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Final Laboratory Experiment

Evaporation
1. Objective:
The activity aims to solve problems involving material and energy balances of unit operations such as
evaporation.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
The students shall be able to:
2.1 Solve Material Balance Equation regarding Evaporation using MATLAB.
2.2 Solve Energy Balance Equation regarding Evaporation using MATLAB.
3. Discussion:
An important instance of heat transfer occurs quite often in the process industries and is given the
general name evaporation. In the evaporation, the vapor from a boiling liquid solution is removed and a
more concentrated solution remains. In the majority of cases the separation process called evaporation is
refers to the removal of water from an aqueous solution
Typical examples of evaporation are concentration of aqueous solutions of sugar, sodium chloride,
sodium hydroxide, glycerol, glue, milk and orange juice. In these cases, the concentrated solution is the
desired product and the evaporated water is normally discarded. In a few cases, water, which contains a
small amount of minerals, is evaporated to give solids-free water to be used as boiler feed, for special
chemical purposes, or for other purposes. Evaporation processes to evaporate seawater to provide
drinking water have been developed and used.
A simplified diagram of a single-stage or single effect evaporator is given in figure 1. The feed enters at T F,
K and saturated steam at Ts enters the heat exchange section. Condensed steam leaves as condensate
or drips. Since the solution in the evaporator is assumed to be completely mixed, the concentrated product
and the solution in the evaporator have the same composition and temperature T 1, which is the boiling
point of the solution.

Figure 1. Simplified diagram of single effect evaporator


The concept of an overall heat transfer coefficient is used in the calculation of the rate of heat transfer in
an evaporator. The general equation can be written as,
q=UA T =UA (T sT 1)

Where q is the rate of heat transfer in W(btu/hr), U is the overall heat transfer coefficient in W/m 2 K, A is
the heat transfer area in m2, Ts is the temperature of the condensing steam in K and T 1 is the boiling point
of the liquid in K.

For the material balance, since we are at steady state, the rate of mass in = rate of mass out. Then, for
total mass balance,
F=L+ V

For a balance on the solute (solids) alone,


F x F =L x L
Enthalpy Balance for the system is given as,
Q=F Cp F (T T F )+V v
4. Resources:
Matlab
5. Procedure:
1. A feed of 4535 kg/hr of 2.0 wt% salt solution at 311K enters continuously a single effect
evaporator and is being concentrated to 3.0% the evaporation is at atmospheric pressure and the
area of the evaporator is 69.7m2. saturated steam at 383.2K is supplied for heating since the
solution is dilute, it can be assumed to have the same heating point of water. The heat capacity of
the feed can be taken as Cp = 4.10 kJ/kg K. Calculate the amount of vapor and liquid product.
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
xf=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Feed: ');
x=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Product: ');
F=input('Enter the Amount of Feed in kg/hr: ');
L=F*xf/x;

V=F-L;
fprintf('\n The Amount Vapor Produced is %0.2f.\n',V)
fprintf('\n The Amount Liquid Produced is %0.2f.\n',L)

2. Calculate the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. Assume the latent heat of vaporization to be
2258.33 KJ/kg
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
Ts=input('Enter the Temperature of the Steam in K:');
Tf=input('Enter the Temperature of the Feed in K:');
T=input('Enter the Temperature of the Vapor in K:');
Cp=input('Enter the Specific Heat of the Feed in kJ/kgK:');
A=input('Enter the Area of the Evaporator in m2: ');
xf=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Feed: ');
x=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Product: ');
F=input('Enter the Amount of Feed in kg/hr: ');
lam=input('Enter the Latent Heat of Vaporization in Kj/kg:');
L=F*xf/x;
V=F-L;
Q=F*Cp*(T-Tf)+lam*V;
U=(Q*1000)/(3600*A*(Ts-T));
fprintf('\n The Amount Vapor Produced is %0.2f.\n',V)
fprintf('\n The Amount Liquid Produced is %0.2f.\n',L)
fprintf('\n The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient is %0.2f.\n',U)

3. An evaporator having an area of 83.6 m 2 and U=2270 W/m2K is used to produce distilled water
for a boiler feed. The top water 400 ppm dissolve solids at 115.6 C is fed to the evaporator
operating at 1 atm pressure abs. Saturated steam at 115.6C is available for use. Calculate the
amount of heat required for the system.
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
Ts=input('Enter the Temperature of the Steam in C:');
T=input('Enter the Temperature of the Vapor in C:');
A=input('Enter the Area of the Evaporator in m2: ');
U=input('Enter the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in W/m2K: ');

Q=(U*A*(Ts-T))*3600/1000;
fprintf('\n The Heat Required in KJ/hr is %0.2f.\n',Q)

