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# Chapter 2

Gas
scf
Oil

simple

complex

The

## three main parameters required to relate

surface to reservoir volumes for an oil
reservoir:
- Rs: The solution (or dissolved) gas-oil ratio
- Bo: The oil formation volume factor
- Bg: The gas formation volume factor

[]

SCF gas
STB oil

at reservoir P&T

[ ]

STB oil

at reservoir P&T

## - Bg: The gas formation volume factor

[]

Note :

RB free gas
SCF gas

T 60F
Standard Condition
p 14.7 psia

Rs , Bo , Bg f ( P, T )

For T = const.

Rs , Bo , Bg f ( P)

Data

## Determination of three main oil PVT parameters(RS, Bo, Bg)

-> PVT = f (P only) by routine laboratory analysis

## Conversion of PVT data, as presented by the laboratory, to

the form required in the field,
Laboratory - an absolute set of measurements
Field - depend up as the manner of surface
separation of the gas and oil

## For gas, PVT relation

pV nzRT
E 35.37

p
[] scf
rcf
zT

-- Simple relation

## For oil, PVT relation > Complex;

PVT parameters must be measured by
laboratory analysis of crude oil samples.
>Relationship between surface and
reservoir hydrocarbon volumes.

## The complexity in relating surface volumes of hydrocarbon

production to their equivalent volumes in the reservoir can
be appreciated by considering the following figures:

Undersaturated oil
saturated oil

## gas saturated oil

+ free gas (or liberated solution gas)

## How to divide the observed surface gas

production into liberated and dissolved gas
volumes in the reservoir?
Control

## in relating surface volumes of

production to underground withdrawal is
gained by knowing the three oil PVT
parameters which can be measured by
laboratory experiments performed on
samples of the reservoir oil, plus its
originally dissolved gas.

## Oil Reservoir & Surface Volume

Above Bubble Point
Undersaturated oil

## Oil Reservoir & Surface Volume

Below Bubble Point

Saturated oil

## gas saturated oil

+ free gas (or liberated
solution gas)
They are traveling in
reservoir at different
velocity

## The instantaneous gas-oil ratio or

producing gas-oil ratio

R( SCF

)
STB

## the instantaneous gas-oil

ratio or producing
gas-oil ratio

(Underground withdrawal )
STB

Bo ( R Rs ) Bg

( RB

)
STB

Bo as Function of Pressure

Rs as Function of Pressure

Given:

q o x ( STB )
D
q g y ( SCF )
D

## measured at t during the

producing life

Calculate:
[in _( RB )] ?
D
(1) Underground withdrawal rate
expressed in
terms of x & y
(2) Underground withdrawal rate [in _( RB D)] ?
if pres = 2400 psia , qo =2500 STB/D , qg=2.125 MMscf/D
and
PVT data in fig. 2.5(a)~(c) (p.51) or table 2.4 (P.65)
(3) Pressure gradient of oil =?
if
o 52.8 lbm / ft 3(at s.c),

## (1) R = y/x = qg/qo [=] SCF/STB

p is known Bo ; Rs ; Bg
Underground withdrawal
qo x( STB ) Bo ( RB
) x Bo ( RB )
D
STB
D
y
q g x( STB ) ( Rs )( SCF
) B g ( RB
)
D x
STB
SCF

y
x ( Rs ) B g
( RB )
D
x
y
qt qo q g x Bo x ( Rs ) Bg
x

P = 2400 psia
from table 2.4 Bo =1.1822RB/STB
Rs = 352 SCF/STB
Bg = 0.0012 RB/SCF
x = qo = 2500 STB/D;
y = qg = 2.125 MMSCF/D

## qo 2500 1.1822 2955.5 RB

2.125 10 6
q g 2500 (
352) 0.0012 1494 RB
D
2500

(3)

dP
o g
dD

To find o

## Mass of 1 STB of oil

+
=
Rs scf dissolved gas at
standard condition

Mass of Bo RB of oil
+
dissolved gas in the
reservoir condition

[ osc

lbm
5.615 SCF
lbm
SCF
(
) 1 ( STB)
] gsc (
)[ Rs
1 ( STB)]
SCF
1 STB
SCF
STB

lbm
RB 5.61458 ft 3
or ( 3 ) 1 ( STB) Bo (
)
ft
STB
1 RB
5.615 osc Rs gsc 5.615Bo or
or

5.615osc Rs gsc
5.615Bo

5.615Bo

## 5.615 52.8 352[0.67 0.0763]

47.37 lbm / ft 3
5.615 1.1822

dP
lbm 1 slug
slug ft
ft
or g (47.37 3
) (32.2 2 ) 47.37 3 2
s
dD
ft 32.2 lbm
ft
s
1 ft 2
47.37 lb f 1
47.37 3

2
ft 144 in
144 in 2 ft
0.329 psi / ft
lb f