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2003 4 18

1 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


• Edge
Ø Edge

Ø 8PSK

Ø EGPRS

Ø EGPRS Coding Scheme( )


Ø Incremental Redundancy/Link Adaption
Ø EGPRS territory Method
Ø GSM与EGPRS

Ø Dynamic Abis(

2 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


• Edge 划
Ø Edge 覆盖 划(上下行功率平衡 算)
Ø Edge 率干扰
Ø SRC (智能无 概念)
Ø Signalling Channel(信令信道)

3 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


EDGE

知 介

4 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


背景介
• EDGE = Enhanced Data Rates for GSM (or
Global) Evolution

• Enhancement results from introduction of new


modulation (8-PSK) + channel coding
schemes+IR+LA
• EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS): packet switched channels/
services

• New modulation triples the nominal bit rates

• Update of the GSM Standard towards 3rd


generation networks/mobiles ->2.75G
5 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
• The IMT-2000 3rd
generation requirements
are fulfilled with EDGE
technology
• Operators who do not
get/want 3G-license
(UMTS/WCDMA) can
provide 3G-services
• Gradual network update
with relative low
investments on
infrastructure
• Compatibility with US-
GSM1900, international
roaming in Europe and
America.

6 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


EDGE functionality in
the network elements
EDGE capable TRX,
GSM compatible SGSN
GGSN

BTS
Gn
BSC
Gb

A-bis A
MSC
BTS

More capacity in interfaces


EDGE capable EGPRS coverage to support higher data usage
terminal,
GSM compatible

7 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


新的 制方式
• 8-PSK (Phase Shift Keying) has been
(d(3k),d(3k+1),d(3k+2))= selected as the new modulation added
(0,0,0) (0,1,0) in EDGE
(0,1,1) • Non-constant envelope Þ high
requirements for linearity of the power
(0,0,1) amplifier
(1,1,1)
• Because of amplifier non-linearities, a 2-
4 dB power decrease (back-off) is
typically needed
(1,0,1) (1,1,0) • 3 bits per symbol
(1,0,0) • 22.5° offset to avoid origin crossing
• Symbol rate and burst length identical to
those of GMSK

EDGE GSM
Modulation 8-PSK, 3bit/sym GMSK, 1 bit/sym
Symbol rate 270.833 ksps 270.833 ksps
Bits/burst 348 bits 114 bits
Gross rate/time slot 69.6 kbps 22.8 kbps

8 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


GSM/EDGE 与 GSM的全向后兼容性
的全向后兼容性
Modulation switch between GMSK and 8PSK
• Eight consecutive timeslots (one air interface frame)
• Timeslots alternating mode (GSM and EDGE)
dynamically

8PSK does contain


GMSK does not contain amplitude information
amplitude information

9 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18



• EGPRS updates GPRS for 8-PSK modulation
• 9 new modulation and coding schemes introduced (GPRS has
4, EDGE MS support all 13)
• Two ways to improve and maintain radio link quality: LA-mode
(Link Adaptation) and IR-mode (Incremental Redundancy)

Scheme Modulation Raw Data Raw Data Data rate Data rate
in Block in Block (kbps) (kbps)
(bits) (octets) 1 TS 3 TS
MCS-9 8-PSK 2x592 2x74 59.2 177.6
MCS-8 8-PSK 2x544 2x68 54.4 163.2
MCS-7 8-PSK 2x448 2x56 44.8 134.4
MCS-6 8-PSK 592 74 29.6 88.8
MCS-5 8-PSK 448 56 22.4 67.2
MCS-4 GMSK 352 44 17.6 52.8
MCS-3 GMSK 296 37 14.8 44.4
MCS-2 GMSK 224 28 11.2 33.6
MCS-1 GMSK 176 22 8.8 26.4

10 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


的网 堆

IP IP

SNDCP SNDCP GTP GTP

LLC LLC TCP or UDP TCP or UDP

BSSGP BSSGP IP IP
RLC/MAC RLC/MAC
network network
L2 L2
service service
physical physical
Abis L1 Abis L1 L1bis L1bis L1 L1
layer layer
Um Abis Gb Gn
MS BTS BSC / PCU SGSN GGSN