4. Assume the latent heat of vaporization of the solution to be 2257.2 KJ/kg and the specific heat to
be 4.18 KJ/kgC, Determine the amount of distilled water produced per hour if the outlet liquid
contains 800 ppm in procedure 3.
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
Ts=input('Enter the Temperature of the Steam in C:');
Tf=input('Enter the Temperature of the Feed in C:');
T=input('Enter the Temperature of the Vapor in C:');
Cp=input('Enter the Specific Heat of the Feed in kJ/kgK:');
A=input('Enter the Area of the Evaporator in m2: ');
xf=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Feed in ppm: ');
x=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Product in ppm: ');
lam=input('Enter the Latent Heat of Vaporization in Kj/kg:');
U=input('Enter the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in W/m2K: ');

Q=(U*A*(Ts-T))*3600/1000;
V=Q/(2*Cp*(T-Tf)+lam);
fprintf('\n The Amount of Distilled Water Produced is %0.2f.\n',V)

5. Tomato Juice having a concentration of 12 wt% solids is being concentrated to 25% solids in a film
evaporator. The maximum allowable temperature for the tomato juice is 135F, which will be the
temperature of the product. The feed enters at 100F. Saturated steam at 240F is used for
heating. The overall heat transfer coefficient U is 600 BTU/hr ft 2 and the area is 50ft2. Neglect any
boiling point rise if present. Calculate the total heat required for the system.
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
Ts=input('Enter the Temperature of the Steam in F:');
T=input('Enter the Temperature of the Vapor in F:');
A=input('Enter the Area of the Evaporator in ft2: ');
U=input('Enter the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in BTU/ft2hr: ');

Q=U*A*(Ts-T);
fprintf('\n The Heat Required in BTU/hr is %0.2f.\n',Q)

6. The heat capacity of the feed Cp is estimated as 0.95 BTU/lb and that the latent heat of
vaporization is 1020.33 BTU/lb
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
Ts=input('Enter the Temperature of the Steam in F:');
Tf=input('Enter the Temperature of the Feed in F:');
T=input('Enter the Temperature of the Vapor in F:');

Cp=input('Enter the Specific Heat of the Feed in BTU/lbF:');


A=input('Enter the Area of the Evaporator in ft2: ');
xf=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Feed: ');
x=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Product: ');
lam=input('Enter the Latent Heat of Vaporization in BTU/lb:');
U=input('Enter the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in BTU/ft2hrF: ');

Q=(U*A*(Ts-T));
F=Q/(Cp*(T-Tf)+0.52*lam);
fprintf('\n The Amount of Feed rate in lb/hr is %0.2f.\n',F)

7. A continuous single-effect evaporator concentrates 9072 kg/h of a 1.0 wt% salt solution entering at
311K to a final concentration of 1.5 wt%. The vapor space of the evaporator is at 101.325 kPa and
the steam supplied is saturated at 143.3 kPa, Ts = 383.2K. The overall heat transfer coefficient U
= 1704 W/m2K. Calculate the amounts of vapor and liquid product and the heat-transfer area
required. Assume that since it is dilute, the solution has the same boiling point as water.
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Elevation
Rise');
xf=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Feed: ');
x=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Product: ');
F=input('Enter the Amount of Feed in kg/hr: ');
L=F*xf/x;
V=F-L;
fprintf('\n The Amount Vapor Produced is %0.2f.\n',V)
fprintf('\n The Amount Liquid Produced is %0.2f.\n',L)

8.

Assume the latent heat of the steam is 2230 KJ/kg and Cp of feed is assumed as 4.14KJ/kgK.
Determine the heat transfer area In procedure 7.

clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
Ts=input('Enter the Temperature of the Steam in K:');
Tf=input('Enter the Temperature of the Feed in K:');
T=input('Enter the Temperature of the Vapor in K:');
Cp=input('Enter the Specific Heat of the Feed in kJ/kgK:');
U=input('Enter the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in W/m2K: ');
xf=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Feed: ');
x=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Product: ');
F=input('Enter the Amount of Feed in kg/hr: ');
lam=input('Enter the Latent Heat of Vaporization in Kj/kg:');
L=F*xf/x;
V=F-L;

Q=F*Cp*(T-Tf)+lam*V;
A=(Q*1000)/(3600*U*(Ts-T));

fprintf('\n The Heat Transfer Area is %0.2f.\n',A)

