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PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II

LABORATORY REPORT

Name

: Muhammad Hakimi Bin Senun

Matrices No.

: SEW150091

Partners Name : Muhamad Fakhrulrazi Bin Nawawi


Title

: Heat of Neutralisation

Objective

: To calculate molar heat of neutralization of various acids.

Background and Theory:


Neutralization process is when one mole of an acid is neutralized with one mole of a base. Molar
heat of neutralization is heat evolved during it and can be calculated by this equation:

Heat of neutralization
: Heat evolved during neutralization
: Heat of dilution of sodium hydroxide
Molar Heat of neutralization =
In this experiment, several acids would be neutralizing by small volume of concentrated of
sodium hydroxide, NaOH. Hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid and monochloroacetic acid
are acid that been selected in this experiment to undergo neutralization process. Different
strength of acid would give different value of molar heat of neutralization.
Since no adiabatic calorimeter can be insulated perfectly from its surroundings, there will always
be some heat lost from the calorimeter. This loss of heat can be compensated for.
Procedure:
Calibration of the calorimeter
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Measured 120 cm3 of distilled water with graduated cylinder and poured in calorimeter.
Supplied 0.5 A to the calorimeter by power supply
Recorded time for each intervals until temperature rises 1oC
Plotted graph for Temperature vs. Time
Calculated heat capacity of calorimeter.

Neutralization of an acid
1. Measured and placed 120 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 HCl solution into calorimeter.
2. Recorded the temperature at certain time interval until rate changes constant or
temperature become constant.
3. Added 3cm3 of the concentrated sodium hydroxide,NaOH solution.
4. Recorded the temperature changed with regular time interval until become constant or
rate change constant.
5. Plotted graph Temperature vs. Time.
6. Repeated step (1) by replacing position of HCL with the following acids:
Nitric acid, acetic acid and monochloroacetic acid.
7. Calculated heat of neutralization and molar heat of neutralization for each acid .
Heat of Dilution of Sodium Hydroxide
1. Repeated above procedure by replacing acid with 120 cm3 of distilled water.

Results:
iTime,t (s)
0
15
30
45
60
75
90
105
120
135
150
165
180
195
210
225
240
255
270
285
300
315
330
345
360
375
390
405
420
435
450

Calibration of the Calorimeter


Heating Process
Temperature, T
(oC)
26.64
26.64
26.66
26.66
26.67
26.70
26.73
26.76
26.80
26.83
26.86
26.90
27.00
27.20
27.50
27.60
27.64
27.68
27.72
27.76
27.80
27.84
27.86
27.86
27.88
27.88
27.92
27.92
27.92
27.94
27.94

Time,t (s)
465
480
495
510
525
540
555
570

Cooling Process
Temperature,T
(oC)
27.96
27.96
27.97
27.98
27.98
28.00
28.00
28.00

Graph for Calibration of Calorimeter


28
27.8

Temperature, oC

27.6
27.4
27.2
27
26.8
26.6
26.4
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

Time, s

Calculations:
Uncertainty:

I = 0.50 A

Average Temperature = 27.48 oC

Vp = 4.35

Range

t = 525 0

= 525 s
T = (27.98 + 273)
= 1.34 K

Cp =
=
= (852.146

= 1.36

0.1) JK-1

+ 273)

0.68

0.1

Coefficient
s
26.637820
51
0.0029406
21

Intercept
X Variable 1

ii-

Standard
Error
0.06277775
2
0.00018951
9

t Stat

P-value

424.3194
401
15.51622
462

7.95042E70
8.87751E18

Lower
95%
26.510620
71
0.0025566
19

Upper 95%
26.765020
32
0.0033246
23

Lower
95.0%
26.5106207
1
0.00255661
9

Neutralization of Hydrochloric Acid, HCl

Before Addition of NaOH


Time, t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
0
27.30
20
27.86
40
28.00
60
28.20
80
28.20
100
28.20
120
28.30
140
28.34
160
28.38
180
28.48

After Addition of NaOH


Time,t (s)
Temperature
( oC)
184
28.80
188
29.60
192
30.40
196
31.20
200
31.70
204
32.12
208
32.32
212
32.34
216
32.34
220
32.36
224
32.36
228
32.36
232
32.36