11 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18



SNDCP (Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol) Layer

APP
• Multiplexer/demultiplexer for different network
TCP/UDP layer entities onto LLC layer
IP • Compression of protocol control information (e.g.
TCP/IP header)
SNDCP
• Compression of data content (if used)
LLC
• Segmentation/de-segmentation of data to/from
RLC
LLC layer
MAC

RF

12 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18



LLC (Logical Link Control Protocol) Layer

• Reliable logical connection between SGSN and MS


APP • Independent of underlying radio interface protocols
TCP/UDP
LLC Frame
IP

Addres Control Information FCS


SNDCP
s
LLC 1 1-3 1-1520 3 Octets

RLC

MAC

RF

13 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18



Radio Link Control (RLC)/ Medium Access Control (MAC) Layers

APP RLC
TCP/UDP • Reliable transmission of data across air interface
IP • Segmentation/de-segmentation of data from/to
LLC layer
SNDCP
MAC
LLC
• Control of MS access to common air-interface
RLC
medium
MAC
• Flagging of PDTCH/PACCH occupancy
GSM RF

14 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


方式
RLC block 2 + BCS
• The figure shows EGPRS channel convolutional
coding for the user data part. encoding, r = 1/3
mother code
• Coded using 1/3 convolutional code.
puncturing
• Three different puncturing schemes
(P1, P2 or P3) can be selected. P1 P2 P3
• Normally one RLC data block is
interleaved over four bursts, except
• in MCS-7, two RLC data blocks bursts to
1st burst 2nd burst 3rd burst 4th burst
are interleaved over the same four transmit
bursts,
• in MCS-8 and 9, two RLC data
blocks are interleaved over two P1 P2 P3
bursts each (as shown in the
figure) puncturing
mother code
convolutional
encoding, r = 1/3
RLC block 1 + BCS
15 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
方式
3 bits 45 bits 612 bits 612 bits

USF RLC/MAC HCS E FBI Data = 592 bits BCS TB E FBI Data = 592 bits BCS TB
Hdr.

Rate 1/3 convolutional coding Rate 1/3 convolutional coding

36 bits 135 bits 1836 bits 1836 bits

puncturing puncturing
puncturing

SB = 8 36 bits 124 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits 612 bits

P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3

1392 bits

Figure: Coding and puncturing for MCS-9; uncoded 8PSK, two RLC blocks per 20ms

16 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


方式
MCS-3

Family A 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets

MCS-6

MCS-9

MCS-3

34+3 octets 34+3 octets


Family A
padding MCS-6

34 octets 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets

MCS-8

MCS-2

Family B 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets

MCS-5

MCS-7

MCS-1

Family C 22 octets 22 octets

MCS-4

17 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


方式

coding modulation RLC blks / FEC user bits / bit rate


scheme radio blk code rate 20 ms (bps)
CS-1 GMSK 1 0.45 160 8,000
GPRS CS-2 1 0.65 240 12,000
CS-3 1 0.75 288 14,400
CS-4 1 n/a 400 20,000
MCS-1 1 0.53 176 8,800
EGPRS MCS-2 1 0.66 224 11,200
MCS-3 1 0.85 296 14,800
MCS-4 1 1.00 352 17,600
MCS-5 8-PSK 1 0.38 448 22,400
MCS-6 1 0.49 592 29,600
MCS-7 2 0.76 448+448 44,800
MCS-8 2 0.92 544+544 54,400
MCS-9 2 1.00 592+592 59,200

18 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


EGPRS: improved retry mechanisms (改 型的重 机制
)
• Incremental redundancy reduces retry level by sending
successive retries with different puncturing schemes, and soft-
combining the received data. Gives approx. 2dB gain on
average, but varies with MCS and BLER.

• EGPRS not restricted to retrying with same coding scheme.


When link adaptation has occurred within the same family, the
retransmissions can be sent with more robust coding scheme
(c.f. GPRS - same coding scheme always used).

