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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

COPYRIGHT RONALD FREND 2006

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Contents:
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS --------------------------------------------------------------------7
VIBRATION ANALYSIS - AN INTRODUCTION---------------------------------------- 13
Vibration Examples------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
Imbalance--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13
Misalignment ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
Looseness--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
Rolling Element Bearing Defects --------------------------------------------------------------------------17

VIBRATION THEORY ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 19


Simple Harmonic Motion-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
RMS vs. PEAK -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
Time Domain----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23
The Frequency Domain --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23
What is an FFT? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24
The FFT Analyzer----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24
Advantages of FFT Analyzers ------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
Frequency Spans ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
Measurement Basics ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
Spectrum ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------25
Parameter Selection -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26
Selecting displacement, velocity or acceleration ------------------------------------------------------26
How does it work? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26
Accelerometers-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28
Acceleration Amplitude Demodulation ------------------------------------------------------------------------30
Theory ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30
The Demodulation Process----------------------------------------------------------------------------------31
Resonance Sources -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
A.C. Motor Example. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------33
Rotor Vibration-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37
Imbalance--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------37
Vibration due to imbalance ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------38
Misalignment ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------42
Looseness--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------45
Gear Drives----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------50
Gear Tooth Wear: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------52
Significant load Imposed on Gear Teeth: -----------------------------------------------------53
Gear Eccentricity and/or BackIash: --------------------------------------------------------------53
Gear Misalignment:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------54
Cracked, Chipped or Broken Gear Teeth: ----------------------------------------------------54
Hunting Tooth Problems: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------55
Vibration due to aerodynamic forces --------------------------------------------------------------------------57
Aerodynamic cross coupling --------------------------------------------------------------------------------58
Surging -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------58
Choking or Stone Walling------------------------------------------------------------------------------------59

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


Bearing Failures----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60
Elasto Hydrodynamic Lubrication --------------------------------------------------------------------------60
First Stage of Bearing Failure-------------------------------------------------------------------------------61
Second Stage of Bearing Failure --------------------------------------------------------------------------62
Third Stage of Bearing Failure------------------------------------------------------------------------------63
Fourth Stage of Bearing Failure----------------------------------------------------------------------------64
Bearing Defect Frequency Calculation -------------------------------------------------------------------65
Analysis of bearing defects----------------------------------------------------------------------------------68

SINGLE CHANNEL ANALYSIS ------------------------------------------------------------ 72


Taking measurements ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72
Defining the measurement parameters-------------------------------------------------------------------75
Measurement Windows --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------78
Averaging --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------80
Real Time Bandwidth and Overlap Processing --------------------------------------------------------82
Analysis --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------83
Severity charts--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------85

CONSTRUCTION STANDARD SPECIFICATION SECTION 15200 ------------- 88


VIBRATION LIMITS AND CONTROL ---------------------------------------------------------------------88
PART 1 - GENERAL -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
PART 2 - PRODUCTS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
PART 3 - EXECUTION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------90

POTENTIAL FAILURE ANALYSIS -------------------------------------------------------- 95


A methodology for objective set up -----------------------------------------------------------------------------95
Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------95
The PFA Tree -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------95
Base cause ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------95
Failure type ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------95
External manifestation----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------95
Technology ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------96
Parameter--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------96
Analysis-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------96
Interval------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------96
Setup--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------96
Developing a Potential Failure Analysis for Rolling Element Bearings---------------------------------97
Stage 1 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
Stage 2 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
Stage 3 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------98
Stage 4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------99
Including the Component Failure in the PFA Tree. --------------------------------------------------------99
Conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 101
Two Channel Analysis------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 104
Two channel functions -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 104

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


Advanced functions ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 105
Representation by complex numbers ------------------------------------------------------------------- 105
Cascade & waterfall plots ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 107
Triggering ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 107
Nyquist & Bod plots ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 108
Resonance---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 109
The bump test------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 109
Impact hammer----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 109
Changing the resonance ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 110

VIBRATION STANDARD ----------------------------------------------------------------------1


PURPOSE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
SCOPE ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Hardware & Software---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Hardware - FFT Analyzer --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
Software: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ACCURACY ------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
SYSTEM SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO----------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CALIBRATION --------------------------------------------------------------- 3
VIBRATION SENSOR REQUIREMENTS------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
CONVENTION FOR IDENTIFYING VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS ----------------------------- 6
Component Part (shaft, gearbox, roll, etc.): four (4) alphanumeric characters------------------------ 7
Location (bearing number designation): three (3) numeric characters --------------------------------- 7
Sensor (transducer) Type Code: two (2) letters ------------------------------------------------------------ 8
Angular Orientation: three digits (000 to 360 degrees)--------------------------------------------------- 8
Sensor (sensitive) Axis Direction (Orientation): one (1) letter ------------------------------------------ 9
Motion for a positive signal output (relative to a Time Waveform): -------------------------------------10
Direction of Motion: [one letter]----------------------------------------------------------------------------10
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS-------------------------------------------------------------10
TRANSDUCER & MACHINE MOUNTING CONDITIONS--------------------------------------------14
VIBRATION TRANSDUCER MOUNTING ----------------------------------------------------------------14
MACHINE MOUNTING ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT UNITS --------------------------------------------------------------------15
FREQUENCY BANDS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS--------------------------------------------------------------16
BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS --------------------------------18
ALIGNMENT ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18
BALANCING - Shaft and Fitment Key Convention--------------------------------------------------------18
RESONANCE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19
MACHINE QUOTATION, CERTIFICATION, AND ACCEPTANCE--------------------------------20
QUOTATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20
MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR MACHINE CERTIFICATION---------------------------20

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


ACCEPTANCE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS - COMPONENTS ---------------------------------------------------------21
VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS - COMPLETE MACHINE ASSEMBLY -----------------------------21
DEMODULATED ACCELERATION MEASUREMENTS----------------------------------------------22

SECTION ELECTRIC MOTORS-----------------------------------------------------------1


ELECTRICAL MOTOR MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS------------------------------------------ 1
MOTOR ISOLATION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
PREPARATION FOR TESTING and SAFETY ------------------------------------------------------------- 4
CRITICAL SPEED ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
LIMITS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
ELECTRICAL MOTOR CERTIFICATION------------------------------------------------------------------ 5

SECTION - SPINDLES -------------------------------------------------------------------------1


SPINDLE AND HEAD REQUIREMENTS------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
VIBRATION LIMITS-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2
SPINDLE CERTIFICATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8
BALANCE LIMITS FOR SPINDLE COMPONENTS ----------------------------------------------------- 9

SECTION - FANS--------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
Fans are defined as:----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
BALANCING ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
SHAFT TOLERANCE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
RESONANCE ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
LIMITS------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
OTHER REQUIREMENTS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
FAN CERTIFICATION ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

SECTION - PUMPS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------1


Pumps shall be defined in two (2) categories: ---------------------------------------------------------------- 1
OPERATING CONDITIONS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
LIMITS FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT & CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS------------------------------ 1
VERTICAL MOUNTED PUMPS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3
PUMP CERTIFICATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

SECTION - GEARBOXES ---------------------------------------------------------------------5


VIBRATION LIMITS FOR GEARBOXES------------------------------------------------------------------- 5
GEARBOX CERTIFICATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

SECTION DEFAULT VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS -----------------------------------8


NON-MACHINE TOOLS and NON-PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS --------------------------------- 8
PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 9
DEFAULT CERTIFICATION---------------------------------------------------------------------------------12

APPENDIX A - RECOMMENDED COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION


SYMBOLS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
APPENDIX B - GLOSSARY -------------------------------------------------------------------1

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

APPENDIX C VIBRATION DATA & CERTIFICATION -------------------------------7

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

List of illustrations
Figure 1 Velocity spectrum showing imbalance__________________________________________ 13
Figure 2 - Velocity spectrum showing fan imbalance _____________________________________ 14
Figure 3 Velocity spectrum of misaligned fan - radial _____________________________________ 15
Figure 4 Velocity spectrum of misaligned fan - axial______________________________________ 15
Figure 5 Velocity spectrum from a loose fan drive motor __________________________________ 16
Figure 6 Envelope spectrum of a fan drive motor with loose bearing________________________ 17
Figure 7 Enveloped acceleration spectrum of bearing - inner race defect____________________ 18
Figure 8 Inner race spall _____________________________________________________________ 18
Figure 9 Simple Harmonic Vibration ___________________________________________________ 20
Figure 10 Integration from acceleration to velocity _______________________________________ 21
Figure 11 Integrating to displacement __________________________________________________ 22
Figure 12 Peak -v- RMS _____________________________________________________________ 23
Figure 13 Compression mode accelerometer ___________________________________________ 28
Figure 14 Shear mode accelerometer __________________________________________________ 28
Figure 15 Simple modulation example _________________________________________________ 30
Figure 16 Bearing modulation example_________________________________________________ 30
Figure 17 Demodulation process ______________________________________________________ 31
Figure 18 Enveloping process ________________________________________________________ 32
Figure 19 Fast Fourier Transform _____________________________________________________ 32
Figure 20 FFT - 3D view _____________________________________________________________ 33
Figure 21 Two channel time waveform - bearing defect___________________________________ 34
Figure 22 High frequency waterfall ____________________________________________________ 34
Figure 23 Enveloped acceleration spectrum ____________________________________________ 35
Figure 24 Comparison - velocity to envelope ____________________________________________ 35
Figure 25 Imbalance slide 1 __________________________________________________________ 38
Figure 26 Imbalance slide 2 __________________________________________________________ 38
Figure 27 Imbalance slide 3 __________________________________________________________ 39
Figure 28 Imbalance slide 4 __________________________________________________________ 39
Figure 29 Imbalance slide 5 __________________________________________________________ 40
Figure 30 Imbalance slide 6 __________________________________________________________ 40
Figure 31 Imbalance slide 7 __________________________________________________________ 41
Figure 32 Imbalance slide 8 __________________________________________________________ 41
Figure 33 Imbalance slide 9 __________________________________________________________ 42
Figure 34 Misalignment slide 1 ________________________________________________________ 42
Figure 35 Misalignment slide 2 ________________________________________________________ 43
Figure 36 Misalignment slide 3 ________________________________________________________ 43
Figure 37 Misalignment slide 4 ________________________________________________________ 44
Figure 38 Misalignment slide 5 ________________________________________________________ 44
Figure 39 Looseness slide 1 __________________________________________________________ 45
Figure 40 Looseness slide 2 __________________________________________________________ 45
Figure 41 Looseness slide 3 __________________________________________________________ 46
Figure 42 Looseness slide 4 _________________________________________________________ 46
Figure 43 Looseness slide 5 __________________________________________________________ 47
Figure 44 Looseness slide 6 __________________________________________________________ 47
Figure 45 Looseness slide 7 __________________________________________________________ 48
Figure 46 Looseness slide 8 __________________________________________________________ 48
Figure 47 Looseness slide 9 __________________________________________________________ 49
Figure 48 STANDARD SETUP FOR ANALYSIS OF A RIGHT ANGLE DOUBLE
REDUCTION GEARBOX________________________________________________________ 50
Figure 49 SPECTRUM INDICATING GEAR TOOTH WEAR ______________________________ 52
Figure 50 Significant Loading Indicated on Gearing ______________________________________ 53
Figure 51 Gear Eccentricity and/or Backlash____________________________________________ 53
Figure 52 SPECTRUM INDICATING MISALIGNMENT OF GEARS ________________________ 54
Figure 53 COMPARISON OF TIME WAVEFORM FOR A GOOD CONDITIONED VERSUS A
CRACKED OR BROKEN GEAR TOOTH __________________________________________ 55
Figure 54 Hunting Tooth Frequency ___________________________________________________ 56

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


Figure 55 Aerodynamic forces ________________________________________________________ 58
Figure 56 Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication______________________________________________ 60
Figure 57 Loss of Lubricant - Ball Bearing Inner Race Courtesy of the Barden Corporation ____ 61
Figure 58 Loss of Lubricant - Roller Bearing Courtesy of the Torrington Company____________ 62
Figure 59 Waterfall plot from a damaged motor bearing __________________________________ 63
Figure 60 Early Fatigue - Ball Bearing Courtesy of the Barden Corporation__________________ 64
Figure 61 Developed Fatigue on Roller Bearing Courtesy of the Torrington Company_________ 64
Figure 62 Ball Bearing Terminology____________________________________________________ 66
Figure 63 Waterfall of early damage to a motor bearing collected every 1.5 hrs over 14 days __ 66
Figure 64 Bearing damage severity assessment chart____________________________________ 67
Figure 65 Demodulated acceleration spectrum from a dry bearing _________________________ 68
Figure 66 Demodulated acceleration spectrum of a marked bearing ________________________ 69
Figure 67 Demodulated acceleration spectrum from a slightly more heavily marked bearing ___ 69
Figure 68 Time waveform from a marked bearing. _______________________________________ 70
Figure 69 Time waveform from a heavily marked bearing _________________________________ 70
Figure 70 Velocity spectrum from a spalled bearing ______________________________________ 71
Figure 71 Typical tap block for mounting an accelerometer _______________________________ 72
Figure 72 Accelerometer mounting techniques a-d_______________________________________ 74
Figure 73 Accelerometer mounting techniques e-g_______________________________________ 75
Figure 74 Overview of accelerometer mounting techniques _______________________________ 75
Figure 75 General severity chart for vibration ___________________________________________ 85
Figure 76 PFA development for rolling element bearings _________________________________ 97
Figure 77 PFA for a main motor ______________________________________________________ 100
Figure 78 Vector addition of 2 vibrations_______________________________________________ 106
Figure 79 Cascade of fan over 20mS _________________________________________________ 107
Figure 80 Bode plots _______________________________________________________________ 108
Figure 81 Nyquist plot. ______________________________________________________________ 108
Figure 82 Impact hammer response __________________________________________________ 109
Figure 83 Impact hammer specification sheet __________________________________________ 110
Figure 0-1 Measurement System Frequency Response ________________________________________ 3
Figure 0-2 Angular Convention for Foot Mounted & Flange Mounted Machines ___________________ 9
Figure 0-3 Direction of Sensor Axis _______________________________________________________ 9
Figure 0-4 Order and Consecutive Numbering Sequence _____________________________________ 11
Figure 0-5 Order and Consecutive Numbering Sequence_____________________________________ 11
Figure 0-6 Vibration Measurement Locations ______________________________________________ 12
Figure 0-7 Vibration Measurement Locations ______________________________________________ 12
Figure 0-8 Vibration Measurement Locations ______________________________________________ 12
Figure 0-9 Vibration Measurement Locations ______________________________________________ 13
Figure 0-10 Frequency Bands __________________________________________________________ 16
Figure 0-11 Balance Test Key Dimensions ________________________________________________ 19
Figure 0-12 Resonance Separation Margin (SM)____________________________________________ 20
Figure 0-1 Maximum Allowable Vibration Limits for Electric Motors ____________________________ 7
Figure 0-1 Measurement Locations for Single Precision Spindle________________________________ 1
Figure 0-2 Measurement Locations for Spindle Cluster _______________________________________ 2
Figure 0-3 Measurement Locations for Multi-Spindle Gear-type Head ___________________________ 2
Figure 0-4 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles 600 to 12,000 RPM ________ 3
Figure 0-5 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles 600 to
12,000 RPM _____________________________________________________________________ 4
Figure 0-6 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles <600 RPM _______________ 5
Figure 0-7 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles <60 RPM __ 7
Figure 0-8 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gear-Driven Spindle Assemblies ___ 8
Figure 0-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Fans _______________________________________ 3
Figure 0-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Fans _________________________ 3
Figure 0-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Positive Displacement & Centrifugal Pumps _______ 3
Figure 0-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Positive Displacement &
Centrifugal Pumps ________________________________________________________________ 3
Figure 0-1 Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearboxes _______________________________________ 6
Figure 0-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearboxes_____________________ 6

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


Figure 0-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Non-Machine Tools and Non-Precision Machine
Tools___________________________________________________________________________ 9
Figure 0-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Non-Machine Tools & NonPrecision Machine Tools ___________________________________________________________ 9
Figure 0-3 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Precision Machine Tools ______________________ 10
Figure 0-4 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Precision Machine Tools ________ 11

Table 1 Vibration Limits (15200) ________________________________________________________ 92


Table 2 Sample Vibration Report (15200) _________________________________________________ 94

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Consultants Profile
Ronald Frend B.Sc. Technology
d.o.b. 9th May 1954

Experience Summary
Ron is a registered engineer, and has thirty years of engineering, consulting
and management experience. He rose to a senior management position in
Shell International (Middle East) before opening an engineering consultancy
in England. His entire career has been concerned with practical applications
of maintenance and engineering.
Ron is experienced in a variety of predictive maintenance analytical techniques as well as possessing
management skills suitable to an engineering consultancy and a large multi-national corporation.

Specialized training has also been carried out on the following topics:
Management techniques, Non-destructive testing (petro-chem), Oil tanker cargo operations,
Resistance & gas welding,

Professional Activities and Accomplishments


Member of the following institutions, Vibration Institute, Infraspection Institute
Contributed in the development of acceleration amplitude demodulation (enveloping) with
Diagnostic Instruments for use in vibration data collector/analysers.
Developed Potential Failure Analysis (now commonly used in industry).

Career History
1993-present
Business has involved project design, system implementation, training and ongoing consultancy
support.
Systems installed by Ron include Guardian Over Iconet, Entek Emonitor for Windows (EFW) &
Odyssey, CSI MasterTrend, DLI-Predict ExpertALERT Voyager stand-alone and networked systems
as well as MachineXpert on-line monitoring systems. Inframetrics and Agema systems have also
been installed and operated using the 760, 740, Thermacam 200 and 250 cameras and the Agema
595. The strength of the installations has been partly due to the total integration of all applicable
technologies, vibration, thermography, ultra-sound, tribology as well as several other specialized
techniques. The systems implementations are designed for ease of use of the software and to allow
subsequent modifications without affecting the integrity of the database.
Systems installed by Ron won the last System-of-the-Year Award to be sponsored by P/PM,
winning joint first place and first runner-up (GM Lordstown Fab joint first with Boeing Seattle & GM
Lansing Fab first runner up).
Activities have since broadened to encompass audits, formal training, and third party project design.
Ron has pioneered the use of Potential Failure Analysis a technique in which all possible modes
of failure are examined before a failure occurs. This allows the engineers to put in place monitoring
mechanisms to give advance warning of impending failures.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


Of the systems installed by Ron, the larger systems consistently return a Cost Avoidance of about
$4,000,000 in the first year of operation which gradually reduced to at least $1,000,000 per year
subsequently.
Ron has carried out significant managerial consultancy for several blue chip clients including Ford
Motor Company and General Motors. Tasks involved a complete reorganization of Body-In-White
maintenance management and manpower at the LandRover facility in Solihull and design and
implementation of Best Practices predictive maintenance for General Motors North America metal
fabricating division.
During all this time, Ron has remained a hands-on, capable and practical engineer.

Wavevision Ltd.

1990-1993

Ron jointly started this company in 1989. Wavevision was the first predictive maintenance company
in the U.K. to concentrate its activities in a double profit center, sales and engineering consultancy.
Wavevision worked very closely with Diagnostic Instruments to develop the first data collector with
enveloping / demodulation capability. Many of the contracts for installed systems where won because
of the capability of Wavevision to successfully implement vibration analysis in difficult circumstances.
Contract monitoring and reporting was also carried out for many customers. This involved sending
technicians out to the customers site, taking readings and then carrying out an analysis back at the
head office. Reports were forwarded within 24 hours by fax and (in later years) by email.

Shell International

1983 - 1990

Ron was assigned to Petroleum Development (Oman) as a mechanical engineer in 1983. Rons first
job was to initiate a project to replace the floors on all floating storage tanks in North Oman (55,000
bbl). The project was then expanded to cover all stationary equipment inspections and repairs so that
within two years all statutory and maintenance inspections on tanks, pressure vessels, relief valves,
pig traps and headers and pipelines were scheduled for inspection and scheduled targets were being
achieved.
In 1986 Ron was moved within the section to be in control of condition monitoring and vibration
analysis support. Ron was directly involved with supervision of maintenance and condition
monitoring activities on Rolls Royce Avon, Solar Centaur, GE Frame 5, Ruston TB5000 gas turbines
as well as all other rotating and reciprocating equipment in the oil field production areas. Ron
initiated the installation of a computerised vibration analysis system for the optimal utilization of
maintenance resources. In 1987 PDO initiated a Zero Cost approach to maintenance budgeting in
which every aspect of maintenance and engineering had to be justified instead of (as before)
extrapolating previous years costs. The core component of this budgeting exercise was the condition
monitoring expertise coupled with maintenance engineers direct knowledge of the equipment. This
created a 17% reduction in the overall maintenance budget while production increased by over 15%.
In 1988 Ron was promoted to Head of Surface Support. His responsibilities included the planning
and direct control of all above ground maintenance support in the North Oman concession area
(24,000 square kilometers). His budget was over US$9M with a work force of 4 section heads, 18
supervisors and 144 skilled and semi-skilled men under his direct control. Ron reported directly to
the Head of Operations (North Oman).

Shell Tankers (U.K.) Ltd.

1970-1983

Ron was an officer cadet from 1970 to 1974 and eventually rose to the rank of second engineer (with
1st Class Motor Certification) by 1980. Duties included operation and maintenance of all installed
plant on board a variety of ships.
As a Shell Tankers engineer Ron was conversant with petrochemical statutory requirements, practical
application of maintenance and operational activities, control systems, electrical engineering and
distribution (up to 3.3 kV), pumps, turbines, HVAC and all other aspects of engineering in a
petrochemical marine environment.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Publications

Installation of a Predictive Maintenance System in a Fossil Fuel Power Station. Maintenance


Magazine (1990).

The Potential Failure Analysis Tree - Its use in the installation of a predictive maintenance
system. Vibration Institute (1994)

Acceleration Amplitude Demodulation in predictive maintenance applications. Vibration


Institute (1995)

Predictive Maintenance in Metal Stamping Facilities. Enteract (Cincinnati 1996), CSI


National Users Group (Nashville 1996) and published in "Sound & Vibration" November
1996.

The Press Monitoring Handbook (1997)

MachineXpert on-line monitoring system training manual (1998)

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Vibration Analysis - an introduction


The study of noise and vibration phenomena dates back centuries. The first recorded
incidence of such study was by Pythagoras in the sixth century B.C. who studied the origin of
musical sounds and the vibration of strings. In 1638 Galileo described the vibrations of
pendulums, the phenomenon of resonance and the factors influencing the vibration of
strings. Euler in 1744 and Bernoulli in 1751 developed the equation for the vibrations of
beams and developed the normal modes for various boundary conditions. In 1882 Hertz
developed the first successful theory for impact. So we can see that vibration analysis itself
is not new but some of the ways that we take the measurements and apply those
measurements as machine health diagnoses are very new.
In this section we will briefly take a look at some vibration examples of typical defects
suffered by fans and fan drives without delving too deeply into why!

Vibration Examples
When the novice analyst first carries out vibration analysis he will usually rush out and take a
vibration spectrum using the default parameters set up in the analyzer. We will carry on that
noble tradition and look at some spectra that have been collected from real machines and
show typical examples of common defects.

Imbalance

Figure 1 Velocity spectrum showing imbalance


Figure 1 shows a vibration spectrum that was taken at the sheave end of a centrifugal fan in
the vertical direction. The fan was driven from the AC motor via a V-belt and rotated at
about 720 rpm. The AC drive motor rotates at just under 1200 rpm.
The spectrum is a simply a graph of the vibration frequency on the bottom axis with the
amplitude at that frequency on the vertical axis. This spectrum is of velocity vibration so the
amplitude units could be in mm/s or ips (inches/second). The frequency is in cpm
(cycles/minute) but it could have been displayed in Hz (Hertz or cycles/second) or in orders

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


(multiples of run speed). The spectrum was recorded from a vibration transducer which was
mounted radial to the shaft (vertical in this case).
Notice in the spectrum that there is one big spike which is labeled at 716.59 cpm and there
are two much smaller spikes just to the right. The first spike to the right is at 1187 cpm which
equates to the run speed of the motor and the second spike is at 1433.18 cpm which is
exactly twice fan speed. Because the one spike is so dominant that is the one that we are
concerned about. A check with a stroboscope confirmed that the fan was actually running at
717 rpm so the big spike of vibration is at exactly (within the precision of the strobe) run
speed. At this stage we are not concerned about the physics of why a vibration at run speed
is usually indicative of imbalance but we will look at our spectral explanation charts (see
appendix 1) and have a fair degree of confidence that the fan needs balancing.

Figure 2 - Velocity spectrum showing fan imbalance


Figure 2 shows a similar problem on a different fan but we see that the spectrum looks very
similar with one dominant spike at the run speed of the fan. Figure 1 amplitude was
displayed with metric units and figure 2 with inch units but the shape of the spectrum is the
same in both cases.

Misalignment
Probably 40% of all bearing and shaft failures are caused by misalignment of the
components creating an extra axial thrust on the bearings.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 3 Velocity spectrum of misaligned fan - radial


In figure 3 we see what initially looks like an imbalance condition of the fan, although the
amplitudes are relatively low.

Figure 4 Velocity spectrum of misaligned fan - axial


However, in figure 4 we are now looking at the vibration taken axial to the shaft. If the
problem was simple imbalance of the fan we would expect all of the forces to be caused by
centrifugal force and therefore acting in a direction which was radial to the shaft. Again,
looking at our spectrum explanation charts we see that, on a belt driven train, a high axial
velocity vibration relative to the radial vibration is almost always indicative of component
misalignment to the belt.

Looseness
Looseness exists when the component is not directly attached to the structure or rotating
element and has a relatively large clearance, allowing the component to rattle.

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Figure 5 Velocity spectrum from a loose fan drive motor


The above spectrum was recorded at the sheave end of the drive motor of an underground
colliery main ventilation fan. The motor was running at 590 rpm and immediately we see the
large family of harmonics of run speed. The amplitudes do not seem too high but the
machine was massive and any vibratory forces have to move the mass before we see a
vibration. In this case the structure of the bedplate was cracked causing parts of the
structure to vibrate freely at the excitation frequency of the motor (speed).
Whenever we see multiples or sub-multiples of run speed vibration frequencies we
immediately consider the possibility of loose components.

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Figure 6 Envelope spectrum of a fan drive motor with loose bearing


The early stages of looseness can be detected in a similar manner, be looking for harmonics
of run speed, and using demodulated or enveloped acceleration readings. Figure 6 shows the
early stages of looseness of a bearing inside the fan drive motor. As the looseness
deteriorates the envelope readings will decrease but then the velocity readings will start to
increase.

Rolling Element Bearing Defects


The primary tool in assessing bearing condition is the use of enveloped acceleration
readings.
Figure 7 shows the envelope spectrum from a bearing with a severe spall in the inner race.
Notice that the spike at about 8,772 cpm is marked BPIR which stands for Ball Pass Outer
Race. We will study bearing defects in detail later but notice that the main defects are not
multiples of run speed. In other words they are non-synchronous.

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Figure 7 Enveloped acceleration spectrum of bearing - inner race defect

Figure 8 Inner race spall

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Vibration Theory
The following section is meant as a primer to help the newcomer to vibration analysis
understand some of the terms used and to develop an understanding of the concepts.
To understand the concept of vibration analysis, it is important to realize that the motion of
the measured surface varies with time. The transducer converts the movement into an
electrical signal which is passed to the spectrum analyzer which in turn converts that signal
from the time domain into the frequency domain. The time domain waveform is composed
of a machines response to many individual forces such as imbalance, misalignment, gear
meshing forces, rotating electrical fields, and many other factors. When viewing the time
domain data it can be quite difficult to separate these components of vibration. However, in
the frequency domain it is much easier to separate these elements to determine the
importance of each.
Vibration amplitude is measured using three different parameters, acceleration, velocity and
displacement. The purpose of this section is to describe the relationship between each of
these and how they are used on rotating machinery.

Simple Harmonic Motion


Simple harmonic motion can be visualized by many common examples such as a pendulum,
a mass and spring combination, a rotating mechanism or a diving board- Figure 9 uses a
pendulum. If the pendulum swings back and forth 100 times in one minute, then the
frequency is 100 cycles per minute. Similarly if a machine is rotating 100 times in one
minute, its speed is 100 revolutions per minute or 100 RPM.
The frequency of vibration is often expressed in terms of cycles per second or HERTZ after
the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. However for predictive maintenance techniques where
rotational speed is often the key to vibration peaks, cycles per minute are used in preference
to Hertz.
In addition to frequency the amplitude is the other necessary quantity that must be known in
order to characterize vibration. In figure 9 the points B and C represent the extreme position
of the pendulum and the distance between them is the peak to peak displacementAmplitude meters are often calibrated to give the peak to peak value because it is the
displacement extremes that are of interest. In vibration work, the displacement is often
expressed in terms of mils or micron. One Mil is equal to 0.001 inch and one micron (m) is
0.001 mm.
Since the pendulum is continuously moving, it has a velocity associated with each position
and, like displacement, the velocity also varies between a positive peak and a negative peak.

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(48)

* FREQUENCY

* AMPLITUDE

... Displacement

... Velocity

... Acceleration

Vibration is described by its frequency and amplitude.


The amplitude is expressed in units of either displacement,
velocity or acceleration.

one cycle

An oscillating system will produce a certain number of


cycles per unit time, called the frequency. Frequency is usually
expressed in terms of cycles per second, or Hertz.

Figure 9 Simple Harmonic Vibration


Figure 10 shows that at position B and C, the velocity is zero, and at position A the velocity is
maximized, first to the right, then to the left. Since the peak positive velocity occurs 1/4
cycle before the peak positive displacement, velocity is said to lead displacement by 90.
The 90 degree phase lead is shown in the diagram on figure 10. Velocity amplitude is
expressed only in terms of zero to peak or zero to RMS.
The negative peak velocity differs only in direction, not magnitude. The rate of change of
displacement is the velocity, therefore if D is expressed in terms of inches, instead of the
usual mils, then the product 2fD will be the velocity in inches per second which are the units
used for velocity in vibration work.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

(49)
B

Disp

Peak

Peak
to
Peak

Figure 3. The distance between the extremes of motion is the


peak-to-peak displacement. Displacement meters are often calibrated
in peak-to-peak units. The amplitude is one half of the peak-to-peak
value for a sine wave.
B

Vel

Disp

Highest
Velocity
Figure 4. Velocity is highest where displacement is zero and is zero
where displacement is maximum. Therefore a 90 phase shift exists

between displacement and velocity. The velocity amplitude is directly


proportional to frequency for a given displacement.

Figure 10 Integration from acceleration to velocity


As velocity is continuously changing, an acceleration is also associated with the velocity, this
acceleration is also associated with the motion. Acceleration is the third way to express
vibration amplitude. Figure 11 shows that at position B and C the acceleration is maximum.
Just prior to point B, velocity is to the right and just after it is to the left. At B therefore the
rate of change of velocity, the acceleration, is maximum.
Conversely just prior to point A velocity is increasing and just after, it is decreasing.
Therefore the rate of change of velocity (the acceleration) must be zero at A. Note that
acceleration reaches its maximum at Points B and C just as displacement does, but at B
acceleration is to the left whereas the displacement is to the right. The maximum
acceleration to the right occurs 1/2 a cycle before the maximum velocity to the right and
acceleration is said to lead displacement by 180. Acceleration leads velocity by 90.
The diagram in figure 11 shows these phase leads and also the acceleration amplitude
2
relationship, A = (2f) D. This says that for any given value of displacement, the
acceleration is proportional to the square of the frequency.
The unit of acceleration is the g which is equal to 9.81 m/sec2 and is derived from the
acceleration due to earths gravity.

21

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

(50)
B

Vel

Disp

Accel

Acceleration

Acceleration

Figure 5. At B, acceleration is maximum to the left and displacement


o
maximum to the right, a 180 phase shift. Acceleration amplitude varies
as the square of frequency for a given value of displacement.

Peak

Amplitude

Avg

RMS
Peak
to
Peak

Time

Avg = 0.637 x Peak


RMS = 0.707 x Peak

Figure 6. The simple relationships which exist between average, RMS


and Peak amplitude values for sine waves are not valid for
combination or random waveforms.

