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FABRICATION OF PNEUMATIC

PAPER CUP MAKING MACHINE

ABSTRCT

Generally the cups and plate are made in plastics. The plastics are harmful
and it has many disadvantages to us. By naturally we get leaves, papers by using
this we can make cups. It is very cheap and it does not have any chemical effects.
The paper cup is made by a pneumatic machine. The machine is operated by the
pneumatic system. By using this we can produce cup at high production rate. By
using different shape die we can produce different shape and size cups. The
machine size is comfortable to suit any where.

The air enters to the flow control valve and gives pressure to the double
acting cylinder. The direction is control by the direction 5/2 control valve. The
movement of piston will be varied by adjusting the flow control valve.
adjusting the speed, the production rate will be varied

By

INTRODUCTION

The pneumatic paper making press is used to different shapes of cup in


faster production rate. The principle of operation is the same as the conventional
simple press. The difference is only in the type of drive and the type of fixtures
used.

The following points reveals why we have to make use of this type of press
Pneumatic paper making press reduces the manual work.
This type of machine reduces working time.
By using this machine the bearings can be inserted in the various lengths of
shat (up to 600mm).

WORKING PRINCIPLE

In this paper cup making machine there is a double acting cylinder which
is a pneumatic device a punch, die, screw rod, top plate, bottom plate, direction
control valve, flow control valve, connectors and hoses. A compressor supplies
high pressure air to the cylinder, whose flow is controlled by a flow control valve.
The air passes through a direction control valve. This is used to actuate the piston
and to specify its direction of movement. The piston is connected to a ram.

At the end of the ram punch is fastened. The die in the ram can be
replaced. The piston, ram and punch are the moving parts in this machine. The die
is fixed on the base of the machine by screw rods. The height of the base can be
adjusted by rotating the screw rod. The whole unit is fixed on the column. When
the air flows through the flow control valve, its volume is restricted to the specified
amount. Then the direction control valves control the part of cylinder which it
should occupy.

When it occupies part A of the cylinder, it moves the ram downwards


along with the punch. The punch, punches the paper kept over the die. The paper
will be wet. To recover the wetness and make the shape stable a heating coil is
placed in the die. Next, direction control valves are actuated which makes the air
to flow in part B of cylinder. Due to air in part A is released to the atmosphere by a
valve. This makes the punch to move upwards. The cup can be taken out and the
next paper can be placed over the die for the next cycle.

ADVANTAGES

This product is an alternative for plastic cups and plates.


Easily decomposing product.
Cheaper and easily available material is used.
Eco friendly product.
The pneumatic arm is more efficient in the technical field.
Quick response is achieved
Simple in construction.
Easy to maintain and repair.
Cost of the unit is less.
No fire hazard problem due to over loading.
Comparatively the operation cost is less.
Continuous operation is possible without stopping.
It reduces the manual work.
It reduces the production time.
Occupies less floor space.
Less skilled operator is sufficient.

DISADVANTAGES

While working, the compressed air produces noise therefore a


silencer may be used.
High torque can not be obtained.
Initial cost is high.
Cylinder stroke length is constant.
Need a separate compressor.

LITERATURE SURVEY
PNEUMATICS

The word pneuma comes from Greek and means breather wind. The
word pneumatics is the study of air movement and its phenomena is derived from
the word pneuma. Today pneumatics is mainly understood to means the application
of air as a working medium in industry especially the driving and controlling of
machines and equipment.
Pneumatics has for some considerable time between used for carrying out
the simplest mechanical tasks in more recent times has played a more important
role in the development of pneumatic technology for automation.
Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air which must be
made available in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the
system. When the pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it
wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.

The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means
using reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at
a certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.
Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered
and the volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at
atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature.
The compressibility of the air was first investigated by Robert Boyle in
1962 and that found that the product of pressure and volume of a particular
quantity of gas.
The usual written as
PV = C (or) P V = P2 V2
In this equation the pressure is the absolute pressured which for free is about
14.7 Psi and is of courage capable of maintaining a column of mercury, nearly 30
inches high in an ordinary barometer. Any gas can be used in pneumatic system but
air is the mostly used system now a days.