19 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


增量冗余
• IR is a physical layer performance enhancement for the
acknowledged RLC mode of EGPRS.
• The basis for Incremental Redundancy (IR) is in the selective-
reject-ARQ protocol of the RLC layer. The ARQ protocol takes
care of requesting and retransmitting incorrectly received
blocks.
• IR improves the reception of retransmissions by combining the
information in the original transmission (which failed) with the
received additional information, thereby increasing the
probability of correct reception.
• The most important standardised feature of Incremental
Redundancy is that MS has mandatory IR combining in its
receiver. IR has also been taken into account in the design of
the coding schemes and block formats.
20 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
增量冗余
• In IR-mode, channel
coding (redundancy) Data Block

is increased
One MCS
gradually (Type II P1 P2 P3 Transmitter

Hybrid ARQ) P1 P2 P3

• If the first 1st transmission 1st retransmission


upon reception
2nd retransmission
upon reception
transmission of radio failure failure

block fails, it is P1
No data
retransmitted with Protection Level 1 recovered

different puncturing P1 P2 Receiver

scheme (P1,P2,P3) Stored No data


recovered
Combination : Protection Level x 2
and soft combined
P1 P2 P3
with the old data Stored Stored

Combination : Protection Level x 3

21 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


增量冗余
• GPRS "send and pray”
Block not accepted
Transmission of GPSR data block Interference > corruption of data

Re-transmission Interference > corruption of data Block not accepted

Re-transmission Interference > corruption of data Block not accepted

• EGPRS "send and minimise re-sending"


Transmission of GPSR data block Interference > corruption of data Block not accepted > Store block

Puncturing
scheme 1

Re-transmission Interference > corruption of data Soft combining Block accepted


Puncturing
scheme 2

Higher reception propability leads to higher user data rates


22 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
• TU 3km/h
• No frequency hopping

Throughput kbit/s

23 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


C/I
路自适
• Link adaptation (LA) is needed to adjust channel coding and
modulation to changing radio conditions.

• Low (M)CSs have low throughput and can operate in bad


conditions.
• High (M)CSs have high throughput but need good conditions.

• The task of the link adaptation algorithm is to select the optimal


CS or MCS for each radio condition to maximise channel
throughput and satisfy delay and error rate requirements.

24 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


路自适
60 MCS-1
• The figure shows the performance
MCS-2
of a BEP based LA algorithm.
MCS-3
• Throughput vs. C/I in TU3 ideal FH. 50 MCS-4
MCS-5
• Realistic IR memory has been

Throughput kbit/s
MCS-6
used. 40 MCS-7
MCS-8
• The algorithm works by using BEP
MCS-9
reports from MS to select the LA
30
coding scheme.
• The task of the link adaptation
algorithm is to select the optimal 20
MCS for each radio condition to
maximise channel throughput.
10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

25 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


C/I
路自适
Family C Family A
• MCSs with equally- MCS-1 MCS-3
sized RLC data 22 37

blocks are directly MCS-1 MCS-1 MCS-3 MCS-3


compatible (5 and 7; 22 22 37 37
6 and 9).
MCS-4 MCS-6
• An MCS-8 block can 44 74

be padded with MCS-9


Family B
zeroes to get an 74 74
MCS-2
MCS-6 block. 28 MCS-3 MCS-3
• A block can be split MCS-2 MCS-2
31 37

into two pieces of a 28 28 MCS-6


lower MCS. 68
MCS-5
56 MCS-8
68 68
MCS-7
56 56

26 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


算法
• Link Adaptation is implemented in a form of look-up table
• Mean BEP and CV_BEP is reported by the MS in Packet DL ACK/NACK
mesage. It allows the calculation of BLER without latency.
• LA takes into account MS memory limitations
• Example of Look-up table:

8 PSK MEAN BEP


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9
8PSK_CV_BEP

2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9
3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9
4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9
6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9
7 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9
8 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9

MCS that maximises throuhghput (including


retransmissions) given the radio link conditions

27 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


Throughput Delay
no LA with LA no LA with LA
no IR unacceptable moderate no IR unacceptable short
with with
high high long short
IR IR

Sensitivity to errors in LA IR memory consumption


no LA with LA no LA with LA
no IR n/a high no IR n/a n/a
with with
n/a low high low
IR IR

EGPRS link adaptation and incremental redundancy together give optimal


performance !