Figure 11 Integrating to displacement


RMS vs. PEAK
The rms or root mean square value is calculated by breaking the waveform down into a
number of points, squaring the amplitude value of each point, calculating the mean of the
squared values and then finding the square root of the mean.
Using rms values can be compared to the use of rms in electrical circles i.e. stereo speakers
power values are measured in rms values. Electrical (AC) voltage is also measured in rms.
This, like vibration signals, is a continuously varying quantity, ranging from zero to a peak
value. To measure only the peak value may be misleading since the voltage is actually at a
peak for only a small portion of the cycle. During most of the cycle the value of the
instantaneous voltage is somewhere between zero and peak.
RMS, then, is an attempt to apply a single quantitative value -which reflects the effective
value of this varying function. This same logic applies to vibration. Velocity is a quantitative
measure of the effective velocity and reflects the power or energy being used to vibrate the
machine mass.
Peak value is the maximum amplitude seen during the measurement. When using FFT
analyzers care should be taken when evaluating peak or rms severity as the peak amplitude
in the spectrum is derived from a sine wave. True peak can be seen in the time waveform.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

(51)

Peak

Amplitude

Avg

RMS
Peak
to
Peak

Time

Simple Sine Wave

Amplitude

Peak

RMS

Peak
to
Peak

Time

Complex Waveform

Figure 12 Peak -v- RMS


Time Domain
The traditional way of observing signals is to view them in what is called the time domain.
The time domain is a record of what happened to a parameter compared to time- Typically
the signal would be displayed on an oscilloscope. With respect to machinery vibration,
analysis of signals in the time domain can be very difficult and is far easier in the frequency
domain

The Frequency Domain


If we now convert a time waveform to the frequency domain we will get a totally different
picture. We now have axes of amplitude v frequency instead of amplitude -v- time. Every
sine wave separated out by the FFT appears as a separate line. Its height represents its
amplitude, its position represents its frequency.
The method most analyzers use to transform signals from the time domain to the frequency
domain is called :FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

What is an FFT?
The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm for transforming data in the time domain to
the frequency domain. Most analyzers have an FFT processor, which performs this
transformation automatically and then stores the computed spectra into memory.
We cannot transform to the frequency domain in a continuous manner. We therefore must
sample and digitize the time domain input. The number of samples determines the resolution
(number of lines) of frequency.
Most analyzers offer resolutions of 100,200,400,800,1600,3200 or even 6400 Lines.
FFT Spectrum Analyzers take a time varying input signal, like you would see on an
oscilloscope trace, and compute its frequency spectrum.
Fourier's theorem states that any waveform in the time domain can be represented by the
weighted sum of sines and cosines. The FFT spectrum analyzer samples the input signal,
computes the magnitude of its sine and cosine components, and displays the spectrum of
these measured frequency components.
Many of these measurements were once done using analog spectrum analyzers. In simple
terms, an analog filter was used to isolate frequencies of interest. The signal power, which
passed through the filter, was measured to determine the signal strength in certain frequency
bands. By tuning the filters and repeating the measurements, a spectrum could be obtained.

The FFT Analyzer


An FFT spectrum analyzer works in an entirely different way. The input signal is digitized at
a high sampling rate, (2.56 x Fmax usually). Nyquist's theorem says that as long as the
sampling rate is greater than twice the highest frequency component of the signal, then the
sampled data will accurately represent the input signal. Certain analyzers pass the input
signal through an analog filter, which attenuates all frequency components above Fmax by
90 dB to make sure that Nyquist's theorem is satisfied. This is the anti-aliasing filter. The
resulting digital time record is then mathematically transformed into a frequency spectrum
using an algorithm known as the Fast Fourier Transform or FFT. The FFT is simply a clever
set of operations which implements Fourier's theorem. The resulting spectrum shows the
frequency components of the input signal.
Now here's the interesting part. The original digital time record comes from discrete samples
taken at the sampling rate. The corresponding FFT yields a spectrum with discrete
frequency samples. In fact, the spectrum has less than half as many frequency points as
there are time points (remember Nyquist's theorem). Suppose that you take 1024 samples at
2560 Hz. It takes 0.4 Seconds to take this time record. The FFT of this record yields 400
frequency points or lines, but over what frequency range? The highest frequency will be
determined by the in-built ratio of Fmax to data sampling rate - 2.56. The lowest frequency is
just the Fmax divided by the number of lines:
Fmax

data sampling rate / 2.56

No. Of Lines

No samples / 2.56

Bin resolution

Fmax / No. of lines

(2560 / 2.56) / (1024 / 2.56)

2.5 Hz (the same as the lowest measurable frequency)

Everything below 2.5 Hz (for this example) is considered to be DC. The output spectrum
thus represents the frequency range from DC to 1000 Hz with points every 2.5 Hz.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Advantages of FFT Analyzers


The advantage of this technique is its speed. Because FFT spectrum analyzers measure all
frequency components at the same time the technique offers the possibility of being
hundreds of times faster than traditional analog spectrum analyzers. In the case of a 1000
Hz span and 400 resolvable frequency bins, the entire spectrum takes only 400 mS to
measure. To measure the signal with higher resolution the time record is increased, but
again, all frequencies are examined simultaneously, providing an enormous speed
advantage.

Frequency Spans
Before we continue, let's clarify a couple of points about our frequency span. We just
described how we arrived at a DC to 1000 Hz frequency span using a 400 mS time record.
Because the signal passes through an anti-aliasing filter at the input, the entire frequency
span is not useable. A typical filter has a flat response from DC to 1000 Hz and then rolls off
steeply from 1000 Hz to 2.56 kHz. The range between 1000 Hz and 2.56 kHz is therefore not
useable and the actual displayed frequency span stops at 1000 Hz. There is also a
frequency bin labeled 0 Hz (or DC). This bin actually covers the range from 0 Hz to 2.5 Hz
(the lowest measurable frequency) and contains the signal components whose period is
longer than the time record (not only DC). So our final displayed spectrum contains 400
frequency bins. The first covers 0 - 2.5 Hz, the second 2.5 - 5 Hz, and the 400th covers
997.5 - 1000 Hz.
The length of the time record determines the frequency span and resolution of our spectrum.
What happens if we make the time record 800 mS or twice as long? Well, we ought to get
2048 time points (sampling at 2560 Hz) yielding a spectrum from DC to 1000 Hz with 1.25 Hz
resolution containing 800 points. But the analyzer places some limitations on this. One is
memory. If we keep increasing the time record, then we would need to store more and more
points. (0.00125 Hz resolution would require 2,048,000 values.) Another limitation is
processing time. The more points you take, the longer the processing time.

Measurement Basics
An FFT spectrum is a complex quantity, This is because each frequency component has a
phase relative to the start of the time record. (Alternately, you may wish to think of the input
signal being composed of sines and cosines.) If there is no triggering, then the phase is
random and we generally look at the magnitude of the spectrum. If we use a synchronous
trigger then each frequency component has a well-defined phase.

Spectrum
The spectrum is the basic measurement of an FFT analyzer. It is simply the complex FFT.
Normally, the magnitude of the spectrum is displayed. The magnitude is the square root of
the FFT times its complex conjugate. (Square root of the sum of the real (sine) part squared
and the imaginary (cosine) part squared). The magnitude is a real quantity and represents
the total signal amplitude in each frequency bin, independent of phase.
If there is phase information in the spectrum, i.e. the time record is triggered in phase with
some component of the signal, then the real (cosine) or imaginary (sine) part or the phase
may be displayed. The phase is simply the arc tangent of the ratio of the imaginary and real
parts of each frequency component. For vibration measurements phase is usually
considered to be relative to the trigger pulse.

25

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Parameter Selection
Selecting displacement, velocity or acceleration
As previously discussed, displacement amplitude is higher at lower frequencies. Therefore
when motions are being measured a displacement measurement is in order because
frequencies of interest on the shaft are limited to 20 or so orders of rotation. For a 3600 rpm
machine, 20 orders is a frequency of 1200 Hz. At that frequency 0.5 in/sec is 0.13 mils pkpk, very small but certainly a measurable value.
For higher frequencies however, significant vibration has a displacement value which -is too
small to conveniently measure and velocity or acceleration is more appropriate. Velocity
measurements are especially good for a number of reasons.
The most prominent advantage of a velocity measurement is that the value of rms velocity is
related to the potential for mechanical damage, regardless of the frequency. The many
published vibration severity charts are based on this principle. As an example suppose a
displacement of 0.l mils is observed, is this severe? At 6 Hz this is not severe at all; at 60
Hz this is rough but at 200 Hz this is very rough and should not be permitted for machines up
to the 100HP class. Now suppose a velocity of 0.6 in/sec (15mm/s) is observed. Is this
severe? The answer is Yes, this is severe regardless of the frequency.
Newtons second law (F=ma) tells us that the acceleration of a body is directly proportional to
the force applied to the body. In other words the acceleration vibration gives a good
indication of impactive forces inside the machine such as bad bearings.
In summary, displacement measurements are good from 0 Hz to 500 Hz, velocity up to 1
kHz and acceleration from 2 Hz to 20 kHz depending on the design of the accelerometer. In
applying this to rotating machinery displacement measurements are relative readings of the
displacement of the shaft to a reference, usually the bearing. Velocity and acceleration
measurements are usually made on the bearing cap or on the machine casing in way of a
structural web to enhance the transmission of vibration to the pick-up point.

How does it work?


Consider a rotating machine (a motor) which has, for example, an out of balance condition
on the rotor so that for every revolution of that rotor the out of balance mass generates a
centripetal (opp. to centrifugal) force. We place our transducer on the drive end of the motor
in the vertical direction, as near as possible to the bearing and couple the transducer to a
spectrum analyzer. The transducer sees the force once per rev. of the rotor as a simple
harmonic motion. That is to say that the machine surface will cause the transducer to move
in a downwards direction with the machine as the force itself is acting downwards and will
cause the transducer to move upwards when the machine is moving up etc. The output of
the transducer will depend on what type of transducer we are using.

Displacement transducers will give an output proportional to the linear


displacement of the transducer in thousandths of a inch or micron.

Velocity transducers will give an output proportional to the linear speed


(velocity) of the transducer in inches/second or millimeters/second.

An accelerometer will give an output which is proportional to the


acceleration of the transducer in Gs or inches/second/second or
meters/second/second.

For predictive maintenance purposes we use accelerometers almost exclusively so we will


concentrate on them for now. According to Newtons Second Law

F=mx a
where F = the force

26

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


m = the mass
a = the acceleration
So immediately we see that the output from the accelerometer is directly proportional to the
internal forces acting on the machine. Newton also says that for a rotating body

F=m2r
where

= the rotational speed in radians/second

= the radius at which the force is acting.

As we know that the acceleration is proportional to the force and we assume that the mass
and radius of force of the machine stay constant, then we may safely say that the
acceleration is also proportional to the square of the speed.

a=
2 r
The important point here is that the faster the machine goes, or the higher up the frequency
range we go, the acceleration amplitudes must increase for a given force even if there is
nothing wrong with our machine. However, we know that acceleration is simply the rate of
change of velocity. So if we integrate our acceleration reading with respect to time we will
get a velocity reading. Integrating acceleration will change our value from:
inches/second2
to
inches/second
effectively finding the square root of the acceleration (for time). We have already said that
we have a concern that the acceleration increases with frequency, so if we need a value that
is independent of frequency for severity analysis purposes we can use the velocity reading.
Back to our motor. If we plot the acceleration against time (time domain) we would see a
sine wave which is the result of simple harmonic motion. This is the signal that is passed
along to the analyzer. The analyzer will then convert this time domain signal into a
frequency domain signal either as acceleration or as an integration from acceleration into
velocity. Either way, the out of balance condition will show itself in the frequency domain as
a single spike at a frequency which corresponds to the run speed of the machine. For
example, if the motor is running at 1,200 rev/min the spike will have a frequency at 1,200
cycles/minute (cpm) or 20 Hertz (Hz).

27

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Accelerometers

Figure 13 Compression mode accelerometer


Looking at the figure above we see a schematic of an accelerometer.
Modern
accelerometers are available as compression mode or shear mode. Generally speaking the
shear mode accelerometer offers better axial sensitivity with much better mechanical
integrity. In other words the shear mode accelerometer is not as affected by thermal
transients and gives better accuracy for the axis in which it is mounted.

Figure 14 Shear mode accelerometer


Many low cost industrial accelerometers are now shear mode. For off-line measurements the
accelerometer will probably be connected to a magnet and the magnet positioned at a predetermined point every time a reading is taken. However, the response from the
accelerometer is better if it is permanently mounted.
Permanently mounting an accelerometer should be done with care. The way the
accelerometer is mounted will affect the resonant frequency and, hence, the useable
frequency range. By far the best way to mount an accelerometer is to spot face the subject
surface and drill and tap it to accept the stud for the accelerometer. However, on a motor it
is usually not practical to drill into the motor frame for obvious reasons. The best alternative

28

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


to stud mounting is to have tap blocks made with a tapped hole that will accept the
accelerometer stud.

29

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Acceleration Amplitude Demodulation


Theory
But before we look at any case histories using DEMODULATION we should be clear in our
mind about exactly what is MODULATION.

Figure 15 Simple modulation example


A signal may be said to be amplitude modulated if the amplitude of that signal is changing
over a period of time because of the influence of another signal. The example above was
taken from a large steam turbine running at 3600 rpm. The run speed signal is being
MODULATED by a signal at 4 Hz which is probably a foundation resonance. This type of
modulation is commonly found in maintenance applications but consider the example below.

Figure 16 Bearing modulation example

30

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


Here we see a vibration at 2 kHz which has been modulated slightly more than three times
within the time period (50 mS which equates to 1 revolution of the inner race). The 2 kHz
vibration is the resonance of the bearing which is being excited by the bearing outer race
frequency (3.07 x run speed). The excitation of the 2 kHz frequency by the bearing defect on
the outer race causes the 2 kHz amplitude to be changed like the roller coaster example
above. In other words the bearing outer race frequency is modulating the bearing resonance
frequency. The demodulation process extracts the modulating frequency to produce a time
waveform which can be handled by the F.F.T. process.
When we DEMODULATE the above reading we are not interested in the 2 kHz frequency but
we are interested in the outer race defect frequency which is:
(1000/50*3.07) Hz = 61.4 Hz.
As can be seen from Figure 2, the modulation is at this frequency. In vibration terms,
demodulation is a way of extracting the rate of occurrence of high frequency resonances.

The Demodulation Process


The time waveform of a machine with a bearing in the early stages of deterioration will look
like the top plot below. The bearing excitation resonance is shown as small, high frequency
pulses sitting on top of the high amplitude, low frequency vibration.

Figure 17 Demodulation process


The demodulator circuit now passes the signal through a high pass filter to give the time
waveform shown in the lower section of the plot.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 18 Enveloping process


With the time domain signal in this format the F.F.T. conversion would give a single spike in
the frequency domain at the resonant frequency which we have earlier said is not what we
want. To modify the signal so as to be suitable for F.F.T. we must envelope (figure above)
each parcel of energy by first rectifying and then passing the signal through a smoothing R-C
(resistance-capacitive) circuit.

Figure 19 Fast Fourier Transform


The signal is NOW passed through the F.F.T. and we get a spike in the frequency domain at
the bearing defect frequency (figures above and below).

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 20 FFT - 3D view


Resonance Sources
When taking a demodulated reading we must first decide on which filter setting to use that
will allow the carrier signal to pass without allowing the low frequency, high amplitude noise
to pass. Conventional thinking will tell you that the resonance frequency which we are using
as the carrier wave is always the resonant frequency of the bearing; while this is often the
case it is not always so. For vibration readings, the accelerometer which we will use to
detect the signal will probably be sitting on top of a magnet which will give a structural
resonance in the 1.5 to 4 kHz range (typically). The bearing housing will have its own
resonance, the machine structure will have its own resonance. In short, the carrier wave
signal resonance could be coming from any part of the mechanical structure.
If we are taking a reading with a non-vibration parameter we will probably be utilizing a
different carrier signal so we may have to use a different high pass or band pass filter. Ultrasound data are heterodyned to the audible range so demodulating at 5 to 8 kHz gives
acceptable results while A.C. electric current should be demodulated from the A.C. frequency
of 60 Hz or 50 Hz.

A.C. Motor Example.


This plot shows the signal from the inboard bearing of a 35 H.P. A.C. motor operating a beltdriven fan.

33

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 21 Two channel time waveform - bearing defect


The 2 upper plots are the time domain signal in two planes over a period of 640 mS. The
lower plots show the time domain (left) and frequency domain (right) over a 50 mS period of
the lower 640 mS plot. Note that the frequency spectrum shows spikes at 2 kHz and 3 kHz
while the time domain plots show an angel fish pattern which is classic of a bearing defect.
Note also that the lower left portion of the plot is a zoom of the windowed part of the long
time record. This shows a detail of the one angel fish and the amplitude can be seen to be
passing from positive to negative and back again many times during the life of a single angel
fish - i.e. a high frequency oscillation. This leads us to the conclusion that this is the
frequency of 2 and/or 3 kHz seen in the spectrum and one or both of these frequencies are
the result of impacts and subsequent ring down and they are occurring at the resonant
frequency of part of the mechanical structure.

Figure 22 High frequency waterfall


The plot above shows a time/frequency cascade of the same time interval cropped below
0.001G. This clearly shows the modulation of the 2 kHz frequency while the 3 kHz frequency

34

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


is static. The modulation has been calculated to be equal to the bearing outer race defect
frequency of the motor inboard bearing. Every time one of the bearing balls passes a defect
on the outer race, the ball impacts on the defect causing the 2 kHz vibration to suddenly rise
and then ring down. The 2 kHz is the resonant frequency and the bearing defect frequency
(outer race) is the modulating frequency.
The figure below shows the demodulated spectrum on the left with waterfall plot on the right
above a trend of the defect frequency.

Figure 23 Enveloped acceleration spectrum


Note that the demodulated spectrum is clean and extremely easy to analyze. The spikes
occur at the bearing defect frequency (outer race) with multiple harmonics but there is no
sign of the resonant frequency because this high frequency has been removed during its use
in the demodulation process. The frequency range of the spectrum is such that the
frequency of the impacts is clearly visible but we do not need to see the resonant frequency.
The last spectrum in the waterfall is lower than the previous spectrum due to greasing of the
motor bearings which lowered the amplitude at which the impacts caused the bearing to
vibrate at resonance.

Figure 24 Comparison - velocity to envelope

35

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


This figure shows a similar defect on another machine but here the velocity spectrum (left) is
displayed alongside the demodulated spectrum (right). Note that the demodulated spectrum
is much cleaner and easier to analyze.

36

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Rotor Vibration
Imbalance
Let us consider a fan impeller of 50 kg weight which is running at 1000 rpm. Let us imagine
that this impeller has an out of balance corresponding to 0.5 kg at 0.3 meter from the center
(we will use S.I. units here to make the math easier).
Newton says that:

F = (m 2 r)/9.81
using S.I. units

F is force in kg.F
m is the mass in kg
is the rotational speed in radians per second

and

r is the radius at which the force (the out of balance) is acting

then the out of balance forces


= [0.5 x (1000/602)2 x 0.3]/9.81
= [0.5 x 104.722 x 0.3]/9.81
= [0.5 x 10,966x 0.3]/9.81
= 167.68 kgF (369 lb.F)
In other words we have added over an eighth of a ton to the apparent weight of the impeller.
Let us see what happens if the impeller is running at 2000 rpm.
= [0.5 x (2000/60.2)2 x 0.3]/9.81
= 670.71 kgF. (1476 lb.F)
By doubling the speed to 2000 rpm we have quadrupled our out of balance forces to almost
three-quarters of a ton force.
A deep groove Conrad bearing for a shaft of about 3 inches diameter could be a MRC 215-S,
1
which is in the MRC mid range of bearings. This bearing has a static load rating of 3,680 lb.
at 1,000 rpm as calculated using the 2AFBMA method of evaluating load ratings. The speed
factor for calculating radial load at 2,000 rpm is 0.7937 so our load is now
3,680 x 0.7937 = 2,920 lb.
By increasing the speed to 2,000 rpm and allowing an imbalance force of about 1 lb at about
1 foot away from center we have halved the effective load carrying capacity of the bearing.

1
2

Data taken from TRW service catalog Form 382-14


Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association

37

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Vibration due to imbalance

Figure 25 Imbalance slide 1

Figure 26 Imbalance slide 2

38

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 27 Imbalance slide 3

Figure 28 Imbalance slide 4

39

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 29 Imbalance slide 5

Figure 30 Imbalance slide 6

40

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 31 Imbalance slide 7

Figure 32 Imbalance slide 8

41

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 33 Imbalance slide 9


To confirm a suspected imbalance check the time waveform. An rotor imbalance will give a
sine wave in the velocity time signal with a period equal to the time it takes for one revolution
of the rotor. Phase readings will be steady .
Out of balance may occur in more than one plane. Most spectrum analyzers have a two
plane balancing function built into the software. Multiple plane balancing (more than two
planes) is usually only necessary on complex multiple disk rotors such as turbines which
operate above their critical speed.

Misalignment

Figure 34 Misalignment slide 1

42

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 35 Misalignment slide 2

Figure 36 Misalignment slide 3

43

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 37 Misalignment slide 4

Figure 38 Misalignment slide 5

44

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Looseness

Figure 39 Looseness slide 1

Figure 40 Looseness slide 2

45

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 41 Looseness slide 3

Figure 42 Looseness slide 4

46

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 43 Looseness slide 5

Figure 44 Looseness slide 6

47

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 45 Looseness slide 7

Figure 46 Looseness slide 8

48

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 47 Looseness slide 9

49

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Gear Drives
A variety of gear problems can be detected by vibration analysis. These
include each of the following:

Gear Tooth Wear

Excessive Tooth Load

Gear Eccentricity and/or Backlash

Gear Misalignment

Cracked, Chipped or Broken Gear Teeth

Hunting Tooth Problems

First, several remarks in general should be made about vibration diagnostics


on gears.
One of the key frequencies of interest when evaluating gear health will be
gear mesh frequency (#teeth X RPM). However, it is important to point out
gear mesh frequency (GMF) is not a fault or defect frequency as is the case
with bearing defect frequencies. All meshing gears generate gear mesh
frequencies of some amplitude or another. In addition, all gear mesh
frequencies will have sidebands of some amplitude spaced at the RPM of
each mating gear in the mesh. However, if the gears are in good health and
are properly aligned with one another (insignificant misalignment. backlash or
gear eccentricity), amplitudes of GMF and its harmonics along with those of
sidebands should be low, particularly those of the sidebands.

Figure 48 STANDARD SETUP FOR ANALYSIS OF A RIGHT ANGLE


DOUBLE REDUCTION GEARBOX
The Figure above shows a standard setup for analyzing a right angle, double
reduction gearbox outfitted in this case with bevel and helical gears. The
example illustrated will be used to make several comments:
1.

Vibration measurements should be made on each bearing housing which


is accessible. Figure shows measurements being taken on the double row
bearing at position 3 as well as on each of the four tapered roller bearings
in positions 4 through 7. The Important point is that the transducer should
be placed as near as possible to the bearings supporting the gears

50

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


themselves. At times, this may involve measurements at a distance from
the bearings. However, In this case, ensure that a frame or Internal web
that goes directly to the bearing housing is located and measurements
made as close to these 88 possible.
2.

Measurements should be taken in all 3 orthogonal directions (horizontal,


vertical and axial), particularly since some gears generate forces
predominately in one direction or the other which may not be the same
from one survey to the next depending on load.

3.

In general, helical, herringbone and bevel gears generate significant


vibration in the axial direction. Often, the best condition measurement on
these gear types is in this axial direction.

4.

In general, spur gears are best evaluated in radial directions, but can
sometimes have significant axial vibration as well, particularly if there is a
problem with tooth alignment. At times very high frequency
measurements will have to be made to evaluate gear condition. One
should always evaluate frequencies at least up to 2X gear mesh
frequency, but also should measure up beyond 3X gear mesh frequency
from time to time if possible (for regular PdM surveys, use an FMAX >= 4
GMF).

The author has often been involved on machines where little vibration was
occurring at the fundamental gear mesh frequency (GMF), but where much
higher vibration on the order of 10X those at the fundamental were occurring
at either 2X gear mesh or 3X gear mesh frequency (2GMF or 3GMF).
Therefore, potentially significant problems would have been overlooked had
measurements not been made up in these frequency regions.
5.

The analyst may sometimes have to employ ,more than one


accelerometer on a gear box due to potentially high frequencies that
might occur on one or more of the meshes. For example, if the
fundamental gear mesh frequency was on the order of 1,200,000 CPM
(20,000 Hz), he would have to employ a general purpose accelerometer
for the lower source frequencies that would evaluate balance, alignment.
looseness. etc. Then, he would have to make a whole set of separate
measurements evaluating the gears with special accelerometers having
much higher frequency capability.

6.

In most PdM programmes using computer software, each of 2


measurements having 2 different frequency ranges must be made at each
gear location because of the widely varying frequency between the lower
speed harmonics and the gear mesh frequencies themselves. In these
cases, he would use a lower FMAX to evaluate such problems as
unbalance, misalignment, looseness, electrical, etc. and a completely
different set of measurements to evaluate gear health.

7.

For a given mesh of gears, the gear mesh frequency will always be the
same no matter whether only 2, or up to 5 or 6 gears happen to be in a
common mesh. For example, in many of today's centrifugal air
compressors, there is one bull gear which meshes with each of 4 pinions
that are mounted on the first through fourth stage impellers. in this case of
5 meshing gears, there is only one gear mesh frequency.

8.

Of course, the gear mesh frequency is different for each different mesh of
gears. For example, one shaft may have one gear In a mesh on one end
and another gear on its opposite end meshing with other gears. Each of
these meshes will have individual gear mesh frequencies.

9.

Referring to the previous figure, an analyst should always make a drawing


such as this showing each of the positions, the RPM of each shaft and the
gear mesh frequency at each mesh. This will go far in helping him with his
analysis.

51

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


10. A multi-stage gear box should actually be treated as several individual
vibration problems, each with its own unique set of operating speeds and
gear mesh frequencies. For example, using the previous figure, one
problem should be analyzed on the first mesh of 44,400 CPM with the
input and output shafts speeds being 1775 RPM and 965.4 RPM,
respectively. In all likelihood, measurements on this input shaft will
likewise contain vibration at the lower speed gear mesh and the output
shaft speed. However, in most cases, he should neglect vibration being
transmitted from the other meshes with the exception of resonances on
this member being excited by vibration transmitted from the others.
Following below will be separate discussions on each of the gear problems
previously listed:

Gear Tooth Wear:


The figure below shows a spectrum indicating wear of gear teeth. In this case
wear does not refer to a chipped, broken or cracked tooth. Instead, it refers to
surface damage across the tooth face. Worn gear teeth exhibit the following
characteristics:
1.

The key indicator of gear tooth wear is not the gear mesh frequency, but
instead the gear natural frequency. In reality, there is of course more than
one gear natural frequency including separate ones for the driver and
driven gears as well as a set of those when the gears are meshing with
one another. Like everything else in nature, when a member is impacted,
it will respond at its natural frequency. In the case of gears, their natural
frequencies respond each time a defective tooth hits or impacts as it goes
into and out of mesh. The key here is that these natural frequencies will
be modulated by the impact repetition rate which will correspond to the
speed of the worn gear.

2.

Not only will sidebands appear about the gear natural frequencies, but
also about the gear mesh frequency. In the case of those around the gear
mesh frequencies, the amplitude of the sidebands themselves is a better
wear Indicator than the amplitude of GMF frequencies.

3.

With respect to the sidebands themselves, more than one set of


sidebands may appear if the time waveform becomes less and less
sinusoidal which may indicate a more serious gear wear problem.

4.

If more than one gear in a mesh has worn teeth., sidebands will be
established at each of the speeds of the gears having worn teeth.

Figure 49 SPECTRUM INDICATING GEAR TOOTH WEAR

52

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Significant load Imposed on Gear Teeth:


The Figure below provides a spectrum indicative of gear teeth subjected to
significant load.
Gear mesh frequencies themselves are often very sensitive to the load
imposed on them. High GMF amplitudes do not necessarily indicate a
problem with gear health. However, if the load is excessive and continues for
a period of time, eventual fatigue of gear tooth surfaces will begin. Therefore,
a gear mesh frequency which has substantially increased in amplitude
between one survey and the next may not yet signify a problem (particularly if
sideband amplitudes remain low and if no gear natural frequencies are
excited).
Because gear mesh frequencies are sometimes so load sensitive, each
vibration survey should be performed with the system ooder maximum
operating load If this is possible.

Figure 50 Significant Loading Indicated on Gearing


Gear Eccentricity and/or BackIash:
The figure below shows an example spectrum indicating significant gear
eccentricity and/or backlash. These problems display the following
characteristics:
1.

Both eccentricity and backlash excite the gear natural frequencies as well
as gear mesh frequency. They also may generate a number of sidebands
about both the natural and gear mesh frequencies.

2.

If a gear is eccentric, it will modulate the natural frequency and gear mesh
frequencies. both of which will be sidebanded at 1X RPM of the eccentric
gear. An eccentric gear can generate significant forces. stresses and
vibration if it is forced to bottom out with the meshing gears.

Figure 51 Gear Eccentricity and/or Backlash

53

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Gear Misalignment:
The figure below is indicative of misaligned gears which almost always
excites higher order gear mesh frequency harmonics. Often, only a small
amplitude will be at the fundamental gear mesh frequency (GMF), but much
higher levels will be at 2X and/or 3X GMF. Often, the sideband spacing about
GMF frequencies might be 2X RPM, or even 3X RPM when gear
misalignment problems are involved.

Figure 52 SPECTRUM INDICATING MISALIGNMENT OF GEARS


Cracked, Chipped or Broken Gear Teeth:
A gear with a cracked, chipped or broken tooth will generate high vibration
both at 1X RPM of this gear as well as the gear natural frequencies with
sidebands around the natural frequency at gear RPM. This same behaviour is
exhibited by a gear tooth having a large. pronounced spall. Of course, an
unbalanced gear would also cause high vibration at 1X RPM. Therefore. a
time waveform like that shown below is of great assistance in determining
whether the dominant problem is unbalance or gear tooth problems.
Referring to the figure below, note that a good condition tooth will display a
smooth, sinusoidal waveform (assuming there are no defective rolling
element bearings supporting the shaft).
However, cracked, chipped or
broken gear teeth will generate a pronounced spike every time they go into
and out of mesh. Looking at a time waveform, one can determine if the
problem is with the gear teeth or from another impact event like a ball bearing
problem. In the case of roiling element bearings, there would be a
tremendous number of impacts within a short period of time. That is, high
frequencies have c0rrespondingly low periods. On the other hand, in the case
of the gear tooth problem, if the distance in time between impact events
corresponds to the RPM of the gear, this presents strong evidence of tooth
problems. For example, if a 600 RPM gear showed a spike every 0.1 sec (0.1
sec/cycle 10 cycles/sec 600 cycles/minute), there would be strong
evidence of cracked, chipped or broken gear teeth.
If a spectrum is taken on a shaft which has more than one gear mounted on it
and shows the pronounced time waveform plus natural frequencies in the
spectrum, sidebanded at RPM of the offending gear, it will not necessarily be
clear which gear on the shaft has the problem. In this case, impulse natural
frequency tests Should be performed on each gear on the shaft as well as the
gears to which they mesh to identify which of the gears has the problem.

54

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 53 COMPARISON OF TIME WAVEFORM FOR A GOOD


CONDITIONED VERSUS A CRACKED OR BROKEN GEAR TOOTH
Hunting Tooth Problems:
The figure below shows a spectrum which might indicate hunting tooth
problems. Hunting tooth frequencies (fHT) appear when problems might have
occurred during the gear manufacturing process or due to mishandling, as
well as when problems occur in the field. For example, if faults appeared on
both the gear and pinion, each time the defective teeth on each gear came in
contact with one another, they would generate a pulse. Since most gears are
not a 1:1 ratio, these two particular teeth would only come into contact
periodically. For example, in the case of a 6 tooth pinion and a 7 tooth gear, if
each gear were numbered, tooth #1 on the gear would only be opposite tooth
#1 on the pinion once every 7 revolutions

The actual formula for this hunting tooth frequency is given in Figure 6.11G, but is
repeated here for clarity:

where:

fHT - Hunting Tooth Frequency (Hz or CPM)

GMF - Gear Mesh Frequency

Na - Number of Unique Assembly Phases In a given Tooth


Combination (Product of prime factors common to # teeth on each
gear)

TGEAR = # Teeth on Gear

TPINION= # Teeth on Pinion

#teeth X RPM(Hz or CPM)

A gear set with this gear tooth repeat problem normally will generate a "growling"
sound from the drive. It can cause quite high vibration but since it occurs at low
frequencies predominately below 600 CPM, it is often missed. It often requires the
use of a seismic accelerometer to even detect its presence. However, left
uncorrected, it can be quite destructive to gear teeth.