Graph of Temperature vs. Time


for Neutralization of HCL
33.00

Temperature, oC

32.00
31.00
30.00
29.00
28.00
27.00
0

50

100

150
Time, s

200

250

Upper
95.0%
26.7650203
2
0.00332462
3

Calculations:
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
q

=
Uncertainty:

Cp

Average Temperature = 30.07 oC


-1

(852.146 JK )

(4.5 K)
Range

= 5.06

3834.657 J or 3.834657 kJ
=
3.834657 kJ 1.840635 kJ

2.53

0.5

1.99402 kJ
Molar heat of neutralization =

= 33.23 kJmol-1
Thus,
Heat of neutralization of hydrochloric acid,HCl is 1.99 kJ
Molar heat of neutralization of hydrochloric acid,HCl is (33.23

Intercept
X
Variable
1

0.5) kJmol-1

Coefficient Standar
t Stat
P-value Lower
Upper
Lower
Upper
s
d Error
95%
95%
95.0%
95.0%
26.45152 0.54585 48.4589
4.87E- 25.3163 27.5866 25.3163 27.5866
5
23
6
9
6
9
0.023067 0.00317 7.26277
3.74E- 0.01646 0.02967 0.01646 0.02967
6
8
07
2
3
2
3

iii-

Neutralization of Nitric Acid, HNO3

Before Addition of NaOH


Time,t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
0
27.20
20
27.42
40
27.52
60
27.54
80
27.56
100
27.60
120
27.60

After Addition of NaOH


Time,t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
124
30.12
128
31.40
132
31.50
136
31.50
140
31.57
144
31.66
148
31.72
152
31.76
156
31.78
160
31.82
164
31.82
168
31.82
172
31.82
176
31.82
180
31.86
184
31.86
188
31.88
192
31.88
196
31.90
200
31.92
204
31.94
208
31.98
212
32.00
216
32.00
220
32.00

Graph of Temperature vs. Time for


Neutralization of Nitric acid
33

Temperature, 0C

32
31
30
29
28
27
26
0

50

100

150

200

250

Time, s

Calculations:
HNO3 + NaOH NaNO3 + H2O
q

Cp
(852.146 JK-1)

(4.58 K)

3902.828 J or 3.902828 kJ

Uncertainty:
Average Temperature = 30.81 oC
Range

= 4.8

3.902828 1.840635

2.062194 kJ

Molar heat of neutralization =

= 34.36 kJmol-1
Thus,
Heat of Neutralization of nitric acid,HNO3 is 2.06 kJ
Molar heat of neutralization of nitric acid,HNO3 is (34.36

kJmol-1

2.4

0.4

Intercept
X
Variable
1

iv-

Coefficient
s
26.68199
0.027955

Standar
d Error
0.43800
8
0.00277
6

t Stat
60.9166
7
10.071

P-value
5.29E33
3.88E11

Lower
95%
25.7874
6
0.02228
6

Upper
95%
27.5765
2
0.03362
4

Lower
95.0%
25.7874
6
0.02228
6

Upper
95.0%
27.5765
2
0.03362
4

Neutralization of acetic acid, CH3COOH

Before Addition of NaOH


Time,t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
0
27.90
20
28.13
40
28.13
60
28.14
80
28.14
100
28.14
120
28.14

After Addition of NaOH


Time,t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
124
29.00
128
29.50
132
31.60
136
31.94
140
32.00
144
32.10
148
32.12
152
32.12
156
32.13
160
32.14
164
32.14
168
32.14
172
32.16
176
32.16
180
32.16
184
32.17
188
32.18
192
32.18
196
32.18
200
32.20
204
32.20
208
32.20
212
32.20

Graph of Temperature vs. Time for


Neutralization of Acetic acid
32.5
32

Temperature, oC

31.5
31
30.5
30
29.5
29
28.5
28
27.5
0

50

100

150

200

250

Time, s

Calculations:
CH3COOH + NaOH NaCH2COOH + H2O
q

Cp
(852.146 JK-1)

(4.07 K)