28 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


[kbps]
60
EGPRS, IR + LA
• The figure shows throughput vs. C/I of
EGPRS and GPRS in TU3 ideal FH GPRS CS-1...4, ideal LA
with all features enabled. 50
GPRS CS-1&2, ideal LA

• GPRS coding schemes CS-1 and -2 40


are supported by Nokia.
30
• some data rate improvement for high
C/I.
20

• EGPRS brings a much higher


improvement, and it improves the data 10
rates for all C/I values compared to
either CS-1&2 or CS-1...4.
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
[dB]
29 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
EGPRS Territory Method( 域分配方式)
域分配方式
Circuit
CCCH TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
Switched
TRX 1 Territory

TRX 2 TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS Packet
Switched
Territory
Additional Default
(E)GPRS (E)GPRS
Capacity Capacity
Dedicated
(E)GPRS
Capacity
Territory border moves
Dyna mica lly based on Circuit
Switched traffic load

30 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


与 的互动
的互动 系
Ultra Site BTS Talk Family BTS

BTS 1 (sector 1) BTS 1' (sector 1)


Segment 1 EDGE TRXs TRXs
(BCCH)
BTS 2 (sector 2) BTS 2' (sector 2)
Segment 2 EDGE TRXs TRXs
(BCCH)
BTS 3 (sector 3) BTS 3' (sector 3)
Segment 3 EDGE TRXs TRXs
(BCCH)

EDGE-capable and non-EDGE-capable


TRXs can be combined into one ‘segment’.

Common BCCH/multi BCF functionality


used to distribute traffic between ‘layers’.

Can be used with, e.g., Talk/Ultrasite

31 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


Segment-1

Where separate EDGE and non-EDGE B GPRS territory


BTS-1
‘layers’ exist, territories can be defined Non-EDGE
for each. TRXs

BTS-1’
BTS Synchronisation permits (E)GPRS territory EDGE TRXs
‘intelligent’ resource management.
Segment-2

B GPRS Enabled TRX = off


BTS-2
GPRS Enabled TRX = off Non-EDGE
TRXs

BTS-2’
(E)GPRS territory EDGE TRXs

32 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


TSL 0
0
1 TRX 1 BTS 1
• one master time slot 2
3
• in case datarate does not fit into 4
5
TRX 2 BTS 1

6
16kbit/s time slot => always allocate 7
8
TRX 1 BTS 2

straightly 4*16kbit/s from the "pool" 9


10
TRX 2 BTS 2

11 TRX 3 BTS 2
12
13
14 TRX 1 BTS 3
15
16 TRX 1 BTS 4
17
18
19 TRX 2 BTS 4
20
Example: MCS7, 44,8 kbit/s, 21
16k permanent + 4*16k in the pool 22
23
24
25 POOL
26
27
28
29
30
31

33 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


• S9 - GPRS is all ‘best effort’
• S10.5 ED – Support EDGE, QoS based on priority
• Packet scheduling takes account of QoS class
• Gold, Silver, Bronze and Best-effort
• Gold = highest priority, Best-effort = lowest priority

• Implementation
• RLC-level
• The higher the priority, the more frequently the user is scheduled for
resource access
• LLC-level
• Where flow control may restrict the data flow, highest priority users’ traffic
transferred with lowest delays

• Delay insensitive packet applications may be suited to best-


effort, whereas delay-sensitive applications may require Gold
QoS
34 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
VIP user Budget user Machine user
Possibility to divide users to “Gold”, “Silver” and “Bronze” or e.g. VIP and
budget
”Best effort” = no QoS Priority QoS for applications

• Streaming, Best effort • Streaming, Priority = 1, GOLD


• Browsing, Best effort • Browsing, Priority = 2, SILVER
• MMS, Best effort • MMS, Priority = 3, BRONZE

Prioritisation of applications without effecting the end-user experienced


quality for the most urgent applications (like streaming)
Can provide cost-efficiency especially in the GPRS & EGPRS radio planning !