55

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 54 Hunting Tooth Frequency

56

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Vibration due to aerodynamic forces


Fans and blowers will inherently have some vibration due to aerodynamic forces. This
vibration results from the fan blades striking the air and will occur at a frequency equal to the
number of fan blades times fan R.PM. Normally, the amplitudes of vibration resulting from
aerodynamic forces will be low and no cause for concern. When excessive vibration at the
aerodynamic frequency is encountered a common cause is resonance of some part of the
machine or structure and the checks for resonance, described near the end of the manual
should be carried out to determine the resonant part. If it is confirmed that a condition of
excessive aerodynamic vibration is not due to resonance, the fan should be checked
carefully for obstructions that may disturb the smooth flow of air through the fan. For
example, high amplitudes of aerodynamic vibration are sometimes encountered on cooling
tower fans. Many of these fans consist of a drive motor, mounted outside the fan venturi,
coupled to the fan gearbox by means of a long torque tube or drive shaft. The torque tube
can act as an obstruction to the smooth flow of air through the fan and an aerodynamic
pulsation is generated each time a fan blade passes over the torque tube. The result is often
excessive vibration at the aerodynamic frequency and may require that the distance between
the blade path and torque tube be increased to minimize these aerodynamic pulsations.
On centrifugal fans, excessive vibration at the aerodynamic frequency can sometimes result
if the fan rotor is positioned eccentrically in -the f an housing. Therefore this should be
checked in the event that the problem cannot be traced to resonance.
Vibration due to aerodynamic forces can also occur at a frequency equal to 1 x fan R.PM and
will appear similar to normal imbalance. This aerodynamic imbalance will result if the fan
blades do not have the same track or pitch. If the fan operates under a constant
aerodynamic load, the force of aerodynamic imbalance can be compensated by following
normal balancing procedures. However, it often occurs that changing the fan load will
produce a corresponding change in the vibration at 1 x R.PM.
For example, a centrifugal fan was balanced with the access doors in the fan housing
removed to simplify the addition and movements of trial weights. After the fan had been
satisfactorily balanced, the access doors were replaced. Unfortunately, however, this
produced a significant change in aerodynamic conditions and the result was a significant
increase in vibration. In this case, it was necessary to balance the fan operating under its
normal aerodynamic conditions. If a fan must operate smoothly over a broad range of
aerodynamic loads it may be necessary to check and correct for significant variations in
blade track or pitch before this -can be achieved.

57

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 55 Aerodynamic forces


Aerodynamic cross coupling
Aerodynamic cross coupling is a problem occasionally encountered on turbines, centrifugal
compressors and fans operating above the first rotor critical and generally results from
eccentric rotation of the rotor caused by rotor bow or deflection. In the case of a centrifugal
compressor the layer of air or other gas being compressed will have a rotating speed less
than that of the rotor, similar to the rotating oil whirl in a plane bearing. If the rotor is bowed
slightly, the layer of rotating gas between the rotor and the machine housing will produce a
torque reaction on the rotor causing the rotor to whirl at the rotating speed of the gas layer.
The frequency at which this whirl occurs can vary from one machine to the nextThe vibration may have the same frequency characteristics of oil whirl and hysteresis whirl
where the lowest natural frequency of the rotor bearing system is excited. In most cases, the
vibration frequency will be less than the rotating frequency. Cases have been reported
where sub-multiples of 0.5, 0.33 or perhaps 0.25 times the rpm of the rotor have been
excited.
Since rotor whirl generated by aerodynamic cross coupling is excited by -the compressed air
or gas, it seems logical that the condition would be affected by machinery load. In general,
the machine will be more likely to experience this condition under heavily loaded conditions
and changing the load of the machine to determine its effect on the vibration can be useful in
-diagnosing this problem.

Surging
Surging is a rather common problem encountered on high speed centrifugal and axial flow
compressors and occurs when the compressor is operated outside designed limits. Typically
a compressor is designed to deliver air or other gases over a specified mass flow range and
at a specified pressure ratio. These requirements are met by selecting rotor speed, number
of compressor stages, blade configurations and other factors. The manufacturer of the

58

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


compressor can supply performance characteristics curves showing the range of stable
operation in terms of pressure ratio, mass flow and rpm. Attempting to operate the unit
outside the design range can result in excessive vibration and damage to the machine.
The problem of surge occurs when, for a particular operating speed, the delivery pressure to
inlet pressure ratio is too high or if mass flow is too low relative to design conditions. When
this occurs, a reversal of gas flow in the compressor will result. In the initial stages of surge,
the flow reversal may only occur in the boundary layers of the rotor blades (a rotating stall)
however, at full surge the gas flow reverses its direction and flows from the discharge to the
inlet. Rotating stall shows itself as a vibration at approximately 35% of run speed but is
dependent on the physical configuration of the compressor.
The vibration characteristics resulting from compressor surging can vary depending on the
extent of the problem. In cases of mild surge, a noticeable increase in the vibration at blade
passing frequency can usually be detected. This frequency is the product of the number of
rotor blades times the rpm of the rotor. In other cases multiples of blade passing frequency
may also be detected. When a full surge condition is encountered the result may be a high
amplitude of random, erratic vibration usually covering a rather broad frequency range. This
is caused by the turbulent flow within the compressor exciting the various natural frequencies
of the rotor wheels, rotor blades, diffuser blades, casing, shaft and other components. Of
course, if this condition is allowed to continue, extensive damage to the compressor c result.

Choking or Stone Walling


The problem of 'choking or 'stone-walling' in a compressor is essentially the opposite of
surging but again is the result of attempting to operate the unit outside design parameters.
Choking occurs when discharge pressures are too low. When discharge pressures are low,
velocities are high and when flow velocity in the diffuser section approaches Mach 1 a
turbulent or circulating flow between the blades will occur which has the effect of blocking the
flow of gas. When this occurs a noticeable drop in efficiency and pressure ratio can be seen,
along with an increase in vibration due to the turbulent flow within the compressor. The
vibration characteristics of choking are essentially the same as those encountered during
surging. A check of other operating parameters such as pressure, temperature, flow etc.
should be undertaken to distinguish between the two.

59

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Bearing Failures
Arguably the most common type of failure on fans and fan drivers are failures arising from
the collapse of the bearings.
The vast majority of fans and fan drivers are fitted with rolling element bearings. The rolling
element bearings are usually a cylindrical rolling element bearing at the sheave end of the
motor and a ball bearing at the non-drive end. Smaller motors may have two ball bearings.
The fan may have cylindrical roller or ball bearings.

Elasto Hydrodynamic Lubrication


Let us consider the lubrication of a rolling element bearing. As the roller rotates the pressure
point is very small so the pressure loading is very high. So high, in fact, that the contact
point of the roller and the race (the contact ellipse) becomes elastically deformed, trapping a
very small amount of the lubricant into a wedge. The lubricant wedge itself, is very small
but is large enough to keep the roller physically separated from the race by a small distance
(in the micron range). THERE IS NO METAL TO METAL CONTACT IN A PROPERLY
LUBRICATED BEARING RUNNING AT NORMAL LOAD.
As the lubrication mechanism starts to break down the lubricant loses its ability to separate
the roller from the race. This may be due to a deterioration of the lubricity, an increase in
bearing load, overheating of the bearing or a fatigue failure of an old bearing at the area
most prone to elastic deformation.

Figure 56 Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication


Rolling element bearings have four stages of failure:

Stage 1

Lubrication problems

Stage 2

Marking of the raceways and / or rolling elements

Stage 3

Spalling of the raceways and / or rolling elements

Stage 4

Collapse of the bearing

60

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


We will discuss each stage of the failure and discover how each stage may be identified with
predictive maintenance techniques.

First Stage of Bearing Failure


Lubrication problems in the case of grease or oil systems is not necessarily the physical loss
of lubricant but the loss of the oil or greases properties. Since the life of a grease lubricant is
strongly temperature dependent and since grease loses half of its life for every 20F rise in
temperature, this can be seen to have a very significant effect on bearing health. In order to
avoid the temperature effect due to over packing, bearing manufacturers usually suggest that
bearings are packed with grease to between 15% to 20% of the bearing's free volume. We
know that over packing is the most common cause of raised bearing temperature, which
leads to reduction in grease life and eventual failure. Under-packed bearings, or bearings
which have lost grease due to physical migration, may generate high bearing temperatures
when running at high speeds.
Low speed, starved bearings usually wear into a condition of excessive looseness and fail
without appreciable temperature increases. While this is fairly common on lightly loaded
motor bearings, press main drive motors will usually fail catastrophically.

Figure 57 Loss of Lubricant - Ball Bearing Inner Race Courtesy of the


Barden Corporation
At this stage of the bearing failure the rolling elements have metal to metal contact onto the
raceways because the lubricant is no longer supporting the rolling element via a lubricant
wedge. Because of this, the metal to metal impacts excite the resonant frequencies of the
bearing - just like hitting a bell with a hammer. For a rolling element bearing these
frequencies will be in the range of 1 to 4 kHz. The metal to metal contacts also generate
3
ultra sonic frequencies at between 30 and 50 kHz. Both of these frequency ranges do not
experience any modulation at this stage as the metal to metal contacts are irregular.

Ultra sonic - above the human audible range. Set at above 20 kHz for industrial applications.

61

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 58 Loss of Lubricant - Roller Bearing Courtesy of the Torrington


Company
Second Stage of Bearing Failure
This the early stage of fatigue. This fatigue may be initiated on the surface or beneath the
surface. Surface fatigue is usually caused by scratches on races, balls, or rollers, abrasive
contamination, or brinelling. These marks produce stress raisers, a point on the bearing
surface that experiences abnormally high stress due to the physical conditions at that spot.
Simply, a given load over a given area produces stress. If a crack or contaminant is found at
that location, the load is distributed over a different (often smaller) area and therefore greatly
increases stress at that point. This phenomenon limits the number of cycles a bearing can
survive. These raised stress areas provide a start point for micro-crack formation that leads
eventually to pitting, spalling, and wear.
Subsurface fatigue is usually caused by voids, foreign matter or coarse carbides introduced
into the material at the time of formation. These material anomalies again provide for a point
of crack formation if they fall within a high stress area. and once a crack is formed beneath
the surface, it works its way outward and eventually develops into a spall.
As the crack reaches the surface it creates a small void into which the lubricant wedge
collapses. Remember that the lubricant wedge is microscopically small so even a tiny crack
in the material can cause the roller to impact heavily onto the race. As each roller passes the
void it impacts onto the race. As with the first stage, the impacts generate vibration at
resonant and ultra sonic frequencies, with the difference, however, that these frequencies are
now modulated by the rate at which the rollers hit the defect. In other words the resonant
frequencies are excited every impact, giving a vibration like the pattern below.
Notice the roller coaster in Figure 64 at just below 2 kHz. This is a bearing resonant
frequency and the rise and fall in amplitude coincides with the impacts from the rollers on the
outer race defect (in this case).
At this stage of the failure there is no appreciable rise in temperature and the velocity
vibration at the defect frequencies is insignificant.

62

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 59 Waterfall plot from a damaged motor bearing

Third Stage of Bearing Failure


Fatigue failure or spalling results from mechanical materialogical failure of the bearing.
Literally a stress related failure of the material which results from cyclic stresses due to
operation at high loads. As the rollers repeatedly impact onto the small crack, the very small
area produces very high point loading so the material starts to flake off around the crack. As
the crack propagates, more and more material is removed until the crack becomes a visible
cavity or spall.
At this stage of the bearing failure, the velocity vibration becomes apparent at the defect
frequencies and harmonics, possible also with sidebands of run speed and / or cage
frequency. The resonant vibration has also increased in amplitude at the defect frequencies
along with a general rise in floor level. Temperature will be elevated above normal but not
significantly, particularly not if there is any air movement around the surface of the bearing or
bearing housing.

63

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 60 Early Fatigue - Ball Bearing Courtesy of the Barden


Corporation

Fourth Stage of Bearing Failure


With time both surface and subsurface fatigue flaws spread over the active bearing surfaces
causing bearing wear, growth in spalls, and eventual machine failure.
The metal
contaminants or wear particles removed from the bearing during spalling are either washed
out with the oil, in oil-lubricated bearings, or are trapped in the bearing, as is common in
sealed and grease-packed bearings. In these latter bearings, continuous recirculation of the
particles causes progressively higher wear to the point where either the bearing becomes
excessively loose and fails to support the load suitably or the induced damage leads to
failure.

Figure 61 Developed Fatigue on Roller Bearing Courtesy of the


Torrington Company

64

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Bearing Defect Frequency Calculation


It is important to understand that as a bearing with a damaged surface rotates, the regularity,
or frequency with which the roller or ball impacts on the defect indicates potential failure and
allows us to determine the type of damage that exists. A number of characteristic
frequencies are generated by a damaged bearing , and are known as:

Cage or fault train frequency

= FTF

Ball pass with respect to the outer race

= BPFO

Ball pass with respect to the inner race

= BPFI

Ball rolling about its own axes

= BSF

Shaft frequency of rotation

= RPM

The following equations are used to calculate these frequencies


FTF = RPM/2 [1 - (BD/PD) cos ]
approximated by

(rotating inner race)

RPM * 0.45 (rotating inner race)

or

RPM * 0.55 (rotating outer race)

BPFO = n * RPM/2 [1 - (BD/PD) cos ]


approximated by

RPM * O.4* n

BPFI = n * RPM/2 [1 + (BD/PD) cos ]


approximated by

RPM * O.6 * n

BSF = (RPM * PD)/2BD * [1 - (BD/PD)2 COS2 ]


(no valid approximation)

where

BD

= ball (roller) diameter

PD

= pitch diameter

= contact angle

= number of balls (rollers).

When bearing geometry is not known but the number of balls or rollers can be counted or
estimated, it is suggested that the approximate equations be used to establish the bearing
frequencies of interest. All the equations listed above show a direct dependence of the
calculated frequency on the frequency of rotation.. The following figure illustrates the
bearing geometry used in the above equations

65

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 62 Ball Bearing Terminology

Figure 63 Waterfall of early damage to a motor bearing collected every


1.5 hrs over 14 days

66

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


The plot above shows a waterfall display of acceleration vibration up to 2 kHz over a period
of almost two weeks on the drive end bearing of a drive motor. Notice that the vibration at
about 1.5 kHz has risen steadily. This frequency is typical of the bearing resonance. Notice
also that there appear to be small sidebands around the resonance frequency which are at
the bearing outer race defect frequency. The presence of a bearing defect frequency excited
resonance does not give justification by itself to change the motor bearings. We must also
wait until the defect frequencies with sidebands and/or harmonics show up in the velocity
spectrum.
The severity chart in figure 69 is applicable for motors and fans running between 500 to 3600
rpm. The envelope (or demodulation) amplitudes are quoted in dBG re 0.001G. As with any
severity chart it is important that the vibration analysts use their own judgment and
experience when deciding whether or not to change the bearing. For machines that are
outside the speed ranges quoted the amplitudes will be lower for slower machines and higher
for faster machines. Velocity readings are heavily affected by the mass of the machine so
care should be taken when assessing very small or very large motors.
Dont forget that roller bearings will stand more impactive forces than ball bearings. A roller
bearing should not be allowed to operate at above about 12 G (4true peak) and a ball bearing
should not be allowed to operate at above about 7 G (true peak).

Figure 64 Bearing damage severity assessment chart

True peak is defined as the peak seen in the waveform - not the derived peak seen in the frequency
spectrum.

67

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Analysis of bearing defects

Figure 65 Demodulated acceleration spectrum from a dry bearing


The figure above was taken (as was most of these examples) from the drive end bearing of a
drive motor. Notice in the spectrum that there are no significant spikes but the spectrum is
raised up from the floor - this is a raised carpet level. A certain amount of rise from the floor
is normal but when you find that your alarm limits (based on the baseline) have been
exceeded in the demodulated spectrum and there are no significant spikes, the chances are
that the bearing is starting to suffer lubrication problems.
In the case of a main drive motor the bearing is almost certainly grease lubricated. The
grease lubricated bearing may be of shielded (or sealed) construction or non-shielded
construction. If the bearing is fitted with seals then it is sometimes possible to force some
grease pass the seal with a grease gun, but usually you will just have to watch the bearing
deteriorate and change the bearings before the damage gets so bad as to cause secondary
damage.
If the bearing is non-shielded then the bearing should be lubricated following the bearing and
motor manufacturers instructions. If a plug is fitted opposite the grease fitting make sure that
you remove it. Injecting too much grease into the bearing cavity will cause pressurization of
the cavity and the grease will force its way past the bearing into the motor windings
As you inject the grease into the bearing have a spectrum analyzer attached to an
accelerometer on the bearing housing and watch the vibration levels. A simple rule of thumb
for bearing condition is that if the vibration goes down and stays down, the bearing only had a
lubrication problem and you have just fixed it. If the vibration level goes down but rises
again then the bearing is damaged - the sooner the level rises again the worse condition the
bearing is in (from a few of days to several minutes for a very bad bearing).

68

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 66 Demodulated acceleration spectrum of a marked bearing

0.872

Figure 67 Demodulated acceleration spectrum from a slightly more


heavily marked bearing
Figures 71 and 72 show two examples of rolling element bearings which have suffered some
marking of the races (both of these examples show marking of the stationary outer race).
Note that the fundamental frequency has several harmonics but it is the fundamental
frequency which will coincide with the generated bearing defect frequency and help us in our
analysis. At this stage of the bearing deterioration it is sometimes still possible to save the
bearing with additional lubrication. At the very least you will extend the life of the bearing.

69

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

1.000

1.000

Time Waveform mS

160

Figure 68 Time waveform from a marked bearing.

2.500

2.500
0

Time Waveform mS

160

Figure 69 Time waveform from a heavily marked bearing


The two time waveform spectra above show the individual impacts caused by the rollers
impacting onto the damaged raceways. Generally, a ball bearing should not be allowed to
run with impacts of more than 0-7 G peak in the time domain and a cylindrical roller bearing
should be running less than 12 G. If these figures are exceeded then the bearing is almost
certainly severely damaged.
Looking at the time interval between the peaks in the time domain, we can correlate this time
difference with the frequencies seen in the frequency spectrum.

70

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

0.0463

Figure 70 Velocity spectrum from a spalled bearing


As the bearing deteriorates the bearing defect frequencies start to show up in the velocity
spectrum. Figure 75 shows a velocity spectrum from a spalled bearing with multiple
harmonics of the outer race defect frequency. As a general rule of thumb, if you see the
same defect frequencies in the demodulated acceleration and the velocity spectra,
irrespective of amplitude, then that bearing is spalled.

71

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Single Channel Analysis


Taking measurements
The figure below shows a typical tap block for mounting an accelerometer to a motor. This
block is machined with a gramophone finish on the reverse side to give good adhesion to
the mounting surface. The material used for the tap block should be capable of being
magnetized so the tap blocks can also be used for off line measurements with magnet and
accelerometer prior to an accelerometer being permanently fitted; for this reason the material
quoted is bright steel or austenitic stainless.
The block is designed for mounting to the surface with an epoxy adhesive such as Loctite
DEPEND or similar. Whichever adhesive is used, it must set hard in order to transmit the
vibration. The motor mounting surface should be prepared with a hand grinder or similar to
remove all paint and get down to bare metal. The tap block should be mounted without the
accelerometer and allowed to set firmly, holding the tap block in place while the adhesive is
setting with duct tape or similar.
Before mounting the accelerometer it is worth considering the purchase of accelerometers
with local connectors rather than those with integral cables so that if the motor has to be
dismantled it is easier to disconnect the accelerometer.

Width across flats should be


just wider than the base of
the accelerometer.

Drilled & tapped


1/4 28
Material:
Bright Steel or
Austenitic Stainless
Note:
One side to be machined smooth and
the other side to be machined to a
rough gramaphone finish.

1/4

Figure 71 Typical tap block for mounting an accelerometer


When it comes time to mount the accelerometer, put a thin layer of grease on the
accelerometer and a thin layer of epoxy adhesive on the top of the tap block. This will help
the transmission of vibration through the tap block and allow for easy disassembly. Be very
careful not to over-tighten the accelerometer onto the tap block - follow the manufacturers
torque settings. Notice that the tap block is made from hex. stock so that if it is necessary to
remove the block then it can be wrenched off with a suitable spanner. Do not mount the
accelerometer directly onto the surface of the motor with the adhesive unless you want to
lose your accelerometers every time your motor goes away for repair.
Particularly on motors, care should be taken to ground the shield wire at one end only - the
end furthest away from the motor - on to a good electrical ground. Failure to do this will

72

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


result in high amplitude multiples of electrical line frequency (60 Hz). Do not connect both
ends of the shield to ground as you will get beautiful ground loops that will really dominate
your signal. Case isolated accelerometers are usually less susceptible to picking up
electrical frequencies. When running your accelerometer cable back to the junction box,
keep the cable as far away as possible from the motor power cable to avoid cross-talk.
A speed output should be installed for variable speed motors. This could be in the form of a
T.T.L. pulse, once per rev from an installed proximity switch, triggered by a key or from the
installed tachometer channel on the P.L.C. which gives a 4-20 mA output. To use this output
5
the 4-20 mA must be dropped across a resistor of about 250 to give a 2.5 volt drop for a
10 mA signal and 5 volt at full speed (20 mA). Before installing this resistor check with the
engineers responsible for the drive system to make sure the drive system or the P.L.C. is not
adversely affected by the resistor. Once installed the speed input will have to be calibrated
in volts / rpm and fed to a channel input as opposed to a trigger input as would be required
for the T.T.L. pulse..

V = I.R where V is volts, I is amps, R is ohms.

73

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Thin film of
silicone grease

Steel stud
Max temp 1000C (1800F)

Thin film of
silicone grease

Mica washer
Steel stud
Max temp 250C (482F)

Thin layer of
bees wax

Max temp 40C (100F)

Methyl cyanoacrylate
cement (super glue)
Methyl cyanoacrylate
cement (super glue)
soft glue
Steel stud

Max temp 80C (178F)

Figure 72 Accelerometer mounting techniques a-d

74

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Thin double sided


adhesive disk
Thick double sided
adhesive disk
Double sided adhesive
disk

Max temp 95C (200F)

Max temp 150C (300F)

Hand held probe

Figure 73 Accelerometer mounting techniques e-g

(dB) ~ Ref. 100 Hz

Sensitivity Deviation

H a n d
P ro b e
+
+
+
+

4
3
2
1

D u a l R a il
M a g n e t

F la t
M a g n e t

M o u n t in g
P a d

A d h e s iv e
M o u n t

S tu d
M o u n t

0
0
0
0
0

-1 0
-2 0
1 .0

1 0

1 0 0

L o g

1 0 0 0

F re q u e n c y

1 0

0 0 0

1 0 0

0 0 0

(H z )

Figure 74 Overview of accelerometer mounting techniques


Defining the measurement parameters
To address vibration set up we can see that we should ideally have an accelerometer
mounted at the each end of the motor radial to the shaft and another accelerometer mounted

75

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


axially to the shaft. The fan bearings should have accelerometers fitted radially with an axial
reading at the sheave end bearing.
The direction of the accelerometer mounting should be in line with the belts at the drive end
and vertical at the free end. In this case vertical means axial to gravitational pull. The
decision as to where to mount the accelerometers is based on getting the best vibration path
from the defect to the transducer.

Vibration set up parameters should be as follows:

Velocity

Time
Waveform

High
Frequency
Acceleration

Demodulated
Acceleration

Units

Inches/second

Gs
acceleration

Gs
acceleration

Gs
acceleration

Bandwidth

2 kHz (if no HF)

3
shaft
revolutions

RBPF x 3 @
full
speed
(f.s.)

BPFI x 8 @ f.s.

Frequency

Time

Frequency

Frequency

2048 (800 lines)

2048

2048
lines)

2048
lines)

Trigger

Yes if variable spd

Yes if variable
spd

No

Yes if variable
spd

Window

Hanning

Rectangular

Hanning

Hanning

Averages

or BPFI x 8 @ f.s.
Domain
No.
samples

of

(800

(800

For the positioning of accelerometers the settings on the following page should be used as a
guide line.

76

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Electric Drive Motors Vibration Setup Parameters


Legend:
O/B =
I/B =
E=
V=
G=
T=
R=
A=
V+H =

Outboard
Inboard
Enveloped Acceleration (demodulation)
Velocity
Acceleration (High Frequency)
Time Waveform
Radial
Axial
Vertical AND Horizontal readings

Motor Group Ratings:


Group 3
=
5.1 - 20HP
Group 4
=
20.1 - 50HP
Group 5
=
50.1 - 100HP
Group 6
=
100.1 - 250HP
Group 7
=
250.1 - 500HP
O/B E

O/B V

Group 3

Group 4

V+H

O/B
G

I/B E

I/B V

Group 5

Group 6

Group 7

V+H

I/B T

I/B A

Frequency ranges: Demodulation

BPFI x 8

Velocity

BPFI x 8

Acceleration G

= > 3 x rotor bar frequency or 5 kHz

Time waveform

3 shaft revolutions

Note: The measurements marked  are for OFF-LINE systems. On-line systems require
fewer permanently mounted accelerometers but the positions noted above would still need to
be checked prior to issuing a work order based on vibration analysis.
The measurements marked  are for ON-LINE systems with permanently mounted
accelerometers.

77

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Measurement Windows
Many people get confused with this topic. What is windowing? Let's go back to the time
record. What happens if a signal is not exactly periodic within the time record? We said that
its amplitude is divided into multiple adjacent frequency bins. This is true but it's actually a
bit worse than that. If the time record does not start and stop with the same data value, the
signal can actually smear across the entire spectrum. This smearing will also change wildly
between records because the amount of mismatch between the starting value and ending
value changes with each record.
If a sine wave is passing through zero at the beginning and end of the time series, the
resulting FFT spectrum will consist of a single line with the correct amplitude and at the
correct frequency. If, on the other hand, the signal level is not at zero at one or both ends of
the time series record, truncation of the waveform will occur, resulting in a discontinuity in the
sampled signal. This discontinuity causes problems with the FFT process, and the result is a
smearing of the spectrum from a single line into adjacent lines. This is called "leakage";
energy in the signal "leaks" from its proper location into the adjacent lines.
Leakage could be avoided if the time series zero crossings were synchronized with the
sampling times, but this is impossible to achieve in practice. The shape of the "leaky"
spectrum depends on the amount of signal truncation, and is generally unpredictable for real
signals.
In order to reduce the effect of leakage, it is necessary that the signal level is forced zero at
the beginning and end of the time series. This is done by multiplying the data samples by a
"smoothing window" function, which can have several different shapes. The difference
between each smoothing window is the way in which they transition from the low weights
near the edges to the higher weights near the middle of the sequence. If there is no
windowing function used, this is called "Rectangular", "Flat", or "Uniform" windowing.
While the smoothing window does a good job of forcing the ends to zero, it also adds
distortion to the time series which results in sidebands in the spectrum. These sidebands, or
side lobes, effectively reduce the frequency resolution of the analyzer; it is as if the spectral
lines are wider. The measured amplitude of the weighted signal is also incorrect because a
portion of the signal level is removed by the weighting process. To make up for this
reduction in power, windowing algorithms give extra weight to the values near the middle of
the sequence.
Windows are functions defined across the time record which are periodic in the time record.
They start and stop at zero and are smooth functions in between. When the time record is
windowed, its points are multiplied by the window function, time bin by time bin, and the
resulting time record is by definition periodic. It may not be identical from record to record,
but it will be periodic (zero at each end).
In the frequency domain, a window acts like a filter. The amplitude of each frequency bin is
determined by centering this filter on each bin and measuring how much of the signal falls
within the filter. If the filter is narrow, then only frequencies near the bin will contribute to the
bin. A narrow filter is called a selective window - it selects a small range of frequencies
around each bin. However, since the filter is narrow, it falls off from center rapidly. This
means that even frequencies close to the bin may be attenuated somewhat. If the filter is
wide, then frequencies far from the bin will contribute to the bin amplitude but those close by
will not be attenuated significantly.
The net result of windowing is to reduce the amount of smearing in the spectrum from signals
not exactly periodic with the time record. The different types of windows trade off selectivity,
amplitude accuracy, and noise floor.
Several types of window functions are available including Uniform (none), Flattop, Hanning,
Blackman-Harris, and Kaiser.

78

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Uniform
The uniform window is actually no window at all. The time record is used with no weighting.
A signal will appear as narrow as a single bin if its frequency is exactly equal to a frequency
bin. (It is exactly periodic within the time record). If its frequency is between bins, it will affect
every bin of the spectrum. These two cases also have a great deal of amplitude variation
between them (up to 4 dB).
In general, this window is only useful when looking at transients which do not fill the entire
time record.

Hanning
The Hanning window is the most commonly used window. It has an amplitude variation of
about 1.5 dB (for signals between bins) and provides reasonable selectivity. Its filter roll off
is not particularly steep. As a result, the Hanning window can limit the performance of the
analyzer when looking at signals close together in frequency and very different in amplitude.

Flattop
The Flattop window improves on the amplitude accuracy of the Hanning window. Its
between-bin amplitude variation is about 0.02 dB. However, the selectivity is a little worse.
Unlike the Hanning, the Flattop window has a wide pass band and very steep rolloff on either
side. Thus, signals appear wide but do not leak across the whole spectrum.

Blackman-Harris
The Blackman-Harris window is a very good window to use with the spectrum analyzer. It
has better amplitude accuracy (about 0.7 dB) than the Hanning, very good selectivity and the
fastest filter rolloff. The filter is steep and narrow and reaches a lower attenuation than the
other windows. This allows signals close together in frequency to be distinguished, even
when their amplitudes are very different.

Kaiser
The Kaiser window, which is available on IRD analyzers, combines excellent selectivity and
reasonable accuracy (about 0.8 dB for signals between exact bins). The Kaiser window has
the lowest side-lobes and the least broadening for non-bin frequencies. Because of these
properties, it is the best window to use for measurements requiring a large dynamic range.

79

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Averaging
In general, averaging many spectra together improves the accuracy and repeatability of
measurements.

RMS Averaging
RMS averaging computes the weighted mean of the sum of the squared magnitudes (FFT
times its complex conjugate). The weighting is either linear or exponential.
RMS averaging reduces fluctuations in the data but does not reduce the actual noise floor.
With a sufficient number of averages, a very good approximation of the actual random noise
floor can be displayed.
Since RMS averaging involves magnitudes only, displaying the real or imaginary part or
phase of an RMS average has no meaning. The RMS average has no phase information.

Vector (Synchronous Time) Averaging


Vector averaging averages the complex FFT spectrum. (The real part is averaged separately
from the imaginary part.) This can reduce the noise floor for random signals since they are
not phase coherent from time record to time record.
Vector averaging requires a trigger. The signal of interest must be both periodic and phase
synchronous with the trigger. Otherwise, the real and imaginary parts of the signal will not
add in phase and instead will cancel randomly.
With vector averaging, the real and imaginary parts as well as phase displays are correctly
averaged and may be displayed. This is because the complex information is preserved.

Peak Hold
Peak Hold is not really averaging, instead, the new spectral magnitudes are compared to the
previous data, and if the new data is larger, then the new data is stored. This is done on a
frequency bin by bin basis. The resulting display shows the peak magnitudes which occurred
in the previous group of spectra.
Peak Hold detects the peaks in the spectral magnitudes and only applies to Spectrum, PSD,
and Octave Analysis measurements. However, the peak magnitude values are stored in the
original complex form. If the real or imaginary part or phase is being displayed for spectrum
measurements, the display shows the real or imaginary part or phase of the complex peak
value.

Linear Averaging
Linear averaging combines N (number of averages) spectra with equal weighting in either
RMS, Vector or Peak Hold fashion. This type of averaging is useful for eliminating
transients.

Exponential Averaging
Exponential averaging weights new data more than old data.
according to the formula,

Averaging takes place

New Average = (New Spectrum * 1/N) +(Old Average) * (N-l)/N


where N is the number of averages.
Exponential averages "grow" for approximately the first 5N spectra until the steady state
values are reached. Once in steady state, further changes in the spectra are detected only if

80

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


they last sufficiently long. Make sure that the number of averages is not so large as to
eliminate the changes in the data that might be important.

81

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Real Time Bandwidth and Overlap Processing


What is real time bandwidth? Simply stated, it is the frequency span whose corresponding
time record exceeds the time it takes to compute the spectrum. At this span and below, it is
possible to compute the spectra for every time record with no loss of data. The spectra are
computed in "real time". At larger spans, some data samples will be lost while the FFT
computations are in progress.
What about narrow spans where the time record is long compared to the processing time
which is what we normally see when taking vibration measurements? The analyzer
computes one FFT per time record and can wait until the next time record is complete before
computing the next FFT. The update rate would be no faster than one spectra per time
record. With narrow spans, this could be quite slow.
And what is the processor doing while it waits? Nothing. With overlap processing, the
analyzer does not wait for the next complete time record before computing the next FFT.
Instead it uses data from the previous time record as well as data from the current time
record to compute the next FFT. This speeds up the processing rate. Remember, most
window functions are zero at the start and end of the time record. Thus, the points at the
ends of the time record do not contribute much to the FFT. With overlap, these points are
re-used" and appear as middle points in other time records. This is why overlap effectively
speeds up averaging and smoothes out window variations.

Overlap Percentage
The amount of overlap is specified as a percentage of the time record. 0% is no overlap and
99.8% is the typical maximum. The maximum overlap is determined by the amount of time
it takes to calculate an FFT and the length of the time record and thus varies according to the
span. For vibration analysis of rotating machinery a good overlap is 50% as this ensures that
no data is zeroed out by the smoothing windows, yet sufficient samples are gathered for a
valid analysis.

82

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Analysis
The following procedure gives an overview of the procedure to take in the
analysis of vibration frequency spectra.

Predictive Maintenance Procedure


Date:July 11, 1995
Procedure Name: Signature Analysis
Purpose: To provide a routine procedure for analysis of vibration in order to promote
understanding of the relationship between vibration frequencies and their causes.

Activities:
1)

Select the first plot of the machine which will be at the driver outboard and will be an
enveloped acceleration reading. Identify the run speed accurately. If you have
frequency information for the machine ensure that the reference speed is accurate if not you must change the speed reference before continuing.

