. .. : . . . .
., 1987.
29. .. (
): . ... - . . ., 1997.
30. .. : . : -. , 2005.
31. .. . .: , 1999.
32. - .. . .: ,
2000.
33. .. : . . . . . ,
1976.
34. .. : // : .
/ . . .. . , 1999. . 75
101.

137

References
1. .., .., .. . English Lexicology. .: , 2004.
2. .. . .: , 1974.
3. .. . .:
. ., 1973.
4. .. : ( ). 3- . .: , 1990.
5. .. . :
. 8- . .: : , 2006.
6. .. . .: . ., 1987.
7. .. ( vs ) //
: . . : . .. , 2008. C. 98109.
8. .. . .: -
, 1958.
9. .. . .: , 1980.
10. .. :
. . . . , 1998.
11. .. . .: , 2000.
12. .. . .:
. ., 1989.
13. .. : . -
. . ., 1991.
14. .. // . , 1996. . 8391.
15. ..
(
): . . . . . ,
1993.
16. .. . .: ,
2004.
17. .3.
// . ., 1978.
. 89.
18. .. .
. .: , 1981.

136

19. .. - // : . . .
. .. . , 1990. . 1529.
20. .. . .:
. ., 1986.
21. ..
// . .: , 2010. . 41
47.
22. .. . .: , 1982.
23. .. : , , . 4-
. .: , 2009.
24. .. : . . . . . ., 1996.
25. .. : , , . 4- . .: , 2009.
26. .. . .: .
., 1974.
27. .. . .: , 2004.
28. .. : . . . .
., 1987.
29. .. (
): . ... - . . ., 1997.
30. .. : . : -. , 2005.
31. .. . .: , 1999.
32. - .. . .: ,
2000.
33. .. : . . . . . ,
1976.
34. .. : // : .
/ . . .. . , 1999. . 75
101.

137

35. .. :
/ . .. . 2- ., .
.: , 2002.
36. .. . , 1989.
37. .. : . .
: . ., 1992.
38. .. : . . - . . ., 2006.
39. Abley M. The Prodigal Tongue. L.: arrow books, 2009.
40. Algeo J. Blends, a structural and systemic view // American Speech. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1977. 52. . 4764.
41. Bauer L. English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1983.
42. Bauer L. Introducing Linguistic Morphology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1988.
43. Bauer L. Is there a class of neoclassical compounds, and if so is it productive? // Linguistics. 1998. 36. P. 403422.
44. Bryson B. Notes from a Small Island. Reading: Black Swan, 1998.
45. Bryson B. The Life and Times of The Thunderbolt Kid. L.: Black Swan,
2007.
46. Cambridge Objective Prociency. Self-study Students Book. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2002.
47. Carroll L. Through the Looking Glass. M.: Progress, 1966.
48. Cussler C. Night Probe. L.: Timewarner, 2003.
49. Danks D. Separating Blends: a Formal Investigation of the Blending Process and its Relationship to Associated Word Formation Processes. Liverpool: University of Liverpool, 2003.
50. Erard M. Slips, Stumbles and Verbal Blunders and What They Mean. N.Y.:
Anchor Books. A Division of Random House, 2008.
51. Fielding H. Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason. L.: Picador, 2000.
52. Fischer, R. Lexical Change in Present-Day English. A corpus-Based Study
of the Motivation, Institutionalization, and Productivity of Creative Neologisms. Tbingen, 1998.
53. Ford R. The Sportswriter. N.Y.: Vintage Books. A Division of Random
House, 1986.
54. Ford R. Independence Day. N.Y.: Vintage Books. A Division of Random
House, 1996.
55. Gaiman N. Neverwhere. N.Y.: HarperTorch, 1997.

138

56. Gries St. Th. (b) Shouldnt it be breakfunch? A quantitative analysis of


blend structure in English // Linguistics. Antwerp: Mouton de Groyter
2004. 42. P. 639667.
57. Harrison M. Word Perfect. Vocabulary for Fluency. Edinburgh: Nelson,
1990.
58. Hornby N. Slam. London: Penguin Books, 2007.
59. Jackson H., Z Amvela E. Words, Meaning and Vocabulary. An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology. L.: continuum, 2010.
60. King S. Wizard and Glass. N.Y.: A Signet Book, 2003.
61. Lakoff G., Johnson M. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1980.
62. Lessing D. No Witchcraft for Sale. M.: Foreign Languages Publishing
House, 1956.
63. Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present Day English Word Formation. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1960.
64. McCarthy M., ODell F. English Phrasal Verbs in Use. Advanced. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
65. McEwan I. The Innocent. N.Y.: Anchor Books. A Division of Random
House, 1999.
66. McFedries P. Word Spy: The Word Lovers Guide to Modern Culture.
Crown Publishing Group, 2004.
67. Metcalf A. Predicting new words: the secrets of their success. Boston:
Houghton Mifin Company, 2002.
68. Morozova N.N. The Last Word on Words. Lectures on English Lexicology. .: , 2010.
69. Mortimer I. The Time Travellers Guide to Medieval England. L.: Vintage
Books, 2009.
70. Pinker S. The Language Instinct. L.: Penguin Books, 1995.
71. Pound L. Blends: Their Relation to English Word Formation. Heidelberg,
1914.
72. Power, Inuence and Persuasion. Harvard Business Essentials. Boston;
Massachussetts: Harvard Business School Press, 2005.
73. Smith W. The Burning Shore. L.: Pan Books, 1997.
74. Sornig K. Lexical Innovation. A Study of Slang, Colloquialisms and Casual
Speech. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V., 1981.
75. Steinmetz S., Kipfer B.A. The Life of Language. The fascinating ways the
words are born, live and die. N.Y.; Toronto; L.: Random House Reference,
2006.

139

35. .. :
/ . .. . 2- ., .
.: , 2002.
36. .. . , 1989.
37. .. : . .
: . ., 1992.
38. .. : . . - . . ., 2006.
39. Abley M. The Prodigal Tongue. L.: arrow books, 2009.
40. Algeo J. Blends, a structural and systemic view // American Speech. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1977. 52. . 4764.
41. Bauer L. English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1983.
42. Bauer L. Introducing Linguistic Morphology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1988.
43. Bauer L. Is there a class of neoclassical compounds, and if so is it productive? // Linguistics. 1998. 36. P. 403422.
44. Bryson B. Notes from a Small Island. Reading: Black Swan, 1998.
45. Bryson B. The Life and Times of The Thunderbolt Kid. L.: Black Swan,
2007.
46. Cambridge Objective Prociency. Self-study Students Book. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2002.
47. Carroll L. Through the Looking Glass. M.: Progress, 1966.
48. Cussler C. Night Probe. L.: Timewarner, 2003.
49. Danks D. Separating Blends: a Formal Investigation of the Blending Process and its Relationship to Associated Word Formation Processes. Liverpool: University of Liverpool, 2003.
50. Erard M. Slips, Stumbles and Verbal Blunders and What They Mean. N.Y.:
Anchor Books. A Division of Random House, 2008.
51. Fielding H. Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason. L.: Picador, 2000.
52. Fischer, R. Lexical Change in Present-Day English. A corpus-Based Study
of the Motivation, Institutionalization, and Productivity of Creative Neologisms. Tbingen, 1998.
53. Ford R. The Sportswriter. N.Y.: Vintage Books. A Division of Random
House, 1986.
54. Ford R. Independence Day. N.Y.: Vintage Books. A Division of Random
House, 1996.
55. Gaiman N. Neverwhere. N.Y.: HarperTorch, 1997.

138

56. Gries St. Th. (b) Shouldnt it be breakfunch? A quantitative analysis of


blend structure in English // Linguistics. Antwerp: Mouton de Groyter
2004. 42. P. 639667.
57. Harrison M. Word Perfect. Vocabulary for Fluency. Edinburgh: Nelson,
1990.
58. Hornby N. Slam. London: Penguin Books, 2007.
59. Jackson H., Z Amvela E. Words, Meaning and Vocabulary. An Introduction to Modern English Lexicology. L.: continuum, 2010.
60. King S. Wizard and Glass. N.Y.: A Signet Book, 2003.
61. Lakoff G., Johnson M. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1980.
62. Lessing D. No Witchcraft for Sale. M.: Foreign Languages Publishing
House, 1956.
63. Marchand H. The Categories and Types of Present Day English Word Formation. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1960.
64. McCarthy M., ODell F. English Phrasal Verbs in Use. Advanced. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
65. McEwan I. The Innocent. N.Y.: Anchor Books. A Division of Random
House, 1999.
66. McFedries P. Word Spy: The Word Lovers Guide to Modern Culture.
Crown Publishing Group, 2004.
67. Metcalf A. Predicting new words: the secrets of their success. Boston:
Houghton Mifin Company, 2002.
68. Morozova N.N. The Last Word on Words. Lectures on English Lexicology. .: , 2010.
69. Mortimer I. The Time Travellers Guide to Medieval England. L.: Vintage
Books, 2009.
70. Pinker S. The Language Instinct. L.: Penguin Books, 1995.
71. Pound L. Blends: Their Relation to English Word Formation. Heidelberg,
1914.
72. Power, Inuence and Persuasion. Harvard Business Essentials. Boston;
Massachussetts: Harvard Business School Press, 2005.
73. Smith W. The Burning Shore. L.: Pan Books, 1997.
74. Sornig K. Lexical Innovation. A Study of Slang, Colloquialisms and Casual
Speech. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V., 1981.
75. Steinmetz S., Kipfer B.A. The Life of Language. The fascinating ways the
words are born, live and die. N.Y.; Toronto; L.: Random House Reference,
2006.

139

76. Stockwell R., Minkova D. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
77. Tolkien J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings. Part Two. The Two Towers. L.:
Harper Collins Publishers, 1994.
78. Weis M., Hickman T. The Dark Sword Trilogy. Volume II. Doom of the
Darksword. L.; N.Y.; Toronto: Bantam Books, 1988.
79. Zandvoort R.W. A Handbook of English Grammar. L.: Longmans, 1962.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
80. - (). .:
, 2001.
81. .. . .:
, 1966.
82. .. - . . . .: : , 2009.
83. () . .. . .: , 2002.
84. .. - . .: , 2005.
85. . . .: . ,
2003.
86. Abbyy Lingvo 12. . 12.0.0.413 ABBYY
Lingvo 12 2006 Abbyy Software
87. Academic American Encyclopaedia. Danbury: Grolier Inc., 1994.
88. Algeo J. Fifty Years among the New Words. A Dictionary of Neologisms.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
89. Banister J. Addictionary. Brave New Words. N.Y.: Abrams Image,
2008.
90. Barnhart C. L., Steinmetz S., Barnhart R. K. The Barnhart Dictionary of
New English. L.: Longman, 1973.
91. Barnhart C. L., Steinmetz S., Barnhart R. K. The Third Barnhart Dictionary
of New English. L.: HarperCollins, 1990.
92. Chambers Encyclopaedia. L.: International Learning System inc.,
1973.
93. Collins English Dictionary (Revised Third Edition). Glasgow: Harper
Collins, 1994.
94. Collins English Dictionary. Birmingham, 2007.