35 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


EDGE

划与优化

36 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


的覆盖
的覆盖 划

37 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


GSM Es/No
Modulation

GMSK Es/No=Eb/No

8-PSK Es/No = Eb/No +


4.77dB

Assumes: Rb=271kb/s GMSK, 822kb/s 8-PSK


Rs=271ks/s GMSK/8-PSK
B=200kHz

38 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


Envelope (amplitude)

Time
GMSK

Envelope (amplitude)
(0,0,0) (0,1,0)
(0,1,1)
(0,0,1) (1,1,1) Time
8PSK
(1,0,1) (1,1,0)
(1,0,0)
22,5° offset
39 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
Pout
Envelope (amplitude) Compression point

GMSK Time

Pin
Envelope (amplitude) Back Off= 4 dB
8PSK Time ≅ 3,2 dB
Peak to Average of

40 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


Ultrasite EGPRS v Talk speech dB
Es/No -9.0
Incremental redundancy +2.0
Fast fading margin +2.0
Body loss +3.0
8-PSK tx back-off -2.0
Combiner loss (assumes 1 Ultra/ 2 Talk config.) +3.5
Total -0.5
+ values indicate Ultrasite system gain, - values indicate Talk system gain
MCS-5 @ 10% BLER = 20kb/s per timeslot, so 60kb/s on downlink for 3+1 terminal

41 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


Ultrasite EGPRS v Talk speech dB
Es/No -9.0
Rx sensitivity +2.0
Incremental redundancy +2.0
Fast fading margin +2.0
Body loss +3.0
8-PSK tx back-off -4.0
Total -4.0
+ values indicate Ultrasite system gain, - values indicate Talk system gain

42 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


EGPRS Coverage Relative to MCS-5 (noise limited)

2.5

2
Relative range

1.5

0.5

0
S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

S9
C

C
M

M
MCS-5 coverage approx 50% of that of MCS-1
MCS-8 coverage approx 40% of that of
MCS-5
No IR
43 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
• Based on:
• Ultrasite TRX, tx combiner by-passed

• For MCS-5, 10% BLER

• Allowable path loss approx. 150dB

44 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


• Ultrasite coverage for uplink/downlink for MCS-5 very similar to
Talk speech

• GMSK data not subject to tx back-off, thus improving link


budget

• Signalling uses GMSK - Ultrasite signalling therefore has better


coverage than Talk signalling

45 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


1800 band, static conditions, 10% BLER for MCS1-9, 1%FER for voice

180 With EGPRS there is


improved coverage
160 compared to GSM voice

140

For voice, the


120
coverage is
limited by the UL
100 direction (around
150dB)
80

With EGPRS, UL and DL can have different MCS:


Downlink Path Loss (Static 1900)
60 UL speed at the voice coverage limit is
Uplink Path Loss (Static 1900) determined by MCS-3
40 DL speed at the voice coverage limit is
Link Balance (Static 1900)
determined by MCS-6
20 Reference Coverage Footprint

0
Voice (>=Q3) MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

46 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


EGPRS and EAMR improve coverage
especially at city indoors and rural areas

GPRS GSM voice

Existing
GSM
site
EGPRS EAMR voice
Ave. 3 dB IR gain 10 kbps border Ave. 2 dB SRC gain

EGPRS with SRC 1 EAMR voice with SRC


Ave. 3-5 dB SRC gain 1.2 Ave. 3-5 dB SRC gain

1.8

Note: Downlink, Includes Incremental Redundancy and Link Adaptation

47 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


的 率干扰

48 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


With Impairments

Throughput

C/I

49 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


率 划的
• EGPRS highest data rates require high C/I, typ > 20dB for
MCS-7, 8 & 9

• Loose re-use patterns will provide optimum performance for all


load levels. There is a trade-off between spectrum efficiency
and data rate performance.

• EGPRS traffic suited to BCCH use - typically the layer with


highest C/I. But limited no. of TSLs available on BCCH; may
need to use TCH layer too.

• EGPRS works also well in hopping TRXs

50 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


• Useful benchmarks for system performance
• Assume 3 TS terminals
• Allow for rx impairments
• Assume Incremental Redundancy

• Approx. 9dB C/I for 64kb/s (TU3 nFH)


• Approx. 20dB C/I for 128 kb/s (TU3 nFH)

• If > 3TS terminals, reduced C/I requirement

51 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


Kbit/s
60

• Network Changes
50
• Microcells
• Picocells
40
ideal MCS • Dual Band Allocation
ideal MCS IR • Radio Features IUO
30 (Regular Only) /FH
•Traffic Management
20 • Optimization
•Antenna Tilting
10 •Parameter Optimization
•Effective Fault &
0
Performance
C/I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Management