2)

In the envelope spectrum see if any of the generated frequencies coincide with (or
are close to) any significant spikes. Remember that the bearing frequencies may not
be completely accurate if the bearing which has been nominated in the frequency
setup has been replaced with an equivalent.

As a rule of thumb:

Ball Pass Frequency Outer Race


Elements x 0.4

Run Speed x No. Of Rolling

Ball Pass Frequency Inner Race


Elements x 0.6

Run Speed x No. Of Rolling

Cage Frequency

Run Speed x 0.4

Note that this vibration is not necessarily direction specific.

3)

Once a spike at a bearing frequency has been identified you should check the
baseline for this type of machine for the trend. If the trend is deteriorating then
further checks are necessary. Be careful that you do not confuse a run speed
harmonic or an electrical frequency with a bearing defect frequency. One common
bearing frequency is just over 3 x run speed for BPOR on a 8 element bearing. The
run speed of an electric motor cannot exceed the electrical speed so harmonics of
run speed cannot have a frequency even slightly more than 3600 cpm (for a 1200
rpm motor) or 5400 cpm (for a 1800 rpm motor) or 10,800 cpm (for a 3600 rpm
motor) - if the spike is even at a slightly higher frequency then it is likely caused by a
bearing defect otherwise it is likely a run speed harmonic or an electrical frequency.
Check the time domain signal for angel fish patterns.

4)

In the single spectrum plot double click on the convert the display to dB(G)
(referenced to 0.001 G). Identify the carpet amplitude in dB(G) - this is the average
amplitude (excluding spikes). Identify the amplitude of the spikes above the carpet
level. The following rules of thumb apply to enveloped acceleration levels in dB(G):

5)

> 20 dB(G) rise in carpet level -

under lubrication

10-15 dB(G) spike above carpet -

minor marking

> 20 dB(G) spike above carpet -

marked race.

If the spectrum shows multiples of run speed then there is an impact every rev of the
rotor, with possible looseness if there are many multiples. If the bearing defect
frequencies have sidebands of cage frequency then there is a FALSE BRINELLING

83

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


problem. If the bearing defect frequency and harmonics have sidebands of run
speed then there is probably a defect on the inner race. As the defect deteriorates
then the carpet level will rise and the sidebands and harmonics will increase in
amplitude up to a certain amplitude then stop. The carpet level will continue to rise
as random marking occurs around the bearing and may rise to mask the spikes
completely.
6)

Move to the velocity spectrum for the same point but with amplitude set to linear.
Check to see if there are any spikes in velocity at the bearing defect, harmonics of
the defect and/or sidebands of the defect - look particularly for the third and fifth
harmonics. If any spike at these frequencies exist then there is physical spalling of
the race. If the amplitude of the spike reaches 1 mm/s then the spalling is severe.

7)

In the velocity spectrum the following patterns indicate the associated defects:

Dominant
Frequency

Secondar
y
Frequenc
y

Harmonic
s of
Dominant
Frequency

Sidebands

Dominant
Direction

Defect

Suggested
Maximum
Amplitude
@
Dominant
Frequency

1x

Nil

Nil

Nil

Radial

Imbalance

6 mm/s

1x

1/2 or 1/3
x

Multiple

Nil

Radial

Looseness

3 mm/s

1x

3x

2 or 3

Nil

Axial

Misalignmen
t

4 mm/s

BPFO / BPFI

1x

Multiple

1x / Cage

Radial

Bearings

0.5 mm/s

7,200 cpm

Rotor Bar

2 or 3

2xLF of
RBF

Any

Electrical

5 mm/s

Any

Any

Nil

Nil

Any

Resonance

7 mm/s

Gear Mesh

1x

3 or 4

1x

Radial

Gearing

1 mm/s

2x Belt

1x

2 or 3

N/A

Radial

Belts

5 mm/s

If there is a significant defect raise a work request.

84

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Severity charts

Figure 75 General severity chart for vibration


Figure 81 shows a general severity chart for vibration which is in widespread use. There are
many versions of these charts. The best use for these charts is for new or rebuilt equipment
acceptance limits. Dependency on these charts can be confusing, especially if the bedplate
is flexible or on resilient mounts.

85

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

CONSTRUCTION STANDARD SPECIFICATION


SECTION 15200
VIBRATION LIMITS AND CONTROL

Page
PART 1 - GENERAL
1.01 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Summary

88

1.02 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------References

88

1.03 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Submittals

88

1.04 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Quality Assurance

88

PART 2 - PRODUCTS
2.01 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vibration Isolators

88

2.02 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vibration Measurement Device

89

PART 3 - EXECUTION
3.01 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Installation

90

3.02 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Vibration Testing

90

3.03 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Vibration Limits

91

3.04 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- Vibrations Measurement Report

93

3.05 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Resonance

94

86

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

87

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

CONSTRUCTION STANDARD SPECIFICATION


SECTION 15200

VIBRATION LIMITS AND CONTROL


PART 1 - GENERAL
1.01

SUMMARY
Section includes types of vibration isolators required for different systems, and
establishes maximum acceptable limits for vibration of machines with five
horsepower or greater, in terms of:

1.02

A.

Balance level in displacement (mils) as filtered measurement at rotating


speed.

B.

Overall velocity (in/sec) in 10 - 1,000 Hz band.

C.

Bearing quality or condition by measuring overall acceleration in 0 - 5,000 Hz


band, which indicates severity of metal-to-metal contact by detecting shock
pulses. This measurement is normalized to speed.

REFERENCES
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
S2.2-1959 (R1990)

1.03

1.04

Methods for the Calibration of Shock and vibration


Pickups

SUBMITTALS
A.

General: Submit the following items in accordance with the Conditions of


Contract and Section 01330, "Submittal Procedures.

B.

Vibration Report: Submit in accordance with specified requirements of Part 3.

QUALITY ASSURANCE
Contractor is required to demonstrate to Sandia that equipment complies with
requirements of this specification. Measurements can be taken elsewhere, and
documents submitted as evidence of passage; but final acceptance judgement shall
be made from measurements taken on site in equipments final, installed location
and operating configuration. Equipment shall not be accepted until fully compliant
with specified requirements.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS
2.01

VIBRATION ISOLATORS
Spring and Resilient Pad Hangars: Stable steel spring and neoprene isolator placed
in series, and encased in welded steel bracket, with allowance for rod misalignment
up to 15 degrees without short-circuiting. Provide Mason Industries, Inc., Model
PC30N, or approved equal.

88

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

2.02

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT DEVICE


A.

General
1. Capable of filtered displacement readings at rotational speed.
a. Provide separate speed-measuring device, such as strobe light, photo
tachometer, or mechanical tachometer, to measure rotating speed of
belt-driven or variable-speed machines.
b. Displacement Readings: Mils (0.001 inch), peak-to-peak.
c. Filter Bandwidth: Sufficiently narrow to achieve accuracy of 10
percent from absolute value.
2. Velocity Measurement: Overall in 10 to 1,000 Hz bandwidth, readings in
inches per second, peak.
3. Acceleration Measurement: Overall in 0 to 5,000 Hz bandwidth, readings
in g, peak.
a. Capability to record and plot waveform with 100-microsecond
resolution (5,000-Hz frequency span and 500 lines with Fast Fourier
Transform (FFT) analyzer).
b. Record and plot waveform for acceleration level failures to aid
analysis.
4. FFT analyzer with accelerometer can meet the above requirements.

B.

Calibration of Complete Instrumentation System: Includes transducer, signal


conditioning, cable, and readout instrument. Calibrate in accordance with one
of the methods in ANSI S2.2.
1. Comparison calibration is acceptable.
2. Calibration of transducer alone is unacceptable; final reading is dependent
on settings in readout instrument (like windows, filters, averaging method,
calibration constants, and frequency span).

C.

Frequency Response: Linear (within 10 percent) in 1 to 5,000 Hz range.


Internally generated noise or external signals that are not vibration, shall
be less than 1 percent of upper limit under test (signal-to-noise ratio shall
be 100 to 1). Noise is defined as any signal level displayed that is not
vibration.

D.

Recording and Plotting Capability: Capable of recording frequency spectrum


and time plot, and plotting on paper.
1. Both plots unfiltered below 5,000 Hz.
2. Spectrum Frequency Resolution: No coarser than 1/200 of full span
frequency (200-line spectrum analyzer or finer is suitable).
3. Digital integration of accelerometer signal to velocity or displacement is
acceptable.

89

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

PART 3 - EXECUTION
3.01

INSTALLATION
A.

Piping Systems: Connect refrigerant piping to compressors with refrigerantrated, flexible metallic sections, oriented parallel to crankshaft.
1. Use flexible connections parallel to crankshaft to connect building air
piping to air compressors.
2. When piping vibration hangars are specified, provide spring hanger
isolators as described in Part 2.

B.

Ductwork:
Attach to fans with weatherproof, flame-retardant flexible
connections.
When duct vibration hangars are specified, provide spring hanger isolators
described in Part 2.

3.02

VIBRATION TESTING
A.

Perform vibration testing after equipment alignment and balance.

B.

Obtain vibration measurements after Test and Balance is complete. The


machines shall be at their normal operating conditions (such as normal speed,
normal loading, and producing flow or energy) for which the system was
designed.

C.

Determine and record equipment operating speeds with tachometer or strobe.


Indicate both driving and driven speeds.

D.

Check isolation system for proper operation, if applicable:


1. Visually inspect equipment installation. Verify that isolators supporting
piece of equipment have approximately the same deflection.
2. Apply unbalanced load and verify that system moves freely.
3. Determine actual isolator deflection and compare to specified value.

E.

Vibration Measurements: Obtain at each bearing, or as close to bearing on


structure as practical. For machines housed in rigid casing, such as electric
motors or vaneaxial fans, obtain measurements at each end of machine.
1. Obtain three orthogonal measurements at each bearing, typically in
horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. For unusual configurations, three
orthogonal measurements in other orientations are allowed.
2. Hand-held probing is allowed. Magnetic mounting of transducers is
preferred. Adjust magnet on rough surfaces so that it is stable and does
not rock.

F.

Safety: Exercise extreme caution when obtaining vibration measurements on


operating machinery.
1. Measurement points may be deleted if it poses unnecessary risk, in the
opinion of person taking measurements.

90

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


2. Judgement of equipments vibration acceptability will be made from
pattern of remaining measurements by the Sandia Delegated
Representative (SDR).
3. If necessary, machine may be stopped to attach transducers and secure
cables, and this stop-start pattern repeated for each measurement point.
4. Obtain SDRs approval prior to deleting measurement points, and stopping
and starting equipment.
G.

Operate variable-speed machines throughout their entire range, at each


measurement point, and observe for resonance. Measure and record vibration
at minimum of three operating speeds. Vibration levels must be acceptable at
all three test speeds.
1. Maximum speed.
2. Speed which produces highest reading at each measuring point.
3. Expected normal operating speed.

H.

It is acceptable to take measurements over a period of time and statistically


average the readings. It is recognized that vibration is mostly steady state, but
it is also dynamic, changes with time, and external transients can influence
readings.
Digital and analog readings can be averaged visually. Summation
averaging with FFT analyzer is acceptable. Time period of observation, or
averaging, shall be minimum of 10 seconds.

3.03

VIBRATION LIMITS
A.

Maximum allowable measurements for various pieces of equipment are shown


below:

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Table 1 Vibration Limits (15200)


Equipment

Overall Velocity

Balance Condition

Overall
Acceleration

Displacement

(in/sec, Peak

(mils, P-P at 1X rpm)

10 - 1,000 Hz)

1,000 - 2,000 rpm

2.0

0.2

0.5

> 2,000 rpm

1.0

0.2

1.0

2.0

0.2

0.5

< 600 rpm

4.0

0.3

0.5

600-1,000 rpm

3.0

0.3

1.0

1,000-2,000 rpm

2.0

0.3

1.5
2.0

(g, Peak
0 - 5,000 Hz)

Electric Motors

Generators
Centrifugal Fans

> 2,000 rpm

1.0

0.3

Vaneaxial Fans

1.0

0.2

0.5

Blowers

1.0

0.3

0.5

2.0

0.2

0.5

Pumps
1800 rpm

1.0

0.2

1.0

Centrifugal Compressors

3600 rpm

1.0

0.2

3.0

Cooling Tower Gearboxes

3.0

0.4

2.0

Reciprocating Engines

5.0

1.0

10.0

Turbines

1.0

0.2

0.5

Gearboxes

1.0

0.4

2.0

Twin Screw Compressors

1.0

1.0

15.0

Gas or Diesel

B.

Displacement measurements at operating speeds shall not exceed values in


Table 1, or reduced values if equipment is mounted on inertia block. Values in
Table 1, multiplied by displacement ratio will give maximum allowable peak-topeak displacements for equipment on inertia blocks.

Displacement Ratio =

1
((MB/M) + 1)

where:

= Supported equipment and fluid weight

MB

= Inertia base weight

C.

Axial vibration measurement shall not exceed maximum radial (vertical or


horizontal) vibration at same location.

D.

Machines driven by reciprocating engines, such as pumps or generators, shall


only be required to pass higher limits of reciprocating engines.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


E.

3.04

Non-Compliance: Equipment that does not comply with specified vibration


tolerances shall be corrected at manufacturer's expense. Retest equipment
and submit measurement results report in accordance with requirements of
following article.

VIBRATIONS MEASUREMENT REPORT


A.

Submit written report that includes the following:


1. Description of instruments used, their last calibration date, and calibration
method.
2. Actual vibration measurements and rotating speed at each point in tabular
form. Table 2 is a sample report.
3. State whether each machine passes or fails based upon vibration limits
listed in Table 1. Analysis of defective condition and recommendations for
corrective action are optional.
4. See Table 2 for sample report.

B.

Vibration Spectrum Plots: Include with written report minimum of plots for
each machine (in velocity units); one plot for driver machine and another for
driven machine.
For machines that pass, choice of which point to plot is at discretion of
analyst. Plots are intended to serve as evidence of passing, and as
baseline data for future analysis.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Table 2 Sample Vibration Report (15200)

Equipment

Location

Balance
Displacement
(mil, P-P)

Overall Velocity
(in/sec Peak
10-10,000 Hz)

Overall
Acceleration
(g, Peak
0 - 5,000 Hz)

MAU-1

Horizontal

1.2

0.09

0.8

Opposite Drive End


Bearing

Vertical

0.9

0.12

0.7

Axial

0.4

0.08

0.8

Drive End

Horizontal

1.1

0.13

0.9

Bearing

Vertical

0.8

0.15

1.0

1,200 rpm

Axial

0.6

0.10

0.9

Motor Drive End

Horizontal

0.9

0.10

0.2

1,770 rpm

Vertical

0.7

0.12

0.3

Axial

0.5

0.09

0.1

Opposite

Horizontal

1.0

0.09

0.2

Drive End

Vertical

0.8

0.11

0.15

1,770 rpm

Axial

0.2

0.09

0.11

Pass
or
Fail

Pass

1,200 rpm

3.05

RESONANCE
A.

Resonating components on machines or other supplied equipment, such as


pipes, panels, or ducts, are equipment flaws. Contractor shall bear full burden
of stiffening components or other corrective action, until vibration
measurements at bearings pass balance limits listed in Table 1.

B.

If equipment vibration testing failures are related to foundation or building


resonance, Contractor shall demonstrate this basis to SDR. SDR shall do one
of the following:
1. Accept the vibration.
2. Require additional corrective work on Contractors part to compensate,
such as better balancing or alignment, or softer springs.
3. Move the machine.
4. Stiffen the structure.

94

Pass

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Potential Failure Analysis


A methodology for objective set up
Introduction
The purpose of monitoring equipment in predictive maintenance (PdM) is to be able to
assess the health and condition of the machine relative to any potential failures. In order for
us to carry out this assessment we must be absolutely certain that we are taking the correct
measurements at the right place and that we are taking them often enough so that we do not
miss a developing failure. The methodology that we will employ to ensure that we are taking
the right measurements with the correct parameters is the potential failure analysis (PFA)
tree.

The PFA Tree


The tree is structured in the following way:

Setup
Interval
Analysis
Parameter
Technology
External Manifestation
Failure Type
Base Cause
Let us take each of these components and look at them in detail from the roots up.

Base cause
As the name suggests this is the root cause of any potential failure. Examples could be:
lubrication problems, misalignment, manufacturing defects and so on. The base cause often
branches out to more than one failure type, for example misalignment could cause a bearing
failure or a shaft breakage.

Failure type
This is the failure that we could expect from the base cause. In other words this is a very
short description of the actual failure that the machine would suffer should the base cause
carry on without remedial work being carried out.

External manifestation
This is where we start getting technical. How will the problem show itself at the various
stages of failure? For illustration we will discuss the four stages of bearing failures and how
they show themselves. An example would be that a misalignment would show itself as an
increase in vibration at the machine, whereas a plugged heat exchanger would show itself as
a rise in differential pressure and with a change in temperature from optimum of the cooled
fluid.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Technology
So now we know how the problem will show its ugly head but what is the best technology to
detect it. We have already said that misalignment shows itself as a rise in vibration so the
technology to use would be a vibration based technology. The heat exchanger temperature
change may be detected by a mercury-in-glass thermometer or alternatively by the use of
infra-red technology. At this stage you need to have detailed understanding of the failure
modes and predictive maintenance applications.

Parameter
So the technology of choice for detection misalignment is vibration, but what type of vibration
is best? In this case the best vibration parameter is velocity. For the heat exchanger we
may decide that the most suitable parameter is a radiometric thermal image or maybe we will
decide to use a simple point and shoot infra-red thermometer.

Analysis
At this point we are giving the analyst an idea of what detail he should expect to see in the
chosen parameter when the subject machine has a developing defect. Our misalignment will
show as an increase in velocity vibration in the axial direction for a belt driven machine at run
speed with two or three harmonics and our thermal image will show a high temperature
gradient across the cooler.

Interval
How often do we need to take the reading to ensure that we do not miss a developing
problem. For example if we are looking for rolling element bearing defects we should take
the readings at least once a month but if we are looking for a misalignment then once every
three months would be ample.

Setup
To detect the misalignment we have said that we will use vibration technology with a velocity
parameter and that we are looking for two or three multiples of run speed in the frequency
spectrum. If that is the only defect that we are looking for then we can safely set the
maximum frequency in the spectrum at about ten time run speed with 400 lines of resolution
as we are not looking for small changes in frequency such as slip sidebands.

96

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Developing a Potential Failure Analysis for Rolling Element


Bearings

Figure 76 PFA development for rolling element bearings

97

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Consider figure 1, above. It shows the four stages of a rolling element bearing failure.
Before you can develop the PFA tree for the rolling element bearing you must have a
thorough understanding of the possible failure modes and extrapolate these modes to their
logical conclusions.

Stage 1
Notice that the first stage of the defect is linked to lubrication problems. At this stage we can
detect any problems using high frequency vibration parameters such as demodulation or ultra
sonics. To detect a defect at this stage with vibration we need to use a high frequency
technique such as envelope signal processing (ESP) with the following parameters:
Fmax

= BPFI x 8 (or thereabouts)

Envelope filter = 2.5 - 5 kHz (for electric motor bearings up to about 250 HP)
No lines
Window
Averages

= 400 or 800
= Hanning, Hamming or Kaiser
= typically 4 with maybe 50% overlap

If your data collector does not support a high frequency function such as ESP or HFB then
take an overall acceleration reading.

Stage 2
The next stage of failure involves light marking of the bearing. Again the parameter of
choice is a high frequency technique but experience tells us that a spectral parameter is most
suited to detecting marked races. So the choice here would almost certainly be ESP. The
setup for the ESP reading would be the same as in stage 1. The onset of stage 2 can be also
be detected by searching for a rise in amplitude in resonance frequencies so if you do not
have ESP you can take a velocity or acceleration spectrum with an Fmax above resonance.
If we expect resonance to occur at about 2 kHz then the Fmax should be about 3 kHz. Note
that if you are using seismic velocity transducers you will not be able to look this high in the
frequency range.

Stage 3
The third stage of the bearing failure is when the bearing starts to spall. At this stage we start
to see the defect in velocity usually at the third or fifth harmonic of the bearing defect
frequency. We may also see sidebands of run speed or cage frequency around the defect
frequencies or their harmonics. We should be taking an ESP and a velocity reading. The
ESP reading should be the same as that set up in stage 1. The velocity reading should be
set up as follows:
Fmax
or

= BPFI x 8 (if also using ESP or similar reading)


= 2.5 kHz (do not confuse AC motor frequencies with a brg defect)

No lines
Window
Averages

= 400 or 800
= Hanning, Hamming or Kaiser
= typically 4 with maybe 50% overlap

We should also take a time waveform reading in G acceleration to look for the bearing
impacts at all stages of the failure. The time duration should be calculated to be enough to
show about 3 revs of the shaft. We also need enough resolution in the time domain to be
able to differentiate the impacts and calculate the frequencies of occurrence of the impacts.
Usually 1,024 samples is adequate resolution. To calculate the Fmax in the point setup
screen we use the following formula:

Fmax =

No. of samples

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


time for 3 revs x 2.56
Example. For a bearing on a shaft running at 1195 rpm the time for on rev is:
60/1195
= 0.0502 seconds
or 50.2 milliseconds (mS).
If we require a resolution of 1,024 points, the appropriate Fmax would be:
Fmax

1024

0.0502 x 3 x 2.56
= 2,656 Hz
So we would set the Fmax to 2.5 kHz or the nearest available frequency.

Stage 4
The final stage of failure is when the bearing physically collapses. At this stage the bearing
overheats dramatically and very quickly. Temperature measurement using embedded
thermo-couples have been used successfully for protection systems but usually only for
thrust bearings which develop the raised temperature before standard radial support
bearings.

Including the Component Failure in the PFA Tree.


We now include all of the information from our failure study of the rolling element bearings
into our potential failure analysis tree (figure 2). Notice that the bearing failure is only one of
the potential failures that we now know of.
We have carried out potential failure analyses on all of the possible defects that we think a
motor, which is operating under these particular conditions, may eventually suffer. Not only
have we considered the possibility of bearing failure but we have included insulation
breakdown, rotor bar defects, loose components and even drive problems on D.C. motors.
The procedure for building the PFA tree is the same for any equipment or component:

Identify the possible failure mechanisms

Determine how the failure mechanism will show itself

Quantify the best contemporary method for detecting the failure mechanism

Define set up parameters to best use the detection method for this failure mechanism

99

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Press Main Drive Motor PFA Tree


Base Cause Failure Type
Dry/Marked
bearings

Bearing Failure

External
Manifestation
High frequency
resonance @ bearing
defect frequency intervals

Technology
Vibration

Parameter
Demodulation
(Ultra Sound)
Time
Waveform

Spalled
bearings

Bearing Failure

Harmonics of bearing
defect frequencies

Vibration

Analysis

Interval

Spikes @ Brg defect


frequencies (20 dBG)
See sect. 2.5

On Line

Set Up
Fmax = BPFI x 8
Radial
G acceleration

Peaks in waveform

On Line

= 3 revs

Velocity

Spikes @ Brg defect


freqys. & harmonics
and/or sidebands.
See sct. 2.5

On Line

Fmax = BPFI x 8
(higher if not using
resonance parameter)
Radial

Time
Waveform

Peaks @ 12 G (roller)
7 G (ball brg)

On Line

= 3 revs
G acceleration

Misalignment

Bearing Failure/
Shaft Failure

High axial vibration

Vibration

Velocity

Multiples of run speed


axial > radial

On Line

Fmax = 10 x rpm
Axial

Looseness

Bearing Failure/
Shaft Failure/
Structural Failure

Run speed harmonics


& subharmonics

Vibration

Velocity

Multiples of run speed


up to 15x. Possible
sub-harmonics

On Line

Fmax = 10 x rpm
Vertical

Bad S.C.R.s

Winding
defects

Rotor
defects

Vibration @ SCR Frqys

Vibration

Velocity

Thermography

Thermal Image

240 Hz, 1/3 DC pulse,


s/band on DC(Sect.2.5)
Bad SCR is colder

On Line

Changes in SCR temps.

6 month

Fmax = 120 kcpm


Drive End
Compare SCR to SCR

Different current /
Current Draw
input phase
Stator temp. rise/
Thermography
Uneven temp. distribution

Amps

Unbalanced supply

6 month

Compare phase to phase

Thermal image
(spot temp)

Hot spot on stator

6 month

1 baseline

Earth current leakage

Insulation test

Megger

Should be > 1.5 M

6 month

Motor de-energized

Rotor failure

Line frequency +
sidebands

Motor load
Motor current
current analysis frequency

6 month

Press idling

Motor burnout

Vibration @ rotor bar


pass frequency

Vibration

Sidebands of slip x No.


of poles around 60 Hz
(Sect. 2.2)
Sidebands of 1x
(Sect 2.2)

Reduced Power
Motor Burnout

Motor burnout

Velocity

On Line

Fmax = RBPF x 3
Radial
c. Ron Frend - PreDiCon

Figure 77 PFA for a main motor

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Conclusion
The method outlined in this paper for setting up the type of readings in a predictive
maintenance system will result in quantifiable, repeatable and useful measurements if these
factors are taken into consideration:

The engineer or technician defining the measurements must be familiar with previous
failures encountered on machines similar to the machine under scrutiny

The engineer or technician defining the measurements should be cognizant of all

available predictive maintenance technologies.

The engineer or technician defining the measurements must be aware of the limitations
of the technology which is used for the measurement.

Finally, dont limit yourself to only taking vibration measurements - there are a host of other
technologies out there which complement vibration in a predictive maintenance application.

DISSOLVER FEED CHUTE FAILURE MODES


CHUTE ASSEMBLIES
LINER WEAR
CLAMP/SEAL FAILURE
CAM SIEZURE

INSPECTION - CCTV (wieght ?)


INSPECTION - CCTV
FORIEGN BODY INGRESS

INSPECTION - CCTV
(reference marks req'd)

CORROSION
FRETTING/CLEARANCE INCREASE

DRIVE ASSEMBLY
GREASE SEAL FAILURE

MATERIAL CHOICE

ROTARY SIEZURE

BEARING COLLAPSE

LOADING

BEARING CLEARANCE INCREASE

MATERIALS / LOADING

DESIGN

OVER TEMPERATURE

LUBRICATION / LOADING

DESIGN

DRIVE SIEZURE

DESIGN

DESIGN

FORIEGN BODY INGRESS


CORROSION

BEARING DEFECTS

BRINNELLING

SLIDE BUSH SIEZURE

GEAR WEAR / DEFECTS

LUBRICATION / CLEARANCE

DESIGN

MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY / CORROSION

DESIGN

DIRT/MATERIALS CHOICE

NOISE / VIBRATION

INSPECTION - CCTV (reference marks req'd)


HEAD 1

Ron Frend 2006

101

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

BEARING DEFECT DETECTION


BEARING COLLAPSE

PROBLEMS

OVER TEMPERATURE
FORIEGN BODY INGRESS

BEARING DEFECTS

ULTRA-LOW SPEED
PARTIAL ROTATION

CORROSION

INNER BEARING MOUNTS

BRINNELLING

PROBLEM

FREQUENCY RESOLUTION NOT POSSIBLE


TIME-BASE READINGS REQ'D IN : ACCELERATION
STRESS WAVE

RADIATION

HEAD 2

Ron Frend 2006

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Press Flywheel PFA Tree


Base Cause Failure Type

External
Manifestation

Technology

Parameter

Dry/Marked
bearings

Bearing Failure

High frequency
resonance @ bearing
defect frequency intervals

Vibration

Demodulation
(Ultra Sound)

Spalled
bearings

Bearing Failure

Harmonics of bearing
defect frequencies

Vibration

Velocity

Bearing Failure/
Shaft Failure/
Structural Failure

Run speed harmonics


& subharmonics

Vibration

Interval

Set Up
Fmax = BPFI x 8
Radial
G acceleration

Spikes @ Brg defect


frequencies (20 dBG)
See sect. 3.5

On Line

Peaks in waveform

On Line

= 3 revs

Spikes @ Brg defect


freqys. & harmonics
and/or sidebands.
See sct. 3.5

On Line

Fmax = BPFI x 8
(higher if not using
resonance parameter)
Radial

Time
Waveform

Peaks @ 12 G (roller)
7 G (ball brg)

On Line

= 3 revs
G acceleration

Velocity

Multiples ofBPFO
or BPFI in velocity
Sect. 3.5

Time
Waveform

Looseness

Analysis

On Line

Fmax = 10 x rpm
Vertical
1 Baseline

c. Ron Frend - PreDiCon

Ron Frend 2006

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Two Channel Analysis


Two channel functions
Two-channel analyzers offer additional measurements such as transfer function, crossspectrum, coherence and orbit. These measurements are discussed below.

Transfer Function
The transfer function is the ratio of the spectrum of channel 2 to the spectrum of channel 1.
For the transfer function to be valid, the input spectrum must have amplitude at all
frequencies over which the transfer function is to be measured.

Cross Spectrum
The cross spectrum is defined as:
cross spectrum = FFT2 conj(FFT1)
The cross spectrum is a complex quantity which contains magnitude and phase information.
The phase is the relative phase between the two channels. The magnitude is simply the
product of the magnitudes of the two spectra. Frequencies where signals are present in both
spectra will have large components in the cross spectrum.

Orbit
The orbit is simply a two dimensional display of the time record of channel 1 vs. the time
record of channel 2. The orbit display is similar to an oscilloscope displaying a "Lissajous"
figure.

Coherence
Coherence measures the percentage of power in channel 2 which is caused by (phase
coherent with) power in the input channel. Coherence is a unit-less quantity which varies
from 0 to l. If the coherence is 1, all the power of the output signal is due to the input signal.
If the coherence is 0, the input and output are completely random with respect to one
another. Coherence is related to signal to noise ratio (S/N) by the formula:
2

S/N = /(l - )
where 2 is the traditional notation for coherence.

Correlation
The two channel analyzer may also compute auto and cross correlation. Correlation is a time
domain measurement which is defined as follows:
*

Auto Correlation() = x (t)x(t-)dt


*

Cross Correlation() = x (t)y(t-)dt


where x and y are the channel 1 and channel 2 input signals and the integrals are over all
time. It is clear that the auto correlation at a time t is a measure of how much overlap a

Ron Frend 2006

104

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


signal has with a delayed-by-t version of itself, and the cross-correlation is a measure of
how much overlap a signal has with a delayed-by-t version of the other channel. Although
correlation is a time domain measurement some analyzers use frequency domain techniques
to compute it in order to make the calculation faster.

Spectrum
Although the linear magnitude scale is used most often for displaying spectra, another way of
displaying amplitude is the Log Magnitude. The Log Mag display graphs the magnitude of
the spectrum on a logarithmic scale.
Why is the Log Mag display useful? Remember that the 16 bit analyzer has a dynamic range
of about 90 dB. below full scale. Imagine what something 0.01% of full scale would look like
on a linear scale. If we wanted it to be 1 inch high on the graph, the top of the graph would
be 833 feet above the bottom - It turns out that the log display is both easy to understand and
shows features which have very different amplitudes clearly.
The real and imaginary parts are always displayed on a linear scale. This avoids the problem
of taking the log of negative voltages.

Phase
In general, phase measurements are only used when the analyzer is triggered. The phase is
relative to the pulse of the trigger.
The phase is displayed in degrees or radians on a linear scale, usually from -180 to +180
degrees.
The phase of a particular frequency bin is set to zero in most analyzers if neither the real nor
imaginary part of the FFT is greater than 0.012% of full scale (-78 dB below f.s.). This avoids
the messy phase display associated with the noise floor. (Remember, even if a signal is
small, its phase extends over the full 360 degrees.)

Advanced functions
Representation by complex numbers
Sometimes the representation of the spectrum is carried out by the use of rotating vectors
instead of sine waves. For complex signals this is often much more convenient. Consider
the vector below.

Ron Frend 2006

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

a
t
0

a+b

Figure 78 Vector addition of 2 vibrations


The parallelogram rotates at the vibration frequency t so the two vibrations must be at the
same frequency for this representation to work. For numerical addition, however the vectors
must be resolved geometrically which loses almost all of the advantage of ease. There
exists a simpler method of handling the vectors numerically by employing imaginary
numbers. A complex number can represented graphically by a point in a plane where the
real numbers 1,2,3 etc. are plotted horizontally and the imaginary numbers are plotted
vertically. With the notation
j = -1
these imaginary numbers are j, j2, j3, etc. Harmonic motions are represented by rotating
vectors. A substitution of the variable angle t for the fixed angle of the vector () leads to
a(cos t + j sin t)
representing a rotating vector, the horizontal projection of which is the harmonic motion. But
this horizontal projection is also the real part of the vector. So if we say that a vector
represents harmonic motion what we really mean is that the horizontal projection of the
rotating vector represent that motion. Similarly if we say that a complex number represents
harmonic motion we imply that the real part of such a number, written in the form a(cos t +
j sin t) represents that motion. Almost all of the algorithms in the analyzer which involve
phase make reference to the imaginary number. We do not necessarily need to make much
use of this number but we do need to know where it comes from. The first use that we will
make of the imaginary number is the Nyquist chart which is useful for identifying resonances.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Cascade & waterfall plots

Figure 79 Cascade of fan over 20mS


There is quite a lot of confusion over the terms cascade and waterfall plots in the vibration
world. A cascade plot is a 3-D representation of the amplitude against speed with respect to
time and the waterfall is the 3-D representation of the amplitude against frequency with
respect to time such as the example shown above. The advantage of these plots is that we
can record data over a certain period of time and see how all of the relevant frequencies are
affected. This could be a very high speed machine over a short time duration or a slow
speed machine over a very long time period.
Whichever is the particular application, the collection of data must be considered very
carefully before data acquisition takes place. The OR25 series analyzer is limited to
displaying data at the acquired Fmax or 1/10th or 1/100th. Ensure that the data collection
rate is valid for the necessary analysis.