SELECTION OF PNEUMATICS:

Mechanization is broadly defined as the replacement of manual effort by


mechanical power. Pneumatics is an attractive medium for low cost mechanization
particularly for sequential or repetitive operations. Many factories and plants
already have a compressed air system, which is capable of providing both the
power or energy requirements and the control system (although equally pneumatic
control systems may be economic and can be advantageously applied to other
forms of power).

The main advantages of an all-pneumatic system are usually economy and


simplicity, the latter reducing maintenance to a low level. It can also have out of
standing advantages in terms of safety.

PRODUCTION OF COMPRESSED AIR

Pneumatic systems operate on a supply of compressed air, which must be


made available, in sufficient quantity and at a pressure to suit the capacity of the
system. When pneumatic system is being adopted for the first time, however it
wills indeed the necessary to deal with the question of compressed air supply.
The key part of any facility for supply of compressed air is by means using
reciprocating compressor. A compressor is a machine that takes in air, gas at a
certain pressure and delivered the air at a high pressure.
Compressor capacity is the actual quantity of air compressed and delivered
and the volume expressed is that of the air at intake conditions namely at
atmosphere pressure and normal ambient temperature.
Clean condition of the suction air is one of the factors, which decides the life
of a compressor. Warm and moist suction air will result in increased precipitation
of condense from the compressed air. Compressor may be classified in two general
types.

1. Positive displacement compressor.


2. Turbo compressor

Positive displacement compressors are most frequently employed for


compressed air plant and have proved highly successful and supply air for
pneumatic control application.
The types of positive compressor

1. Reciprocating type compressor


2. Rotary type compressor

Turbo compressors are employed where large capacity of air required at low
discharge pressures. They cannot attain pressure necessary for pneumatic control
application unless built in multistage designs and are seldom encountered in
pneumatic service.

COMPONENTS AND DESCRIPTION

The pneumatic Paper cup making machine consists of the following


components to fulfill the requirements of complete operation of the machine.

Pneumatic cylinder
Direction control valve
Flow control value
Punch
Die
Bottom plate
Top Plate
Screw Rod
Connectors
Hoses

CYLINDER:

The cylinder is a double acting cylinder one, which means that the air
pressure operates alternatively (forward and backward).

The air from the

compressor is passed through the regulator which controls the pressure to required
amount by adjusting its knob. A pressure gauge is attached to the regulator for
showing the line pressure.
Then the compressed air is passed through the directional control valve for
supplying the air alternatively to either sides of the cylinder. Two hoses take the
output of the directional Control valve and they are attached to two ends of the
cylinder by means of connectors. One of the outputs from the directional control
valve is taken to the flow control valve from taken to the cylinder.
The hose is attached to each component of pneumatic system only by
connectors.

CYLINDER TECHNICAL DATA:

Barrel:
It is made of cold drawn aluminium honed to 25mm.

Piston Rod:
M.S. hard Chrome plated

Seals:
Nitrile (Buna N) Elastomer

End Covers:
Cast iron graded fine grained from 25mm to 300mm

Piston:
Aluminium.

Media:
Air.

Temperature Range:
0^c to 85^c

Cushions:
Adjustable standard on 400mm bore and above.

DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVE

To control the to and fro motion of cylinder, the fluid energy has to be
regulated, controlled and reversed with a predetermined sequence in a pneumatic
system

Similarly one may have to control the quantity of pressure and flow rate to
generate the desired level of force and speed of actuators.

To achieve these

functions, valves are used. Valves are fluid power elements used for controlling
and regulating the working medium.

The main functions of the valves are,

Start and stop the fluid energy

Control the direction of flow of compressed air

Control the flow rate of the fluid

Control the pressure rating of the fluid

FLOW CONTROL VALVE:

These are used to control the rate of flow of a fluid through the valve.
A directional control valve on the receipt of some, external signal, which might be
mechanical, electrical or a fluid pilot signal, changes the direction of stops, or
starts the flow of fluid in some part of the pneumatic/hydraulic circuit. They can be
used to carry out such functions as:

1.

Controlling the direction of motion of an actuator

2.

Selecting alternative flow paths for a fluid.


3. Stopping and starting the flow of fluid

Purpose:

This valve is used to speed up the piston movement and also it acts as an
one way restriction valve which means that the air can pass through only one
way and it cant return back.