• User Throughput - User Perceived Data


Rate
• BSS Dimensioning - Less TSL occunpancy
52 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
智能天

C/I Improvement Smart Antenna


GSM/EDGE BTS

+10dB • Multiple element


Antenna Array GSM
ED S p ee
GE ch C
• Digital (32 Da over
age
beamforming kbi ta C
Intelligent U/L & t/s o
per verag
D/L Diversity TS e
+5dB )
• SW upgrade to
Nokia UltraSite
• Uses conventional Nokia GSM/EDGE Smart
Antenna system Antenna Solution

Phase 1 Phase 2

•Reduces impact of 8-PSK tx power and increased C/I requirement

53 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


• For Delay Diversity minimum two EDGE transceivers and two antennas (or X-
pol. antenna) are needed for one cell. The same downlink signal is transmitted
through two antennas.
• Auxiliary transmission is delayed 1-1.5 symbol periods which gives good
performance for all modulation schemes. Random Phase hopping degreases
correlation between the main and auxiliary transmitter.
BTS

Main TX

MS
Received signal
Delayed TX

Delay &
Random Aux All time slots are transmitted through two transceivers and
Phase
antennas, all time slots are sending in BCCH
0. 7.
1 TRX
0. 7.
2 TRX

54 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


• For extending the data coverage/capacity by boosting BTS downlink
transmission performance up to 5 dB (min. 3 dB) for selected radio timeslots
(bursts).
• Minimum two EDGE transceivers and two antennas (or X-pol. antenna) needed
for one cell. The same downlink signal is transmitted through two antennas
when needed for better C/I. Using DDD reduces possible simultaneous traffic
connections respectively.
• Auxiliary transmission is delayed 1-1.5 symbol periods which gives good
performance for all modulation schemes. Random Phase hopping degreases
correlation between the main and auxiliary transmitter. Correlation between
the antennas has to be low.
BTS

Main TX
MS
Received signal

Delayed TX

Delay & Radio timeslot specific downlink diversity


Random transmission
Phase
0. 7.
Normal traffic
1 TRX
2 TRX 0. 7.
Traffic that needs boosted
downlink

55 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18


Throughput

C/I
56 © NOKIA EDGE 2003 4 18
信令信道
Common Channels

BCCH/CCCH PBCCH/PCCCH

PBCCH PPCH PDTCH PAGCH PRACH

• PBCCH available in BSS S10


• GPRS and EGPRS will not impact on AGCH
and PCH

• Increased data rates will lead to heavier


signalling demand for given traffic occupancy
and applications
• (Note - PBCCH traffic is not carried on TRXSIG)
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( 的 展)
• EDGE phase 2 based on ETSI release 2000 - ‘GERAN’
• Real-time services over EGPRS (including voice)
• Combined RRM with UTRAN (QoS-based)
• AMR-speech over 8-PSK channels
• Wideband codecs "Hi-Fi Speech”
• Full-rate, half-rate, quarter-rate and eighth-rate
• All-IP core network - for PS and even CS traffic

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• EDGE can offer cost-effective implementation of 3G services
• With the new 8-PSK modulation, gross bit rate can be greatly
increased
• Main trade-off is decreased robustness against noise and
interference - coverage reduction for 8-PSK schemes
• Incremental redundancy can give significant improvements
• EGPRS coverage (Ultrasite, MCS-5) similar to Talk-family
speech coverage
• Increased network capacity - more data per timeslot
• Signalling impact small - Packet channels

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端到端的服 性

• End-to-end performance is a concept that takes into account
the user experience during the service
• It takes into account not only the radio performance, and the
core network performance, but also the behaviour of the
TCP/IP and application layer
• Shows the “real” speed of the service
• The next slides illustrate the difference in service perception
between GPRS, EGPRS for a typical example (web browsing)

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Web browsing
examples
Press the buttons below to
experience a web browsing
service for the selected radio
technology:
GPRS
EGPRS

Assumptions:
• 135KB web page
• RLC payload throughput:
GPRS EGPR
(4+2) S
Kbps 44 (3+2)
116
DL
Kbps 22 77
UL

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Web browsing
examples

GPRS Web
Downloading…

⇐BACK Please wait…

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Web browsing
examples

EGPRS Web Downloading…

⇐BACK Please wait…

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