Triggering
As mentioned previously a trigger may be set up on a machine to control the acquisition of
data. This trigger is often a 5 volt, once per rev pulse or it could be from an encoder giving
many pulses per rev. A many pulse per rev trigger requires an external clock input to the
collector which is programmed to the number of pulses per rev. A third type of trigger is a
single pulse or voltage change and is known as an event trigger.

Once per rev pulse trigger


As the name implies this is a simple pulse, once per rev of the shaft, which triggers data
collection at a specific time. This function is useful in cascade plots, orbits, or for Bod plots.

Encoder trigger
The encoder will give many pulses per rev and must be input to the external clock input.
This input is necessary for torsional vibration and should ideally be used for time
synchronous averaging where the speed may be expected to change from moment to
moment.

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Event trigger
This is probably the simplest trigger and may be setup as a channel reading or an external
trigger. The trigger level is set and the analyzer just sits there waiting for the trigger
amplitude to reach the pre-defined level. The analyzer is actually collecting data all of the
time but is only storing as much as the memory will allow. When the trigger is activated the
data storage will commence. If the trigger is set up as a pre-trigger, then some data
collected before the trigger event will be collected as well as some data after the trigger. A
post-trigger will collect data only after the event. This can be very useful if the subject
machine is suffering from a transient fault.

Nyquist & Bod plots


When the cross channel properties are calculated by the analyzer, they can be displayed as
amplitude or phase against speed (Bod) plots or real-imaginary (Nyquist) plots. The Bod
plot is useful when assessing the resonant condition of the machine as in the example below.

Figure 80 Bode plots


The same data displayed in polar coordinates is known as a Nyquist plot (below).

Figure 81 Nyquist plot.

Ron Frend 2006

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VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Resonance
To design a machine installation including the structure, piping, ductwork, etc., such that
there are no natural frequencies coincident with any significant exciting force generated by
the machine is, indeed, an extremely difficult task. As a result, resonance is a very common
problem throughout industry. There are many ways to confirm whether or not a part is
vibrating at resonance. Amplitude and phase versus RPM plots ('Bode' Plots) obtained
during the startup or coast down of a machine, positively identify the resonance frequencies
by the characteristic peak amplitude and 180 degrees shift in the phase of vibration. If an
instrument with a tracking filter or trigger is not available for obtaining plots of amplitude and
phase versus machine RPM, the resonance frequencies can be determined by viewing the
long time waveform during machine startup or coast down as long a speed indication is also
available.

The bump test


Another simple yet effective way to confirm whether or not a part is vibrating in resonance is
the bump test. With the machine shut down and a vibration pickup held or attached to the
machine, simply bump the machine or structure with a force sufficient to cause it to vibrate.
Since an object will undergo free vibration at its natural frequency when bumped or struck,
the natural frequency generated in this way will be indicated on the analyzer. If the vibration
diminishes very quickly it may be necessary to bump the machine several times in
succession in order to sustain free vibration long enough to register on the analyzer
frequency meter although care should be taken that the frequency at which the "bumps are
struck is not read as a resonant frequency. The Real Time Spectrum analyzer providing
instantaneous display of the vibration amplitude versus frequency data is an ideal instrument
for determining a natural frequencies this way.

Impact hammer
A better way of determining natural frequencies is to use the impact hammer. This is simply
a hammer with a force transducer mounted which will send a trigger signal to start collecting
data the instant the hammer hits the structure. An accelerometer is mounted on the structure
and the resultant output is generated by the natural frequencies of the structure.

Figure 82 Impact hammer response


The response can be analyzed with spectrum, Bode and Nyquist plots to identify resonances.

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Figure 83 Impact hammer specification sheet


Changing the resonance
Of course, if the natural frequencies of the machine or structure identified as the result of the
bump test or amplitude/phase versus RPM (Bode') plots are the same as the exciting
frequencies noted during machine operation, then a condition of resonance does exist. If a
resonance problem is encountered, there are several ways this can be corrected. One way is
to change the frequency of the exciting force so that it no longer coincides with the natural
frequency of the machine or structure is normally accomplished by either increasing or
decreasing the RPM of the machine. If the exciting frequency cannot be changed, the
problem can be corrected by actually changing the resonant frequency.
This can be accomplished by either increasing or decreasing the mass (weight) or stiffness of
the machine or structure. Increasing stiffness will increase the natural frequency whereas
increasing the mass will decrease the natural frequency. Before structural indications are
made to change the mass or stiffness of the machine or structure a thorough analysis of the
system is required to determine exactly what portion of the machine or structure is in
resonance. This can normally be accomplished by performing a mode shape analysis. The
mode shape analysis not only aids in identifying the particular spring-mass system in
resonance but also identifies nodal points which should be avoided when structural
modifications will be made to stiffen the structure.
If it is not possible to separate the exciting and natural frequency by changing machine RPM
or by changing the mass or stiffness characteristics of the machine or structure, another
possible solution is to create an antinode by the addition of a dynamic absorber.

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Of course resonance could be avoided by minimizing the exciting force and balancing to
lower than normal levels will sometimes be effective in controlling a resonance problem..
However, in many cases attempting to eliminate the exciting force by balancing and
alignment may prove to be extremely difficult- The best solution to a resonance problem is to
separate the natural frequencies from the exciting frequencies.

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Glossary

A
Accelerometer
Transducer for measuring vibration in the form of acceleration. It is one of
the most rugged transducers for vibration measurements and also has the
widest frequency range.
AC
Literally Alternating Current but often used to imply a time-fluctuating signal.
Acceleration
The rate of change of velocity in inches/second/second or Gs (acceleration
due to gravity is 1 G). This is a good indicator of the forces inside a machine
since F = m.a (Newtons 2nd law).
ADC
Acronym for Analog to Digital conversion
Alarm
Alarms are used to identity specific operating conditions or to define the
boundaries between safe and unsafe conditions. When an amplitude
reaches or exceeds the alarm amplitude then the software automatically
generates an exception report.
Anti Aliasing
Nyquist's theorem says that as long as the sampling rate is greater than twice
the highest frequency component of the signal, then the sampled data will
accurately represent the input signal. Certain analyzers pass the input signal
passes through an analog filter which attenuates all frequency components
above Fmax by 90 dB to make sure that Nyquist's theorem is satisfied. This
is the anti-aliasing filter.
ASCII
American Standards Code for Information Interchange.

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Attenuation
The weakening of a signal by distance from the source or a mechanical
interface.
Averaging
In general, averaging many spectra together improves the accuracy and
repeatability of measurements.

B
Band Pass Filter
A measurement filter that removes data below the low cutoff frequency and
above the high cutoff frequency. The band pass filter only passes the data
between the cutoff frequencies.
Bin
See resolution
Blackman-Harris Window
The Blackman-Harris window is a very good window to use with the spectrum
analyzer. It has better amplitude accuracy (about 0.7 dB) than the Hanning,
very good selectivity and the fastest filter rolloff. The filter is steep and
narrow and reaches a lower attenuation than the other windows. This allows
signals close together in frequency to be distinguished, even when their
amplitudes are very different.

C
Calibration
The process of multiplying or dividing the voltage signal from a transducer by
a factor that represents a specific engineering quantity. e.g. 100 mV/G for an
accelerometer.
Coherence
Coherence measures the percentage of power in channel 2 which is caused
by (phase coherent with) power in the input channel. Coherence is a unitless
quantity which varies from 0 to l. If the coherence is 1, all the power of the
output signal is due to the input signal. If the coherence is 0, the input and
output are completely random with respect to one another. Coherence is
related to signal to noise ratio (S/N) by the formula:
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S/N = 2/(l -2)


2

where is the traditional notation for coherence.


Correlation
The two channel analyzer may also compute auto and cross correlation.
Correlation is a time domain measurement which is defined as follows:
Auto Correlation() = x*(t)x(t-)dt
*

Cross Correlation() = x (t)y(t-)dt


where x and y are the channel 1 and channel 2 input signals and the integrals
are over all time. It is clear that the auto correlation at a time t is a measure
of how much overlap a signal has with a delayed-by-t version of itself, and the
cross-correlation is a measure of how much overlap a signal has with a
delayed-by-t version of the other channel. Although correlation is a time
domain measurement the some analyzers use frequency domain techniques
to compute it in order to make the calculation faster.
Cross Spectrum
The cross spectrum is defined as:
cross spectrum = FFT2 conj(FFT1)
The cross spectrum is a complex quantity which contains magnitude and
phase information. The phase is the relative phase between the two
channels. The magnitude is simply the product of the magnitudes of the two
spectra. Frequencies where signals are present in both spectra will have
large components in the cross spectrum.
CPM
Abbreviation for Cycles per Minute - the most common format for displaying
frequency in vibration analysis.

D
Database
A collection of information files that are ties together by a common topic. A
database allows rapid access of the database files.
Data Collector
Hardware device for collecting vibration data off line.

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Decibel (dB)
A convenient unit for displaying logarithmic data.
dB = 10 log (X/X)
where X or X is
a power or squared quantity
or

dB = 20 log (Y/Y)

where Y or Y is a linear quantity.


Decibels are usually referenced to a standard. e.g. 0.1 GdB re 0.001G.
DC
Literally Direct Current. In PdM terms this may be used to check the
accelerometer or for a process measurement.
Differentiate
Differentiation changes displacement to velocity and velocity to acceleration
relative to time using the formulae:
Acceleration = Velocity /(2..f)
Velocity
or

= Displacement /(2..f)

Acceleration = Displacement /(2..f)2

where f = frequency
n.b. remember 1G = 386 in/s2

E
Envelope Measurements
A.k.a. demodulation (see appendix)
Exception
To have an alarm condition. Data is outside the defined safe area.
Exponential Averaging
Exponential averaging weights new data more than old data.
takes place according to the formula,

Averaging

New Average = (New Spectrum - I/N) +(Old Average) - (N-l)/N


where N is the number of averages.
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Exponential averages "grow" for approximately the first 5N spectra until the
steady state values are reached. Once in steady state, further changes in the
spectra are detected only if they last sufficiently long. Make sure that the
number of averages is not so large as to eliminate the changes in the data
that might be important.

F
Flattop Window
The Flattop window improves on the amplitude accuracy of the Hanning
window. Its between-bin amplitude variation is about 0.02 dB. However, the
selectivity is a little worse. Unlike the Hanning, the Flattop window has a
wide pass band and very steep rolloff on either side. Thus, signals appear
wide but do not leak across the whole spectrum.
FFT Spectrum Analyzer
FFT Spectrum Analyzers take a time varying input signal, like you would see
on an oscilloscope trace, and compute its frequency spectrum.
Fourier or FFT
Fourier's theorem states that any waveform in the time domain can be
represented by the weighted sum of sines and cosines. The FFT spectrum
analyzer samples the input signal, computes the magnitude of its sine and
cosine components, and displays the spectrum of these measured frequency
components.
Frequency
The rate at which periodic events happen. Typical units are Hertz (Hz),
Cycles per Minute (cpm) or orders (multiples of run speed).
Fundamental Frequency
Primary frequency, such as operating speed, to which other frequencies may
be referred back.

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H
Hanning Window
The Hanning window is the most commonly used window. It has an
amplitude variation of about 1.5 dB (for signals between bins) and provides
reasonable selectivity. Its filter rolloff is not particularly steep. As a result,
the Hanning window can limit the performance of the analyzer when looking
at signals close together in frequency and very different in amplitude.
Harmonic
Frequencies at direct multiples of a fundamental frequency. The fundamental
is not necessarily the run speed.
Hertz (Hz)
Common frequency units in cycles per second. Named after, Heinrich Rudolf
Hertz (1857-94). German physicist born in Hamburg and educated at the
University of Berlin. From 1885 to 1889 he was a professor of physics at the
technical school in Karlsruhe and after 1889 a professor of physics at the
university in Bonn. Hertz clarified and expanded the electromagnetic theory
of light that had been put forth by the British physicist James Clerk Maxwell in
1884. Hertz proved that electricity can be transmitted in electromagnetic
waves, which travel at the speed of light and which possess many other
properties of light. His experiments with these electromagnetic waves led to
the development of the wireless telegraph and the radio. The unit of
frequency that is measured in cycles per second was renamed the hertz; it is
commonly abbreviated Hz.
High Pass Filter
A measurement filter that removes data below its low cutoff frequency.

I
Input Couple
Measurements may be AC or DC coupled. Use DC coupling for process
measurements and use AC for vibration measurements. DC coupling
includes both DC and AC signals whereas AC coupling does not include any
DC offsets.
Integrate
Integration is the opposite to differentiation and changes acceleration to
velocity and velocity to displacement where A = V x (2..f)
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K
Kaiser
The Kaiser window, which is available on IRD analyzers, combines excellent
selectivity and reasonable accuracy (about 0.8 dB for signals between exact
bins). The Kaiser window has the lowest side-lobes and the least broadening
for non-bin frequencies. Because of these properties, it is the best window to
use for measurements requiring a large dynamic range.

L
Leakage
Errors resulting from Fourier transforming nonperiodic time domain data.
This effect is reduced by using windows such as Hanning or Flat Top.
Linear
Linear scaling displays all data on an equal basis. Small signals may be hard
to detect with linear scaling but become visible with logarithmic scaling.
Linear Averaging
Linear averaging combines N (number of averages) spectra with equal
weighting in either RMS, Vector or Peak Hold fashion. This type of averaging
is useful for eliminating transients.
Line of Resolution
see resolution
Logarithmic
Although the linear magnitude scale is used most often for displaying spectra,
another way of displaying amplitude is the Log Magnitude. The Log Mag
display graphs the magnitude of the spectrum on a logarithmic scale using
dBEU (Engineering Units) as units.
The 16 bit analyzer has a dynamic range of about 90 dB. below full scale.
Imagine what something 0.01% of full scale would look like on a linear scale.
If we wanted it to be 1 inch high on the graph, the top of the graph would be
833 feet above the bottom - It turns out that the log display is both easy to
understand and shows features which have very different amplitudes clearly.
The real and imaginary parts are always displayed on a linear scale. This
avoids the problem of taking the log of negative voltages.

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Low Pass Filter


A measurement filter that removes data above the cutoff frequency.

O
Octave Analysis
The magnitude of the normal spectrum measures the amplitudes within
equally divided frequency bins. Octave analysis computes the spectral
amplitude in logarithmic frequency bands whose widths are proportional to
their center frequencies. The bands are arranged in octaves with either 1 or
3 bands per octave (1/1 or 1/3 octave analysis). Octave analysis measures
spectral power closer to the way people perceive sound, that is, in octaves.
The center frequency of each band should be calculated according to ANSI
standard S1.11 (1986). Typically the shape of each band is a third-order
Butterworth filter whose bandwidth is either a full, 1/3, or 1/12 octave. The
full octave bands have band centers at:
Center Freq: = 1 kHz x 2n
The 1/3 octave bands have center frequencies given by:
Center Freq: = 1 kHz x 2(n-30/3)
Operating System
A form of software that controls and supervises how the computer operates.
It loads programs, handles input and output operations and accepts and
executes commands issued by the user.
Orbit
The orbit is simply a two dimensional display of the time record of channel 1
vs. the time record of channel 2. The orbit display is similar to an oscilloscope
displaying a "Lissajous" figure.
Orders
A frequency axis scale which is useful for viewing data as a function of the
operating speed. The first order corresponds to the operating speed, the
second order is two times the operating speed and so on.
Overall
A single value representing the vibration or some other measurement
parameter. For vibration measurements this value includes vibration at all
frequencies.
Overlap Processing
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What about narrow spans where the time record is long compared to the
processing time which is what we normally see when taking vibration
measurements? The analyzer computes one FFT per time record and can
wait until the next time record is complete before computing the next FFT.
The update rate would be no faster than one spectra per time record. With
narrow spans, this could be quite slow.
And what is the processor doing while it waits? Nothing. With overlap
processing, the analyzer does not wait for the next complete time record
before computing the next FFT. Instead it uses data from the previous time
record as well as data from the current time record to compute the next FFT.
This speeds up the processing rate. Remember, most window functions are
zero at the start and end of the time record. Thus, the points at the ends of
the time record do not contribute much to the FFT. With overlap, these
points are re-used" and appear as middle points in other time records. This
is why overlap effectively speeds up averaging and smoothes out window
variations.
Typically, time records with 50% overlap provide almost as much noise
reduction as non-overlapping time records when RMS averaging is used.
When RMS averaging narrow spans, this can reduce the measurement time
by a factor of two.
The amount of overlap is specified as a percentage of the time record. 0% is
no overlap and 99.8% is the maximum (511 out of 512 samples re-used).
The maximum overlap is determined by the amount of time it takes to
calculate an FFT and the length of the time record and thus varies according
to the span.

P
Peak
The maximum value as seen in the time domain data. For a sine wave
peak = RMS x 1.414
Peak Hold Averaging
Peak Hold is not really averaging, instead, the new spectral magnitudes are
compared to the previous data, and if the new data is larger, then the new
data is stored. This is done on a frequency bin by bin basis. The resulting
display shows the peak magnitudes which occurred in the previous group of
spectra.
Peak Hold detects the peaks in the spectral magnitudes and only applies to
Spectrum, PSD, and Octave Analysis measurements. However, the peak
magnitude values are stored in the original complex form. If the real or
imaginary part or phase is being displayed for spectrum measurements, the
display shows the real or imaginary part or phase of the complex peak value.

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Phase
In general, phase measurements are only used when the analyzer is
triggered. The phase is relative to the pulse of the trigger. The phase is
displayed in degrees or radians on a linear scale, usually from -180 to +180
degrees. The phase of a particular frequency bin is set to zero in most
analyzers if neither the real nor imaginary part of the FFT is greater than
about 0.012% of full scale (-78 dB below f.s.). This avoids the messy phase
display associated with the noise floor. (Remember, even if a signal is small,
its phase extends over the full 360 degrees.)
Power Spectral Density (PSD)
The PSD is simply the magnitude of the spectrum normalized to a 1 Hz
bandwidth. This measurement approximates what the spectrum would look
like if each frequency component were really a 1 Hz wide piece of the
spectrum at each frequency bin.
What good is this? When measuring broad band signals such as noise, the
amplitude of the spectrum changes with the frequency span. This is because
the line width changes so the frequency bins have a different noise
bandwidth. The PSD, on the other hand, normalizes all measurements to a 1
Hz bandwidth and the noise spectrum becomes independent of the span.
This allows measurements with different spans to be compared. If the noise
is Gaussian in nature, then the amount of noise amplitude in other
bandwidths may be approximated by scaling the PSD measurement by the
square root of the bandwidth. Thus the PSD is displayed in units of V/Hz or
dBV/Hz.
Since the PSD uses the magnitude of the spectrum, the PSD is a real
quantity. There is no real or imaginary part or phase.

R
Rayleighs Principle
This principle states that f is the lowest measurable frequency for a time
record length T:
f = 1/T

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Real Time Bandwidth


What is real time bandwidth? Simply stated, it is the frequency span whose
corresponding time record exceeds the time it takes to compute the spectrum.
At this span and below, it is possible to compute the spectra for every time
record with no loss of data. The spectra are computed in "real time". At
larger spans, some data samples will be lost while the FFT computations are
in progress.
Rectangular Window (Uniform or No Window)
The rectangular windows applies an even weighting (no window) over the
time period. It does not reduce leakage errors and should only be used for
impulsive or transient data that dies out within the time sample period.
Resolution
The accuracy of a reading based on the number of discrete values used to
define it. For a frequency domain spectrum this refers to the number of lines
(or bins) of resolution that are combined to display the spectral data. For
example a spectrum of 500 Hz Fmax with 400 bins or lines would have a line
resolution of 1.25 Hz.
RMS (Root Mean Square)
The square root of the average of a set of squared values. For a sine wave
RMS = Peak x 0.7071
RMS Averaging
RMS averaging computes the weighted mean of the sum of the squared
magnitudes (FFT times its complex conjugate). The weighting is either linear
or exponential.
RMS averaging reduces fluctuations in the data but does not reduce the
actual noise floor. With a sufficient number of averages, a very good
approximation of the actual random noise floor can be displayed.
Since RMS averaging involves magnitudes only, displaying the real or
imaginary part or phase of an RMS average has no meaning. The RMS
average has no phase information.
Route
For off-line data collectors this is a an ordered list of points containing the
sequence for collecting data.

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S
Sampling Rate
The original digital time record comes from discrete samples taken at the
sampling rate. The corresponding FFT yields a spectrum with discrete
frequency samples. In fact, the spectrum has less than half as many
frequency points as there are time points. Suppose that you take 1024
samples at 2560 Hz. It takes 0.4 Seconds to take this time record. The FFT
of this record yields 400 frequency points or lines, but over what frequency
range? The highest frequency will be determined by the in-built ratio of Fmax to data sampling rate - 2.56. The lowest frequency is just the F-max
divided by the number of lines:
F-max

= data sampling rate / 2.56

No. Of Lines

= No samples / 2.56

Bin resolution

= F-max / No. of lines


= (2560 / 2.56) / (1024 / 2.56)
= 2.5 Hz (the same as the lowest measurable frequency)

Everything below 2.5 Hz is considered to be DC. The output spectrum thus


represents the frequency range from DC to 1000 Hz with points every 2.5 Hz.
Sideband
A frequency which occurs either side of a fundamental frequency. Sidebands
occur because of a modulation of the fundamental by another frequency.
Spectrum
The spectrum is the basic measurement of an FFT analyzer. It is simply the
complex FFT. Normally, the magnitude of the spectrum is displayed. The
magnitude is the square root of the FFT times its complex conjugate. (Square
root of the sum of the real (sine) part squared and the imaginary (cosine) part
squared). The magnitude is a real quantity and represents the total signal
amplitude in each frequency bin, independent of phase.
If there is phase information in the spectrum, i.e. the time record is triggered
in phase with some component of the signal, then the real (cosine) or
imaginary (sine) part or the phase may be displayed. The phase is simply the
arc tangent of the ratio of the imaginary and real parts of each frequency
component. The phase is always relative to the start of the triggered time
record.

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T
Tachometer
A device for measuring the speed of rotation.
Time Record
The time record measurement displays the filtered data points before the FFT
is taken For baseband spans (spans that start at DC), the time record is a
real quantity. For non-baseband spans (zooms) the heterodyning discussed
earlier transforms the time record into a complex quantity which can be
somewhat difficult to interpret.
Time Synchronous Averaging
see vector averaging
Transfer Function
The transfer function is the ratio of the spectrum of channel 2 to the spectrum
of channel 1. For the transfer function to be valid, the input spectrum must
have amplitude at all frequencies over which the transfer function is to be
measured.
Two-Channel Measurements
Two-channel analyzers offer additional measurements such as transfer
function, cross-spectrum, coherence and orbit.

U
Uniform Window
The uniform window is actually no window at all. The time record is used with
no weighting. A signal will appear as narrow as a single bin if its frequency is
exactly equal to a frequency bin. (It is exactly- periodic within the time
record). If its frequency is between bins, it will affect every bin of the
spectrum. These two cases also have a great deal of amplitude variation
between them (up to 4 dB).
In general, this window is only useful when looking at transients which do not
fill the entire time record.

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V
Vector (Synchronous Time) Averaging
Vector averaging averages the complex FFT spectrum. (The real part is
averaged separately from the imaginary part.) This can reduce the noise floor
for random signals since they are not phase coherent from time record to time
record.
Vector averaging requires a trigger. The signal of interest must be both
periodic and phase synchronous with the trigger. Otherwise, the real and
imaginary parts of the signal will not add in phase and instead will cancel
randomly.
With vector averaging, the real and imaginary parts as well as phase displays
are correctly averaged and displayed. This is because the complex
information is preserved.

W
Windowing
What is windowing? Let's go back to the time record. What happens if a
signal is not exactly periodic within the time record? We said that its
amplitude is divided into multiple adjacent frequency bins. This is true but it's
actually a bit worse than that. If the time record does not start and stop with
the same data value, the signal can actually smear across the entire
spectrum. This smearing will also change wildly between records because
the amount of mismatch between the starting value and ending value
changes with each record.
Windows are functions defined across the time record which are periodic in
the time record. They start and stop at zero and are smooth functions in
between. When the time record is windowed, its points are multiplied by the
window function, time bin by time bin, and the resulting time record is by
definition periodic. It may not be identical from record to record, but it will be
periodic (zero at each end).
In the frequency domain, a window acts like a filter. The amplitude of each
frequency bin is determined by centering this filter on each bin and
measuring how much of the signal falls within the filter. If the filter is narrow,
then only frequencies near the bin will contribute to the bin. A narrow filter is
called a selective window - it selects a small range of frequencies around
each bin. However, since the filter is narrow, it falls off from center rapidly.
This means that even frequencies close to the bin may be attenuated
somewhat. If the filter is wide, then frequencies far from the bin will
contribute to the bin amplitude but those close by will not be attenuated
significantly.
The net result of windowing is to reduce the amount of smearing in the
spectrum from signals not exactly periodic with the time record. The different
types of windows trade off selectivity, amplitude accuracy, and noise floor.
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Several types of window functions are available including Uniform (none),


Flattop, Hanning, BlackmanHarris, and Kaiser.

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Index

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O
A
AC, 105
acceleration, 85
Analysis, 82, 83, 84
Analyzer, 104
Average, 103

Overall, 108
Overlap, 109

B
Base cause, 82
bearing, 82, 83, 85, 86
Bin, 112

Parameter, 82, 83
PFA, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87
Phase, 110

R
Resolution, 107, 111
resonance, 85
Route, 111

CPM, 101

S
D

DC, 103, 105, 112, 113


Decibel, 103
Differentiate, 103

Setup, 82, 83
Sideband, 112
spall, 85
spectrum, 83, 85

T
E
envelope, 85
Envelope, 85, 103
External manifestation, 82

Tachometer, 113
Technology, 82, 83
time, 83, 85, 86
Trigger, 72

F
Failure type, 82
FFT, 104, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114
Filter, 105, 108
Fourier, 104, 107
Frequency, 104
Fundamental, 104

velocity, 83, 85

W
waveform, 85

H
Hanning, 85
Harmonic, 93, 105
Hertz, 104, 105
Hz, 20, 27, 104, 105, 110, 111, 112

I
Integrate, 105
Interval, 82, 83

K
Kaiser, 85

L
Leakage, 107
Line, 107
Logarithmic, 107

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Your Company

VIBRATION STANDARD
FOR THE PURCHASE OF
NEW and REBUILT

MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

YOUR COMPANY Specification based on Specification V1.0 is issued under the direction of the
Vibration Standards Committee.

YOUR

COMPANY-doc

130

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

YOUR COMPANY
VIBRATION STANDARDS

Issued by:

Your Company Reliability & Maintenance Operations

131

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

YOUR COMPANY
VIBRATION STANDARD
FOR NEW AND REBUILT MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
FOREWORD
Your Company requires Vibration Certification of all new and rebuilt machinery and
equipment in keeping with implementation of Synchronous Processes and Lean
Manufacturing Services. Vibration analysis and certification, as a part of machine
performance evaluation will:

Maximize part quality, machine productivity, tooling and


machine life.

Minimize machine installation and set-up time.

Allow verification of machine performance and "health"


throughout the machine's life.

The YOUR COMPANY VIBRATION STANDARD FOR NEW AND REBUILT


MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT provides COMMON engineering performance
guidelines for use by YOUR COMPANY divisions and plants as well as machinery and
equipment builders during the design, development, and build of new equipment and
the rebuild of existing equipment. The vibration limits specified by the user and
acknowledged by the machine manufacturer, establish a common goal of acceptability
by both parties. Such limits also enable machine manufacturers to provide evidence of
the superiority and build integrity of their product.
The Vibration Limit values specified in this document are maximum vibration
acceptance levels for New and Rebuilt machinery and equipment. These limits ARE
NOT predictive maintenance warning or alarm level limits to be applied to equipment
that has been in service for some period of time. If the machine builder is unable to
provide information as to predictive maintenance warning and/or alarm levels for the
specific equipment being considered, the following Action Level Rules-of-Thumb
can generally be applied until specific fault vibration warning and alarm characteristics
for said machine are developed through experience:
Set First Warning vibration levels at 1.5X the applicable New and
Rebuilt machine maximum acceptance levels for the machine under
consideration. This First Warning Level would indicate a problem has
developed and its severity has reached a point where, although the machine
can continue to be run, more frequent monitoring of the machines Health
is recommended.

132

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Set First Alarm vibration levels at 2X the applicable New and Rebuilt
machine maximum acceptance levels for the machine under consideration.
This First Alarm Level would indicate the severity of the problem has
reached a stage where the developing cause of the vibration needs to be
identified, necessary repair parts identified and ordered (if not in crib
stock), date for repair established based on minimum production
interruption, and skilled trades personnel identified and scheduled for the
repair. Although the machine can continue to be run, it should be closely
monitored, particularly if it is a critical machine.
Set a Second Alarm vibration levels at 2.5X - failure pending, or 3X failure eminent. If the machine is a critical machine, it should be scheduled
for PM repairs ASAP.
The above Rules-of-Thumb are generally conservative. In time, after experience
with said machine, the vibration levels for Warning and Alarm can be adjusted to fit the
specific machine health conditions.

133

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

YOUR COMPANY
VIBRATION STANDARD
FOR NEW AND REBUILT MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 VIBRATION STANDARD 138


PURPOSE 1
SCOPE 1
INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS 1
Hardware & Software 1
Hardware - FFT Analyzer 1
Software: 3
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ACCURACY 3
SYSTEM SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO 3
MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CALIBRATION 3
VIBRATION SENSOR REQUIREMENTS 4
CONVENTION FOR IDENTIFYING VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS 6
Component Part (shaft, gearbox, roll, etc.): four (4) alphanumeric characters 7
Location (bearing number designation): three (3) numeric characters 7
Sensor (transducer) Type Code: two (2) letters 8
Angular Orientation: three digits (000 to 360 degrees) 8
Sensor (sensitive) Axis Direction (Orientation): one (1) letter 9
Motion for a positive signal output (relative to a Time Waveform): 10
Direction of Motion: [one letter] 10
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS 10
TRANSDUCER & MACHINE MOUNTING CONDITIONS 14
VIBRATION TRANSDUCER MOUNTING 14
MACHINE MOUNTING 15
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS 15
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT UNITS 15
FREQUENCY BANDS 15
LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS 16
BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS 18
ALIGNMENT 18
BALANCING - Shaft and Fitment Key Convention 18
RESONANCE 19

134

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


MACHINE QUOTATION, CERTIFICATION, AND ACCEPTANCE 20
QUOTATION 20
MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR MACHINE CERTIFICATION 20
ACCEPTANCE 21
VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS - COMPONENTS 21
VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS - COMPLETE MACHINE ASSEMBLY 21
DEMODULATED ACCELERATION MEASUREMENTS 22

CHAPTER 2 SECTION ELECTRIC MOTORS 1


ELECTRICAL MOTOR MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS 1
MOTOR ISOLATION 1
PREPARATION FOR TESTING and SAFETY 4
CRITICAL SPEED 4
LIMITS 4
ELECTRICAL MOTOR CERTIFICATION 5

CHAPTER 3 SECTION - SPINDLES 1


SPINDLE AND HEAD REQUIREMENTS 1
VIBRATION LIMITS 2
SPINDLE CERTIFICATION 8
BALANCE LIMITS FOR SPINDLE COMPONENTS 9

CHAPTER 4 SECTION - FANS 1


Fans are defined as: 1
BALANCING 1
SHAFT TOLERANCE 1
RESONANCE 1
LIMITS 1
OTHER REQUIREMENTS 3
FAN CERTIFICATION 3

CHAPTER 5 SECTION - PUMPS 1


Pumps shall be defined in two (2) categories: 1
OPERATING CONDITIONS 1
LIMITS FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT & CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 1
VERTICAL MOUNTED PUMPS 3
PUMP CERTIFICATION 4

CHAPTER 6 SECTION - GEARBOXES 5


VIBRATION LIMITS FOR GEARBOXES 5
GEARBOX CERTIFICATION 6

CHAPTER 7 SECTION DEFAULT VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS 8


NON-MACHINE TOOLS and NON-PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS 8
PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS 9
DEFAULT CERTIFICATION 12

CHAPTER 8 APPENDIX A - RECOMMENDED COMPONENT


IDENTIFICATION SYMBOLS 1

135

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX B - GLOSSARY 1


CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX C VIBRATION DATA & CERTIFICATION 7

136

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

TABLES
Table 1-1 VIBRATION SENSOR REQUIREMENTS 6
Table 1-2 Vibration Measurement Units 15
Table 2-1 (9.1) Isolation Pad Minumum Compression 2
Table 2-2 Critical Speed Locations 4
Table 2-3 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR ELECTRIC MOTORS 5
Table 2-4 Motor Nameplate Vibration Designation 5
Table 3-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEARLESS TYPE SPINDLES 3
Table 3-2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEARLESS TYPE SPINDLES <600
RPM 5
Table 3-3 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEAR-DRIVEN SPINDLE
ASSEMBLIES 8
Table 4-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR FANS 2
Table 5-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT AND
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 2
Table 6-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEARBOXES WITH TWO (2) GEAR
SETS 5
Table 7-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR NON-MACHINE TOOLS and NONPRECISION MACHINE TOOLS 8
Table 7-2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS 10

137

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Measurement System Frequency Response 3
Figure 1-2 Angular Convention for Foot Mounted & Flange Mounted Machines 9
Figure 1-3 Direction of Sensor Axis 9
Figure 1-4 Normal and Reverse Motion Convention Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 1-5 Order and Consecutive Numbering Sequence 11
Figure 1-6 Order and Consecutive Numbering Sequence 11
Figure 1-7 Vibration Measurement Locations 12
Figure 1-8 Vibration Measurement Locations 12
Figure 1-9 Vibration Measurement Locations 12
Figure 1-10 Vibration Measurement Locations 13
Figure 1-11 Frequency Bands 16
Figure 1-12 Balance Test Key Dimensions 19
Figure 1-13 Resonance Separation Margin (SM) 20
Figure 2-1 Maximum Allowable Vibration Limits for Electric Motors 7
Figure 3-1 Measurement Locations for Single Precision Spindle 1
Figure 3-2 Measurement Locations for Spindle Cluster 2
Figure 3-3 Measurement Locations for Multi-Spindle Gear-type Head 2
Figure 3-4 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles 600 to 12,000 RPM 3
Figure 3-5 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles 600 to
12,000 RPM 4
Figure 3-6 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles <600 RPM 5
Figure 3-7 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles <60 RPM
7
Figure 3-8 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gear-Driven Spindle Assemblies 8
Figure 4-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Fans 3
Figure 4-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Fans 3
Figure 5-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Positive Displacement & Centrifugal Pumps 3
Figure 5-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Positive Displacement &
Centrifugal Pumps 3
Figure 6-1 Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearboxes 6
Figure 6-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearboxes 6
Figure 7-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Non-Machine Tools and Non-Precision Machine
Tools 9
Figure 7-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Non-Machine Tools & NonPrecision Machine Tools 9
Figure 7-3 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Precision Machine Tools 10
Figure 7-4 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Precision Machine Tools 11

138

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Vibration Standard
YOUR COMPANY
VIBRATION STANDARD
FOR NEW AND REBUILT MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

PURPOSE
The purpose of this standard is to:
o
Improve the life and performance of rotating machines and equipment monitored by
Your Company .
o
Reduce operating costs in Your Company plants by establishing acceptable
vibration levels for new and rebuilt rotating machinery and equipment.
o
Provide a uniform procedure for evaluating the vibration characteristics of a
machine for certification and acceptance.