3468.234 J or 3.468234 kJ

Uncertainty:
Average Temperature = 30.98 oC
Range

= 4.3

3.468234 1.840635

1.627599 kJ

Molar heat of neutralization =

= 45.21 kJmol-1
Thus,
Heat of neutralization of acetic acid,CH3COOH is 1.62 kJ
Molar heat of neutralization of acetic acid,CH3COOH is (45.21

kJmol-1

2.15

0.4

Intercept
X
Variable
1

v-

Coefficient
s
27.04552
0.027608

Standar
d Error
0.46145
1
0.00301
7

t Stat

P-value

58.6097
9.15049
1

7.65E31
6.58E10

Lower
95%
26.1002
8
0.02142
8

Upper
95%
27.9907
6
0.03378
9

Lower
95.0%
26.1002
8
0.02142
8

Upper
95.0%
27.9907
6
0.03378
9

Neutralization of monochloroacetic acid, ClCH2COOH

Before Addition of NaOH


Time,t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
0
28.2
20
28.6
40
28.6
60
28.62
80
28.64
100
28.64
120
28.64

After Addition of NaOH


Time,t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
124
29.60
128
31.40
132
31.76
136
31.98
140
32.10
144
32.18
148
32.26
152
32.28
156
32.28
160
32.26
164
32.26
168
32.24
172
32.22
176
32.20
180
32.20
184
32.20
188
32.19
192
32.19
196
32.19
200
32.18
204
32.18
208
32.18
212
32.18

Graph of Temperature vs. Time for


Neutralization of Monochloroacetic acid
32.5
32
Temperature, oC

31.5
31
30.5
30
29.5
29
28.5
28
27.5
0

50

100

150

200

250

Time, s

Calculations:
q

Cp
(852.146 JK-1)

(3.58K)

3050.682 J or 3.050682 kJ

Uncertainty:
Average Temperature = 31.22 oC
Range

3.050682 1.840635

= 3.98
=

1.99

1.210047 kJ
=

Molar heat of neutralization =

= 20.91 kJmol-1
Thus,
Heat of Neutralization of monochloroacetic acid,ClCH2COOH is 1.21 kJ
Molar heat of neutralization of monochloroacetic acid,ClCH2COOH is (20.91

) kJmol-1

0.4

Intercept
X
Variable
1

vi-

Coefficient
s
27.72488
0.024487

Standar
d Error
0.40608
6
0.00265
5

t Stat

P-value

68.2734
3
9.22255
1

1.1E-32
5.57E10

Lower
95%
26.8930
6
0.01904
8

Upper
95%
28.5567
1
0.02992
6

Lower
95.0%
26.8930
6
0.01904
8

Upper
95.0%
28.5567
1
0.02992
6

Dilution of Sodium hydroxide, NaOH


Before Addition of NaOH
Time,t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
0
25.55
20
25.56
40
25.56
60
25.56
80
25.70
100
25.88
120
26.00

After Addition of NaOH


Time,t (s)
Temperature,T
( oC)
124
26.10
128
26.28
132
26.48
136
27.02
140
27.22
144
27.57
148
27.60
152
27.62
156
27.64
160
27.66
164
27.68
168
27.69
172
27.70
176
27.70
180
27.72
184
27.72
188
27.72
192
27.72
196
27.72
200
27.72
204
27.72
208
27.72
212
27.72

Graph of Temperature vs. Time for


Dilution of Sodium hydroxide
28

Temperature, oC

27.5
27
26.5
26
25.5
25
0

50

100

150

200

250

Time, s

Calculations:

Uncertainty:

Average Temperature = 27.04 oC


Cp

Range
-1

(852.146 JK )