9. A single effect evaporator is concentrating a feed solution of organic colloids from 5 to 50 wt%. the
solution has a negligible boiling point elevation. The heat capacity if the feed is 4.06 KJ/kgK and
the feed eters at 288.75K. Saturated steam at 373.15K is available for heating, and the pressure
in the vapor space of the evaporator is 15.3 KPa (Tv=327.53K). A total of 4536 kg/hr of water is to
be evaporated. The overall heat transfer coefficient is 1988 W/m 2K. What is the required surface
area in m2. Assume the value of the latent heat of vaporization to be 2371 KJ/kg
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
Ts=input('Enter the Temperature of the Steam in K:');
Tf=input('Enter the Temperature of the Feed in K:');
T=input('Enter the Temperature of the Vapor in K:');
Cp=input('Enter the Specific Heat of the Feed in kJ/kgK:');
U=input('Enter the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient in W/m2K: ');
xf=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Feed: ');
x=input('Enter the Mass Fraction of the Product: ');
F=input('Enter the Amount of Feed in kg/hr: ');
lam=input('Enter the Latent Heat of Vaporization in Kj/kg:');
L=F*xf/x;
V=F-L;
Q=F*Cp*(T-Tf)+lam*V;
A=(Q*1000)/(3600*U*(Ts-T));

fprintf('\n The Heat Transfer Area is %0.2f.\n',A)

10. Determine the Steam consumption in procedure 9. Take the latent heat of vaporization of the
steam to be 2256 KJ/kg
clc;
disp('Solution for a Single Effect Evaporator without Boiling Point
Rise');
Q=input('Enter the Amount of Heat in KJ/hr:');
lams=input('Enter the Latent Heat of Vaporization of the Steam in
KJ/kg:');
ms=Q/lams;
fprintf('\n The Amount of Steam Required is %0.2f.\n',ms)

Course:
Group No.:
Group Members:

Laboratory Exercise No.:


Section:
Date Performed:

Date Submitted:
Instructor:
6. Data and Results:

PROCEDURE

RESULT
1.b

Mfile:

% chem_ equil
function y=chem_equil(x)
COin=1.;
H2Oin=1;
CO2in=0;
H2in=0;
Kequil=148.4;
CO=COin-x;
H2O=H2Oin-x;
CO2=CO2in+x;
H2=H2in+x;
y=Kequil-CO2*H2/(CO*H2O);
end

Command Window:
>> format long
>> fzero('chem_equil',0.5)
ans =
0.924138711897742
1.c

Function
function y = chem_equil_global (x)

global COin H2Oin CO2in H2in Kequil


CO=COin-x;
H2O=H2Oin-x;
CO2=CO2in+x;
H2=H2in+x;
y=Kequil-CO2*H2/(CO*H2O);
en

Mfile
clc
% run chem._equil_global
global COin H2Oin CO2in H2in Kequil
COin=1;
H2Oin=1;
CO2in=0;
H2in=0;
Kequil=148.4;
x=fzero('chem_equil_global',0.5)

Command Window
x=
0.924138711897742

7. Conclusion:

9. Assessment (Rubric for Laboratory Performance):

TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES


RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

CRITERIA

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

Members do not demonstrate


needed skills.

Members
occasionally
demonstrate needed skills.

Members always demonstrate


needed skills.

Experimental Set-up

Members are unable to set-up


the materials.

Members are able to set-up


the materials with supervision.

Members are able to set-up


the material with minimum
supervision.

Process Skills

Member do not demonstrate


targeted process skills.

Members
occasionally
demonstrate targeted process
skills.

Members always demonstrate


targeted process skills.

Safety Precautions

Members do not follow safety


precautions.

Members
follow
safety
precautions most of the time.

Members
follow
safety
precautions at all times.

Time Management /
Conduct
of
Experiment

Members do not finish on time


with incomplete data.

Members finish on time with


incomplete data.

Members finish ahead of time


with complete data and time to
revise data.

Cooperative
Teamwork

and

Members do not know their


tasks and have no defined
responsibilities.
Group
conflicts have to be settled by
the teacher.

Members
have
defined
responsibilities most of the
time.
Group conflicts are
cooperatively managed most
of the time.

Members are on tasks and


have defined responsibilities at
all times. Group conflicts are
cooperatively managed at all
times.

Neatness
Orderliness

and

Messy workplace during and


after the experiment.

Clean and orderly workplace


with occasional mess during
and after the experiment.

Clean and orderly workplace at


all times during and after the
experiment.

Ability
to
do
independent work

Members require supervision


by the teacher.

Members require occasional


supervision by the teacher.

Members do not need to be


supervised by the teacher.

I. Laboratory Skills
Manipulative
Skills

II. Work Habits

TOTAL SCORE
Other Comments / Observations:

RATING = (

TotalScore
24
) x 100%

Evaluated by:

_______________________________________
Printed Name and Signature of Faculty Member

Date: ___________________________

SCORE