140

95. Collins Cobuild Dictionary (CCD). .: , 2006. . 1.


96. Collins Cobuild Dictionary (CCD). .: , 2006. . 2.
97. Concise Oxford Dictionary (tenth Edition) (COD). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
98. Cullen R. The Little Hiptionary. N.Y.: Peter Pauper Press, 2007.
99. Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms. N.Y.: Barrons Educational
Series, 2006.
100. Dick Thurners Portmanteau Dictionary (PD). Blend Words in the English
Language, Including Trademarks and Brand Names. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 1993.
101. Encyclopaedia Americana. Danbury: Grolier Inc., 1995. P. 23
102. Grant B. The Ofcial Dictionary of Unofcial English. N.Y., Chicago, L.:
McGraw Hill, 2006.
103. Bird C.S. Grandiloquent Dictionary, 2006.
104. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE). L.: Longman
Group Ltd., 1995.
105. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. L.: Longman,
1993.
106. Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary. N.Y.: Merriam Webster,
2008.
107. Oxford Concise Dictionary of English Etymology (OCDEE). Oxford,
N.Y., 1996.
108. Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang. N.Y.: Oxford University Press,
2005.
109. Peckham A. Urban Dictionary: Fularious Street Slang Dened. Kansas
City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC, 2005.
110. Peckham A. Urban Dictionary: Ridonkulous Street Slang Dened. Kansas
City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing House, LLC, 2007.
111. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. N.Y.: Houghton Mifin Harcourt, 2000.
112. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Second edition.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
113. The Chambers Dictionary. L.: Chambers, 2003.
114. The Fun-to-Learn Picture Dictionary. L.: Grandreams Limited,
1992.
115. The Hutchinson Encyclopaedia. L.: Hutchinson, 1988.
116. The New Oxford Picture Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1988.

141

76. Stockwell R., Minkova D. English Words: History and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
77. Tolkien J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings. Part Two. The Two Towers. L.:
Harper Collins Publishers, 1994.
78. Weis M., Hickman T. The Dark Sword Trilogy. Volume II. Doom of the
Darksword. L.; N.Y.; Toronto: Bantam Books, 1988.
79. Zandvoort R.W. A Handbook of English Grammar. L.: Longmans, 1962.
Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
80. - (). .:
, 2001.
81. .. . .:
, 1966.
82. .. - . . . .: : , 2009.
83. () . .. . .: , 2002.
84. .. - . .: , 2005.
85. . . .: . ,
2003.
86. Abbyy Lingvo 12. . 12.0.0.413 ABBYY
Lingvo 12 2006 Abbyy Software
87. Academic American Encyclopaedia. Danbury: Grolier Inc., 1994.
88. Algeo J. Fifty Years among the New Words. A Dictionary of Neologisms.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
89. Banister J. Addictionary. Brave New Words. N.Y.: Abrams Image,
2008.
90. Barnhart C. L., Steinmetz S., Barnhart R. K. The Barnhart Dictionary of
New English. L.: Longman, 1973.
91. Barnhart C. L., Steinmetz S., Barnhart R. K. The Third Barnhart Dictionary
of New English. L.: HarperCollins, 1990.
92. Chambers Encyclopaedia. L.: International Learning System inc.,
1973.
93. Collins English Dictionary (Revised Third Edition). Glasgow: Harper
Collins, 1994.
94. Collins English Dictionary. Birmingham, 2007.

140

95. Collins Cobuild Dictionary (CCD). .: , 2006. . 1.


96. Collins Cobuild Dictionary (CCD). .: , 2006. . 2.
97. Concise Oxford Dictionary (tenth Edition) (COD). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
98. Cullen R. The Little Hiptionary. N.Y.: Peter Pauper Press, 2007.
99. Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms. N.Y.: Barrons Educational
Series, 2006.
100. Dick Thurners Portmanteau Dictionary (PD). Blend Words in the English
Language, Including Trademarks and Brand Names. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 1993.
101. Encyclopaedia Americana. Danbury: Grolier Inc., 1995. P. 23
102. Grant B. The Ofcial Dictionary of Unofcial English. N.Y., Chicago, L.:
McGraw Hill, 2006.
103. Bird C.S. Grandiloquent Dictionary, 2006.
104. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDCE). L.: Longman
Group Ltd., 1995.
105. Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. L.: Longman,
1993.
106. Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary. N.Y.: Merriam Webster,
2008.
107. Oxford Concise Dictionary of English Etymology (OCDEE). Oxford,
N.Y., 1996.
108. Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang. N.Y.: Oxford University Press,
2005.
109. Peckham A. Urban Dictionary: Fularious Street Slang Dened. Kansas
City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing, LLC, 2005.
110. Peckham A. Urban Dictionary: Ridonkulous Street Slang Dened. Kansas
City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing House, LLC, 2007.
111. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. N.Y.: Houghton Mifin Harcourt, 2000.
112. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Second edition.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
113. The Chambers Dictionary. L.: Chambers, 2003.
114. The Fun-to-Learn Picture Dictionary. L.: Grandreams Limited,
1992.
115. The Hutchinson Encyclopaedia. L.: Hutchinson, 1988.
116. The New Oxford Picture Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1988.

141

117. The New Penguin English Dictionary (NPED). L.: Penguin Books, 2000.
118. The Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition) (OED). Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1994.
Electronic sources:
PseudoDictionary [electronic source] // URL: http://pseudodictionary.com/ (date
of reference: 20.11.2009)

ANSWER KEY

2. Stylistic Stratication of English Vocabulary. Slang. Barbarisms


Ex. II
monkey a person associated with a particular kind of activity, used as
a derogatory nomination.
Air monkey an air-brake repairman;wheel monkey a driver.
-happy inclined to do a specic activity excessively, as a result being
slightly obssessed with it; abusing smth.; being slightly deranged.
Car-happy tending to overuse ones car; dough-happy loving money; power-happy abusing ones power.
Dog an unpleasant, contemptible, or wicked man; used to refer to a
person of a specied kind in a tone of playful reproof, commiseration,
or congratulation; used to refer to someone who is abject or miserable,
especially because they have been treated harshly.
Mean dog a miser; penny dog a person working for a small, usually
xed salary; smart dog a clever person.
Ex. III
Beano a festive entertainment usually ending in rowdyism;
Blotto intoxicated, drunk;
Cheapo inexpensive and often of inferior quality;
Combo a white man who lives with an Aboriginal woman;combination,
partnership; a small instrumental band, esp. playing jazz;
Compo compensation, esp. as paid for an injury received while working;
Daddy-o daddy;
Doggo motionless or hidden (to lie doggo);
Fatso fatty;
Limo limousine;
Milko milkman;
Nutso a crazy person;
Rabbito a travelling seller of rabit meat;
Salvo a member of the Salvation Army.
143

117. The New Penguin English Dictionary (NPED). L.: Penguin Books, 2000.
118. The Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition) (OED). Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1994.
Electronic sources:
PseudoDictionary [electronic source] // URL: http://pseudodictionary.com/ (date
of reference: 20.11.2009)

ANSWER KEY

2. Stylistic Stratication of English Vocabulary. Slang. Barbarisms


Ex. II
monkey a person associated with a particular kind of activity, used as
a derogatory nomination.
Air monkey an air-brake repairman;wheel monkey a driver.
-happy inclined to do a specic activity excessively, as a result being
slightly obssessed with it; abusing smth.; being slightly deranged.
Car-happy tending to overuse ones car; dough-happy loving money; power-happy abusing ones power.
Dog an unpleasant, contemptible, or wicked man; used to refer to a
person of a specied kind in a tone of playful reproof, commiseration,
or congratulation; used to refer to someone who is abject or miserable,
especially because they have been treated harshly.
Mean dog a miser; penny dog a person working for a small, usually
xed salary; smart dog a clever person.
Ex. III
Beano a festive entertainment usually ending in rowdyism;
Blotto intoxicated, drunk;
Cheapo inexpensive and often of inferior quality;
Combo a white man who lives with an Aboriginal woman;combination,
partnership; a small instrumental band, esp. playing jazz;
Compo compensation, esp. as paid for an injury received while working;
Daddy-o daddy;
Doggo motionless or hidden (to lie doggo);
Fatso fatty;
Limo limousine;
Milko milkman;
Nutso a crazy person;
Rabbito a travelling seller of rabit meat;
Salvo a member of the Salvation Army.
143

Ex. IV one who cooks; one who waits; one who kisses; one who forgets; one who ends a relationship with smb.; one who is awarer of smth.;
one who reads in bed.
Ex. V
Money;face;pissed (drunk, intoxicated); Greek;row;boots; telephone;
Jew; stage; chief; stop, thief!;newspaper; eye;gin;time;tie; stink; feet;
old man;talk; shilling; trousers; diamond; sister; jewellery; glove;state.
Ex. VI
Queensland (from the abundance of bananas grown in the state);the
south-east coast of Spain, as used by several British criminals as a bolthole to escape British justice; a costal area with a large residential population of old and retired people, esp. the south coast of England.
Ex. VII
A state of extreme fear or terror; a loud and alarming noise;a soldier or
the Army; to atter; a drug consisting of heroin diluted with caffeine and
strychnine; a type of Italian hand grenade; rough, strong whisky (or a
drink of beer mixed with tomato guice, or tomato ketchup); passionate,
lively (or unfair, unreasonable, or a hot dog); a coward.
Ex. VIII
A difcult or unscrupulous person (or a tough customer); a mule, esp. an
old one; bad luck; the head of an organization of criminals or any important person; an honourable or incorruptible politician; a person who does
everything correctly; to remove ones trousers; to remove ones bunny
ears; to remove a hidden electronic device, such as a microphone (or to
make (a hidden microphone, for example) ineffective, or to search for and
eliminate malfunctioning elements or errors, or to remove insects from,
as with a pesticide).
Ex. IX
created or done for a particular purpose as necessary; relating to or associated with a particular person (or directed against a person rather than
144

the position they are maintaining); used to express a conclusion for which
there is stronger evidence than for a previously accepted one; relating
to or denoting reasoning or knowledge which proceeds from theoretical deduction rather than from observation or experience (or based on
theoretical deduction rather than empirical observation); relating to or
denoting reasoning or knowledge which proceeds from observations or
experiences to the deduction of probable causes (or based on reasoning
from known facts or past events rather than by making assumptions or
predictions, with hindsight, as an afterthought); the university, school, or
college that one formerly attended; genuine, real; with distinction; a brief
account of a person's education, qualications, and previous occupations,
typically sent with a job application; out of many, one; is used in books
and journals to indicate that a piece of text taken from somewhere else is
from the same source as the previous piece of text; among other things;
making necessary alterations while not affecting the main point at issue;
by or in itself or themselves, intrinsically; based on the rst impression,
accepted as correct until proved otherwise; a favour or advantage granted
in return for something; (with reference to business or proceedings that
have been adjourned) with no appointed date for resumption; an essential
condition; a thing that is absolutely necessary; unique; (in a restaurant)
referring to food that can be ordered as separate items, rather than part of
a set meal; a sense of one's own worth, self-respect; if you refer to someone or something as your bte noire, you mean that you have a particular
dislike for them or that they annoy you a great deal; used to express good
wishes to someone about to set off on a journey; complete freedom to
act as one wishes; a nal blow or shot given to kill a wounded person or
animal; a feeling of having already experienced the present situation; a
person who behaves in an unconventional or controversial way; an embarrassing or tactless act or remark in a social situation; the policy of
leaving things to take their own course, without interfering; an assumed
name used by a writer instead of their real name, a pen-name; people who
have recently acquired wealth, typically those perceived as ostentatious
or lacking in good taste; better or more than all others of the same kind;
a performance or achievement that has been accomplished or managed
with great skill.
145