= 2.17

(2.16 K)
=

1.08

1840.635 J or 1.840635 kJ
= (1.84

Intercept
X
Variable
1

0.2 ) kJ

Coefficient
s
25.00175
0.014285

Standar
d Error
0.19266
1
0.00126

t Stat

P-value

129.770
8
11.3401
5

0.2

1.8E-40

Lower
95%
24.6071

Upper
95%
25.3964

Lower
95.0%
24.6071

Upper
95.0%
25.3964

5.59E12

0.01170
5

0.01686
5

0.01170
5

0.01686
5

Discussion:
According to the theory, the order or an arrangement for the molar heat of neutralization for the
selected acids is:
HCl > HNO3 > ClCH2COOH > CH3COOH
Unfortunately, based on the result that is totally different from the theory where is;
CH3COOH > HNO3 > HCl > ClCH2COOH
Due to the result, acetic acid, CH3COOH has highest molar heat of neutralization followed by
nitric acid, HNO3, hydrochloric acid, HCl and monochloroacetic acid, ClCH2COOH. Acetic acid
is the weakest acid among others and the molar heat of neutralization should be the lowest due to
the partially dissociation. Hydrochloric acid is the strongest acid followed by nitric acid. The
molar heat of neutralization arrangement begins with hydrochloric acid followed by nitric acid.
Strong acid will dissociated completely when been neutralized and increase the heat of evolved,
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
HNO3 + NaOH NaNO3 + H2O
Monochloroacetic acid is should slightly higher acidic than acetic acid due to the present of
chlorine atom in the structure. Chlorine atom has high electronegativity which tends to pull
electron density or electron cloud from CH3COO- ions. Based on Bronsted and Lowry theory
about an acid, acid is substance than easy to donate proton or H+ ions. In monochloroacetic acid,
chlorine atom with higher electronegativity pulls the electron cloud or density more towards it
causes the hydrogen atom less attraction and more easy to be donate or be release. Compare to
acetic acid, hydrogen ion much easy to donate which mean monochloroacetic acid become
slightly higher acidity than acetic acid and higher molar heat of neutralization.
Back to the result, it shown that errors were happened during the experiment which totally
change the final results. The most highlighted error is the heat loss to the surrounding from the
calorimeter. The heat loss gave higher significant different at the final calculation. It shows that
how heat play important role in this experiment. Heat produced needed to calculate the molar
heat of neutralization. Heat loss from the calorimeter cannot be avoid due to the calorimeter been
used is not really perfect but it can be minimize by certain step to increase the efficient of the
calorimeter.

Conclusion:
Calibration of calorimeter, Cp = (852.146

JK-1

Heat of dilution of sodium hydroxide solution = (1.84

kJ

Molar heat of neutralization for each acid:


iiiiiiiv-

Hm HCL
HmHNO3
HmCH3COOH
HmClCH2COOH

= (33.23
= (34.36
= (45.21
= (20.91

.5) kJ mol-1
kJmol-1
kJmol-1
) kJmol-1

Suggestion to improve:
Based on the results that completely different from the theory, can be concluded that many error
might happened during the experiment. Errors that can be emphasized are the heat losses to the
surrounding during each neutralization process take place. As the calorimeter that been used is
not really a perfect adiabatic system, heat can be loss to the surrounding and affect the reading
recorded. Heat evolved need to measure accurately due to heat is actually the main product. Final
results would be affected. Besides, during the addition of sodium hydroxide, NaOH to the
calorimeter, the cap must be open to pour the sodium hydroxide into it. From that, a lot of heat
could be loss to the surrounding. Step that suggested overcome this error is to use or put a cover
at the wall of the calorimeter especially at the caps part to ensure the heat losses as little as
possible
As we know, the neutralization process takes place in very short time after the addition of
sodium hydroxide and the temperature also will rises sharply and immediately. In that case, there
is a probability that we missed the exact reading of the thermometer. Recording a video of the
thermometer that used in the calorimeter could be the best way to detect the sharply rises of
temperature.
Last but not least, where the calorimeter that contains the mixture was not been shaken
consistency. The reaction cannot be undergo completely and causes the mixture do not reach the
equilibrium during the reading of temperature were recorded. Due to that the temperature reading
recorded could be not the exact ones. It can be overcome by decided only a person will shake the
calorimeter with consistent force and power for all the process and make time taken for the
thermometer reading recorded a little bit longer.

References:
3 ways to calculate uncertainty. Retrieved from http://www.wikihow.com/CalculateUncertainty
Neutralization.
Retrieved
from
http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Acids_and_Bases/
Acid%2F%2FBase_Reactions/Neutralization
Neutralization Reaction: Definition, Equation & Example. Retrieved from
http://study.com/academy/lesson/neutralization-reaction-definition-equationexamples.html