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HASHING STRUCTURE

Primary key directly into a storage address


Eliminates need for separate index
Main Advantage
Access Speed: Records can be retrieved quickly; calculating a records address
is faster than searching for it through an index
Disadvantages
a) Inefficient use of storage space
b) Collision: slows down access to records; calculating theoretical address,
searching location, determining actual address from the pointer
contained in the record at that location
POINTER STRUCTURE
Used to create a linked-list file; provides connection between records
Stores in a field of one record the address (pointer) of a related record
Records are spread over the entire disk without concern for their physical
proximity with other related records
Types of Pointers
a) Physical Address Pointer contains the actual disk storage location (cylinder,
surface, and record number) needed by the disk controller. This physical address
allows the system to access the record directly without obtaining further
information
Advantage: speed;
Disadvantages: If the related record is moved from one disk location to another,
the pointer must be changed.
The physical pointers bear no logical relationship to the records they identify.
b) Relative Address Pointer contains the relative position of a record in the file. This
must be further manipulated to convert it to the actual physical address.
c) Logical Key Pointer contains the primary key of the related record. This key value
is then converted into the records physical address by a hashing algorithm.

HIERARCHICAL AND NETWORK DATABASE STRUCTURES

ManyToManyRelationship
referstoarelationshipbetweentablesinadatabasewhenaparentrowin
onetablecontainsseveralchildrowsinthesecondtable,andviceversa.