Ex. IV one who cooks; one who waits; one who kisses; one who forgets; one who ends a relationship with smb.; one who is awarer of smth.;
one who reads in bed.
Ex. V
Money;face;pissed (drunk, intoxicated); Greek;row;boots; telephone;
Jew; stage; chief; stop, thief!;newspaper; eye;gin;time;tie; stink; feet;
old man;talk; shilling; trousers; diamond; sister; jewellery; glove;state.
Ex. VI
Queensland (from the abundance of bananas grown in the state);the
south-east coast of Spain, as used by several British criminals as a bolthole to escape British justice; a costal area with a large residential population of old and retired people, esp. the south coast of England.
Ex. VII
A state of extreme fear or terror; a loud and alarming noise;a soldier or
the Army; to atter; a drug consisting of heroin diluted with caffeine and
strychnine; a type of Italian hand grenade; rough, strong whisky (or a
drink of beer mixed with tomato guice, or tomato ketchup); passionate,
lively (or unfair, unreasonable, or a hot dog); a coward.
Ex. VIII
A difcult or unscrupulous person (or a tough customer); a mule, esp. an
old one; bad luck; the head of an organization of criminals or any important person; an honourable or incorruptible politician; a person who does
everything correctly; to remove ones trousers; to remove ones bunny
ears; to remove a hidden electronic device, such as a microphone (or to
make (a hidden microphone, for example) ineffective, or to search for and
eliminate malfunctioning elements or errors, or to remove insects from,
as with a pesticide).
Ex. IX
created or done for a particular purpose as necessary; relating to or associated with a particular person (or directed against a person rather than
144

the position they are maintaining); used to express a conclusion for which
there is stronger evidence than for a previously accepted one; relating
to or denoting reasoning or knowledge which proceeds from theoretical deduction rather than from observation or experience (or based on
theoretical deduction rather than empirical observation); relating to or
denoting reasoning or knowledge which proceeds from observations or
experiences to the deduction of probable causes (or based on reasoning
from known facts or past events rather than by making assumptions or
predictions, with hindsight, as an afterthought); the university, school, or
college that one formerly attended; genuine, real; with distinction; a brief
account of a person's education, qualications, and previous occupations,
typically sent with a job application; out of many, one; is used in books
and journals to indicate that a piece of text taken from somewhere else is
from the same source as the previous piece of text; among other things;
making necessary alterations while not affecting the main point at issue;
by or in itself or themselves, intrinsically; based on the rst impression,
accepted as correct until proved otherwise; a favour or advantage granted
in return for something; (with reference to business or proceedings that
have been adjourned) with no appointed date for resumption; an essential
condition; a thing that is absolutely necessary; unique; (in a restaurant)
referring to food that can be ordered as separate items, rather than part of
a set meal; a sense of one's own worth, self-respect; if you refer to someone or something as your bte noire, you mean that you have a particular
dislike for them or that they annoy you a great deal; used to express good
wishes to someone about to set off on a journey; complete freedom to
act as one wishes; a nal blow or shot given to kill a wounded person or
animal; a feeling of having already experienced the present situation; a
person who behaves in an unconventional or controversial way; an embarrassing or tactless act or remark in a social situation; the policy of
leaving things to take their own course, without interfering; an assumed
name used by a writer instead of their real name, a pen-name; people who
have recently acquired wealth, typically those perceived as ostentatious
or lacking in good taste; better or more than all others of the same kind;
a performance or achievement that has been accomplished or managed
with great skill.
145

3. Etymology
Ex. I
late 16th cent.: from Latin belligerant- waging war, from the verb belligerare, from bellum war;
mid 16th cent.: from Italian carnevale, carnovale, from medieval Latin
carnelevamen, carnelevarium, from Latin caro, carn- esh + levare
put away;
late 17th cent. (as a noun): alteration of obsolete haemorrhagy, via Latin
from Greek haimorrhagia, from haima blood + the stem of rhgnunai
burst;
Old English: via Latin from Greek hroskopos, from hra time +
skopos observer;
late 19th cent.: from French, from Latin manus hand + cura care;
Old English nahgebr, from nah "nigh, near" + gebr "inhabitant,
peasant, farmer" (compare with boor);
Middle English: from Old French pome grenate, from pome apple +
grenate pomegranate (from Latin (malum) granatum (apple) having
many seeds, from granum seed);
early 20th cent.: modern Latin, from Greek skhizein to split + phrn
mind;
late Middle English: via Old French from Latin benedictio(n-), from
benedicere wish well, bless, from bene well + dicere say;
Old English grlac, from gr "spear" (because the shape of a clove resembles the head of a spear) + lac "leek";
Middle English: from Old French herbergere, from herbergier provide
lodging for, from herberge lodging, from Old Saxon heriberga shelter for an army, lodging (from heri army + a Germanic base meaning fortied place), related to harbour. The term originally denoted a
person who provided lodging, later one who went ahead to nd lodgings
for an army or for a nobleman and his retinue, hence, a herald (mid 16th
cent.);
Middle English iuparti, from Old French ieu parti (evenly) divided
game. The term was originally used in chess and other games to denote
a problem, or a position in which the chances of winning or losing were
evenly balanced, hence a dangerous situation;
146

late 15th cent. (as marchpane): from Italian marzapane, perhaps from
Arabic. The form marchpane (inuenced by March and obsolete pain
bread) was more usual until the late 19th cent., when marzipan (inuenced by German Marzipan) displaced it;
late 18th cent. (in the sense acute homesickness): modern Latin (translating German Heimweh homesickness), from Greek nostos return
home + algos pain;
mid 16th cent.: from French portemanteau, from porter carry + manteau mantle;
late Middle English: from Old French porc espin, from Provenal porc
espi(n), from Latin porcus pig + spina thorn.
Ex. II
The words are derived from the Latin verb permittere allow: permission the action of ofcially allowing someone to do a particular thing;
consent or authorization; permissiveness allowing or tolerating things
which other people disapprove of;
The words are derived from Latin aggredi to attack, from ad- towards + gradi proceed, walk: aggression feelings of anger or antipathy resulting in hostile or violent behaviour; aggressiveness readiness
or likelihood to attack or confront;
The words are derived from Old French, from agreer make agreeable
to: agreement harmony or accordance in opinion or feeling; agreeableness the quality of being enjoyable and pleasurable; the willingness to agree to something; acceptability;
The words are derived via Old French from Latin vitium physical or
other defect, fault: vice immoral or wicked behaviour; viciousness
cruelty, violence;
The words are derived from Latin legalis, from lex, leg- law: legality the quality or state of being in accordance with the law; legalization the process of making smth. legal;
The words are derived from late Middle English humaine, from Old
French humain(e), from Latin humanus, from homo man, human being: human relating to or characteristic of humankind; humane having or showing compassion or benevolence;
147

3. Etymology
Ex. I
late 16th cent.: from Latin belligerant- waging war, from the verb belligerare, from bellum war;
mid 16th cent.: from Italian carnevale, carnovale, from medieval Latin
carnelevamen, carnelevarium, from Latin caro, carn- esh + levare
put away;
late 17th cent. (as a noun): alteration of obsolete haemorrhagy, via Latin
from Greek haimorrhagia, from haima blood + the stem of rhgnunai
burst;
Old English: via Latin from Greek hroskopos, from hra time +
skopos observer;
late 19th cent.: from French, from Latin manus hand + cura care;
Old English nahgebr, from nah "nigh, near" + gebr "inhabitant,
peasant, farmer" (compare with boor);
Middle English: from Old French pome grenate, from pome apple +
grenate pomegranate (from Latin (malum) granatum (apple) having
many seeds, from granum seed);
early 20th cent.: modern Latin, from Greek skhizein to split + phrn
mind;
late Middle English: via Old French from Latin benedictio(n-), from
benedicere wish well, bless, from bene well + dicere say;
Old English grlac, from gr "spear" (because the shape of a clove resembles the head of a spear) + lac "leek";
Middle English: from Old French herbergere, from herbergier provide
lodging for, from herberge lodging, from Old Saxon heriberga shelter for an army, lodging (from heri army + a Germanic base meaning fortied place), related to harbour. The term originally denoted a
person who provided lodging, later one who went ahead to nd lodgings
for an army or for a nobleman and his retinue, hence, a herald (mid 16th
cent.);
Middle English iuparti, from Old French ieu parti (evenly) divided
game. The term was originally used in chess and other games to denote
a problem, or a position in which the chances of winning or losing were
evenly balanced, hence a dangerous situation;
146

late 15th cent. (as marchpane): from Italian marzapane, perhaps from
Arabic. The form marchpane (inuenced by March and obsolete pain
bread) was more usual until the late 19th cent., when marzipan (inuenced by German Marzipan) displaced it;
late 18th cent. (in the sense acute homesickness): modern Latin (translating German Heimweh homesickness), from Greek nostos return
home + algos pain;
mid 16th cent.: from French portemanteau, from porter carry + manteau mantle;
late Middle English: from Old French porc espin, from Provenal porc
espi(n), from Latin porcus pig + spina thorn.
Ex. II
The words are derived from the Latin verb permittere allow: permission the action of ofcially allowing someone to do a particular thing;
consent or authorization; permissiveness allowing or tolerating things
which other people disapprove of;
The words are derived from Latin aggredi to attack, from ad- towards + gradi proceed, walk: aggression feelings of anger or antipathy resulting in hostile or violent behaviour; aggressiveness readiness
or likelihood to attack or confront;
The words are derived from Old French, from agreer make agreeable
to: agreement harmony or accordance in opinion or feeling; agreeableness the quality of being enjoyable and pleasurable; the willingness to agree to something; acceptability;
The words are derived via Old French from Latin vitium physical or
other defect, fault: vice immoral or wicked behaviour; viciousness
cruelty, violence;
The words are derived from Latin legalis, from lex, leg- law: legality the quality or state of being in accordance with the law; legalization the process of making smth. legal;
The words are derived from late Middle English humaine, from Old
French humain(e), from Latin humanus, from homo man, human being: human relating to or characteristic of humankind; humane having or showing compassion or benevolence;
147