SCOPE
This standard establishes:
o
Acceptable limits for vibration levels generated by new and rebuilt rotating
machinery and equipment monitored by Your Company .
o
Measurement procedures -- including standardized measurement axis directions and
locations, calibration and performance requirements of instrumentation, and procedures for
reporting vibration data for machine certification and acceptance..

INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS
Vibration measurements will be made with an FFT analyzer. The type, model, serial number(s) and
latest certified calibration date of all equipment used in the measurement of vibration levels for
machine certification, shall be recorded and made available upon request.

Hardware & Software


Hardware - FFT Analyzer
o

The FFT Analyzer shall be capable of a line resolution bandwidth f = 300 CPM for
the frequency range specified for machine certification unless this restriction would
result in less than 400 lines of resolution, in which case the requirement defaults to
400 lines of resolution. (Higher resolution may be required to resolve "Side
Bands," or in Band 1 to resolve machine vibration between 0.3X and 0.8X Running
Speed.)

The Dynamic Range shall be a minimum of 72 dB.

The FFT analyzer shall be capable of applying a Hanning window.


1

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


o

The FFT analyzer shall be capable of linear 50%-overlap averaging.

The FFT analyzer shall have anti-aliasing filters.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Software:
The computer software used to program/analyze/store machine certification
vibration data shall store the data in the Machinery Information Management Open
Systems Alliance (MIMOSA) standard data base structure, or provide full
connectivity between systems through MIMOSA compliant import/export
capability.

MEASUREMENT SYSTEM ACCURACY


3.2.1 The measurement system (FFT analyzer, cables, transducer and mounting)
used to take vibration measurements for machine certification and acceptance
SHALL BE CALIBRATED and have a 5% measurement system Amplitude
accuracy over the selected frequency range.

Figure 0-1 Measurement System Frequency Response


SYSTEM SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO
The inherent measurement system noise must not exceed 10% of the
amplitude limit at the lowest frequency of measurement. (i.e. the total measurement
system signal-to-noise ratio must be 10:1)

MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CALIBRATION


Vibration equipment (transducer, preamplifier, FFT analyzer, recorder and connecting
cable) used to take vibration measurements for machine certification and acceptance must
be calibrated by a qualified instrumentation laboratory in accordance with Sections 5.1 and
5.2 of ANSI S2.17-1980 "Technique of Machinery Vibration Measurement" within one (1)
year prior to the date of machine certification.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Calibration shall be traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
in accordance with MIL-STD-45662 "Military Standard Calibration Systems
Requirements" (10 June 1980) or latest revision.

VIBRATION SENSOR REQUIREMENTS


The following vibration sensor requirements SHALL be considered as minimum acceptable requirements
for machinery and equipment acceptance certification. Sensors exceeding these requirements will also
be considered for purchase and use.

3.4.1 An accelerometer shall be used in the collection of data for machine


certification and acceptance. The accelerometer must be selected and attached to
the machine in such a way that the minimum frequency (FMIN) and maximum
frequency (FMAX) as specified in Section 9 or specified otherwise by the customer,
are within the usable frequency range of the transducer and can be accurately
measured (reference recommendations of pickup manufacturer and/or Section 6.3,
ANSI S2.17-1980).
3.4.2 The mass of the accelerometer and its mounting shall have minimal influence
on the frequency response of the system over the selected measurement range.
(Typical mass of accelerometer and mounting should not exceed 10 % of the
dynamic mass of the structure upon which the accelerometer is mounted.)
Reference Appendix for Dynamic Mass definition and Procedure to Determine
Mass Effect.
3.4.3 Hardware integration is acceptable
measurements to velocity or displacement.

for

converting

acceleration

3.4.4 Accelerometers used for machinery and equipment acceptance certification


shall meet the requirements specified in Table 1 (Vibration Sensor Requirements).
Each model of accelerometer monitored by Your Company , shall be Class
Certified Calibrated by the YOUR COMPANY designated independent testing
laboratory, in compliance with ISO 10012-1, and former MIL-STD-45662A and
traceable to NIST. A copy of the documented Calibration Certificate per ISARP37.2 shall be submitted to the YOUR COMPANY Vibration Standards
Committee for acceptance. A copy of the Calibration Certificate shall also be
available to YOUR COMPANY customers upon request.
3.4.5 All Accelerometers shall be (Unless specified otherwise by the customer):

Hermetically Sealed (Reference Table 1).

Stainless Steel 316 or equivalent per application requirements.

3.4.6 Low and Midrange Frequency (Class 1A through Class 3A) Industrial
Accelerometers shall meet the following:
Military Connector two (2) pin per Mil Std. 5015 or equivalent performance
as applicable to the specific accelerometer.
Top mount, side mount, or integral cable connection to be determined by
user, dependent on application.
Broadband and High Frequency (Class 4A through 5A) Accelerometers shall meet
the following:

Deleted: , or for converting


velocity measurements to
displacement.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

For 50 mV/g and 100 mV/g Sensitivity, must be Military Connector two (2)
pin per Mil Std. 5015 or equivalent performance as applicable to the specific
accelerometer.
For 10 mV/g Sensitivity, may use a Laboratory grade Connector
(Microdot).
Note: Accelerometers SHALL be constructed such that they direct link to a
portable data collector, and are compatible with plant equipment.
3.4.7 Other types of Vibration Sensors (such as a Laser Vibrometer) that meet or
exceed the required performances specified above and in Table 1 are acceptable for
use in meeting the requirements of this specification.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Table 0-1 VIBRATION SENSOR REQUIREMENTS


Transducer Class

Class 1A

Class 2A

Class 3A

Class 4A

Class 5A

and

UltraLow
Frequency

Low Frequency

Mid-range
Frequency

Broad-range
Frequency

High Frequency

0.2 - 200 Hz

0.5 - 2,000Hz

10 - 5,000 Hz

10 - 10,000 Hz

10 - 25,000 Hz

0.2 - 200 Hz

0.5 - 2,000 Hz

10 - 5,000 Hz

10 - 10,000 Hz

0.5 - 2,000 Hz

10 - 2000 Hz

10 - 6,000 Hz

500 mV/g

* 50 mV/g

Frequency Type
Frequency Range
Stud Mounted, ( 5%)
Frequency Range Direct
Mounted-Adhesive ( 5%)
Frequency Range
Magnet Mounted, ( 5%)
Sensitivity ( 5%)

10,000 mV/g

* 50 mV/g

10 mV/g

or 10 mV/g
Turn-on time (sec)

5.0

0.00001

0.0002

0.0002

0.005

[Settling time within 1% of


output bias]
Resolution (g)

0.000001

Transverse Sensitivity

<3%

<5%

<5%

<5%

<5%

0.0001

0.0002

0.0008

0.0006

0.002

Industrial

Industrial

Industrial

Industrial or

May be Laboratory

Laboratory

i.e. Microdot

Strain Sensitivity
g/micro-strain
Package

(i.e. Microdot)
Shock Protect

5000g

5000g

5000g

Output Voltage

Shall be in direct proportion to Acceleration

Electromagnetic

Conform to EMC CE Requirements

5000g

Sensitivity
Hermetic < 2 X l0 -8 cc/s of Helium @ 1 ATM.

Seal

Etching

Manufacturers part number with Actual-Measured Sensitivity @ 100 Hz.

* 50 mV/g Preferred, 100 mV/g Allowed

CONVENTION FOR IDENTIFYING VIBRATION MEASUREMENTS


4.1
Vibration measurement locations documented for certification and acceptance on
the machine layout drawing and on any vibration data submitted SHALL follow the
following conventions. These conventions define the system, machine, station, component
part, location, sensor type and orientation separately.

System (e.g. PM1, Crank Line #1, Leak Test, Final Assembly, etc.) -Alpha-numeric description limited by record documentation media. (e.g. machine
layout drawing, software, etc.) Description to be agreed upon by customer and
supplier.

Machine (e.g. Drier Section, Operation 10, Landis Grinder, Mig welder,
Hydraulic Unit, etc.) -- Alpha-numeric description limited by record documentation
media. (e.g. machine layout drawing, software, etc.)
6

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Station (e.g. Control Room Side, 445, Rough Bore, Underbody Weld, etc.)
-- Alpha numeric description limited by record documentation media.

Optional Description (e.g. Low speed measurement, Measurement under


load, Stud Mounted Transducer, etc.) -- Alpha numeric description limited by
record documentation media.
Note: System, Machine, Station, and Optional Description documentation may
not always be applicable. For example, if the machine being monitored - new or
rebuilt - is a motor.

Component Part (e.g. motor, shaft, auxiliary gearbox, etc.):


alphanumeric characters

Four (4)

Location (e.g. bearing number designation):


numeric characters

Three (3)

Two (2) letters

Sensor (transducer) Type Code:

Angular Orientation:
(000 to 360 degrees)

Three (3) digits

Sensor Axis Orientation:

One (1) letter

Direction of Motion:

One (1) letter

The six convention definitions (Component Part, Location, Sensor, Angular Orientation,
Sensor Axis Orientation and Direction of Motion) SHALL be combined into a fourteen
character (no spaces) measurement identification as follows:
e.g.
SFTA003AC090RN (shaft A, bearing number 3, single axis
accelerometer positioned 90 degrees counterclockwise from zero, mounted
radially, normal motion).
This convention for specifying transducer type and angular orientation at each measurement
location IS REQUIRED for Your Company / MIMOSA compliance.
Component Part (shaft, gearbox, roll, etc.):
four (4) alphanumeric characters
Four user defined alpha numeric characters provide a flexible means to identify
specific component parts of a machine for convenience and purposes of automated
diagnosis. Examples include individual shafts rotating at different speeds within a
complete machine i.e. SFTC to indicate shaft C, an auxiliary gearbox with multiple
shaft speeds that differ from the shaft speeds of the main machine i.e., AGB6
(auxiliary gearbox, position number 6).
Reference Appendix A RECOMMENDED COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION
SYMBOLS. Since component identification utilizes only three (3) primary alpha
characters, (e.g. SFT for shaft), the fourth character space will be a null identified
by the symbol (@), alpha character such as (A), or a numerical character such as
(6).
Location (bearing number designation): three (3) numeric characters
A numeric sequence identifying the specific bearing on which a vibration
measurement is recorded using three numeric numbers. For purposes of this
Specification, the numeric sequence starts at the outboard bearing position of the

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

driver machine (MOTOR), which is designated as location 001. Reference Figures


2, 4, 5A, 6A, 6B, and 6C.
Sensor (transducer) Type Code: two (2) letters
Sensor type is designated by a two letter abbreviation according to the following
table:
AA

Single Axis Accelerometer

PD

Dynamic Pressure

AC

Single Axis Accelerometer w/internal integration

PS

Static Pressure

AT

Triaxial Accelerometer

SG

Strain Gauge

CT
Current Transformer
Thermocouple

TC

Temperature--

DP

Displacement Probe

TR

Temperature -- RTD

DR

Displacement Probe used as a Phase Reference

TT

Torque Transducer

LT

LVDT (Linear Voltage Differential Transformer)

TO

Torsional transducer

MP

Magnetic Pickup (shaft speed/phase reference)

VP

Velocity Pickup

MI

Microphone

VT

Voltage

OP

Optical Pickup (shaft speed/phase reference)

US

Ultra-Sound

AE

Acoustic Emission

OT

Other

Angular Orientation:

three digits (000 to 360 degrees)


Foot-Mounted Machines:
The angular position of a vibration
sensor is measured from a zero reference located at 3 Oclock when viewed
at position number 001, looking into the machine. The 12:00 Oclock
position on the machine surface is opposite the machine mounting plate-Reference Figure 2.
The angle increases counterclockwise (regardless of the direction of shaft
rotation) in the plane of shaft rotation from 0o to 360o.
Flange Mounted Machines: The angular position of a vibration sensor is
measured from a zero reference located at the Point of Energy Input on the
Driver Machine. When viewed from Position 001 looking into the machine
(in the direction from Driver to Driven). The angular position increases
counterclockwise (regardless of the direction of shaft rotation) in the plane
of shaft rotation from 0o to 360o.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Position
001

Position
002
AXIAL

090

180

000
360

090

270

180

DRIVER
MACHINE

Point of
Energy Input

000
360

Position
002

Position
001

DRIVEN
MACHINE

270

Angular Convention - Foot Mounted

Angular Convention - Flange Mounted

Figure 0-2 Angular Convention for Foot Mounted & Flange Mounted Machines
Sensor (sensitive) Axis Direction (Orientation): one (1) letter
A single letter defines the direction of the sensor sensitive axis. This
portion of the identification provides unique descriptive information when
the sensor sensitive axis does not coincide with the radial defined in the
previous section (Reference Figure 3: XXXAC135H, XXXAC090T,
XXXAC315A). It is redundant when the sensitive axis coincides with the
defined radial (e.g. XXXAC000R and XXXAC000H).
R - Radial:

sensor sensitive axis perpendicular to and passes through the shaft axis

A - Axial:

sensor sensitive axis parallel to the shaft axis

NOTE: Axial direction (A) shall be, by definition, parallel to the rotational axis of the machine.
T - Tangential:

sensor sensitive axis perpendicular to a radial in the plane of shaft rotation

H - Horizontal:

sensor sensitive axis orientated at 000 or 180 degrees only

V - Vertical:

sensor sensitive axis orientated at 090 or 270 degrees only

Horizontal - offset
XXXAC135H

Tangential XXXAC090T

Radial Displacement
XXXDP045

Radial XXXAC225R
Axial XXXAC315A

Figure 0-3 Direction of Sensor Axis

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Motion for a positive signal output (relative to a Time Waveform):


Motion into the sensor is defined as positive (+), motion away from the sensor is
negative (-).
When radial sensors are installed in an X-Y pair, the X sensor will be 45 degrees to
the right (clockwise) from a radial bisecting the angle between the two sensors
when viewed from position number 001 (regardless of the direction of shaft
rotation). The Y sensor will be 45 degrees to the left (counterclockwise) from the
bisecting radial.
Direction of Motion: [one letter]
The final character in the measurement identification code is either an N (normal) or R
(reverse) to identify sensors mounted in opposition where machine motion in one direction
results in positive motion in one sensor (N -- normal) and negative motion (R -- reverse) in
the other. Axial sensors mounted in opposite directions at opposing ends of a machine are
the primary example. Axial machine motion toward the reference end is normally
designated positive. The axial sensor closest to the reference end of the machine, position
001, will be designated normal (N) when mounted such that positive motion toward the
sensor produces a positive signal output. Likewise, motion toward the reference end will
produce a negative signal from the axial sensor at the opposite end , which is then
designated R (reverse). The angular orientation defines the direction of motion for radially
mounted sensors. Therefore, a default of N (normal) should be utilized for sensors
mounted radially.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT LOCATIONS


Required measurement positions and orientations on a machine's surface at which vibration
measurements are to be taken shall be determined by mutual agreement of the customer and the
machine builder, and shall meet the following requirements:
Follow the convention specified in Sections 4.0 and 5.0, unless specified otherwise by the
customer.

10

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

If an obstruction or a safety concern prevents locating a transducer as specified, locate as


close as possible to the standardized position.
Measurement locations used for machine certification and acceptance shall be identified on
the machine layout drawing and/or machine as mutually agreed upon by the customer and
the machine builder.
Vibration measurement locations shall be on a rigid member of the machine, as close to
each bearing as feasible. Bearing housings, machine casings or mounting blocks are
examples of mounting locations.
Vibration measurement location shall NOT be on a flexible cover or shield such as the fan
cover on an electric motor or a sheet-metal belt guard.
Guarding must be designed to allow accessibility to all measurement locations (Reference Section
5.7).
In the event that vibration monitoring points will be rendered inaccessible after the machine
is built or access to the measurement points would present a safety problem during
measurement, permanently mounted transducers (Stud Mounted or Adhesive Mounted)
SHALL BE installed. Installation shall be in accordance with the requirements set forth in
Section 6 of this document.
Measurement locations shall be numbered consecutively from 001 to NNN in the direction
of power flow:
Position 001 designates the out-board starting Power Point bearing location of the
driver unit of the machine. Position NNN designates the bearing location at the
terminating Power Point bearing location of the driven machine (Reference Figures
4, 5A, 6A, 6B, and 6C).

009

MOTOR

001

002

003

011

012

SPINDLE #2

GEAR BOX

007

010

008
008

SPINDLE #1

004

005

006

PROCESS FLOW DIRECTION

When a machine station consists of multiple components, such as two or more spindles, consecutive

POWER FLOW

Figure 0-5 Order and Consecutive Numbering Sequence


numbering of components shall be in the direction of
process flow (Reference Figures 5A and 5B).
0

I N

&

SPL1

SPL6

SPL5

SPL3

SPL2

SPL4

SPL7

PROCESS FLOW

Figure 0-4 Order and Consecutive


Numbering Sequence

I N

11

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


F L O W O F P A R T S F O R M A C H IN IN G

00 6

005

0 04

003

002

001

D R IL L H E A D U N IT
(M U L T IP L E S P IN D L E S )

Figure 0-6 Vibration Measurement Locations

001

002

003

004

FLUID TRANSFER PUMP

Figure 0-7 Vibration Measurement Locations


001

004

002

003

004

003

MOTOR FAN SYSTEM

Figure 0-8 Vibration Measurement Locations

12

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

003

004

Motor: 1200 RPM


001

1200 RM
Motor

002

005

006

Motor - Gear Box Spindle System

Figure 0-9 Vibration Measurement Locations

13

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

TRANSDUCER & MACHINE MOUNTING CONDITIONS


VIBRATION TRANSDUCER MOUNTING
The mounted vibration transducer must provide the measurement system amplitude
accuracy over the selected frequency range equal to or exceeding the requirements
specified in Section 3.2.
At the designated measurement positions, suitable surfaces shall be provided such that the
mounted transducer will attach securely.
Hand-held Pickups: Hand-held pickups are not acceptable for certification
measurements by this specification. They may be used for surveying machine
surfaces for identification of suitable pickup locations.
Magnetic Mount: For a magnetic base mounted transducer the location on a
machine's surface at which vibration measurements are to be taken shall be
machined (faced) or cast 1.1 X Diameter of the mounting surface of the magnet to
be set on the Surface, flat within 25 m (1 mil), and a minimum surface finish
(surface texture) of 25 m (1 mil). During measurement, the mounting location
shall be clean, free of debris and paint, so that the magnet base can be attached
firmly without rocking. If it is not feasible to machine a flat then it is permissible to
affix a pad with a diameter not less than the base diameter of the magnet, using
LOCTITE 330 or equivalent.
NOTE: Customer will specify to the machine tool builder the largest magnet
diameter for which machined or cast surfaces will need to be provided.
Stud Mounted: For a stud mounted transducer, the machine's surface at which
vibration measurements are to be taken shall be machined (faced) with a minimum
surface diameter of 1.1 X Diameter of the mounting surface of the transducer to be
mounted on the Surface, flat within 25 m (1 mil), and a minimum surface finish
(surface texture) of 25 m (1 mil).
NOTE: Customer will specify to the machine tool builder the largest
transducer diameter for which machined surfaces will need to be provided.
The tapped hole shall be M6 or M8 ( x 28) with a minimum depth of at least two
threads deeper than the stud. The hole shall be perpendicular to within 1o to the
mounting surface.
Refer to Accelerometer manufacturers literature for mounting parameter
requirements (torque, grease, etc.).
Designated transducer type to be specified by the customer.
Adhesive Mounting: Adhesives will lower the accelerometer mounted resonance
frequency (usually specified for stud mounted). If an adhesive is used to attach
either the transducer or a magnetic mounting pad, the upper frequency limit of the
transducer shall be reduced by 20% of the manufacturer's stated resonance for hard
adhesives and by 50% of the manufacturer's stated resonance for soft adhesives.
Transducer manufacturer's specifications should be consulted.
The machine's surface at which vibration measurements are to be taken shall
be machined (faced) with a minimum surface diameter of 1.1 X Diameter of the
14

Deleted: or equivalent
Deleted: (6 mm).
Deleted: within 0.1 mm.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

mounting surface of the transducer to be mounted on the Surface, flat within 25 m


(1 mil). The surface shall be abraded to approximately 25 m (1 mil) to increase
adhesion. The adhesive bond layer thickness should be less than 1 mm.
MACHINE MOUNTING
Where a machine can be tested as an individual unit (e.g. motor, spindle, etc.) the
machine must be mounted as specified in Section 9.
Where an individual machine can be tested only as an assembled unit (e.g.
motor/pump, motor/fan, etc.), the machine mounting conditions shall be as
equivalent as possible to those to be encountered upon installation at the customer's
site.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS
VIBRATION MEASUREMENT UNITS
Vibration measurements and data for machine certification and acceptance shall be in the
RMS-METRIC units specified in Table 1.
NOTE: During transition from English to Metric, equivalent English values in units
specified in Table 1 may also be included in the data if enclosed by ( ).

Table 0-2 Vibration Measurement Units

Frequency

Orders, Hertz, (CPM)

Rotational Speed

Revolutions
[RPS]

per

Sec

or Revolutions per
Minute [RPM]
Amplitude

METRIC

ENGLISH

Displacement (Peak or Peak-to-Peak)

Microns

Inch (Also Mil in U.S.)**

Velocity

Millimeter/sec (RMS)

Inch/sec (Peak)

Acceleration

Meter/sec2
(RMS)

g's g's

or

(Peak)

** 1 "Mil" = .001 inch


................................ If True Peak measurements are required, time domain data will need
to be acquired. The units of measurement will be Metric and designated by the words "True Peak".

NOTE: What is normally referred to as "Peak" or "Peak-to-Peak" Vibration Amplitude


Measurements is a Calculated Peak not a True Peak. The Calculated Peak is derived from
the RMS level based on the following equations:
Peak (P) = 1.414 x RMS
1.414 x RMS
FREQUENCY BANDS

Peak-to-Peak (P-to-P) = 2 x (P) = 2 x

15

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

The frequency range of measurement shall be divided into sub-groups called bands. The
Fmin and Fmax for each band will be defined in units of frequency or orders of running
speed of the machine (Ref. Figure 7).
Mandatory Bands
Band 1 shall be (0.3 - 0.8) X Running Speed [1st Order]
Band 2 shall be (0.8 - 1.2) X Running Speed [1st Order]
Band 3 shall be (1.2 - 3.5) X Running Speed [1st Order]
Other Bands
Bands 4 through N shall be defined by the specific machine tool application. Bands
4 through N may also overlap each other or be contained within each other (such as
a "Zoom" Band) as required by a specific application.

A
M
P
L
I
T
U
D
E

RPM

RPM

BAND BAND
1
2

RPM

RPM

RPM

BAND
3

BAND
4

BAND
5

RPM

BAND
Ni

2
3
4
RUNNING SPEED ORDERS

Fmax

Figure 0-10 Frequency Bands


Maximum Frequency Fmax
Vibration spectra plots consisting of Amplitude vs Frequency shall span a
frequency range with upper frequency limit Fmax, and have sufficient resolution so as
to include and resolve minimum and maximum frequencies of interest, such as due
to drive belts, mechanical looseness, imbalance, misalignment, bearing defects, gear
mesh, applicable side bands, etc. As a general guideline for frequency range, Fmax =
3.25 times gear mesh or 50 times running speed, whichever is greater. Additional
frequency range plots spanning a more limited range, or "Zoom," is acceptable to
meet resolution requirements.
LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS
For vibration level limits specified in terms of "LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE
LIMITS":

A line of resolution will have a band width (f) = 5 Hertz (300 CPM) unless
specified otherwise (Reference Section 7.4 requirement for total energy in a peak),

16

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

unless the f = 5 Hertz (300 CPM) restriction would result in less than 400 lines of
resolution over the frequency range specified for certification, in which case the
resolution requirement will default to 400 lines. [Greater resolution (i.e. f < 5 Hz
(300 CPM)) may be required for low speed equipment, to resolve "Side Bands," or
in Band 1 to resolve machine vibration between 0.3X and 0.8X Running Speed.

The maximum amplitude of any line of resolution contained within a band


shall not exceed the Line Amplitude Acceptance Limit for the Band.
NOTE: If a line of resolution is coincidental with the Fmin/Fmax of two adjacent
bands, that line of resolution will be included in Line Amplitude Acceptance Limit
evaluation for each band.

17

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS


For vibration level limits specified in terms of "BAND-LIMITED OVERALL
AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS" the Total vibration level "A" in a band, as defined
by the following equation, shall not exceed the Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit
specified for the Band.
N

A
i =1

2
i

1. 5

Overall vibration level in the Band

Ai
=
Band

Amplitude in the ith line of resolution in the

(i = 1) =

The first line of resolution in the Band

(i = N) =

The last line of resolution in the Band

The number of lines of resolution in the Band

If the total energy in a peak is to be measured, a minimum of 5 lines of resolution must be


used and the peak must be centered in the band.
NOTE: If a line of resolution is coincidental with the Fmin/Fmax of two adjacent
bands, that line of resolution will be included in the Band-Limited Overall
Amplitude Acceptance Limit evaluation for the band having the lowest acceptance
level limit.
The amplitude range sensitivity of the FFT Analyzer shall be set to the maximum input
sensitivity possible without overloading such that the actual measurement uses at least 72
dB of the Dynamic Range.
Certification will be based on:

Hanning Window.

Four (4) averages (Linear 50% overlap).

The transducer mounting shall be such that the measurement system amplitude accuracy
over the selected frequency range equals or exceeds the requirements specified in Section
3.2. This may require the use of more than one accelerometer where potentially high
frequencies might occur (such as gear mesh or harmonics of gear mesh) along with lower
frequencies (such as due to imbalance, misalignment, looseness, etc.).
ALIGNMENT
All coupled rotating machines consisting of consecutive shafts connected through a
coupling (whether rigid or flexible) shall be aligned within the tolerances specified by the
customer.
Consideration shall be given to any thermal growth that might occur during the normal
operation of the machine that would cause the machine to "grow out of alignment" to the
extent that the alignment tolerances of this specification would not be met.
BALANCING - Shaft and Fitment Key Convention
STANDARD KEY
For rotating machines and machine components with a keyed shaft,
this Standard requires balancing be achieved using a standard one18

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

half key in the key seat in accordance with ISO 8821-1989(E). ISO
8821-1989(E) applies to rotors balanced in balancing machines, in
their own housings, or in situ, and applies to keys of constant
rectangular or square cross-section, keys mounted on tapered shaft
surfaces, woodruff, gib, dowel and other special keys.
If a full key, corresponding to the half key used for balancing, is not
provided with the rotating machine, a tag, as shown in Figure 8, will
be attached to the machine indicating the dimensions of the key used
to perform the balance test.
If no key is shipped with the shaft, and a tag as shown in Figure 8 is
not attached to the shaft, the length of the half-key used originally
for balancing the shaft is assumed to be the same as the length of the
shaft keyway (Ref. ISO 8821).
The use of solder or similar deposits to achieve rotor balance is not acceptable.
Any parent metal removed to achieve dynamic or static balance shall be drilled out
in a manner which will maintain the structural integrity of the rotor.

A
B

b
a

A = "HALF KEY" LENGTH USED FOR


BALANCING ROTOR
A = _________________
a = DEPTH OF KEYWAY IN SHAFT
a = _________________
B = "HALF KEY" LENGTH USED FOR
BALANCING THE FITMENT
B = _________________
b = DEPTH OF KEYWAY IN FITMENT
b = _________________

(A X a) + (B X b)
FINAL ASSEMBLY KEY LENGTH = -----------------------a + b
FINAL ASSEMBLY KEY LENGTH = _______________

ROTOR ASSEMBLY S/N or other ID# ________________________________________________


FITMENT S/N or other ID# _________________________________________________________

Figure 0-11 Balance Test Key Dimensions


RESONANCE
If the frequency of any harmonic component of a periodic forcing phenomenon is equal to
or approximates the frequency of any mode of a machines natural frequency of vibration, a
19

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

VIBRATION

LEVEL

condition of resonance might exist. Operating speeds must have a separation margin (SM)
of at least 25% of the resonance speed (o). Where multiple resonances exist, the
operating speed shall also be above or below any given resonance and removed from the
resonance by a separation margin of at least 25% of the resonance speed (Reference Figure
9).
OPERATING
SPEED
SM

SM

OPERATING
SPEED
SM

N1

SM

N2
RPM

Figure 0-12 Resonance Separation Margin (SM)

MACHINE QUOTATION, CERTIFICATION, AND ACCEPTANCE


QUOTATION
The Quotation shall specify that the equipment will meet the applicable vibration
level limits in Section 9 of this Specification - or the vibration level limits (if
different from YOUR COMPANY Specification V1.0 - Latest Version) specified by
the customer in the Request for Quote.
The Quotation shall state the applicable specification vibration level limits being
requested.
Any additional costs required to meet the specification limits shall be grouped in a
separate section of the Quotation and titled "VIBRATION LIMITS". Costs must
be itemized and sufficiently detailed to permit a complete evaluation by the
customer.
MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR MACHINE CERTIFICATION
Vibration measurements shall:
Be presented in the format specified in Section 4 of this document.
Be the responsibility of the supplier unless specified otherwise by the
customer.
Be performed by technically qualified person, who is trained and
experienced in vibration measurement. This person must, at a minimum, be
Certified as a Vibration Specialist I by the Vibration Institute (or
equivalent). A resume of the technical qualifications and a copy of the
Vibration Institute certification of the person doing the machine vibration
certification shall be submitted as a part of the machine vibration
certification data.
Be taken with the machine operating as specified in Section 9 Where no
load is specified, no actual machining such as cutting, grinding, etc. is to be
20

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

taking place during collection of machine vibration data. Where rated load
is specified, rated operating load--either actual or simulated--will be applied
during collection of machine vibration data.
Prior to taking vibration measurements, the machine will be run-in until it
reaches speed and thermal stability.
Vibration Signatures as required by Section 9 of this specification, shall be
submitted to the customer's Maintenance Department or other authorized
representative before acceptance of the machinery or equipment being monitored
will be authorized.
Vibration data for machine certification shall be measured during run-off at the
vendor's facility. Where it is impractical to set-up and test a complete machine at
the vendor's facility, arrangements shall be made to perform the test at the
customer's facility. Under this circumstance, shipment of the equipment does not
relieve the vendor of the responsibility for meeting the specified vibration level
limits.
The customer shall have the option to verify vibration data of equipment during
machine run-off at the vendor's test site prior to shipment, or at the plant site per
Section 8.2.3, prior to final acceptance authorization.
The machine layout drawing shall be submitted as a part of the Machine Vibration
Certification. Vibration measurement locations on the machine's surface at which
vibration measurements are taken shall be designated on the drawing per Sections
4.0 and 5.0 requirements. At the option of the customer, shaft speeds, gear type
and number of gear teeth, gear mesh frequencies, bearing manufacturer's name,
bearing type number and class, shall be identified on the machine layout drawing.
Where gear boxes are involved, an insert such as illustrated in Figure 6C shall be
included on the machine layout drawing.
ACCEPTANCE
Authorization for machine/equipment acceptance based on the vibration limits of this
specification requires signature by the customer's authorized representative. A copy of the
acceptance must be sent to the plant's purchasing department before final acceptance is
authorized.

VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS - COMPONENTS


ELECTRIC MOTORS -- Refer to Section 9.1 "YOUR COMPANY Vibration Standards for
Electric Motors".
MACHINE TOOL SPINDLES AND HEADS -- Refer to Section 9.2 "YOUR
COMPANY Vibration Standards for Machine Tool Spindles and Heads".
FANS -- Refer to Section 9.3 "YOUR COMPANY Vibration Standards for Fans".
PUMPS -- Refer to Section 9.4 "YOUR COMPANY Vibration Standards for Pumps".
GEARBOXES -- Refer to Section 9.5 "YOUR COMPANY Vibration Standards for Gearboxes".
DEFAULT VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS -- Refer to Section 9.6 "YOUR COMPANY Vibration
Standard Default Limits".

VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS - COMPLETE MACHINE ASSEMBLY

21

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

A complete machine is defined as the entire assembly of components, sub-components, and


structure, which is monitored to perform a specific task(s). On a Complete Machine Assembly
with all individual components operating in their normal operating condition, mode, and
sequence, the Component Vibration Level Limits for the complete machine acceptance are
the same as when the component is tested individually. Where assembled component levels
exceed the acceptable limits, the cause will be identified, if possible, and a decision to correct or
accept mutually agreed upon by customer and machine builder.

DEMODULATED ACCELERATION MEASUREMENTS


Because demodulated acceleration measurements are provided by a variety of vendors with
different characteristics, it is outside the scope of this specification to specify exact requirements.
However, at every position where there exists a rolling element bearing, a demodulated
acceleration reading shall be taken using the following characteristics:
Frequency Range
always less than 1kHz.

The Fmax shall be more than 30x the shaft run speed but

Transducer Mounting
The transducer shall be a mid-range accelerometer Class 3A
or a broad-range accelerometer Class 4A as described in Table 1, section 3.4. The
accelerometer shall be mounted using a magnet of no less than 20kg pull unless the
accelerometer is stud mounted as described in section 6.1.3.
Enveloping Filter If the transducer is magnet mounted then the enveloping
filter shall be such a frequency range that it covers the range 1kHz to 3kHz. For band-pass
filters the filter range chosen shall be the closest approximation to 1kHz 3kHz. If the
accelerometer is stud mounted, then the filter setting shall be assessed by setting the meter
to a 20kHz spectrum and impacting the machine surface near the transducer with a steel
hammer, taking care not to damage the machine surface. The area of maximum response is
the frequency range that shall be covered by the filter.
Acceptance Limits The machine shall be considered acceptable if the spectrum floor
level does not exceed 0.01 G RMS and the spectrum has no spikes at bearing defect
frequencies which are more than 5dB (re 10-6)G above the floor level.

22

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

9.1.1

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

9.1.1

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

SECTION Electric Motors


YOUR COMPANY VIBRATION STANDARDS FOR ELECTRIC MOTORS

ELECTRICAL MOTOR MEASUREMENT REQUIREMENTS


It is the purpose of this specification to state specifically how to check vibration on all completely
assembled motors and generators. For brevity, the word motor will be used hereinafter to mean
motors and/or generators.
Motors will be defined by four (4) categories:
Standard motor.......Utility Operations
Special motor........Semi-Finish Operations
Precision motor......Finish Operations
Other motor..........Per agreement by vendor and customer
The frequency range for motor certification will be from Fmin = 0.3 X Running Speed
(synchronous speed) to Fmax = 2,000 Hertz (120,000 CPM) for velocity and to Fmax =
5,000 Hertz (300,000 CPM) for acceleration.
Alternating current (AC) motors will be tested at rated voltage and frequency, and no load.
Single speed alternating current motors will be tested at synchronous speed. A multispeed
alternating current motor will be tested at all its rated synchronous speeds. AC motors
with Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) and Direct current (DC) motors will be tested at
their highest rated speed. Series and universal motors will be tested at operating speed.
New and rebuilt motors shall be tested in accordance with the following:
Place the motor (and steel base plate if necessary) on a resilient mounting so proportioned that the up and
down natural frequency shall be at least as low as 25 percent of the test speed of the motor. [The static load
deflection due to the motor and the steel base plate must be equal to or greater than the amounts shown in
Table 9.1]------The compression of the resilient mounting shall in no case be more than 50 percent of the
original thickness of the resilient pad.
Where vibration measurements are taken with the machine is mounted on a foundation, the natural frequency
of mounted machine and foundation shall be removed by at least 25 percent from the rotational exciting
frequency.

Motors designed to be mounted vertically should be tested in a cradle, designed to mount


the motor in its designated vertical mount orientation. Care must be taken that the cradle
mount provides a stable and SAFE test environment.
To support flange mounting motors, it will be necessary to use a cradle. In this case, the
cradle plus the steel plate must weigh less than 1/20 the weight of the motor.
MOTOR ISOLATION
Support Pad: For consistent results, the support pad with mounted motor (and plate if
necessary), must have an up and down natural frequency less than one-quarter (25%) the
speed of the motor.
Plate: A steel base plate must be used between the motor and the support pad.*
1. The plate must weigh less than 1/20 the weight of the motor.
1

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

2. Care must be taken that the motor does not rock on the plate
(Softfoot must be removed).
3. The linear dimensions of the plate shall not exceed those of the
projected motor base by more than 10%.
* To test motors that are to be resilient mounted upon installation, omit the steel
base plate and put the base of the motor directly on the resilient support test pad.
Resilient (Rubber or rubber like)Support Pad: - Support the motor and steel base plate on
a resilient pad per the following specifications:
Pad thickness shall be such that the downward deflection of the pad due to the static load
weight of the motor and plate will be equal to or greater than that shown in the following
table, but must in no case be more than 1/2 the original thickness of the pad.
Table 0-1 (9.1) Isolation Pad Minumum Compression
MOTOR SYNCHRONOUS SPEED

ISOLATION PAD MINIMUM COMPRESSION

(RPM)

MILLIMETERS

(INCHES)

600

58

(2-1/4)

720

40

(1-9/16)

750

38

(1-15/32)

800

33

(1-17/64)

900

26

(1.00)

1000

21

(13/16)

1200

15

(9/16)

1500

10

(3/8)

1800

(1/4)

2400

(9/64)

3000

(3/32)

3600

(1/16)

7200

(1/64)

NOTE: The required deflection is inversely proportional to the square of the speed.
The RPMs listed in Table 9.1 is that at which the motor is run during vibration test.

For any speed not listed in Table 9.1, use the following formula:
Deflection (millimeters) = 25.4 x [900/(RPM)]2
[900/(RPM)]2

Deflection (inches) =

The resilient support pad SHALL support the entire base plate area. The
pad shall not be more than 10% larger than the base plate.
For any motor to be tested, the necessary thickness of the resilient pad can
be calculated from he following formula:
T = KDA/F

where T = pad thickness (inches)


K = modulus of elasticity (lbs. per sq. in.)
2

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

D = deflection required (inches)


motor base

A = area of contact between rubber pad and


or steel plate (sq. inch)
F = weight of motor and plate (lbs.)

To obtain pad thickness in millimeters, multiply by 25.4 mm/inch

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

PREPARATION FOR TESTING and SAFETY

Use a test table or other horizontal surface free from vibration.

Place the proper flexible pad on the test table or horizontal surface and the proper plate on
the pad.
Place the motor squarely on the plate so that it is reasonably level [i.e. all four corners of
the base or plate are the same height above the table 4 mm ( 1/8 inch)].
Unless otherwise specified, fit the shaft keyway with half of a standard key (i.e. full length
and flush with the top of the keyway).
To avoid the possibility of bending the shaft, use a half key which is 0.005 mm (0.0002
inch) less in width than the keyway, and is held in place with tape or by other suitable means.
Large motors should be steadied during startup with a hoist sling or by other suitable
means, to avoid the danger of their being overturned.
CRITICAL SPEED
Completely assembled motors shall have a percentage separation between the rotor shaft
first actual critical speed and the rated motor speed as specified:
Table 0-2 Critical Speed Locations
FIRST ACTUAL
ROTOR DESIGN

CRITICAL SPEED LOCATION

Rigid Shaft

At least 25% Above Rated Motor Speed

Flexible Shaft
Maximum of 85% of Motor Speed
LIMITS
Small (Fractional) and Medium (Integral) Horsepower AC/DC Motors:
Electrical motors defined by NEMA Standard MG-1 "Motors and Generators",
Section II Small (Fractional) and Medium (Integral) Horsepower AC/DC Machines
shall meet the following requirements:
9.1.5.1.1
The Velocity Amplitude of any line of resolution,
measured at all bearing positions in any direction radial or axial shall
not exceed the Line-Amplitude Band Limit values specified in Table
9.1A and graphed in Figure 9.1.
9.1.5.1.2
The Acceleration Overall Amplitude measured at all
bearing positions in any direction radial or axial shall not exceed the
Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit values specified
in Table 9.1A and graphed in Figure 9.1 when determined in
accordance with Sections 7.2 and 7.3 using the frequency range
defined in Section 9.1.1.2.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Table 0-3 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR ELECTRIC MOTORS


TABLE 9.1A
VELOCITY LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS
BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

STANDARD

Hz (CPM)

SPECIAL

PRECISION

MM/SEC - RMS

MM/SEC RMS

MM/SEC RMS

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

[0.3 0.8] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

0.718

(0.04)

0.36

(0.02)

[0.81.2] x RPM

1.35

(0.075)

0.718

(0.04)

0.36

(0.02)

[1.23.5] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

0.718

(0.04)

0.18

(0.01)

[3.58.5] x RPM

0.54

(0.03)

0.54

(0.03)

0.18

(0.01)

8.5 x RPM1,000 Hz

0.54

(0.03)

0.54

(0.03)

0.09

(0.005)

0.54

(0.03)

0.54

(0.03)

0.09

(0.005)

(60,000 CPM)
6

[1,000 2,000] Hz
(60,000 120,000) CPM)

ACCELERATION BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

STANDARD

SPECIAL

PRECISION

Hz (CPM)

gs RMS (g's PEAK)

gs RMS (g's PEAK)

gs RMS (g's PEAK)

0.3 x RPM 5K Hz

0.35

(0.5)

0.35

(0.5)

0.176

(0.25)

(300K CPM)

ELECTRICAL MOTOR CERTIFICATION


The maximum Line Amplitude of vibration in each Band at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by the table above shall be listed in tabular form.
The maximum Band Limited Overall Amplitude of vibration at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by the Table shall be listed in tabular form.
Vibration signatures of velocity and acceleration for Radial vibration measurements taken
at Position 001 @ 0o and 90o, Position 002 @ 0o and 90o, and Position 002 Axial shall be
submitted as part of the motor certification. If due to machine mounting radial vibration
readings at 0o and 90o are not accessible, then two accessible radial readings 90o apart shall
be taken at Positions 001 and 002. Data shall be identified with the Motor Serial Number,
Frame Number, Model Number, Horsepower, and Synchronous speed.
The motor nameplate shall carry the following designation:

Table 0-4 Motor Nameplate Vibration Designation


FOR STANDARD

"1.35 MM/SEC RMS (0.075 IN/S Peak) @ 1X"

FOR SPECIAL

"0.718 MM/SEC RMS (0.04 IN/S Peak) @ 1X"


5

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

FOR PRECISION

"0.36 MM/SEC RMS (0.02 IN/S Peak) @ 1X"

FOR OTHER

"____MM/SEC RMS (____ IN/S Peak) @ 1X"

Vibration data and signatures must be submitted with the motor to the customer's
Maintenance Department or other authorized representative before acceptance of the motor
will be authorized.

STANDARD MOTOR
LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS

O
C
I

V
E
L

1.35
(0.075)

0.718
(0.04)

0.718
(0.04)

T
Y
BAND BAND BAND
1
2
3

MM/SEC-RMS
(IN/SEC-Peak))

O
0.54
(0.03)

BAND 4
BAND
4

0.54
(0.03)

0.54
(0.03)

C
I
T
Y

BAND
5

BAND
6

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Fmax = 2,000 Hz
(120K CPM)
RUNNING SPEED [ORDERS]
STANDARD MOTOR - - - UTILITY OPERATIONS

0.718 0.718 0.718


(0.04)(0.04) (0.04)

BAND BAND
1
2

MM/SEC-RMS
(IN/SEC-Peak)

BAND
3
2

0.54
(0.03)
BAND
4
BAND
4

0.54
(0.03)
BAND
5

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

RUNNING SPEED [ORDERS]

0.54
(0.03)
BAND
6
Fmax = 2,000 Hz
(120K CPM)

SPECIAL MOTOR - - - SEMI-FINISH OPERATIONS

PRECISION MOTOR
LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS

V
E
L

.36 .36
(.02) (.02)

O
C
I
T
Y

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS

L
E
.18
(.01)

.18
(.01)
.09
(.005)

BAND BAND BAND


BAND
BAND
1
2
3
5
4
2 3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
MM/SEC-RMS 1

(IN/SEC-Peak)

A
C
C
E

RUNNING SPEED [ORDERS]

.09
(.005)
BAND
6
Fmax = 2,000 Hz
(120K CPM)

PRECISION MOTOR - - - FINISH OPERATIONS

R
A
T
I
O
N
g's - RMS
(g's - Peak)

BAND 1
0.35 g's - RMS (0.5 g's - Peak)
STANDARD MOTOR & SPECIAL MOTOR

0.176 g's - RMS (0.25 g's - Peak)


PRECISION MOTOR

FREQUENCY - CPM

Fmax = 5K Hz
(300K CPM)

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Figure 0-1 Maximum Allowable Vibration Limits for Electric Motors

V
E
L

SPECIAL MOTOR
LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Section - Spindles
YOUR COMPANY VIBRATION STANDARDS
FOR MACHINE TOOL SPINDLES AND HEADS

SPINDLE AND HEAD REQUIREMENTS


All single spindle and multi-spindle units will be (where possible) mounted on a test stand in
their normal operating attitude, properly secured in a STRESS FREE CONDITION and
be either direct coupled or belt driven. Integral motor spindles (motorized spindles) will be
tested as a self-powered unit.
The Spindle or Head will be run-in until it reaches temperature stability at operating speed.

Measurement Locations:
Vibration measurement locations shall be;

in accordance with Sections 5.0 and 6.0.

at a point as close to the spindle bearing as possible and in line with the spindle
center line

TARGET LOCATIONS FOR VIBRATION ANALYSIS


SINGLE PRECISION SPINDLE
V
H

Figure 0-1 Measurement Locations for Single Precision Spindle

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

TARGET LOCATIONS FOR VIBRATION ANALYSIS


PRECISION SPINDLE CLUSTER
A

Figure 0-2 Measurement Locations for Spindle Cluster

TARGET LOCATIONS FOR VIBRATION ANALYSIS


MULTI-SPINDLE GEAR TYPE HEAD

Figure 0-3 Measurement Locations for Multi-Spindle Gear-type Head


Operating Speed:
If a spindle unit is designed to operate at one speed, the unit is to be tested
at that speed.
If a spindle unit is designed to operate at multiple speeds, the unit is to be
tested at the each rated speed.
If a spindle unit is designed to operate at all speeds in a given speed range,
the unit must be tested at its' maximum rated speed, unless this coincides
with a resonance or resonance-like condition. In this case, the test speed
shall be the maximum speed possible without encountering the resonance or
resonance-like condition.
VIBRATION LIMITS
Limits For Box and Cartridge-Type Spindles:
The maximum velocity amplitude of vibration at bearing locations in any
direction Radial or Axial shall not exceed the Line Amplitude Band Limit
values specified in Tables and graphed in Figures.
The maximum acceleration amplitude of vibration at bearing locations in any
direction Radial or Axial shall not exceed the Band-Limited Overall
Amplitude Acceptance Limits specified in Tables, and graphed in Figures.
2

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Table 0-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEARLESS TYPE


SPINDLES
600 TO 12,000 RPM (<= 400,000 DN)
LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS
B
A
N
D

FREQUENCY
RANGE
Hz

VELOCITY
MM/SEC RMS

(CPM)

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

[0.3 0.8] x RPM

0.18

(0.01)

[0.8 1.2] x RPM

0.18

(0.01)

[1.2 3.5] x RPM

0.18

(0.01)

3.5 x RPM 2,000 Hz


(120,000 CPM)

Angular Contact Bearings

0.09

(0.005)

Roller Bearings

0.135

(0.0075)

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

ACCELERATION
gs RMS

Hz (CPM)
1

(g's PEAK)

0.3 x RPM -

Angular Contact Bearings

0.35

(0.5)

10,000 Hz (600K CPM)

Roller Bearings 1,000 RPM

0.71

(1.0)

Roller Bearings > 1,000 RPM

1.06

(1.5)

LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS


.020

VE
V .018
L
E .016
O
L .014
CI
.012
O TY
.010

C
.008
I
.006
T
.004
Y
.002

0.3-0.8

0.8-1.2

1.2-3.5

0.3-0.8
RPM

0.8-1.2
RPM

1.2-3.5
RPM

0.01
0.18

0.01
0.18

0.01
0.18

(0.01)

(0.01)

(0.01)

BAND 2

BAND 3

BAND 1

MM/SEC-RMS
(IN/SEC)
(IN/SEC-Peak)

3.5 - Fmax
3.5-Fmax

Roller Bearings 0.135 (0.0075)


0.0075 - Roller Bearings
Angular Contact Bearings 0.09 (0.005)
0.005 - Angular Contact Bearings

BAND 4

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

FMAX
= 2 KHz (120 KCPM)
120
KCPM

RUNNING
RUNNINGSPEED
SPEED[ORDERS]
ORDERS

FOR GEARLESS TYPE SPINDLES 600 to 12,000 RPM


<= 400,000 DN
Figure 0-4 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles 600 to 12,000 RPM

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS


A
CC
E C

1.06 g - RMS (1.5 g - Peak) for > 1000 RPM [Roller Bearings]
1.5 g(Peak) > 1000 RPM - Roller Bearings

L
L
E

0.71 g - RMS (1.0


1.0 g
g(Peak)
- Peak)<=
for1000
<= 1000
RPMRPM
- Roller
[Roller
Bearings
Bearings]

R
A
T
I
O
N

E
R
A0.5
T
I
O
N

g's

0.35 g - RMS (0.5 g - Peak) [Angular Contact Bearings]


0.5 g (Peak) - Angular Contact Bearings

BAND

0.3 x RPM

Fmax = 600K
FREQUENCY - CPM
FOR GEARLESS TYPE SPINDLES 600 to 12,000 RPM
<= 400,000 DN

Figure 0-5 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles 600 to
12,000 RPM

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Table 0-2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEARLESS TYPE


SPINDLES <600 RPM

LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

DISPLACEMENT [Peak - to - Peak)

Hz (CPM)

MICROMETER

(MILS))

[0.3 0.8] x RPM

2.54

(0.1)

[0.8 1.2] x RPM

2.54

(0.1)
VELOCITY

MM/SEC RMS
[1.2 3.5] x RPM

3
4

3.5 x RPM 5,000 Hz

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

0.18

(30,000 CPM)

(0.01)

Angular Contact Bearings

0.09

(0.005)

Roller Bearings

0.135

(0.0075)

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

ACCELERATION
gs RMS

Hz (CPM)
0.3 x RPM 1,000 Hz
CPM)

DISPLACEMENT

.18
.16
.14
.12
.10
.08
.06
.04
.02

MICROMETERS

(MILS)
(MILS)

0.3-0.8
RPM

0.8-1.2
RPM

2.54

2.54

(0.1)

(0.1)

BAND 1

BAND 2

(60K

Angular Contact Bearings

0.35

(0.5)

Roller Bearings

0.53

(0.75)

.018
.016
.014
.012

VELOCITY

(g's PEAK)

.010
.008
.006
.004
.002

0.18

(0.01)

Roller Bearings - 0.135 (0.0075)


Angular Contact Bearings - 0.09 (0.005)

MM/SEC
- RMS
(IN/SEC)
(IN/SEC - Peak)

RUNNING SPEED ORDERS


RUNNING SPEED [ORDERS]

Figure 0-6 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles <600 RPM
5

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS


A
CA
CC
EC

1.06 g - RMS (1.5 g - Peak) for > 1000 RPM [Roller Bearings]

LE
EL

0.71 g - RMS (1.0


g - Peak)<=
for1000
<= 1000
[Roller
Bearings]
1.0 g(Peak)
RPMRPM
- Roller
Bearings

RE
AR
0.5
TA
T
I
OI
NO

0.35 g - RMS (0.5 g - Peak) [Angular Contact Bearings]


0.5 g (Peak) - Angular Contact Bearings

BAND

g's

0.3 x RPM

Fmax = 60K
FREQUENCY - CPM
FOR GEARLESS TYPE SPINDLES 600 to 12,000 RPM
<= 400,000 DN

Figure 0-7 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearless Type Spindles <60
RPM
Limits for Motorized Spindles:
Motorized Spindles shall be tested as a complete assembly (motor & spindle).
The complete assembly must meet the vibration limits specified in Section
9.2.2.1 "LIMITS FOR BOX AND CARTRIDGE-TYPE SPINDLES".
Limits for Multi-spindle (Clusters) Non-Gear Type Assemblies:
Belt driven Multi-Spindle Clusters (Reference Figure 9.2.1B) shall be tested
as a complete assembly.
The complete assembly must meet the vibration limits specified in Section
9.2.2.1 "LIMITS FOR BOX AND CARTRIDGE-TYPE SPINDLES".
Limits for Gear Driven Spindle Assemblies:
For gear driven spindle assemblies the frequency range of measurement shall
be from 0.3 x lowest shaft running speed to 3.5 x highest Gear Mesh
Frequency (GMF) unless otherwise specified. The number of lines of
resolution shall be sufficient to resolve the 1 x lowest shaft speed sidebands
at GMF.
In the velocity spectra and the acceleration spectra, the line amplitude of the
GMF sidebands must be less than (<) 0.5 times the line amplitude of the
GMF The line amplitude of sidebands of harmonics of the GMFmust also be
<.5 X the line amplitude of the GMF harmonics.
7

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

In the velocity spectra the line amplitude of GMF harmonics must not exceed
0.2 x GMF line amplitude.
The maximum velocity band-limited overall amplitude (Inch/sec - Peak) of
vibration at locations specified and illustrated in Figure, in any direction (as
defined in Section 4) shall not exceed the Band-Limited Overall Amplitude
Acceptance Limits specified in Table and graphed in Figure when determined
in accordance with Section.

Table 0-3 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEAR-DRIVEN SPINDLE


ASSEMBLIES

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE
Hz (CPM)

VELOCITY
MM/SEC RMS

0.3 x Lowest Shaft RPM

1.4

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)
(0.08)

to
3.5 x Highest GMF

VELOCITY

MM/SEC - RMS
(IN/SEC - Peak)

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS


FOR GEAR-DRIVEN SPINDLE ASSEMBLIES
1.4
(0.08)

BAND 1

Fmin = 0.3 X RPM (Lowest)

Fmax = 3.5 X GMF(Highest)


FREQUENCY - CPM

Figure 0-8 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gear-Driven Spindle
Assemblies

Where the number of machining components or high speeds cause a gear


driven spindle assembly to exceed acceptable limits, a decision to correct or
accept shall be mutually agreed upon by customer and machine builder.
SPINDLE CERTIFICATION
8

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

The maximum Line Amplitude of vibration in each Band at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Table shall be listed in tabular form.
The maximum Band Limited Overall Amplitude of vibration at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Table shall be listed in tabular form.
Vibration signatures of velocity and acceleration for Radial vibration measurements taken
at 0o and 90o, at each bearing Position and one (1) Axial Position shall be submitted as part
of the spindle certification. If at any bearing Position, due to machine mounting
constraints, radial vibration readings at 0o and 90o are not accessible, then two accessible
radial readings 90o apart shall be taken at said Position.
Vibration data and signatures must be submitted with the motor to the customer's
Maintenance Department or other authorized representative before acceptance of the
spindle/machine will be authorized.
BALANCE LIMITS FOR SPINDLE COMPONENTS
Any spindle component that rotates with the spindle (e.g. tooling, tool holder, sheave, chuck,
fixture, actuator, etc.) to be mounted on a spindle, shall be balanced to an ISO Balance
Quality Grade (G) that is equal to or less-than that for that spindle. [ISO Balance Quality
Grade (G) for the spindle to be obtained from the spindle manufacturer].
If the ISO Balance Quality Grade of the spindle is not known, the spindle component shall be
balanced to an ISO Grade 0.4 or less. (ISO G = 0.4 is the recommended balance quality
grade for spindles).
Any spindle component, when fastened to the spindle, and rotated at running speed, shall not
increase the vibration readings taken on the spindle above those specified in Figures and
Tables.
Variable Diameter Tooling:
A variable diameter tool holder shall always be balanced to an ISO Balance
Quality Grade (G) that is equal to or less-than that specified for the spindle
that it is used on. This balancing requirement applies at all machining
positions, as well as when the tool is rotating in any idle or retracted position.
If the spindles balance grade is not known, then the ISO Grade G 0.4 will be
used.
Any tooling/tool holder whose position and/or rotational diameter changes
during the machine cycle, when fastened to the spindle, and rotated at running
speed, shall not increase the vibration readings taken on the spindle above
those specified in Figures and Tables.
Rotating Chucks or Fixtures with Parts:
Rotating part holders (Chucks or Fixtures) shall be balanced so that the
spindles vibration readings do not increase above those shown in Figures
and Tables when turned with part at running speed.
If the vibration limits of the spindle are not known, then the chuck or fixture
shall be balanced to ISO Grade G 0.4.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

SECTION - Fans
YOUR COMPANY VIBRATION STANDARDS
FOR FANS
Fans are defined as:
All non-positive displacement air handling units including Induced Draft (ID) Fans, Forced Draft
(FD) Fans, Overhung Fans, Centerhung Fans, Centrifugal, Vaneaxial, Tubeaxial, Blowers, etc.
BALANCING
Permanently attached balancing weights must be secured by welding, bolting, pop-riveting,
or of a clip-on design.

If bolted, a hardened bolt must be used in conjunction with a mechanical


locking device (e.g. lockwasher or locknut).

Clip-on balancing weights can only be used on centrifugal type fans and
must be located and attached on the ID pitch of the blades such that the rotational
motion of the fan creates a positive seating of the clip-on weight against the fan
blade.

Balancing weights and method of attachment must be stable at fan operating


temperature, and of a material compatible with the parent material of the fan to
which the balancing weight is attached.
NOTE:
The use of stick-on
weights or lead weights is not
acceptable.
Any parent metal removed to achieve dynamic or static balance shall be drilled out in a
manner which will maintain the structural integrity of the rotor or sheave.
Access to the fan rotor for field balancing shall be designed into the system.

NOTE: It is recommended that components (rotor, shaft, sheave) be balanced individually and then
trim balanced as a total assembly.
SHAFT TOLERANCE
Fan shaft diameter shall meet bearing manufacturer specifications for ground shaft tolerances.
RESONANCE
Natural frequencies of the completely assembled fan unit shall not be excited at the operating
speed. (Running speed should be at least 25% removed from a natural frequency of the system).
LIMITS
Fans shall be tested under installation mounting conditions. If such conditions are unknown, then
the fan shall be tested using isolation mounting per the requirements set forth in Section 9.1 on
Motors.
New and Rebuilt/Repaired Fans shall conform to the vibration limits specified in Table
when operating at specified system CFM and Fan Static Pressure.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

The frequency range for fan certification shall be from Fmin = 0.3 X Running Speed of Fan
to 2,000 Hertz (120,000 CPM) for velocity and to 5,000 Hertz (300,000 CPM) for
acceleration.

Deleted: 6
Deleted: 12

For fan speeds up to 3600 RPM, the maximum velocity amplitude of vibration at all bearing
positions in any direction radial or axial shall not exceed the Line Amplitude Band Limit
values specified in Table 9.3 and graphed in Figure.
For fan speeds up to 3600 RPM, the Band-Limited Overall vibration level of acceleration at
all bearing locations in any direction radial or axial shall not exceed the Band-Limited
Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit values specified in and graphed in Figure.
Acceptance limits for fans running over 3600 RPM shall be specified by the customer.

Table 0-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR FANS


TABLE 9.3
LINE AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS
BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE
Hz

(CPM)

VELOCITY
MM/SEC RMS

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

[0.3 0.8] x RPM

[0.8 1.2] x RPM

1.35

(0.075)

[1.2 3.5] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

3.5 x RPM Fmax = 2,000 Hz

0.54

(0.03)

0.718

(0.04)

Deleted: 6

(120,000 CPM)
ACCELERATION BAND LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE D LIMITS
gs RMS
1

0.3 x RPM Fmax = 5,000 Hz

0.35

(g's PEAK)
0.5
Deleted: 12

(300,000 CPM)

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

FAN
LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS
V
E
L
O
C
I
T
Y

1.35
(0.075)

0.718
(0.04)

0.718
(0.04)

BAND 1 BAND 2

MM/SEC-RMS
(IN/SEC-Peak)

0.54
(0.03)

BAND 3

BAND
4
BAND

Fmax = 2,000 Hz
3
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
(120K cpm)
RUNNING SPEED [ORDERS]

Figure 0-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Fans

A
CA
CC
1.0
EC
E 0.9
L
L 0.8
E
E 0.7
RR
0.6
AA
0.5
TT 0.4
II
0.3
OO
0.2
NN
0.1

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMIT

0.35
(0.5)

BAND 1

Fmax
Fmax
= 5,000
=120K
Hz

Fmin = .3 x RPM

FREQUENCY
- CPM
FREQUENCY

(300 K CPM)

Figure 0-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Fans


OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Variable speed sheaves shall not be used in the final installation.
Drive sheave and driven sheave should differ in size by 20 % or more to avoid beat
vibration.
FAN CERTIFICATION
3

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

The maximum Line Amplitude of vibration in each Band at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Table shall be listed in tabular form.
The maximum Band Limited Overall Amplitude of vibration at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Table shall be listed in tabular form.
Vibration signatures of velocity and acceleration for Radial vibration measurements taken
at 0o and 90o, at each bearing Position and one (1) Axial Position shall be submitted as part
of the fan certification. If at any bearing Position, due to machine mounting constraints,
radial vibration readings at 0o and 90o are not accessible, then two accessible radial readings
90o apart shall be taken at said Position.
Vibration data and signatures must be submitted with the fan to the customer's
Maintenance Department or other authorized representative before acceptance of the
fan/machine will be authorized.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

SECTION - Pumps
YOUR COMPANY VIBRATION STANDARDS
FOR PUMPS
Pumps shall be defined in two (2) categories:

Positive Displacement --including, but not limited to Piston, Gear, and Vane.

Centrifugal
OPERATING CONDITIONS

Non-cavitating non-separating condition.


No piping strain.
Shaft coupling aligned.
Straight suction pipe to pump (Reference Hydraulic Institute Standard).
Certification shall be performed while pumps are operating within design specifications.
LIMITS FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT & CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
For purposes of Line Amplitude evaluations a Pumping Frequency (PF) band will be
established. The PF Band will be centered on the Pumping Frequency (Number of
pumping elements X Pump RPM). The band will extend 2 lines of resolution on either
side of the line of resolution containing the Pumping Frequency (i.e. Bandwidth = 5 lines
of resolution).
Excluding the lines of resolution contained in the Pumping Frequency (PF) Band, the
velocity amplitude of any line of resolution, measured at all bearing locations in any
direction radial or axial shall not exceed the Line-Amplitude Band Limit values specified in
Table and graphed in Figure.
The Velocity Band-Limited Overall Amplitude at all bearing locations in any direction
radial or axial shall not exceed the Pumping Frequency Band Limited Overall Amplitude
Acceptance Limit value specified in Table and graphed in Figure.
The Acceleration Band-Limited Overall Amplitude at all bearing locations in any direction
radial or axial shall not exceed the Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit
values specified in Table and graphed in Figure.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Table 0-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT


AND CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

VELOCITY

Hz (CPM)

MM/SEC RMS

[0.3 0.8] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

[0.8 1.2] x RPM

1.35

(0.075)

[1.2 3.5] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

3.5 x RPM 2,000 Hz


(120,000 CPM)

0.54

(0.03)

PUMPING FREQ.

