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# FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

## DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

Semester 1 2016/2017

COURSE

: LAB AEROSPACE 2

CODE

: EAS 3922

PROGRAM

EXPERIMENT

GROUP

: A2

DATE OF SUB.

: 7 OCTOBER 2016

LECTURER

LAB INSTRUCTOR

## Name and Student ID:

MOHAMAD NUR HISHAM BIN WAHIDIN 174883

INTRODUCTION
Servo control system is a very important entity and widely used to control
system field. In the industry, there are many rotating parts in machines, thus
we need something to control the rotating parts by servo control system. For
example, there are two type of control; first we want to maintain the speed
of motor at a certain limit, even the load on the output of the motor is
varying.
As a result, with the control, we can set the time or frequency of an
operating machine. Besides, we can vary the speed of motor and loading
from ext ernal setting. Thus, servo trainer really important for us in,
The economy (production timeline)
Control productions lines
Transportation of the product because of electric malfunction.
Computer consistency
Communication networks
Basically, the servo controller are derive from
i.

Electric motor with an output shaft that has inertial load on it.

ii.

iii.

## A closed-loop control system is shown in Figure 1.1. In this system the

output C is fed back through a functional block with a feedback transfer
function H and compared to the reference signal R via a summing junction.
The signal resulting from the difference between R and the feedback
signal B is called the error or actuating signal E. The principle advantage of
this form of system is that any change inC, with R remaining constant,
causes a change in E, (E = R - B = R - CH). If the system is operating
properly, the change in E forces C to return to the point where the value
of B approaches the value ofR. The effect is that the output is maintained at
a desired value despite disturbance to the system. This type of control
system is called a closed-loop control system and is defined as any control

system in which the directly controlled variable has an effect upon the input
quantity in such a manner as to maintain the desired output level.
A servomechanism system is a closed-loop control system used to
determine the position, velocity, and/or acceleration of mechanical loads. A
typical motion control system may contain the following subsystems:

## A computer-controlled motion control system.

1. Servo amplifier.
2. Motor, may be either dc, ac, stepping motors, or hydraulic, pneumatic
devices, etc.
3. Mechanical transmission system, such as gears, ball-screw, lead-screw,
etc.
4. Load, such as robot arm with grasping loads, CNC platforms, machining
force in machine tools, etc.
5. Sensors, such as encoder, resolver, load cell, tachometers, current
sensors, etc.
6. Host controller, usually a computer-based control system to generate
the motion commands.
There are four basic characteristics of a servo system:
1. A servo is actuated by an error; this error is the difference between the
desired output and the actual output.
2. A servo must contain a power amplifier; a servo's output power is
larger than that available from the input information; for instances, a
potentiometer control knob takes only a finger touch for control, but an
antenna weighing many tons may be controlled by this potentiometer
as a part of a servo.
3. The power applied to the load is proportional to a combination of the
error signal, its derivatives, and its integrals.
4. Practical servos are stable.

OBJECTIVES
1. To calibrate the circuit of the Servo Trainer, namely the input
actuator (the motor circuit) and the output sensor (the speed
sensors).

## 2. To implement a proportional controller of the Servo Trainer speed

and investigate the steady state errors and closed transient
response of the servo.
3. To investigate the angular position control performance and
response of the servo trainer under proportional control.
4. To investigate the effect of the motor amplifier dead-zone on the
accuracy of the position control system.
APPARATUS
1. CE 110 Servo Trainer
2. CE 120 Controller
3. Oscilloscope

PROCEDURES
Experiment 1: Angular Speed Control
PART 1

## 1. The equipment is connected as shown in Figure 1.

2. The initial setting for the servo trainer (CE110) and the controller
(CE120) is set as:
CE110: Clutch is disengaged (i.e. position shaft is disconnected)
CE120: Potentiometer is set in the centre position (the reading is 0V)
3. The potentiometer voltage is slowly increased (the potentiometer
control is turned clockwise) until the motor just starts to run.
4. This is the size of the positive dead-zone for the motor drive amplifier.
The value is recorded.
5. The potentiometer is increased to 1V and the corresponding motor
speed from the speed display on the CE110 front panel is recorded.
6. The coarse potentiometer voltage is increased in 1V steps to 10V and
the corresponding speed is recorded. The result is then tabulated.