The words are derived from Latin miseria, literally wretched: miser
a person who hoards wealth and spends as little money as possible; misery a state or feeling of great physical or mental distress or discomfort;
The words are of Germanic origin; related to Dutch and German lang:
longevity long life, long existence or service; longitude the angular
distance of a place east or west of the Greenwich meridian, or west of
the standard meridian of a celestial object, usually expressed in degrees;
oblong a rectangular object or at gure with unequal adjacent sides;
The words are derived from Old French clos (as noun and adjective),
from Latin clausum enclosure and clausus closed, past participle of
claudere: closeness the state of being near; an act or process of closing something, especially an institution, thoroughfare, or frontier, or of
being closed; enclosure an area that is surrounded by a barrier; cloister a convent, monastery;
The words are derived from Latin sanitas health, from sanus
healthy: sanity the ability to think and behave in a normal and rational manner; sound mental health; sanitation - conditions relating to
public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal; sanitarian an ofcial responsible for public
health or a person in favour of public health reform;
The words are derived via Old French from late Latin minuta, feminine
(used as a noun) of minutus made small: minute a period of time
equal to sixty seconds or a sixtieth of an hour; minutiae the small, precise, or trivial details of something; minuet a slow, stately ballroom
dance for two in triple time, popular especially in the 18th century.
Ex. III
Derby village where there are deer; Suffolk southern people; Essex territory of the East Saxons; Kent land on the border; Surrey southern district; Sussex territory of the South Saxons;
Buckingham riverside land of Buccas people; Oxford ford used
by oxen; Dorset territory of the settlers around Dorn (Dorchester);
Cornwall territory of Britons of the Cornovii (promontory people);
Avon river; Gwent favoured place; Warwick dwellings by
a weir; Stafford ford beside a landing-place; Cheshire county
of Chester (Roman fort); Manchester Roman fort at Mamucium;
Man land of Mananan (an Irish God).
148

Ex. IV
-by means dwelling, farm; -thorpe means dwelling, farm;
-thwaite means eld, clearing.
Ex. V
Cradle Old English cradol, of uncertain origin; perhaps related to
German Kratte basket; perhaps of Celtic origin
Curse Old English, of unknown origin
Loch late Middle English: from Scottish Gaelic an arm of the sea
Camp early 16th cent.: from French camp, champ, from Italian campo, from Latin campus level ground, specically applied to the Campus Martius in Rome, used for games, athletic practice, and military drill
Linen Old English lnen (as an adjective in the sense made of ax),
of West Germanic origin; related to Dutch linnen, German Leinen, also
to obsolete line ax
Gem Old English gim, from Latin gemma bud, jewel; inuenced in
Middle English by Old French gemme
Devil Old English dofol (related to Dutch duivel and German Teufel),
via late Latin from Greek diabolos accuser, slanderer (used in the Septuagint to translate Hebrew n Satan), from diaballein to slander,
from dia across + ballein to throw
Disciple Old English, from Latin discipulus learner, from discere
learn; reinforced by Old French deciple
Martyr Old English martir, via ecclesiastical Latin from Greek martur
witness
Mass from Latin missa a verbal substantive from the verb mittere
send, send away
Offer Old English offrian sacrice something to a deity, of Germanic origin, from Latin offerre bestow, present (in ecclesiastical Latin
offer to God), reinforced by French offrir. The noun (late Middle English) is from French offre
Alphabet from Greek alpha, bta, the rst two letters of the Greek alphabet, ultimately from Phoenician bull and house, respectively
Fever Old English ffor, from Latin febris; reinforced in Middle English by Old French evre, also from febris
149

The words are derived from Latin miseria, literally wretched: miser
a person who hoards wealth and spends as little money as possible; misery a state or feeling of great physical or mental distress or discomfort;
The words are of Germanic origin; related to Dutch and German lang:
longevity long life, long existence or service; longitude the angular
distance of a place east or west of the Greenwich meridian, or west of
the standard meridian of a celestial object, usually expressed in degrees;
oblong a rectangular object or at gure with unequal adjacent sides;
The words are derived from Old French clos (as noun and adjective),
from Latin clausum enclosure and clausus closed, past participle of
claudere: closeness the state of being near; an act or process of closing something, especially an institution, thoroughfare, or frontier, or of
being closed; enclosure an area that is surrounded by a barrier; cloister a convent, monastery;
The words are derived from Latin sanitas health, from sanus
healthy: sanity the ability to think and behave in a normal and rational manner; sound mental health; sanitation - conditions relating to
public health, especially the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal; sanitarian an ofcial responsible for public
health or a person in favour of public health reform;
The words are derived via Old French from late Latin minuta, feminine
(used as a noun) of minutus made small: minute a period of time
equal to sixty seconds or a sixtieth of an hour; minutiae the small, precise, or trivial details of something; minuet a slow, stately ballroom
dance for two in triple time, popular especially in the 18th century.
Ex. III
Derby village where there are deer; Suffolk southern people; Essex territory of the East Saxons; Kent land on the border; Surrey southern district; Sussex territory of the South Saxons;
Buckingham riverside land of Buccas people; Oxford ford used
by oxen; Dorset territory of the settlers around Dorn (Dorchester);
Cornwall territory of Britons of the Cornovii (promontory people);
Avon river; Gwent favoured place; Warwick dwellings by
a weir; Stafford ford beside a landing-place; Cheshire county
of Chester (Roman fort); Manchester Roman fort at Mamucium;
Man land of Mananan (an Irish God).
148

Ex. IV
-by means dwelling, farm; -thorpe means dwelling, farm;
-thwaite means eld, clearing.
Ex. V
Cradle Old English cradol, of uncertain origin; perhaps related to
German Kratte basket; perhaps of Celtic origin
Curse Old English, of unknown origin
Loch late Middle English: from Scottish Gaelic an arm of the sea
Camp early 16th cent.: from French camp, champ, from Italian campo, from Latin campus level ground, specically applied to the Campus Martius in Rome, used for games, athletic practice, and military drill
Linen Old English lnen (as an adjective in the sense made of ax),
of West Germanic origin; related to Dutch linnen, German Leinen, also
to obsolete line ax
Gem Old English gim, from Latin gemma bud, jewel; inuenced in
Middle English by Old French gemme
Devil Old English dofol (related to Dutch duivel and German Teufel),
via late Latin from Greek diabolos accuser, slanderer (used in the Septuagint to translate Hebrew n Satan), from diaballein to slander,
from dia across + ballein to throw
Disciple Old English, from Latin discipulus learner, from discere
learn; reinforced by Old French deciple
Martyr Old English martir, via ecclesiastical Latin from Greek martur
witness
Mass from Latin missa a verbal substantive from the verb mittere
send, send away
Offer Old English offrian sacrice something to a deity, of Germanic origin, from Latin offerre bestow, present (in ecclesiastical Latin
offer to God), reinforced by French offrir. The noun (late Middle English) is from French offre
Alphabet from Greek alpha, bta, the rst two letters of the Greek alphabet, ultimately from Phoenician bull and house, respectively
Fever Old English ffor, from Latin febris; reinforced in Middle English by Old French evre, also from febris
149

Giant Middle English geant (with the rst syllable later inuenced by
Latin gigant-), from Old French, via Latin from Greek gigas, gigantMount Middle English: from Old French munter, based on Latin
mons, mont- mountain
Polite late Middle English (in the Latin sense): from Latin politus
polished, made smooth, past participle of polire
Radish Old English rdic, from Latin radix, radic- root
Air Middle English from Old French air, from Latin aer, from Greek
ar, denoting the gas
Beast Middle English: from Old French beste, based on Latin bestia
Beauty Middle English: from Old French beaute, based on Latin bellus beautiful, ne
Colour Middle English: from Old French colour (noun), colourer
(verb), from Latin color (noun), colorare (verb)
Diet Middle English: from Old French diete (noun), dieter (verb), via
Latin from Greek diaita a way of life
Fest from German Fest festival
Flower Middle English our, from Old French our, or, from Latin
os, or-. The original spelling was no longer in use by the late 17th
cent. except in its specialized sense ground grain
Journey Middle English: from Old French jornee day, a day's travel,
a day's work (the earliest senses in English), based on Latin diurnum
daily portion, from diurnus
Judge Middle English: from Old French juge (noun), juger (verb),
from Latin judex, judic-, from jus law + dicere to say
Oil Middle English: from Old Northern French olie, Old French oile,
from Latin oleum (olive) oil; compare with olea olive
Soil late Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French, perhaps representing Latin solium seat, by association with solum ground
Tender Middle English: from Old French tendre, from Latin tener
tender, delicate
Literature late Middle English (in the sense knowledge of books):
via French from Latin litteratura, from littera
Art- Middle English: via Old French from Latin ars, artMedicine Middle English: via Old French from Latin medicina, from
medicus physician
150

Figure Middle English (in the senses distinctive shape of a person or


thing, representation of something material or immaterial, and numerical symbol, among others): from Old French gure (noun), gurer
(verb), from Latin gura shape, gure, form; related to ngere form,
contrive
Grammar late Middle English: from Old French gramaire, via Latin
from Greek grammatik (tekhn) (art) of letters, from gramma, grammat- letter of the alphabet, thing written
Remedy Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French remedie, from
Latin remedium, from re- back (also expressing intensive force) +
mederi heal
Romance Middle English: from Romance, originally denoting a composition in the vernacular as opposed to works in Latin. Early use denoted vernacular verse on the theme of chivalry; the sense genre centred
on romantic love dates from the mid 17th century
Surgeon Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French surgien, contraction of Old French serurgien, based on Latin chirurgia, from Greek
kheirourgia handiwork, surgery, from kheir hand + ergon work
Fragrant late Middle English: from French, or from Latin fragrantsmelling sweet, from the verb fragrare
Elegance late 15th cent.: from French, or from Latin elegans, elegant-,
related to eligere choose, select
Baton early 16th cent. (denoting a staff or cudgel): from French bton,
earlier baston, from late Latin bastum stick
Accent late Middle English (in the sense intonation): from Latin accentus tone, signal, or intensity (from ad- to + cantus song), translating Greek prosidia a song sung to music, intonation
Adverb late Middle English: from Latin adverbium, from ad- to
(expressing addition) + verbum word, verb
Amplitude mid 16th cent. (in the senses physical extent and grandeur): from Latin amplitudo, from amplus large, abundant
Demolish mid 16th cent.: from French dmoliss-, lengthened stem of
dmolir, from Latin demoliri, from de- (expressing reversal) + moliri
construct (from moles mass)
Admire late 16th cent.: from Latin admirari, from ad- at + mirari
wonder
151

