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In process control system, there are 3 main elements which consist of manipulated variables, controlled
variables and disturbance. Controlled variables are the variables which quantify the performance or quality of
the final product, which are also called output variables. It is includes the temperature, level, pressure and flow.
For each controlled variable, there is an associated manipulated variable. The manipulated variables must be
adjusted by the control system so the desired value or set point of the controlled variable is maintained from
any disturbances.
Disturbances enter or affect the process and tend to drive the controlled variables away from their
desired value or set point condition. Typical disturbances include changes in ambient temperature, in demand
for product, or in the supply of feed material. The manipulated quantity must be changed to adjust the
controlled variable to its new desired value, if the set point is changed.
A process control consists of four main elements which are process, measurement, evaluation and
control. A block diagram of these elements is shown in Figure 1. The diagram also shows the disturbances that
enter or affect the process. If there were no upsets to a process, there would be no need for the control system.
Figure 1 also shows the input and output of the process and the set point used for control.

Set point



Figure 1: Four element of a control system


The basic function of controller is to execute an algorithm (electronic controller)

based on the control engineer's input (tuning constants), the operators desired
operating value (set point) and the current plant process value. The PID control

algorithm is used for the control of almost all loops in the process industries, and is also
the basis for many advanced control algorithms and strategies. In order for control loops
to work properly, the PID loop must be properly tuned.
The PID controllers job is to maintain the output at a level so that there is no
difference (error) between the process variable (PV) and the set point (SP). What the
PID controller is looking at is the difference (or "error") between the PV and the SP,
which are the absolute error and the rate of change of error. When there is a "process
upset", meaning, when the process variable or the set point quickly changes- the PID
controller has to quickly change the output to get the process variable back equal to the
set point.
Once the PID controller has the process variable equal to the set point, a good PID
controller will not vary the output, because the output have to be very steady not
changing. If the valves (motor or other control element) are constantly changing,
instead of maintaining a constant value, this could case more wear on the control
element. Thus, there are these two contradictory goals; fast response (fast change in
output) when there is a "process upset", but slow response (steady output) when the PV
is close to the set point. The output often goes past (over shoots) the steady-state
output to get the process back to the set point.

Proportional term
The proportional term produces an output value that is proportional to the current error
value. The proportional response adjusted by multiplying the error by constant K p, called the
proportional gain constant.

The proportional term is given by:

Integral Term
The integral term is proportional to both the magnitude of the error and the duration of the
error. The integral in a PID controller is the sum of the instantaneous error over time and gives
the accumulated offset that should have been corrected previously. The accumulated error is then
multiplied by the integral
() and added to the controller output.
The integral term is given by:

Derivative Term
The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of
the error over time and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd.
The magnitude of the contribution of the derivative term to the overall control
action is termed the derivative gain,Kd.
The derivative term is given by:

The objectives of this experiment are as follows:

Understand how level process control system works.

Study the method of setting PID parameter to achieve the optimum stability.

Study the method of setting PID controller to achieve the optimum recovery.

Open Loop Test for PIC92
1. Gas Pressure Control Plant, PIC92 was selected.
2. After the overall diagram of the plant has opened, the controller of PIC92 was double clicked to open the
3. The Process History View was clicked to see the trend of the process.
4. The process need to be stabilized in manual.
5. The initial value of MV was recorded and the step change of 10% was taken.
6. After the response has reached the steady state, the response graph was printed and calculation for obtaining
the RR, td and tc.
7. The calculated value of PI controller was obtained by using Ziegler-Nichols and Cohen-Coon method.

Closed Loop Test for FIC21

1. The controller was set to auto mode.
2. The detail icon was clicked at the faceplate in order to set the controller setting.
3. The calculated value of Gain, Kc and Reset, I was entered in the detail.
4. After the response has reached the steady state, the value of the optimum PI controller was recorded.

Load Disturbance Test

1. Load disturbance test was done by turn the process into Manual mode and make a step change of MV by
10% for three second and change into Auto mode again.
2. After the process has stabilized, the process response after changed the MV was observed.

Set Point Test

1. The set point test was done by adding the previous set point with 10% from total value which is 2.5 psig
2. After the process response has reached the steady state, the response was observed.

3. Both graph for load disturbance test and set point test was printed.



In an open loop system, a process can be

either self-regulating or non self-regulating. For

pressure, the process behaviour is self-regulating and fast response which means that it can stabilize by itself
and have the final steady state fast. In order to perform an open loop test, the process was first being stabilized
either in manual or automatic mode. The initial value of manipulated variable


is 50% and 60%

respectively. The value of and is 51% and 35.6% respectively.

Initial reading

Final reading

Change of variable






= 60% - 50%
= 10%

Process variable (%)



(12.75-8.9)/25 x 100%

Open loop test was being conducted in order

to identify the open loop process response rate (RR),

dead time, and the time constant, . PI mode is suitable for this process because the process is fast response.
The process slope can be used to calculate the time constant, dead time and response rate. The analysing for
the response rate, RR, dead time, and constant time, , were done because these three are the important
parameter for optimum controller setting. There are 4 formula were used to calculate the value of these
parameters; Tangent, Tangent and Point, Two-point and Reformulated Tangent Method. From the calculated
values, the value of optimum controller setting is calculated using Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule and CohenCoons tuning rule.

Sample calculation for the first process response,

Using Tangent Method:

51% - 35.6%



60% - 50%


Time constant,

= xb
= 18.5mm x 60s/45mm
= 24.67s

Dead time,

= xb

= 1.5mm x 60s/45mm
= 2s

RR = =
= 0.062/s
Optimum controller setting (Ziegler-Nichols method)

P = 111.1 RR Td
= 111.1 0.062 x 2
= 13.78%
I = 3.33 Td
= 3.33 2
= 6.66 s

Optimum controller setting (Cohen-Coons method)

= 12.31 %
= 5.69s

In order to conduct closed loop test, the PI controller setting were obtained from the calculation
Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule. The average value for the five process responses obtained from the calculated
value of the parameters from the open loop test. From the calculation using PI mode, the average value of P
and I is 15.32 and 7.98 respectively. The process response was oscillating and the overshoot is quite large. Fine
tuning is done by dividing the value P by 4 which the value of P becomes 3.83. the response becomes stable
then it reaches the set point.


The load disturbance test was carried out once the optimum PI controller setting was obtained. Firstly,
the controller was set to manual mode. A 10% change was made to the MV value from 51.6% to 61.6%, and
within a period of 3 seconds, the controller was set back to automatic mode. The response underdamped before
it moves towards the set point because the response is self-regulated and stabilize by itself.


The set point test was done once the response stabilize. The set point is changed from 12.5 to 13.5.
The response shows that PV overshoot slightly from the new set point before it moves towards the set point,
thus no further adjustment is needed.