## 7. The procedure is repeated with negative voltages.

8. The above procedure is repeated with the clutch engaged for both
positive and negative voltages.

PART 2

## 1. The equipment is connected as shown in Figure 2.

2. The initial control settings:
CE110: clutch engaged.
CE120: potentiometer set to 0V.
3. The potentiometer voltage is slowly increased until the speed sensor
4. The process is repeated in steps of 1V for positive and negative speed
sensor readings in the range 9V to +9V.
5. The corresponding reading is tabulated.

## Experiment 2: Proportional Control of Servo Trainer Speed

PART 1 : Steady State Errors
1. The equipment is connected as shown in Figure 3.
2. The initial control is set for:
CE110: Clutch engaged.
CE120:
Potentiometer set to 0V.
The proportional gain kp is set to 10 and switched in.
The Derivative and Integral block is switched out.
3. The reference speed is increased, as given by the potentiometer, in steps of 1V from 2V
to 10V (if any) and the corresponding error signals is recorded in an appropriate table.
4. Equation 1 is used to calculate the theoretical values of ess for the various values of yr.
5. Step 2 is repeated by changing the value of V constant by 8V.

y
ess = r
1 +k p G1
equation 1

## Experiment 3: Angular Position Control

PART 1 : Angular Position Transducer Calibration
1. The equipment is connected as shown in Figure 4.
2. The initial control settings:
CE110: Clutch engaged.
CE120: Potentiometer set to 0V.
3. The potentiometer voltage is slowly increased until the output shat
begins to turn.
4. The angular position sensor output is measured at angular increments
of 30o starting at -150o.
5. 5 positive and 5 negative angles is chosen for the motor output shaft,
and the corresponding position output is recorded in an appropriate
table.

## PART 2: BASIC TESTS AND DEAD-ZONE

1. A connection that corresponds to the block diagram shown in Figure 5 below is made.

## 2. Initial Control system:

a. CE110: Clutch engaged and reference position dial set to zero
b. CE120: Proportional gain kp=1
3. The reference position dial is slowly turned clockwise until the output shaft just begins to
move. The angle on the reference position dial is read.
4. The reference position dial is turned anti-clockwise and the angle at which the output dial
begins to move is noted.
5. The difference (1- 2) between these two angles is the effective dead-zone
width of the controller
6. The difference in an appropriate table is noted.
7. Above procedure for kp = 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 is repeated.

RESULTS
EXPERIMENT 1
PART 1: MOTOR CALIBRATION CHARACTERISTIC
CLUTCH DISENGAGED
VOLTAGES(V)
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10

(RPM)
1925
1713
1514
1308
1105
911
698
495
305
103
0
-103
-309
-507
-711
-903
-1110
-1316
-1530
-1732
-1945

## MOTOR SPEED READING(RPM) VS VOLTAGES(V) FOR CLUTCH OFF

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
-15

-10

-5

-500

-1000
-1500
-2000
-2500

CLUTCH ENGAGED
NEGATIVE DEAD ZONE = -1.24 V

VOLTAGES(V)
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

(RPM)
1843
1610
1408
1195
1007
810
576
388
200
0

10

15

0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10

0
0
-200
-387
-588
-818
-1007
-1195
-1405
-1629
-1826

2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
-15

-10

-5

-500 0

-1000
-1500
-2000
-2500

## PART 2: SPEED SENSOR CALIBRATION

POSITIVE DEAD ZONE = 0.01 V
NEGATIVE DEAD ZONE = -0.01 V
VOLTAGES(V)
9
8

(RPM)
1804
1603

10

15

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9

1401
1211
1008
804
608
401
200
-205
-402
-602
-803
-1003
-1202
-1404
-1603
-1800

2000
1500
1000
500
-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0
-500
-1000
-1500
-2000

EXPERIMENT 2

10

## Part 1: Steady State Errors

Proportional gain, kp is costant equal to 10
Potentiometer Setting

## (Reference Speed yr)

Error Signal(Ess)

Error Signal(Ess)

(V)