Giant Middle English geant (with the rst syllable later inuenced by
Latin gigant-), from Old French, via Latin from Greek gigas, gigantMount Middle English: from Old French munter, based on Latin
mons, mont- mountain
Polite late Middle English (in the Latin sense): from Latin politus
polished, made smooth, past participle of polire
Radish Old English rdic, from Latin radix, radic- root
Air Middle English from Old French air, from Latin aer, from Greek
ar, denoting the gas
Beast Middle English: from Old French beste, based on Latin bestia
Beauty Middle English: from Old French beaute, based on Latin bellus beautiful, ne
Colour Middle English: from Old French colour (noun), colourer
(verb), from Latin color (noun), colorare (verb)
Diet Middle English: from Old French diete (noun), dieter (verb), via
Latin from Greek diaita a way of life
Fest from German Fest festival
Flower Middle English our, from Old French our, or, from Latin
os, or-. The original spelling was no longer in use by the late 17th
cent. except in its specialized sense ground grain
Journey Middle English: from Old French jornee day, a day's travel,
a day's work (the earliest senses in English), based on Latin diurnum
daily portion, from diurnus
Judge Middle English: from Old French juge (noun), juger (verb),
from Latin judex, judic-, from jus law + dicere to say
Oil Middle English: from Old Northern French olie, Old French oile,
from Latin oleum (olive) oil; compare with olea olive
Soil late Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French, perhaps representing Latin solium seat, by association with solum ground
Tender Middle English: from Old French tendre, from Latin tener
tender, delicate
Literature late Middle English (in the sense knowledge of books):
via French from Latin litteratura, from littera
Art- Middle English: via Old French from Latin ars, artMedicine Middle English: via Old French from Latin medicina, from
medicus physician
150

Figure Middle English (in the senses distinctive shape of a person or


thing, representation of something material or immaterial, and numerical symbol, among others): from Old French gure (noun), gurer
(verb), from Latin gura shape, gure, form; related to ngere form,
contrive
Grammar late Middle English: from Old French gramaire, via Latin
from Greek grammatik (tekhn) (art) of letters, from gramma, grammat- letter of the alphabet, thing written
Remedy Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French remedie, from
Latin remedium, from re- back (also expressing intensive force) +
mederi heal
Romance Middle English: from Romance, originally denoting a composition in the vernacular as opposed to works in Latin. Early use denoted vernacular verse on the theme of chivalry; the sense genre centred
on romantic love dates from the mid 17th century
Surgeon Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French surgien, contraction of Old French serurgien, based on Latin chirurgia, from Greek
kheirourgia handiwork, surgery, from kheir hand + ergon work
Fragrant late Middle English: from French, or from Latin fragrantsmelling sweet, from the verb fragrare
Elegance late 15th cent.: from French, or from Latin elegans, elegant-,
related to eligere choose, select
Baton early 16th cent. (denoting a staff or cudgel): from French bton,
earlier baston, from late Latin bastum stick
Accent late Middle English (in the sense intonation): from Latin accentus tone, signal, or intensity (from ad- to + cantus song), translating Greek prosidia a song sung to music, intonation
Adverb late Middle English: from Latin adverbium, from ad- to
(expressing addition) + verbum word, verb
Amplitude mid 16th cent. (in the senses physical extent and grandeur): from Latin amplitudo, from amplus large, abundant
Demolish mid 16th cent.: from French dmoliss-, lengthened stem of
dmolir, from Latin demoliri, from de- (expressing reversal) + moliri
construct (from moles mass)
Admire late 16th cent.: from Latin admirari, from ad- at + mirari
wonder
151

Avenue early 17th cent.: from French, feminine past participle of avenir arrive, approach, from Latin advenire, from ad- towards + venire
come
Balcony early 17th cent.: from Italian balcone, probably ultimately of
Germanic origin
Opera mid 17th cent.: from Italian, from Latin, literally labour,
work.
Ex. VI
In slow time; at a fairly brisk speed; in a moderately slow tempo; a medium-length narrative piece of music for voices with instrumental accompaniment, typically with solos, chorus, and orchestra; the concluding passage of a piece or movement, typically forming an addition to
the basic structure; a musical composition for a solo instrument or instruments accompanied by an orchestra, especially one conceived on a
relatively large scale; a light and entertaining composition, typically one
in the form of a suite for chamber orchestra; a method of voice production used by male singers, especially tenors, to sing notes higher than
their normal range; a person who organizes and often nances concerts,
plays, or operas; at a moderate pace; a large-scale, usually narrative musical work for orchestra and voices, typically on a sacred theme, performed without costume, scenery, or action. Well-known examples include Bach's Christmas Oratorio, Handel's Messiah, and Haydn's The
Creation; very soft or softly; in a quiet voice.
Ex. VIII
Bully probably from Middle Dutch boele lover. Original use was
as a term of endearment applied to either sex; it later became a familiar
form of address to a male friend. The current sense dates from the late
17th cent.
Cookie early 18th cent.: from Dutch koekje little cake, diminutive of
koek
Kit from Middle Dutch kitte wooden vessel
Ogle late 17th cent.: probably from Low German or Dutch to look at
Scoop from Middle Dutch, Middle Low German schpe waterwheel
bucket; from a West Germanic base meaning draw water
152

Scufe late 16th cent. (as a verb): probably of Scandinavian origin;


compare with Swedish skuffa to push; related to shove and shufe
Snue late 16th cent.: probably from Low German and Dutch snuffelen
Track late 15th cent. (in the sense trail, marks left behind): from
Low German or Dutch trek draught, drawing
Albino early 18th cent.: from Portuguese (originally denoting albinos among African blacks) and Spanish, from albo (from Latin albus
white) + the sufx -ino
Cocoa mid 16th cent.: via Spanish from Nahuatl cacaua
Hacienda Spanish, from Latin facienda things to be done, from facere make, do
Jerk early 18th cent.: from Latin American Spanish charquear, from
charqui, from Quechua echarqui dried esh
Palaver mid 18th cent. (in the sense a talk between tribespeople and
traders): from Portuguese palavra word, from Latin parabola comparison
Mantilla Spanish, diminutive of manta mantle
Torero Spanish, from toro bull.
4. Word-building
Ex. V
Milkman - endocentric
Blindfold appositional
Straphanger exocentric
Longlegs exocentric
White-collar exocentric
Bullnch endocentric
Backstage endocentric
Backlog exocentric
Backdrop endocentric
Tadpole exocentric
Pinpoint endocentric
Greenback exocentric
153

Avenue early 17th cent.: from French, feminine past participle of avenir arrive, approach, from Latin advenire, from ad- towards + venire
come
Balcony early 17th cent.: from Italian balcone, probably ultimately of
Germanic origin
Opera mid 17th cent.: from Italian, from Latin, literally labour,
work.
Ex. VI
In slow time; at a fairly brisk speed; in a moderately slow tempo; a medium-length narrative piece of music for voices with instrumental accompaniment, typically with solos, chorus, and orchestra; the concluding passage of a piece or movement, typically forming an addition to
the basic structure; a musical composition for a solo instrument or instruments accompanied by an orchestra, especially one conceived on a
relatively large scale; a light and entertaining composition, typically one
in the form of a suite for chamber orchestra; a method of voice production used by male singers, especially tenors, to sing notes higher than
their normal range; a person who organizes and often nances concerts,
plays, or operas; at a moderate pace; a large-scale, usually narrative musical work for orchestra and voices, typically on a sacred theme, performed without costume, scenery, or action. Well-known examples include Bach's Christmas Oratorio, Handel's Messiah, and Haydn's The
Creation; very soft or softly; in a quiet voice.
Ex. VIII
Bully probably from Middle Dutch boele lover. Original use was
as a term of endearment applied to either sex; it later became a familiar
form of address to a male friend. The current sense dates from the late
17th cent.
Cookie early 18th cent.: from Dutch koekje little cake, diminutive of
koek
Kit from Middle Dutch kitte wooden vessel
Ogle late 17th cent.: probably from Low German or Dutch to look at
Scoop from Middle Dutch, Middle Low German schpe waterwheel
bucket; from a West Germanic base meaning draw water
152

Scufe late 16th cent. (as a verb): probably of Scandinavian origin;


compare with Swedish skuffa to push; related to shove and shufe
Snue late 16th cent.: probably from Low German and Dutch snuffelen
Track late 15th cent. (in the sense trail, marks left behind): from
Low German or Dutch trek draught, drawing
Albino early 18th cent.: from Portuguese (originally denoting albinos among African blacks) and Spanish, from albo (from Latin albus
white) + the sufx -ino
Cocoa mid 16th cent.: via Spanish from Nahuatl cacaua
Hacienda Spanish, from Latin facienda things to be done, from facere make, do
Jerk early 18th cent.: from Latin American Spanish charquear, from
charqui, from Quechua echarqui dried esh
Palaver mid 18th cent. (in the sense a talk between tribespeople and
traders): from Portuguese palavra word, from Latin parabola comparison
Mantilla Spanish, diminutive of manta mantle
Torero Spanish, from toro bull.
4. Word-building
Ex. V
Milkman - endocentric
Blindfold appositional
Straphanger exocentric
Longlegs exocentric
White-collar exocentric
Bullnch endocentric
Backstage endocentric
Backlog exocentric
Backdrop endocentric
Tadpole exocentric
Pinpoint endocentric
Greenback exocentric
153