By using this valve the time consumption is reduced because of the faster
movement of the piston.

PUNCH:
The male portion of cutting die is called a punch. It is usually upper
movable member fastened to the piston rod. The design of the punch depends up
on area to be pierced or blanked, and the pressure required penetrating the work
piece material. The method of mounting a punch also depends up on the area to be
pierced or blanked. The punch is made up on EN-8 material.

DIE

The die is mounted on the bottom plate and it is surrounded by heating coils.
These coils are used to heat the Paper and absorb the moisture present in the Paper.
So heating the Paper gets stiffness. The die is made in EN-8 material.

BOTTOM PLATE:

Material

C15

Material Selection

Weld ability, toughness, low cost,


Hardness, easy to machine, and easily
Available in the market.

Machines Used

Lathe, Drilling and shaping machines.

Quantity

TOP PLATE:

Material

C15

Material Selection

Due to Weld ability, toughness, low

cost,
Hardness, easy to machine, and easily

Available in the market.


Machines Used

Lathe, Drilling and shaping machines.

Quantity

SCREW ROD:

Material

C15

Material Selection

Due to Weld ability, toughness, low

cost,
Hardness, easy to machine, and easily
Available in the market.
Machines Used

Lathe, Drilling and shaping machines.

Quantity

CONNECTIORS:

In our pneumatic system there are two types of connectors used; one
is the hose connector and the other is the reducer. Hose connectors normally
comprise an adapter (connector) hose nipple and cap nut.

These types of

connectors are made up of brass or Al or hardened steel.

Reducers are used to provide inter connection between two pipes or


hoses of different sizes.

They may be fitted straight, tee, V or other

configurations. These reducers are made up of gunmetal or other materials like


hardened steel etc.

HOSES:
Hoses used in this pneumatic system are made up of polyrethane. These
hoses can with stand at a maximum pressure level of 10 kg/cm2. The various sizes
polyurethane tubes and its specifications are shown in the table.

Code
No.

Od X Id
(mm)

Burst

Working

Pressure Pressure

Min.
Bending

Standa
rd

Radius

Length

2)

(mm)

(m)

(kgf/cm

(kgf/cm

2)

Weight
(g/m)

PU4025

4 X 2.5

32

< 10

10

200

PU4329

4.3 X

30

< 10

12

200

2.9
PU6040

6X4

27

< 10

16

200

18

PU8050

8X5

32

< 10

22

100

38

PU8060

8X6

27

< 10

22

100

34

PU9565

9.5 X

28

< 10

27

100

52

6.5
PU1065

10 X 6.5

30

< 10

28

100

55

PU1080

11 X 8

27

< 10

28

100

47

PU1180

12 X 8

30

< 10

28

100

55

PU1280

12 X 8

28

< 10

37

100

78

PU1290

12 X 9

27

< 10

37

100

70

PU1296

12.6 X

30

< 10

39

100

82

9.6

WORKING PRINCIPLE

In this Paper cup making machine there is a double acting cylinder which is
a pneumatic device a punch, die, screw rod, top plate, bottom plate, direction
control valve, flow control valve, connectors and hoses.

A compressor supplies high pressure air to the cylinder, whose flow is


controlled by a flow control valve. The air passes through a direction control
valve. This is used to actuate the piston and to specify its direction of movement.
The piston is connected to a ram.
At the end of the ram punch is fastened. The die in the ram can be
replaced. The piston, ram and punch are the moving parts in this machine. The die
is fixed on the base of the machine by screw rods. The height of the base can be
adjusted by rotating the screw rod. The whole unit is fixed on the column.

When the air flows through the flow control valve, its volume is restricted
to the specified amount. Then the direction control valves control the part of
cylinder which it should occupy.

When it occupies part A of the cylinder, it moves the ram downwards along
with the punch. The punch, punches the Paper kept over the die. The Paper will
be wet. To recover the wetness and make the shape stable a heating coil is placed
in the die. Next, direction control valves are actuated which makes the air to flow
in part B of cylinder. Due to air in part A is released to the atmosphere by a valve.
This makes the punch to move upwards. The cup can be taken out and the next
Paper can be placed over the die for the next cycle.