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

y
ess = r
1 +k p G1

0.23
0.33
0.42
0.52
0.61
0.70
0.79
0.88
0.97

0.18
0.27
0.36
0.45
0.55
0.64
0.73
0.82
0.91

1.2
1
0.8

ERROR

0.6

ERROR

0.4
0.2
0

10

11

## Voltage, V is set to constant value of 8V

Proportional gain, kp

Error Signal(Ess)

Error Signal(Ess)

y
ess = r
1 +k p G1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

4.07
3.10
2.35
1.86
1.53
1.31
1.14
1.00
0.88
0.79

4.00
2.67
2.00
1.60
1.33
1.14
1.00
0.89
0.80
0.73

## Proportional gain,kp Vs Steady State Error(ess)

4.50
4.00
3.50

ERROR

3.00
2.50

ERROR

2.00
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00

10

12

EXPERIMENT 3
PART 1: ANGULAR POSITION TRANDUCER CALIBRATION
ANGLE
150
120
90
60
30
0
-30
-60
-90
-120
-150

VOLTAGES(V)
8.21
6.46
4.72
3.34
1.32
-0.08
-1.85
-3.28
-5.22
-6.92
-8.63

10
8
6
4
2
0
-200

-150

-100

-50

-2 0

50

100

150

200

-4
-6
-8
-10

## PART 2: BASIC TESTS AND DEAD-ZONE

When 1 is clockwise
kp
2
4
6
8
10

1
20
11
6
4
2

2
3
2
2
1
0

1- 2
17
9
4
3
2

1
-22
-6
-4
-3
2

2
13
4
2
1
0

1- 2
-35
-10
-6
-4
2

When 1 is anticlockwise
kp
2
4
6
8
10

## Proportional gain,kp Vs Width of output angle dead zone()

20

10

10

When 1 is clockwise
When 1 is anticlockwise

-10

-20

-30

-40

DISCUSSIONS
Experiment 1: Angular Speed control
Part 1

i)

## The different polarities of input voltage give different

directions of motor movement because it is a DC servo motor
which will rotates by follows the direction of current flows.

ii)

## Based on the graph of input motor drive voltage versus motor

input voltage increases.

iii)

## The electric clutch on the servo allow the gearbox to be

included in servo mechanism. As the clutch is switch on, the
servo mechanism become heavier and cause reduces of
motor speed and increase torque. Thus, motor drive
calibration with and without clutch engaged give different
rsults.

Part 2

i)

## Angular speed measurement is defined as the rate of

change of angular displacement and is a vector quantity
which specifies the angular speed (rotational speed) of
an object and the axis about which the object is
rotating.

ii)

formula:

rpm
V

1800(1804)
=200.222 rpm/v
9(9)

RPM/V.
iii)

## From the graph of indicated motor speed and speed

sensor output voltage, we can see that speed sensor
output voltage is increases as the motor speed
increased

i)

## Notice that the difference between the measured and theoretical

steady state errors decreases as the value of yr increases. This is
because the small dead-zone in the Servo Trainer introduces error
which become smaller as the reference signal becomes very much

ii)

## Experiment 3: Angular Position Control

Part 1: Angular Position Transducer Calibration

i)

## The angle sensor constant is calculated using gradient from the

graph based on the result and shown below:

## Angle sensor constant=

y 2 y 1
x 2x 1

8.21(8.63 )
150(150 )

0.0561Volt /degree

ii)

## The relationship between indicated angle and position sensor output

voltage is directly proportional to each other.

CONCLUSIONS

As for the conclusion, we can say that the objectives of these experiments
are achieved;
1. The circuit of the Servo Trainer is calibrated, namely the input actuator
(the motor circuit) and the output sensor (the speed sensors).
2. A proportional controller of the Servo Trainer speed is implemented and
the steady state errors and closed transient response of the servo is
investigated.
3. The angular position control performance and response of the servo
trainer under proportional control are investigated.
4. The effect of the motor amplifier dead-zone on the accuracy of the
position control system is investigated.

REFERENCES
i.
ii.

## Ron Lund. "Servo Frequency and Center Pulse Width Information"

http://www.facstaff.bucknell.edu/mastascu/econtrolhtml/design/perf1ss
e.htm (Fact Staff)

APPENDICES

Figure

Description

## Connect the equipment between CE110

Servo Trainer and CE120 Controller

## The connecting cable need to be manually

operated as it goes error when plug
normally