Tall-boy exocentric
High-brow exocentric
Sweetmeats endocentric
Sweetheart exocentric
Headache endocentric
Backpack endocentric
Ladybird exocentric
Treadmill exocentric
Dough-nut exocentric
Nightmare endocentric
Pigtail exocentric
There are no copulative compounds.
Ex. VI
Pigeonhole; saltcellar; free-for-all; deadpan; dumbbell; eld day; jaywalk; landmark; lounge lizard; naysay; plaything; waylay.
Ex. VII
1. c, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a
Ex. XVII
talk rapidly and continuously in a foolish, excited, or incomprehensible
way; talk foolishly or mindlessly; to talk at length; to give a loud shout
or cry; talk in a rapid, excited, and often incomprehensible way; talk casually, especially on unimportant matters; to talk with continued involuntary repetition of sounds, especially initial consonants; to make a soft
rustling sound, whisper, murmur; to gossip idly; to give or make a long,
high-pitched complaining cry or sound; and so on and so forth; to give
a sharp, shrill bark; to wash one's mouth and throat with a liquid that is
kept in motion by breathing through it with a gurgling sound; make a
hollow bubbling sound like that made by water running out of a bottle;
howl or wail as an expression of strong emotion, typically grief; move or
cause to move suddenly and rapidly; to make a hissing sound when frying or cooking; to breathe with a whistling or rattling sound in the chest,
as a result of obstruction in the air passages; move quickly through the
154

air with a whistling or whooshing sound; to move slowly making regular mufed explosive sounds, as of an engine running slowly; to cut off
a thing or part of a thing with shears or scissors; move with a apping
sound or motion or a light sandal, typically of plastic or rubber, with a
thong between the big and second toe.
Ex. XVIII
The doer of the action: absentee, escapee, retiree, returnee. The remaining words belong to the group the recipient of the action.
Ex. XX
a childs word for a railway train or locomotive; a childs word for excrement, used euphemistically in other contexts; a childs word for an
act of urinating (mostly used by little children or their care-takers)
an intimate endearment; very small, tiny; very small, tiny; very affectionate or romantic, especially excessively so (used by lovers or people
when feeling affection for smth./smb.)
waste time through aimless wandering or indecision; nonsensical or insincere talk; mix socially, especially with those of perceived higher social status; to fail to act resolutely or decisively; weak, watery, feeble or
insipid in quality or character; a style of piano jazz using a dotted bass
pattern, usually with eight notes in a bar and the harmonies of the 12bar blues; inconsequential conversation; a sound like that of quick light
steps or taps; a long plank balanced in the middle on a xed support,
on each end of which children sit and swing up and down by pushing
the ground alternately with their feet; a portable two-way radio; small
worthless objects, especially household ornaments; a confused mixture; a confused mixture; in a confused, rushed or disorderly manner;
disreputable or undesirable people; very old-fashioned and pompous; in
disorderly haste or confusion; in confusion or disorder; the most important aspects or practical details of a subject or situation; having a round,
plump appearance; very good; marvelous; very tiny; whether one likes it
or not (as can be seen from the examples, many of the reduplicative
words are either endearments or indicate a state of confusion, or a
small size).
155

Tall-boy exocentric
High-brow exocentric
Sweetmeats endocentric
Sweetheart exocentric
Headache endocentric
Backpack endocentric
Ladybird exocentric
Treadmill exocentric
Dough-nut exocentric
Nightmare endocentric
Pigtail exocentric
There are no copulative compounds.
Ex. VI
Pigeonhole; saltcellar; free-for-all; deadpan; dumbbell; eld day; jaywalk; landmark; lounge lizard; naysay; plaything; waylay.
Ex. VII
1. c, 2. a, 3. a, 4. b, 5. a, 6. a, 7. a
Ex. XVII
talk rapidly and continuously in a foolish, excited, or incomprehensible
way; talk foolishly or mindlessly; to talk at length; to give a loud shout
or cry; talk in a rapid, excited, and often incomprehensible way; talk casually, especially on unimportant matters; to talk with continued involuntary repetition of sounds, especially initial consonants; to make a soft
rustling sound, whisper, murmur; to gossip idly; to give or make a long,
high-pitched complaining cry or sound; and so on and so forth; to give
a sharp, shrill bark; to wash one's mouth and throat with a liquid that is
kept in motion by breathing through it with a gurgling sound; make a
hollow bubbling sound like that made by water running out of a bottle;
howl or wail as an expression of strong emotion, typically grief; move or
cause to move suddenly and rapidly; to make a hissing sound when frying or cooking; to breathe with a whistling or rattling sound in the chest,
as a result of obstruction in the air passages; move quickly through the
154

air with a whistling or whooshing sound; to move slowly making regular mufed explosive sounds, as of an engine running slowly; to cut off
a thing or part of a thing with shears or scissors; move with a apping
sound or motion or a light sandal, typically of plastic or rubber, with a
thong between the big and second toe.
Ex. XVIII
The doer of the action: absentee, escapee, retiree, returnee. The remaining words belong to the group the recipient of the action.
Ex. XX
a childs word for a railway train or locomotive; a childs word for excrement, used euphemistically in other contexts; a childs word for an
act of urinating (mostly used by little children or their care-takers)
an intimate endearment; very small, tiny; very small, tiny; very affectionate or romantic, especially excessively so (used by lovers or people
when feeling affection for smth./smb.)
waste time through aimless wandering or indecision; nonsensical or insincere talk; mix socially, especially with those of perceived higher social status; to fail to act resolutely or decisively; weak, watery, feeble or
insipid in quality or character; a style of piano jazz using a dotted bass
pattern, usually with eight notes in a bar and the harmonies of the 12bar blues; inconsequential conversation; a sound like that of quick light
steps or taps; a long plank balanced in the middle on a xed support,
on each end of which children sit and swing up and down by pushing
the ground alternately with their feet; a portable two-way radio; small
worthless objects, especially household ornaments; a confused mixture; a confused mixture; in a confused, rushed or disorderly manner;
disreputable or undesirable people; very old-fashioned and pompous; in
disorderly haste or confusion; in confusion or disorder; the most important aspects or practical details of a subject or situation; having a round,
plump appearance; very good; marvelous; very tiny; whether one likes it
or not (as can be seen from the examples, many of the reduplicative
words are either endearments or indicate a state of confusion, or a
small size).
155

5. The Meaning of the Word. Semantic Transference. Metaphor and


Metonymy. Euphemisms. Neologisms. Retronyms

Ex. IV
1. b, 2. c, 3. c, 4. d, 5. d, 6. b, 7. a, 8. c, 9. a, 10. b, 11. .

Ex. II
Chronicle, growth, witness, ancestors, street, host, they, sky, chair, table,
transferred, renamed, feature, under the guidance, installments, assistance, yuppies, with, blazoned, cryptic, editorial, change, on the wing,
ux, scruple, nonce, stunt, the band, customarily, attested, xerographically.

Ex. VI
To top up to make full again when part of it has been used
To double up to bend ones body quickly or violently, for example because one is laughing a lot or because one is feeling a lot of pain
To pep up to try to make smth. more lively, more interesting or stronger
To wrap up to nish, to end
To put down (some animal or pet) to kill an animal because it is dangerous or seriously ill
To pin down to force smb. to make a decision or to tell you what their
decision is, esp. when they have been trying to avoid doing this
To go down to break down (of some device)
To pitch in vigorously join in to help with a task or activity
To cut in to interrupt someone while they are speaking
To usher in if one thing ushers in another thing, it indicates that the
other thing is about to begin
To jut out to protrude
Count out if you tell someone to count you out, you mean that you do
not want to be included in an activity
Lash out (at smb.) hit or kick out at someone or something; to address
someone angrily
To draw out to deliberately make longer
Want out if you want out, you no longer want to be involved in a plan,
project, or situation that you are part of
Switch around to exchange
Potter around to do pleasant but unimportant things
Skirt around to evade
To shake off to manage to get away from smb., for example by running
faster than them
To work off to get rid of some unpleasant feeling or emotion by doing
something that requires a lot of physical effort
To cut off to stop providing smth.

Ex. III
If you were less impulsive, you would not have made such a snap decision.
I dont like people who crawl to their superiors.
He is a very inhibited person, making a speech for him is an insurmountable task.
It is obvious that you have taken the wrong decision. Why are being so
pig-headed?
When the child saw an array of various toys displayed in the shop-window, he threw a tantrum.
When we saw the price of the article, we had reservations about buying
it.
He failed to explain to me properly what I was supposed to do, I was
muddled by his vague instructions.
The elderly man said he was no longer keen on working out.
He has a chip on his shoulder because he is not as assertive as his brother.
I feel ustered because of the workload I am facing now.
He will split hairs.
His colleagues took the mickey out of him because he stumbled over the
word several times and was never able to get it the right way.
The government is trying to play down the crisis.
We are quite comfortable nancially.
She has a air for cooking.
As he was top of the class, it was a foregone conclusion that he would
pass the exam.
156

157

5. The Meaning of the Word. Semantic Transference. Metaphor and


Metonymy. Euphemisms. Neologisms. Retronyms

Ex. IV
1. b, 2. c, 3. c, 4. d, 5. d, 6. b, 7. a, 8. c, 9. a, 10. b, 11. .

Ex. II
Chronicle, growth, witness, ancestors, street, host, they, sky, chair, table,
transferred, renamed, feature, under the guidance, installments, assistance, yuppies, with, blazoned, cryptic, editorial, change, on the wing,
ux, scruple, nonce, stunt, the band, customarily, attested, xerographically.

Ex. VI
To top up to make full again when part of it has been used
To double up to bend ones body quickly or violently, for example because one is laughing a lot or because one is feeling a lot of pain
To pep up to try to make smth. more lively, more interesting or stronger
To wrap up to nish, to end
To put down (some animal or pet) to kill an animal because it is dangerous or seriously ill
To pin down to force smb. to make a decision or to tell you what their
decision is, esp. when they have been trying to avoid doing this
To go down to break down (of some device)
To pitch in vigorously join in to help with a task or activity
To cut in to interrupt someone while they are speaking
To usher in if one thing ushers in another thing, it indicates that the
other thing is about to begin
To jut out to protrude
Count out if you tell someone to count you out, you mean that you do
not want to be included in an activity
Lash out (at smb.) hit or kick out at someone or something; to address
someone angrily
To draw out to deliberately make longer
Want out if you want out, you no longer want to be involved in a plan,
project, or situation that you are part of
Switch around to exchange
Potter around to do pleasant but unimportant things
Skirt around to evade
To shake off to manage to get away from smb., for example by running
faster than them
To work off to get rid of some unpleasant feeling or emotion by doing
something that requires a lot of physical effort
To cut off to stop providing smth.