FREQUENCY RANGE

BAND (PF)

Hz (CPM)

BAND 5

5 Lines of resolution
centered on PF.

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

VELOCITY
MM/SEC RMS

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

PISTON

1.35

(0.075)

VANE

0.89

(0.05)

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

ACCELERATION
gs RMS

Hz (CPM)
1

0.3 x RPM 5K Hz
(300K CPM)

(g's PEAK)

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

1.06

(1.5)

NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

0.707

(1.0)

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT & CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS
1.35
(0.075)

V
E

BAND
5
Line of Resolution
containing Pumping
Frequency

1.35
(0.075) PISTON
-2 Lines

C
I

0.89
(0.05)

0.718
(0.04)

0.718
(0.04)

0.54
.03
(0.03)

T
Y

BAND 1

MM/SEC - RMS
(IN/SEC - Peak)

BAND 2

BAND 3

VANE

BAND 5

4 5 6 7

+2 Lines

PF

PF BAND

BAND 4

10

11

RUNNING SPEED [ORDERS]

Fmax = 2,000 Hz
(120K CPM)

NOTE: BAND 5 IS A FLOATING BAND WITH BANDWIDTH OF THE PUMPING FREQUENCY +- 2 LINES OF RESOLUTION
ACCEPTANCE LIMITS FOR BAND 5 ARE BAND LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE VIBRATION LEVELS

Figure 0-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Positive Displacement & Centrifugal Pumps

ACCELERATION

g's - RMS
(g's - Peak)

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT & CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


BAND LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS

BAND 1
1.06g-RMS (1.5g-Peak) POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

0.707g-RMS (1.0g-Peak) NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

FREQUENCY - CPM

Fmax = 5K Hz
(300K CPM)

Figure 0-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Positive Displacement &
Centrifugal Pumps
VERTICAL MOUNTED PUMPS
Vertically mounted pump systems with a Vertical Mount Height greater than 1.5 meters
will have an allowable increase in Velocity Amplitude Acceptance Limits in Bands 1, 2, and
3 of 16 per meter of Vertical Mount Height greater than 1.5 meters (5 feet). [e.g. A 2
3

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

meter Vertical Mount Height would yield a 7.5% increase [(2 meter - 1.5 meter) x
15%/meter]) in the Table 9.4 Velocity Amplitude Acceptance Limits specified for Bands 1,
2, and 3). Therefore the limit for Band 1 would be 0.718 MM/SEC + [(0.718 MM/SEC) x
(0.075)] = 0.77185 MM/SEC - RMS,
(0.04 Inch/sec + [(0.04 Inch/sec) x ( 0.1)] = 0.044 Inch/sec-Peak).
Vertical Mount Height is defined as the furthest measurable distance from the machine
mounting to the end of the driver or the end of the pump, which ever is greater.
PUMP CERTIFICATION
The maximum Line Amplitude of vibration in each Band at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Table 9.4 shall be listed in tabular form.
The maximum Band Limited Overall Amplitude of vibration at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Table 9.4 shall be listed in tabular form.
Vibration signatures of velocity and acceleration for Radial vibration measurements taken
at 0o and 90o, at each bearing Position and one (1) Axial Position shall be submitted as part
of the pump certification. If at any bearing Position, due to machine mounting constraints,
radial vibration readings at 0o and 90o are not accessible, then two accessible radial readings
90o apart shall be taken at said bearing Position.
Vibration data and signatures must be submitted with the pump to the customer's Maintenance
Department or other authorized representative before acceptance of the pump/machine will be
authorized.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

SECTION - Gearboxes
YOUR COMPANY VIBRATION STANDARDS
FOR GEARBOXES
VIBRATION LIMITS FOR GEARBOXES
Gearboxes up to a maximum of two (2) gear sets, shall not exceed the vibration limits specified in
Table 9.5.1 and graphically illustrated in Figures 9.5.1 and 9.5.2. For gear boxes with more than
two (2) gear sets, acceptance limits will be established between customer and supplier.
Table 0-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR GEARBOXES WITH TWO
(2) GEAR SETS

VELOCITY LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE
Hz (CPM)

VELOCITY
MM/SEC RMS

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

[0.3 0.8] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

[0.8 1.2] x RPM

1.35

(0.075)

[1.2 3.5] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

[3.5 8.5] x RPM

0.54

(0.03)

0.54

(0.03)

0.54

(0.03)

8.5 x RPM 1,000 Hz


(60,000 CPM)
[1,000 2,000] Hz
(60,000 120,000) CPM)

ACCELERATION BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE
Hz (CPM)

0.3 x RPM 3.5 x YOUR


COMPANYF
or 10K Hz (600K CPM)

gs RMS

(g's PEAK)

0.35

(0.5)

Which ever is Greater

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

GEAR BOX
LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS
1.35
(.075)

0.718
(.04)

BAND 1

MM/SEC - RMS
(IN/SEC - Peak)

0.718
(.04)

BAND 2

BAND 3

0.54
(.03)

0.54
(.03)

BAND
BAND 44

4 5 6 7

0.54
(.03)

BAND 5

10

BAND 6

11

Fmax = 120K cpm

RUNNING SPEED ORDERS

Figure 0-1 Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearboxes

GEAR BOX
BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS
BAND 1

ACCELERATION

g's - RMS
(g's - Peak)

0.707g - RMS (1.0g - Peak)

FREQUENCY

Fmax = 3.5 x GMF


OR 10K Hz
(600K CPM)
(Which ever is Greater)

Figure 0-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Gearboxes


GEARBOX CERTIFICATION
The maximum Line Amplitude of vibration in each Band at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Figure 9.5.1 shall be listed in tabular form.
The maximum Band Limited Overall Amplitude of vibration at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Figure 9.5.2 shall be listed in tabular form.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Vibration signatures of velocity and acceleration for Radial vibration measurements taken
at 0o and 90o, at each bearing Position and one (1) Axial Position shall be submitted as part
of the gearbox certification. If at any bearing Position, due to machine mounting
constraints, radial vibration readings at 0o and 90o are not accessible, then two accessible
radial readings 90o apart shall be taken at said Position.
Vibration data and signatures must be submitted with the gearbox to the customer's
Maintenance Department or other authorized representative before acceptance of the
gearbox/machine will be authorized.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

SECTION Default Vibration Level Limits


YOUR COMPANY VIBRATION STANDARDS
FOR DEFAULT VIBRATION LEVEL LIMITS
If Vibration Limit values are not available for the machine being considered, the Specification Limit shall
(unless specified otherwise by the customer) default to the following:
NON-MACHINE TOOLS and NON-PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS
Non-machine Tools and Non-precision Machine Tools shall not exceed the Vibration Limits
specified in Table and graphically illustrated in Figures.
Table 0-1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR NON-MACHINE TOOLS and
NON-PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS

VELOCITY LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE
Hz (CPM)

VELOCITY
MM/SEC RMS

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

[0.3 0.8] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

[0.8 1.2] x RPM

1.35

(0.075)

[1.2 3.5] x RPM

0.718

(0.04)

[3.5 8.5] x RPM

0.54

(0.03)

0.54

(0.03)

0.54

(0.03)

8.5 x RPM 1,000 Hz


(60,000 CPM)
[1,000 2,000] Hz
(60,000 120,000) CPM)

ACCELERATION BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

0.3 x RPM 5K Hz

Hz (CPM)

gs RMS

(g's PEAK)

0.35

(0.5)
Deleted: 12

(300K CPM)

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

NON-MACHINE TOOL and NON-PRECISION MACHINE TOOL

VELOCITY

MM/SEC - RMS
(IN/SEC - Peak)

LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS


1.35
(0.075)

0.718
(0.04)

BAND 1

0.718
(0.04)

BAND 2

BAND 3

0.54
(0.03)

0.54
(0.03)

BAND 44
BAND

4 5 6 7

BAND 5

RUNNING SPEED [ORDERS]

10

0.54
(0.03)

BAND 6

11

Fmax = 2,000 Hz
(120K CPM)

ACCELERATION

g's - RMS
(g's - Peak)

Figure 0-1 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Non-Machine Tools and Non-Precision Machine
Tools

NON-MACHINE TOOL and NON-PRECISION MACHINE TOOL


BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS
BAND 1
0.35g-RMS (0.5g-Peak) NON-MACHINE TOOL & NON-PRECISION MACHINE TOOL

FREQUENCY

Fmax = 5K Hz
(300K CPM)

Figure 0-2 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Non-Machine Tools & NonPrecision Machine Tools
PRECISION MACHINE TOOLS
Precision Machine Tools shall not exceed the Vibration Limits specified in Table and graphically
illustrated in Figures.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Table 0-2 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE VIBRATION LEVELS FOR PRECISION MACHINE


TOOLS

LINE-AMPLITUDE BAND LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

VELOCITY

Hz (CPM)

MM/SEC RMS

[0.3 0.8] x RPM

0.36

(0.02)

[0.8 1.2] x RPM

0.36

(0.02)

[1.2 3.5] x RPM

0.18

(0.01)

3.5 x RPM 2,000 Hz


(120,000 CPM)

(INCH/SEC - PEAK)

Angular Contact Bearings

0.09

(0.005)

Roller Bearings

0.135

(0.0075)

BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS


BAND

FREQUENCY RANGE

ACCELERATION
gs RMS

Hz (CPM)
0.3 x RPM 10K Hz

(600K CPM)

(g's PEAK)

Angular Contact Bearings

0.35

(0.5)

Roller Bearings 1,000 RPM

0.707

(1.0)

Roller Bearings > 1,000 RPM

1.06

(1.5)

VELOCITY

MM/SEC - RMS
(IN/SEC - Peak)

PRECISION MACHINE TOOL


LINE AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS
0.36
(0.02)

0.36
(0.02)

0.18
(0.01)
0.135 (0.0075) - Roller Bearings
0.09 (0.005) - Angular Contact Bearings
BAND 1 BAND 2
1

BAND 3
2

BAND 4
3

10

RUNNING SPEED [ORDERS]

Fmax = 2,000 Hz
(120K CPM)

Figure 0-3 Line Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Precision Machine Tools

10

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

PRECISION MACHINE TOOL


BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE ACCEPTANCE LIMITS

R
A
T
I
O
N

1.0(1.0g
g(Peak)
<= 1000
- Roller
0.707g - RMS
- Peak)
RollerRPM
Bearings
<=Bearings
1,000 RPM

ACCELERATION

L
E

g(Peak)
> 1000
- Roller
Bearings
1.06g - RMS1.5
(1.5g
- Peak)
RollerRPM
Bearings
> 1,000
RPM

(g's - Peak)

g's - RMS

A
C
C
E

0.5 g (Peak) - Angular Contact Bearings

0.5

g's

BAND

0.3 x RPM

FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY
- CPM

Fmax
= 10K=Hz600K
Fmax
(600K CPM)

Figure 0-4 Band-Limited Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limits for Precision Machine Tools

11

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

DEFAULT CERTIFICATION
The maximum Line Amplitude of vibration in each Band at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Table 9.6.1 or 9.6.2 shall be listed in tabular form.
The maximum Band Limited Overall Amplitude of vibration at all bearing positions in any
direction (radial and axial) as required by Table 9.6.1 or 9.6.2 shall be listed in tabular form.
Vibration signatures of velocity and acceleration for Radial vibration measurements taken
at 0o and 90o, at each bearing Position and one (1) Axial Position shall be submitted as part
of the machine certification. If at any bearing Position, due to machine mounting
constraints, radial vibration readings at 0o and 90o are not accessible, then two accessible
radial readings 90o apart shall be taken at said Position.
Vibration data and signatures must be submitted with the machine to the customer's
Maintenance Department or other authorized representative before acceptance of the
machine will be authorized.

12

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

APPENDIX A - RECOMMENDED COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION


SYMBOLS
AGB

AUXILIARY GEARBOX

ANG

ANGLE

ARS

ARBOR SUPPORT

ASY

ASSEMBLY

BLR

BLOWER

BLT

BELT

BRG

BEARING

BRK

BRAKE

BSE

BASE

BSH

BUSHING

BTM

BOTTOM

CHN

CHAIN

CLP

CLAMP

CLS

CLUSTER

CLH

CLUTCH

CMP

COMPENSATOR

CMS

CAMSHAFT

CLT

COOLANT

CPG

COUPLING

CPR

COMPRESSOR

CRK

CRANKSHAFT

CTF

CENTRIFUGAL

CTR

CENTER

CUT

CUTTER

DBL

DOUBLE

DIE

DIE

DIS

DISTRIBUTOR

DPT

DEPARTMENT

DRV

DRIVE

DRB

DRAW BAR

DRL

DRILL

DRV

DRIVE

ENC

ENCODER

EXH

EXHAUST

FAN

FAN

FDD

FEED DRIVE

FRM

FRAME

FRT

FRONT

FWL

FLYWHEEL

FXT

FIXTURE

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

GBX

GEAR BOX

GEN

GENERATOR

GER

GEAR

GHD

GEARED HEAD

GIB

GIB

GRD

GUARD

GRW

GRIND WHEEL

HDS

HEADSTOCK

HED

HEAD

HSG

HOUSING

HYD

HYDRAULIC

IDL

IDLER

IDP

IDLER PULLEY

INB

IN BOARD

ITK

INTAKE

JKS

JACKSHAFT

KWY

KEYWAY

LTH

LATHE

MAG

MAGNETIC

MIL

MILLING MACHINE

MTR

MOTOR

MUL

MULTIPLE

OTB

OUTBOARD

PIN

PINION

PLB

PILLOW BLOCK

PLT

PLANT

PLY

PULLEY

PMP

PUMP

PRC

PRECISION

PSN

PISTON

QUL

QUILL

RER

REAR

RTR

ROTOR

RNR

RUNNER

SFT

SHAFT

SGL

SINGLE

SHV

SHEAVE

SLV

SLEEVE

SPK

SPROCKET

SPL

SPINDLE

SPN

SPLINE

STA

STATION

STD

STANDARD

STG

STAGE

SYS

SYSTEM

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

TBL

TABLE

TBO

TURBO

TDM

TANDEM

TLS

TAILSTOCK

TOL

TOOL

TOP

TOP

TRB

TURBINE

UNT

UNIT

VAC

VACUUM PUMP

VNE

VANE

WAY

WAY

WHL

WHEEL

WJK

WATER JACKET

WKH

WORK HEAD

WLH

WHEEL HEAD

WRC

WRENCH

WSR

WASHER

Other Component Symbols not listed above should be agreed upon by the machine tool builder and the
customer on an as-needed basis.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS


Deleted:

APPENDIX B - GLOSSARY
ACCELERATION: The time rate of change of velocity. Typical units are ft/sec2 and g's (1 g = 32.17
ft/sec2 = 386 in/sec2 = 9.81 meter/sec2). Acceleration measurements are made with accelerometers.
Note: By international agreement, the value 9.80665 m/s2 = 980,665 cm/s2 = 386.089 in/s2 =
32.174 ft/s2 has been chosen as the standard acceleration due to gravity (g). ISO 2041 (1990)
ACCELEROMETER:
Transducer whose output is directly proportional to acceleration. Most
commonly used are mass loaded piezoelectric crystals to produce an output proportional to acceleration.
AMPLITUDE:
A measure of the severity of vibration. Amplitude is expressed in terms of peak-topeak, zero-to-peak (peak), or rms. For pure sine waves only:

Peak (P) = 1.414 x RMS

Peak-to-Peak = 2 x Zero-to-Peak (Peak)

ANTI-ALIASING FILTER:
A low-pass filter designed to filter out frequencies higher than 1/2 the
sample rate in order to prevent aliasing.
ANTI-FRICTION BEARING:

See ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING.

AVERAGE: The sum of the values of the measurements taken divided by the number of measurements
taken.
BALANCE: When the mass center line and rotational center line of a rotor are coincident.
BALANCE QUALITY GRADE - GXXX: For rigid rotors, G, is the product of specific unbalance, e, and
rotor maximum service angular velocity. Service angular velocity is service RPM expressed in radians per
second.
G = e x = constant
BALANCING:
A procedure for adjusting the radial mass distribution of a rotor by adding or
removing weight, so that the mass centerline approaches the rotor geometric centerline achieving less
vibration amplitude at rotational speed.
BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE:
For vibration level limits specified in terms of
"BAND-LIMITED OVERALL AMPLITUDE LIMITS" the Total vibration level "A" in a band, as defined
by the following equation, shall not exceed the Overall Amplitude Acceptance Limit specified for the
Band.
N

Ai2
=

i =1

Overall vibration level in the Band

Ai
=
Band

Amplitude in the ith line of resolution in the

(i = 1) =

The first line of resolution in the Band

(i = N) =

The last line of resolution in the Band

The number of lines of resolution in the Band

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

W
=
Window)

Window Factor (W = 1.5 for a Hanning

BEATS:
Periodic variations in the amplitude of an oscillation resulting from the combination of two
oscillations of slightly different frequencies. The beats occur at the difference frequency. ISO 2041 (1990).
BEAT FREQUENCY:
The absolute value of the difference in frequency of two oscillations of
slightly different frequencies ISO 2041 (1990).
BIN: A frequency bandwidth (f) determined by Fmax divided by the number of lines of resolution.
While commonly referred to and represented by a line of resolution, a Bin contains a bandwidth of
frequencies. (Refer to LINE OF RESOLUTION)
BLADE PASS FREQUENCY (PUMPING FREQUENCY):
A potential vibration frequency on any
bladed machine (turbine, axial compressor, fan, pump, etc.). It is represented by the number of fan blades or
pump vanes times shaft rotating frequency.
CALIBRATION:
A test to verify the accuracy of measurement instruments. For vibration, a
transducer is subjected to a known motion, usually on a shaker table, and the output readings are verified or
adjusted.
COMPLETE MACHINE: A complete machine is defined as the entire assembly of components, subcomponents, and structure, which is monitored to perform a specific task(s). On a Complete Machine
Assembly with all individual components operating in their normal operating condition, mode, and
sequence, the Component Vibration Level Limits for the complete machine acceptance are the same as
when the component is tested individually.
CRITICAL SPEED: The speed of a rotating system corresponding to a system resonance frequency.
DECIBEL (dB):
A logarithmic representation of amplitude ratio, defined as 20 times the base ten
logarithm of the ratio of the measured amplitude to a reference. dBV readings, for example, are referenced
to 1 volt rms. dB amplitude scales are required to display the full dynamic range of an FFT Analyzer.
DISPLACEMENT: The distance traveled by a vibrating object. For purposes of this document,
displacement represents the total distance traveled by a vibrating part or surface from the maximum position
of travel in one direction to the maximum position of travel in the opposite direction (Peak-to-Peak) and is
measured in the unit mil (1 mil = 0.001 inch).
DYNAMIC RANGE:
The difference between the highest measurable signal level and the lowest
measurable signal level that is detectable for a given Amplitude Range setting. Dynamic Range is usually
expressed in decibels, typically 60 to 90 dB for modern instruments.
DYNAMIC MASS: To determine if the mass of the transducer is effecting the measurement, perform the
following steps:
a.

Make the desired measurement with the accelerometer.

b.
Place a mass equivalent to the mass of the accelerometer adjacent to the measuring
accelerometer.
c.
d.

Repeat the measurement.


Compare data from a. and c.
e.
If any differences (i.e. shift in frequencies) between a. and c. exist, then a less massive transducer
should be used in a.

FFT ANALYZER: Vibration analyzer that uses the Fast Fourier Transform to display vibration
frequency components.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

FFT (FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM): A calculation procedure which converts a time domain signal
into a frequency domain display.
FIELD BALANCING:
The process of balancing a rotor in its own bearings and supporting structure
rather than in a balancing machine.
FFT (FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM): A calculation procedure which produces a mathematical
relationship between the time domain and the frequency domain resulting in discrete frequency components
from the sampled time data.
FLEXIBLE ROTOR:
A rotor that deforms significantly at running speed. This term is used for
rotors that operate close to or above their first critical speed. A rotor is considered flexible when its speed is
more than 75% of its lowest natural frequency in bending.
FORCED VIBRATION: The oscillation of a system under the action of a forcing function. Typically
forced vibration occurs at the frequency of the exciting force.
FREE VIBRATION: Vibration of a mechanical system following an initial force -- typically at one or
more natural frequencies.
FREQUENCY:
The repetition rate of a periodic event, usually expressed in cycles per second (Hertz
-abr. HZ), cycles per minute (CPM), or multiples of rotational speed (Orders). Orders are commonly
referred to as 1X for rotational speed, 2X for twice rotational speed, etc. Frequency is the reciprocal of the
Period.
NOTE: Vibration frequencies are expressed in Hertz (cycle per sec) or CPM (cycle per minute).
Rotational speed (Running Speed) is expressed in RPM (Revolutions per minute).
FREQUENCY DOMAIN: Presentation of a signal whose amplitude is measured on the Y axis, and the
frequency is measured on the X-axis.
FREQUENCY RESOLUTION (
f)
f = (FMAX - FMIN)/# Lines of resolution. f represents
the minimum spacing between data points in the spectrum.
FMAX:
FMIN:

Maximum Frequency Limit of the spectrum being evaluated.


Minimum Frequency Limit of the spectrum being evaluated.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE:
specified frequency limits.

Portion of the frequency spectrum which can be covered within

g: The value of acceleration produced by the force of gravity. (32.17 ft/sec2, 386 in/sec2, 9.81 m/sec2).
GEAR MESH FREQUENCY (YOUR COMPANYF):
A potential vibration frequency on any
machine that contains gears: equal to the number of teeth multiplied by the rotational frequency of the gear.
HANNING WINDOW:
An FFT window function that provides better frequency resolution than the
flat top window, but with reduced amplitude accuracy.
HARMONIC:
Frequency component at a frequency that is an integer (whole number e.g. 2X, 3X,
4X, etc.) multiple of the fundamental (reference) frequency.
HI BANDPASS FILTER: A device that separates the components of a signal and allows only those
components above a selected frequency to be amplified.
HERTZ (Hz):

The unit of frequency represented by cycles per second.

INTEGRATION:
A process producing a result that when differentiated, yields the original quantity.
Integration of acceleration, for example, yields velocity. Integration is performed in an FFT Analyzer by
3

Deleted: IMBALANCE: Uneq


ual radial weight distribution of a
rotor system; a shaft condition
such that the mass and shaft
geometric centerlines do not
coincide.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

dividing by 2f where f is the frequency of vibration. Integration is also used to convert velocity to
displacement.)
LARGE APPARATUS AC/DC MOTORS:
Reference NEMA Publication No. MG 1, Motors and
Generators, Section III LARGE MACHINES, Part 20. Induction Machines, Part 21. Synchronous Motors,
and Part 23. DC Motors.
LINEAR NON-OVERLAPPING AVERAGE: An averaging process where each Time block sample
used in the averaging process contains data not contained in other Time blocks (i.e. Non-overlapping) used
in the averaging. Linear averaging is performed in the Frequency Domain, and each sample is weighted
equally.
LINES:
BIN

The total number of data points in a spectrum (e.g. 400, 800, 1600, etc.). See also

LINE AMPLITUDE LIMIT


The maximum amplitude of any line of resolution contained within a
band shall not exceed the Line Amplitude Acceptance Limit for the Band.
LINE OF RESOLUTION: A single data point from a spectrum which contains vibration amplitude
information. The Line of Resolution amplitude is the Band Overall Amplitude of the frequencies contained
in the f Frequency Resolution.
MEASUREMENT POINT: A location on a machine or component at which vibration measurements are
made.
MICROMETER (MICRON)
0.04 mils.)

One millionth (0.000001) of a meter. (1 micron = 1 x E-6 meters =

MIL: One thousandth (0.001) of an inch. (1 mil = 25.4 microns.)


NATURAL FREQUENCY: The frequency of free vibration of a system when excited with an impact
force. (Bump Test).
ORDER:
A unit of frequency unique to rotating machinery where the first order is equal to rotational
speed. See FREQUENCY
OVERALL READING (BAND LIMITED):
frequency range defined by a FMIN and a FMAX.

The vibration severity amplitude measured over a

PEAK:
Refers to the maximum of the units being measured, i.e., peak velocity, peak acceleration,
peak displacement.
PEAK-TO-PEAK: Refers to the displacement from one travel extreme to the other travel extreme. In
English units, this is measured in mils (.001 inch) and in metric units it is expressed in micro-meter M
(.000001 meters).
PERIOD:
The amount of time, usually expressed in seconds or minutes, required to complete one cycle
of motion of a vibrating machine or machine part. The reciprocal of the period is the frequency of vibration.
PHASE (PHASE ANGLE): The relative position, measured in degrees, of a vibrating part at any instant
in time to a fixed point or another vibrating part. The Phase Angle (usually in degrees) is the angle between
the instantaneous position of a vibrating part and the reference position. It represents the portion of the
vibration cycle through which the part has moved relative to the reference position .
PRECISION SPINDLE:
speed, or both.

Spindles used in machining processes which require high accuracy, high

RADIAL MEASUREMENT:

Measurements taken perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

RADIAL VIBRATION:
Shaft dynamic motion or casing vibration which is in a direction
perpendicular to the shaft centerline.
RESONANCE:
The condition of vibration amplitude and phase change response caused by a
corresponding system sensitivity to a particular forcing frequency. A resonance is typically identified by a
substantial amplitude increase and related phase shift.
RIGID ROTOR:
A rotor that does not deform significantly at running speed. A rotor whose parts do
not take up motion relative to each other, i.e., all points move in the same direction at the same instant of
time. A rotor is considered rigid when its speed is less than 75% of its lowest natural frequency in bending.
RMS: (Root mean square) Equal to 0.707 times the peak of a sinusoidal signal.
ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING:
Bearing whose low friction qualities derive from rolling
elements (balls or rollers), with little lubrication.
ROTATIONAL SPEED:
time, e.g., 1800 RPM.

The number of times an object completes one complete revolution per unit of

SIDE BAND: Equals the frequency of interest plus or minus one times the frequency of the exciting force.
SIGNATURE (SPECTRUM):
Term usually applied to the vibration frequency spectrum which is
distinctive and special to a machine or component, system or subsystem at a specific point in time, under
specific machine operating conditions, etc. Usually presented as a plot of vibration amplitude
(displacement, velocity or acceleration) versus time or versus frequency. When the amplitude is plotted
against time it is usually referred to as the TIME WAVE FORM.
SMALL (FRACTIONAL) AND MEDIUM (INTEGRAL) HORSEPOWER AC/DC MOTORS:
Reference NEMA Publication No. MG 1, Section II SMALL (FRACTIONAL) AND MEDIUM
(INTEGRAL) MACHINES, Part 12. Tests and Performance - AC and DC Motors.
SOFTFOOT: A condition that exists when the bottom of all of the feet of a machine are not in the same
plane (can be compared to a chair with one short leg). Softfoot is present if the machine frame distorts when
a foot bolt is loosened or tightened. It must be corrected before the machine is actually aligned.
TIME DOMAIN:
Presentation of a signal whose amplitude is measured on the Y axis and the time
period is measured on the X axis.
TRANSDUCER (PICKUP) - VIBRATION:
A device that converts shock or vibratory motion into
an electrical signal that is proportional to a parameter of the vibration measured. Transducer selection is
related to the frequencies of vibration which are important to the analysis of the specific machine(s) being
evaluated/analyzed.
TRUE PEAK:
The actual maximum amplitude of a complex waveform. Must be measured in the
Time Domain. Peaks measured in the Frequency Domain represent the amplitudes of the Fourier Series
sinewave components that have resulted from the Fourier Transform of the Time Waveform. These
sinewave components when added together, by both amplitude and phase, will result in the true Time
Waveform
UNBALANCE: Unequal radial weight distribution of a rotor system; a shaft condition such that the mass
and shaft geometric centerlines do not coincide. There are three principle types of unbalance:
1. Static Unbalance - that condition of unbalance for which the central principle axis is
displaced only parallel to the shaft axis.
2. Couple Unbalance - that condition of unbalance for which the central principle axis
intersects the shaft axis at the center of gravity.
3. Dynamic Unbalance - that condition of unbalance for which the central principle axis
is not parallel to and does not intersect the shaft axis. (Dynamic Unbalance is a
5

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

combination of static and couple unbalance. This is the type of unbalance usually
found.)
VELOCITY: The time rate of change of displacement with respect to some reference position. For
purposes of this document, velocity is measured in the units Inch per second-Peak.
NOTE: THE REFERENCE FOR MANY OF THE DEFINITIONS IN THIS GLOSSARY IS THE
GLOSSARY FROM THE HEWLETT PACKARD PUBLICATION "EFFECTIVE MACHINERY
MEASUREMENTS USING DYNAMIC SIGNAL ANALYZERS," APPLICATION NOTE 243-1

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

APPENDIX C Vibration Data & Certification


Page ____________
of___________

YOUR COMPANY
VENDORS - VIBRATION DATA FORM AND CERTIFICATION
SHEET
This form must accompany the machine certification vibration data . Vibration data
must be presented in the YOUR COMPANY Standard Data Base structure. (Reference
Sections 4.0 and 5.0 of YOUR COMPANY Specification V1.0-1997)
_____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________
Issued
By:
Division:________________________________Plant:_______________________
______________________
Address:___________________________________________________________
_______________________
__________________________________________________________________
________________

A. MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
Builder:______________________________________________________________
___________________________________
Machine/Equipment
Identification
Name:________________________________________________________________
_______________________
Purchase Order No._________________________________________ Capital Tag
No.__________________________
TYPE:_______________________________________________________MODEL:_
__________________________________

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

SERIAL
NO.__________________________________________________CAPACITY:_____
___________________________
SPEED:____________________________HORSEPOWER:_________________AU
XILIARIES:_________________________
B. INSTRUMENTATION USED FOR CERTIFICATION
Instrument

Model

Serial No.

Certified
Calibration Date

Vibration Meter

Vibration Transducer

Vibration Analyzer

Vibration Software

Other:

C. CERTIFICATION
Date:___________________________
Signed:_______________________________________________________________
___
Title:__________________________________
Company:_________________________________________________________
D. ACCEPTANCE
_____________________________________________________________________
_
_________________________
Customer Authorized Representative
Date

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Page
____________ of___________

YOUR COMPANY
VENDORS - VIBRATION DATA FORM AND CERTIFICATION
SHEET
MACHINE INFORMATION DATA SHEET
MACHINE NAME__________________________________
CODE:_________________________________

MACHINE

ID

DRIVER INFORMATION

DRIVER TYPE:___________________
HP:________

BRAND:________________ RPM:_________________

MANUFACTURER ID#:____________________________
FRAME #:__________________

BEARINGS:
OUTBOARD:
ID#____________________________________
INBOARD:
ID#___________________________________

CONSTANT

SPEED?______

Manufacturer______________________________Bearing
Manufacturer________________________________Bearing

SLEEVE OR ROLLING ELEMENT? (CIRCLE ONE)

SLEEVE

ROLLING ELEMENT

IF
DIRECT
COUPLED,
TYPE
COUPLING:____________________________________________________________________________

OF

IF BELT DRIVEN, # OF BELTS:____________ BELT TYPE:_________________________


SHEAVES:______________

OF

LIST
ALL
SHEAVES
WITH
CORRESPONDING
DIAMETER:________________________________________________________

PITCH

___________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________

BELT LENGTH:_________________________
SHEAVES:_____________________

GEARBOX?____________ IF
I/O RATIO:__________

YES,

OR

CENTER-TO-CENTER

DISTANCE

OF

MANUFACTURER:________________________________________

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

SHAFT

# OF TEETH

BEARING ID#

1ST INTERMEDIATE

2ND INTERMEDIATE

3RD INTERMEDIATE

OUTPUT

DRIVEN INFORMATION

DRIVEN
TYPE
(FAN,
PUMP,
GENERATOR,
ETC.)____________________________________________________________

MANUFACTURER:_______________________________
RPM:_____________

IF FAN OR PUMP. # OF VANES


ONE):____________________________

PISTONS

BEARINGS:
OUTBOARD:
ID#____________________________________
INBOARD:
ID#___________________________________

SPINDLE,

MANUF.ID#:________________________

BLADES

OTHER

(CIRCLE

Manufacturer______________________________Bearing
Manufacturer________________________________Bearing

SLEEVE OR ROLLING ELEMENT? (CIRCLE ONE)

SLEEVE

ROLLING ELEMENT

COMMENTS:

10

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Page
____________ of___________

YOUR COMPANY
VENDORS - VIBRATION DATA FORM AND CERTIFICATION
SHEET
Machine Layout Drawing Indicating Vibration Measurement Locations per
Section 5.7

EXAMPLE
003

004

Motor: 1200 RPM


001

002
005
006
: 31,920

Motor - Gear Box Spindle System

Gear Box
Gear Mesh Freq.: 45,600 CPM
Driven Shaft: 912 RPM
Gear Mesh Freq.

1200 RPM
Motor

38T

45,600 CPM GMF


50T

35T

912 RPM
31,920 CPM
GMF
47T
679 RPM

Gear Reducer
Provide Gear Mesh Frequencies in CPM
Provice Shaft Speed in RPM

11

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

12

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS

Page
____________ of___________

YOUR COMPANY
VENDORS - VIBRATION DATA FORM AND CERTIFICATION
SHEET
Machine Layout Drawing Indicating Vibration Measurement Locations per
Section 5.7
Contd.

13