Ex. III
If you were less impulsive, you would not have made such a snap decision.
I dont like people who crawl to their superiors.
He is a very inhibited person, making a speech for him is an insurmountable task.
It is obvious that you have taken the wrong decision. Why are being so
pig-headed?
When the child saw an array of various toys displayed in the shop-window, he threw a tantrum.
When we saw the price of the article, we had reservations about buying
it.
He failed to explain to me properly what I was supposed to do, I was
muddled by his vague instructions.
The elderly man said he was no longer keen on working out.
He has a chip on his shoulder because he is not as assertive as his brother.
I feel ustered because of the workload I am facing now.
He will split hairs.
His colleagues took the mickey out of him because he stumbled over the
word several times and was never able to get it the right way.
The government is trying to play down the crisis.
We are quite comfortable nancially.
She has a air for cooking.
As he was top of the class, it was a foregone conclusion that he would
pass the exam.
156

157

Cordon off to prevent people from entering or leaving some area, usually by forming a line or ring
Round off to end some activity by doing something that provides a
clear or satisfactory conclusion to it
Switch off to stop smth. working by operating a switch; to cease to pay
attention.
Ex. VII
1. In, off, 2. out, 3. through, away, 4. out, 5. down, 6. up, 7. over, 8. out,
9. over, 10. Over.
Ex. X
As special cases of metonymy (synecdoche) can be regarded the expressions the cheek to ask for smth. and to hate smb.s guts.
Ex. XI
To neutralize to kill, pro-life anti-abortion, pro-choice pro abortion,
john toilet, correction ofcer prison guard, adult bookstore a pornographic bookstore, grass marijuana, lived-in untidy, road apples
horse manure, the C-word cancer, to but the farm to die, sanitation engineers garbage collectors, middlescence elderly, senior moment a
lapse of memory, halitosis bad breath.
Ex. XIII
Analog computer, analog watch, bar soap, black-and-white television,
cloth diapers, corded drill, desktop computer, lm camera, fountain pen,
hard-cover book, horse polo, human-readable, human translation, impact
printer, manual transmission, natural blonde, natural language, network
television, optical microscope, optical telescope, print book, print journalist, propeller plane, rotary phone, shell egg, snow skiing, two-parent
family, walk-in theatre, whole milk.
Ex. XV
the semi-afx -head has the general meaning of a stupid person or
one who is addicted to the substance indicated by the rst component
of the word. The semi-afx -buster has the meaning of a killer, a
158

ghter, one who undermines the activity indicated by the rst component of the word.
6. Synonyms. Antonyms. Paronyms. Hyperonyms and Hyponyms.
Meronyms
Ex. I
1. Infamous, disreputable;
2. Insensitive, callous;
3. Unfaithful, treacherous;
4. Improper, unsuitable;
5. Distrustful, suspicious;
6. Immoral, depraved;
7. Unsafe, dangerous;
8. Unwise, stupid (shallow);
9. Non-standard, unconventional;
10. Non-protable, charitable;
11. Discontinuous, intermittent;
12. Unclear, vague;
13. Immaterial, unimportant.
Ex. III
remain; standing; permission; visiting; courtesies; superior; wander.
contribution; shipwrecked; encounters; well-known; entered.
input; development; learn; gure out; tend.
Ex. V
Gradable: light dark; clever stupid; early late; pure contaminated;
Contradictory: to move to stand; to leave to arrive;
Converse antonyms: to go to come; a teacher a pupil.
Ex. VI
1. Forceps (or pincers), 2. womens underwear, 3. door garments (outerwear), 4. Parts of clothes, 5. Patterns of fabric, 6. Football players.
159

Cordon off to prevent people from entering or leaving some area, usually by forming a line or ring
Round off to end some activity by doing something that provides a
clear or satisfactory conclusion to it
Switch off to stop smth. working by operating a switch; to cease to pay
attention.
Ex. VII
1. In, off, 2. out, 3. through, away, 4. out, 5. down, 6. up, 7. over, 8. out,
9. over, 10. Over.
Ex. X
As special cases of metonymy (synecdoche) can be regarded the expressions the cheek to ask for smth. and to hate smb.s guts.
Ex. XI
To neutralize to kill, pro-life anti-abortion, pro-choice pro abortion,
john toilet, correction ofcer prison guard, adult bookstore a pornographic bookstore, grass marijuana, lived-in untidy, road apples
horse manure, the C-word cancer, to but the farm to die, sanitation engineers garbage collectors, middlescence elderly, senior moment a
lapse of memory, halitosis bad breath.
Ex. XIII
Analog computer, analog watch, bar soap, black-and-white television,
cloth diapers, corded drill, desktop computer, lm camera, fountain pen,
hard-cover book, horse polo, human-readable, human translation, impact
printer, manual transmission, natural blonde, natural language, network
television, optical microscope, optical telescope, print book, print journalist, propeller plane, rotary phone, shell egg, snow skiing, two-parent
family, walk-in theatre, whole milk.
Ex. XV
the semi-afx -head has the general meaning of a stupid person or
one who is addicted to the substance indicated by the rst component
of the word. The semi-afx -buster has the meaning of a killer, a
158

ghter, one who undermines the activity indicated by the rst component of the word.
6. Synonyms. Antonyms. Paronyms. Hyperonyms and Hyponyms.
Meronyms
Ex. I
1. Infamous, disreputable;
2. Insensitive, callous;
3. Unfaithful, treacherous;
4. Improper, unsuitable;
5. Distrustful, suspicious;
6. Immoral, depraved;
7. Unsafe, dangerous;
8. Unwise, stupid (shallow);
9. Non-standard, unconventional;
10. Non-protable, charitable;
11. Discontinuous, intermittent;
12. Unclear, vague;
13. Immaterial, unimportant.
Ex. III
remain; standing; permission; visiting; courtesies; superior; wander.
contribution; shipwrecked; encounters; well-known; entered.
input; development; learn; gure out; tend.
Ex. V
Gradable: light dark; clever stupid; early late; pure contaminated;
Contradictory: to move to stand; to leave to arrive;
Converse antonyms: to go to come; a teacher a pupil.
Ex. VI
1. Forceps (or pincers), 2. womens underwear, 3. door garments (outerwear), 4. Parts of clothes, 5. Patterns of fabric, 6. Football players.
159

Ex. VII
1. Slide (the rest are devices characterized by a swaying motion), 2. Scaffolding (the rest are tools), 3. Sea horse (the rest are types of sh), 4. Rickets (the rest are types of minor injury), 5. Paper clips (the rest are in the
singular), 6. Chestnuts (the rest are types of nuts).
Ex. VIII
A bale
A bevy
A drove
Exaltation
A parliament
A pride of

of turtles
of quail
of oxen
of larks
of owls
tigers

3. The land of nod (to go to the land of nod is to go to bed or to fall


asleep)
4. I am full of beans (to be full of beans is to have a lot of energy and
enthusiasm)
5. They fell off the back of a lorry (goods that fall off the back of a lorry
are stolen goods)
6. He led me up the garden path (to lead smb. up the garden path is to
mislead or to deceive them)
7. I (got) stuck in a rut (to get stuck in a rut is to live a boring lifestyle that
never changes)
8. The man hit the ceiling (to hit the ceiling is to become very angry and
to y into a rage)
9. She tied a grannys knot (to tie a grannys knot is to tie a very bad, insecure knot that it not likely to hold two pieces together).

7. Phraseology
Ex. II
1. He that would eat the fruit must climb the tree.
2. Honesty is the best policy.
3. Hope is a good breakfast but a bad supper.
4. If you throw mud enough, some of it will stick.
5. It is a silly sh that is caught twice with the same bait.
6. A lazy sheep thinks its wool heavy.
7. A heavy purse makes a light heart.
Ex. V
1. wings, 2. perform, 3. lion, 4. between, 5. tools, 6. herself, 7. sea
8. thanks, 9. roast, 10. lenders, 11. catches, 12. green, 13. nice, 14. oaks,
15. love, 16. candlestick.
Ex. VI
1. I can smell a rat (to smell a rat is to start to believe that something is
wrong about a situation, especially that someone is being dishonest)
2. I have cold feet (to have cold feet is to have a feeling of worry about
something that is strong enough to make you reconsider your plan)
160

Ex. VIII
To be taken to task (to be reprimanded); against the grain (the wrong
way); to lay it on thick (to atter); to be like putty in smb.s hands (to
control smb. completely); run of the mill (average, middle of the road); to
shoot the messenger (not to welcome bad news); bread and circuses (visual, sensual entertainment); the dog ate my homework (a childish excuse
for not having your work done); to have the Midas touch (to be lucky,
to bring prot); Whats the damage? (How much does it cost?); to keep
smb. posted (to keep smb. informed); sinking feeling (a feeling caused
by anxiety or apprehension); armed to the teeth (fully prepared); to have
a chip on ones shoulder (to bear a grudge, to be resentful); to pick up
the gauntlet (to accept a challenge); to pass muster (to pass inspection);
a shot in the dark (a wild guess); son of a gun (a rogue or rascal); otsam
and jetsam (odds and ends); to leave no stone unturned (to explore every
possible way); a jaundiced eye (a prejudiced view, a critical or resentful
manner); to be on the same wavelength (to understand smb. completely);
the acid test (the ultimate proof of smth.); a sight for sore eyes (a person
or thing that one is pleased or relieved to see); to keep ones nose clean
(trying to stay out of trouble by not getting involved in any sort of wrongdoing).
161

Ex. VII
1. Slide (the rest are devices characterized by a swaying motion), 2. Scaffolding (the rest are tools), 3. Sea horse (the rest are types of sh), 4. Rickets (the rest are types of minor injury), 5. Paper clips (the rest are in the
singular), 6. Chestnuts (the rest are types of nuts).
Ex. VIII
A bale
A bevy
A drove
Exaltation
A parliament
A pride of

of turtles
of quail
of oxen
of larks
of owls
tigers

3. The land of nod (to go to the land of nod is to go to bed or to fall


asleep)
4. I am full of beans (to be full of beans is to have a lot of energy and
enthusiasm)
5. They fell off the back of a lorry (goods that fall off the back of a lorry
are stolen goods)
6. He led me up the garden path (to lead smb. up the garden path is to
mislead or to deceive them)
7. I (got) stuck in a rut (to get stuck in a rut is to live a boring lifestyle that
never changes)
8. The man hit the ceiling (to hit the ceiling is to become very angry and
to y into a rage)
9. She tied a grannys knot (to tie a grannys knot is to tie a very bad, insecure knot that it not likely to hold two pieces together).

7. Phraseology
Ex. II
1. He that would eat the fruit must climb the tree.
2. Honesty is the best policy.
3. Hope is a good breakfast but a bad supper.
4. If you throw mud enough, some of it will stick.
5. It is a silly sh that is caught twice with the same bait.
6. A lazy sheep thinks its wool heavy.
7. A heavy purse makes a light heart.
Ex. V
1. wings, 2. perform, 3. lion, 4. between, 5. tools, 6. herself, 7. sea
8. thanks, 9. roast, 10. lenders, 11. catches, 12. green, 13. nice, 14. oaks,
15. love, 16. candlestick.
Ex. VI
1. I can smell a rat (to smell a rat is to start to believe that something is
wrong about a situation, especially that someone is being dishonest)
2. I have cold feet (to have cold feet is to have a feeling of worry about
something that is strong enough to make you reconsider your plan)
160

Ex. VIII
To be taken to task (to be reprimanded); against the grain (the wrong
way); to lay it on thick (to atter); to be like putty in smb.s hands (to
control smb. completely); run of the mill (average, middle of the road); to
shoot the messenger (not to welcome bad news); bread and circuses (visual, sensual entertainment); the dog ate my homework (a childish excuse
for not having your work done); to have the Midas touch (to be lucky,
to bring prot); Whats the damage? (How much does it cost?); to keep
smb. posted (to keep smb. informed); sinking feeling (a feeling caused
by anxiety or apprehension); armed to the teeth (fully prepared); to have
a chip on ones shoulder (to bear a grudge, to be resentful); to pick up
the gauntlet (to accept a challenge); to pass muster (to pass inspection);
a shot in the dark (a wild guess); son of a gun (a rogue or rascal); otsam
and jetsam (odds and ends); to leave no stone unturned (to explore every
possible way); a jaundiced eye (a prejudiced view, a critical or resentful
manner); to be on the same wavelength (to understand smb. completely);
the acid test (the ultimate proof of smth.); a sight for sore eyes (a person
or thing that one is pleased or relieved to see); to keep ones nose clean
(trying to stay out of trouble by not getting involved in any sort of wrongdoing).
161

Ex. IX
1. (to open) a can of worms
2. to keep the wolf from the door
3. to steal smb.s thunder
4. a kangaroo court
5. cats paw
6. to toe the line
7. to bark up the wrong tree
8. when will pigs y
9. to overegg the pudding
10. birds of a feather
11. to split hairs
12. an elephant in the room
13. an old chestnut
14. to lick into shape
15. making tea with your navel.
Ex. XI
1. one cannot speak because of shyness or embarrassment
2. to have little room
3. there is more than one way of doing smth.
4. to become very angry
5. until very late, for a long time
6. everybody has a chance to succeed
7. to be in disgrace or in trouble
8. to dress or entertain in a luxurious and extravagant manner
9. to leave for some unmentioned purpose (often to go to the washroom)
10. a situation where a small part of something controls the whole thing
11. on foot
12. to begin to be humble and agreeable
13. to do things in the wrong order
14. to make someone look foolish
said when someone copies something that someone else does
a serious problem that stops someone from being successful at something
very funny.
162

Ex. XIII
American dream: the ideals of freedom, equality and opportunity traditionally held to be obtainable to every American; a life of personal happiness and material comfort as traditionally sought by individuals in the US
Lord of the ies: another name for Beelzebub
Ants in the pants: to have ants in ones pants is to be agitated and excited
about smth. and not to be able to keep still
Cakes and ale: the good things of life, worldly pleasures
Blackboard Jungle: the way of life and activities connected with schools,
especially when considered as difcult and confusing
Cat on a hot tin roof: to be like a cat on a hot tin roof is to be in a state
of extreme nervous worry
On dangerous ground: in a situation that might cause problems, especially if people disagree strongly about it
Seventh heaven: to be on seventh heaven is to be very happy
The Seventh Seal: the expression is taken from the Revelation of St.
John, referring to God's book of secrets sealed by seven seals, the belief
being that it is only after breaking the seventh seal that the secret of life
will be revealed
Time out of joint: in an unfavourable state, at an inauspicious moment
Salad Days: a time of youth, innocence and inexperience
Mortal Coil: the troubles of daily life and the strife and suffering of the
world
The Asphalt Jungle: a large city or an urban or inner-city area, especially
when characterized as congested and crime-ridden.

Ex. XIV
1. to smash/blow smth. to smithereens: the word is traced to Irish
smidirn, which means fragment.
2. spick and span new: A spick is an obsolescent word meaning nail,
span is an obsolescent word meaning chip. Originally the expression
was used adjectivally in combination with the word ship.
3. to run amok (amuck): Amok or amuck is the Malay word amoq
meaning furious assault.
163

Ex. IX
1. (to open) a can of worms
2. to keep the wolf from the door
3. to steal smb.s thunder
4. a kangaroo court
5. cats paw
6. to toe the line
7. to bark up the wrong tree
8. when will pigs y
9. to overegg the pudding
10. birds of a feather
11. to split hairs
12. an elephant in the room
13. an old chestnut
14. to lick into shape
15. making tea with your navel.
Ex. XI
1. one cannot speak because of shyness or embarrassment
2. to have little room
3. there is more than one way of doing smth.
4. to become very angry
5. until very late, for a long time
6. everybody has a chance to succeed
7. to be in disgrace or in trouble
8. to dress or entertain in a luxurious and extravagant manner
9. to leave for some unmentioned purpose (often to go to the washroom)
10. a situation where a small part of something controls the whole thing
11. on foot
12. to begin to be humble and agreeable
13. to do things in the wrong order
14. to make someone look foolish
said when someone copies something that someone else does
a serious problem that stops someone from being successful at something
very funny.
162

Ex. XIII
American dream: the ideals of freedom, equality and opportunity traditionally held to be obtainable to every American; a life of personal happiness and material comfort as traditionally sought by individuals in the US
Lord of the ies: another name for Beelzebub
Ants in the pants: to have ants in ones pants is to be agitated and excited
about smth. and not to be able to keep still
Cakes and ale: the good things of life, worldly pleasures
Blackboard Jungle: the way of life and activities connected with schools,
especially when considered as difcult and confusing
Cat on a hot tin roof: to be like a cat on a hot tin roof is to be in a state
of extreme nervous worry
On dangerous ground: in a situation that might cause problems, especially if people disagree strongly about it
Seventh heaven: to be on seventh heaven is to be very happy
The Seventh Seal: the expression is taken from the Revelation of St.
John, referring to God's book of secrets sealed by seven seals, the belief
being that it is only after breaking the seventh seal that the secret of life
will be revealed
Time out of joint: in an unfavourable state, at an inauspicious moment
Salad Days: a time of youth, innocence and inexperience
Mortal Coil: the troubles of daily life and the strife and suffering of the
world
The Asphalt Jungle: a large city or an urban or inner-city area, especially
when characterized as congested and crime-ridden.

Ex. XIV
1. to smash/blow smth. to smithereens: the word is traced to Irish
smidirn, which means fragment.
2. spick and span new: A spick is an obsolescent word meaning nail,
span is an obsolescent word meaning chip. Originally the expression
was used adjectivally in combination with the word ship.
3. to run amok (amuck): Amok or amuck is the Malay word amoq
meaning furious assault.
163

4. sac and soc: Sac is Old English sacu strife, contention, litigation, and soc is Old English soc inquiry, investigation, jurisdiction.
5. of that ilk: ilk is Old English ilca meaning same family, same
kind.
Ex. XV
bowels of mercy
to break the mould
to butter ones bread on both sides
canned laughter
to hang in the balance
to hang out ones shingle
to kiss the rod.
Ex. XVI
1. In the kingdom of the blind
2. One mans meat
3. The shoemakers son
4. All are not merry
5. Anger and haste
6. Between the cup and the lip
7. By doing nothing
8. Calamity
9. Every mother
10. First deserve
11. Fool
12. Friends
13. A wonder lasts nine days.

8. Some Regional Varieties of English


Ex. I
allowance; aluminum; hair-pin; bureau; carryall; cotton candy; diaper;
dormitory; draft; drapes; French fries; intermission; squash; nail polish;
164

zero, nothing; shopping cart; sneakers; tick-tack-toe; pantyhose; scotch;


lawyer; saltshaker; license plate; sidewalk.
Ex. II
1. an American; 2. a Briton; 3. an American; 4. an American; 5. an American; 6. a Briton; 7. an American; 8. an American.
Ex. III
Alimony; arbitrator; arrest; blackmail; arson; manslaughter; defendant.
Ex. IV
a) Youll knock a while out of it It will last you for a while;
Hed put the day astray on you He would waste your day;
He is the rest of myself He is related to me
b) As often as ngers and toes; as mean as get out; as fat in the forehead
as a hen; as sharp a tongue as would shave the mouse.
Ex. V
South African English Words
Words used in British and American
English:
Anteater
Aardvark

Meaning

Apartheid

(in South Africa) the ofcial government policy of racial segregation; ofcially renounced in 1992

Eland

a large spiral-horned antelope

Trek

a long and often difcult journey

Veld

elevated open grassland in Southern


Africa

Words Restricted to South African


English:
Basin, container
Bakkie
Kloof

Ravine or mountain pass

165

4. sac and soc: Sac is Old English sacu strife, contention, litigation, and soc is Old English soc inquiry, investigation, jurisdiction.
5. of that ilk: ilk is Old English ilca meaning same family, same
kind.
Ex. XV
bowels of mercy
to break the mould
to butter ones bread on both sides
canned laughter
to hang in the balance
to hang out ones shingle
to kiss the rod.
Ex. XVI
1. In the kingdom of the blind
2. One mans meat
3. The shoemakers son
4. All are not merry
5. Anger and haste
6. Between the cup and the lip
7. By doing nothing
8. Calamity
9. Every mother
10. First deserve
11. Fool
12. Friends
13. A wonder lasts nine days.

8. Some Regional Varieties of English


Ex. I
allowance; aluminum; hair-pin; bureau; carryall; cotton candy; diaper;
dormitory; draft; drapes; French fries; intermission; squash; nail polish;
164

zero, nothing; shopping cart; sneakers; tick-tack-toe; pantyhose; scotch;


lawyer; saltshaker; license plate; sidewalk.
Ex. II
1. an American; 2. a Briton; 3. an American; 4. an American; 5. an American; 6. a Briton; 7. an American; 8. an American.
Ex. III
Alimony; arbitrator; arrest; blackmail; arson; manslaughter; defendant.
Ex. IV
a) Youll knock a while out of it It will last you for a while;
Hed put the day astray on you He would waste your day;
He is the rest of myself He is related to me
b) As often as ngers and toes; as mean as get out; as fat in the forehead
as a hen; as sharp a tongue as would shave the mouse.
Ex. V
South African English Words
Words used in British and American
English:
Anteater
Aardvark

Meaning

Apartheid

(in South Africa) the ofcial government policy of racial segregation; ofcially renounced in 1992

Eland

a large spiral-horned antelope

Trek

a long and often difcult journey

Veld

elevated open grassland in Southern


Africa

Words Restricted to South African


English:
Basin, container
Bakkie
Kloof

Ravine or mountain pass

165

South African English Words


Lekker

Meaning
Nice, enjoyable

Platteland

Area outside cities and main towns

Verkrampter

Conservative, narrow-minded

voorkamer

Front room

Words from African Languages that


Have Entered South African English:

Gogga

Insect

Indaba

Matter of concern or for discussion

Muti

Medicine

Sangoma
Tsotsi

Witch doctor
Violent young criminal

Words form English that are Peculiar


to South Africa:


A COURSEBOOK ON ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY

Bioscope

Cinema

Bottle store

Off-license

Camp

Paddock

Robot

Trafc lights

Matchbox

Small standardized dwelling

South African English Words


Lekker

Meaning
Nice, enjoyable

Platteland

Area outside cities and main towns

Verkrampter

Conservative, narrow-minded

voorkamer

Front room

Words from African Languages that


Have Entered South African English:

Gogga

Insect

Indaba

Matter of concern or for discussion

Muti

Medicine

Sangoma
Tsotsi

Witch doctor
Violent young criminal

Words form English that are Peculiar


to South Africa:


A COURSEBOOK ON ENGLISH LEXICOLOGY

Bioscope

Cinema

Bottle store

Off-license

Camp

Paddock

Robot

Trafc lights

Matchbox

Small standardized dwelling

28.03.2012. 60x88/16. .
. . . 10,29. .-. . 6,12.
500 .
. . 2505.
, 117342, , . , . 17-, . 324.
./: (495)334-82-65; . (495)336-03-11.
E-mail: flinta@mail.ru; WebSite: www.flinta.ru
, 117997, -7, -485, . , . 90.