Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Chapter I
Introduction
Speaking is generally considered the most important skill among other skills it is
needed in common communication and business communication. Speaking is fundamental
to human communication: just think of all the different conversation you have in one day
and compare that with how much written communication you do in one day. Which do you
do more of? In our daily lives most of us use speaking more than writing.
Many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing
practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skills. Do you think this is a good balance?
If the goal of your language course is truly to enable your students to communicate
in English, then speaking skill should be and practiced in the language classroom.
Why should we teach speaking skill in the classroom?
Many students equate being able to speak a language as knowing the language and
therefore view learning the language as learning how to speak the language, if students do
not learn how to speak or do not get any opportunity to speak in the language classroom,
they may soon get motivated and lose interest in learning .
On the other hand, if the right activities are taught in the right way. Speaking in
class can be a lot of fun, raising general learner motivation and making the English
language classroom a fun and dynamic place to be.
Although Speaking in class can be a lot of fun, it also has many problems and
challenge in speaking and learning skills in our classroom.
The problems of teaching and learning in particular, which are most relevant in the
context of developing oral skill of foreign language proficiency.
The complex nature of spoken discourse must be taken into account and reflected at
each stage of the learning process. Thus the article examines the difficulties connected with
choosing the appropriate framework and approach and discuss the typical patterns of
interaction in the foreign language classroom.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
It also examines form of control and evaluations and suggest some speaking
activities with seem most suitable for language learner in the light of the above the original
consideration.
As an interview with Megan who is an English teacher at Hun Sen high school,
shows that some problems in teaching and learning skills are:
Some students wont talk or say anything, some fee really shy about talking in front
of other students then one way to go about breaking this cultural ,is to create and establish
our classroom culture where speaking out loud in English. From one day of teaching our
students classroom language and keep on teaching it and encourage our students to ask for
things in English. Giving positive feedback also help to encourage and relax shy students
to speak more.
Another way to get students motivated to speak more is to allocate a percentage of
their final grade to speaking skill and let the students know they are being assessed
continually on their speaking practices in class throughout the term.
Different reason for students silence may be that the class activities are boring or
are pitched at the wrong level. So maybe you need to take a closer look at the type of
speaking activities you are using and see if they really capture student interest and create a
real need for communication.
This article deal with the problems of teaching and learning, in particular those
which are most relevant in the context of developing oral skill of foreign language
proficiency. The complex nature of spoken discourse must be taken into account and
reflected of each stage of the learning process.
Thus the article examines the difficulties connected with choosing the appropriate
framework and approach and discuss the typical patterns of interaction in the foreign
language classroom.
It is also examines form of control and evolution and suggest some speaking
activities with seem most suitable for language learners in the light of the above theoretical
consideration.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Background
English the most important language in the world .It is an international business
language which is spoken almost over the world and there are four main skills in English:
1. Reading skill
2. Listening skill
3. Writing skill
4. Speaking skill
I think that speaking is very necessary to communicate in business and also in
societies through globalization.
While teaching and learning skill, teachers and students always believe that
speaking is a priority that is way there is a statement in teaching methodology saying that if
you know many words and you can combine them to speak is very essential, another
reason is that even though you do not know any other skills you know only how to speak is
not enough.

Statement of Problem
This research will show the three main opponents of improving speaking skill,
and also show about special problems challenges in teaching and learning skill and more
importantly activities in speaking classroom and the major report will answer to these
following questions.
1. What are the main problems in teaching and learning skills?
2. How we can be used to improve speaking skill?
3. What are the main steps of activities to activate in speaking classroom?

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Significance of Study
This report gives many benefits to all people. The first benefit will give to the
students, who love and need these documents in order to improve their abilities of
speaking. It can also be used as reference documents for doing research in library.
And also for English teachers, who need this document in case they want to teach
their students or for their research lesson to improve their speaking skill.
Individuals can also use this report to practice learning how to speak well for
general communication.
And at least all the researcher will know about some problems challenges in
teaching and learning speaking skill in language classroom.

Scope and Limitation


This report will mainly focus on only speaking skill through communication by
using examples in conversation in speaking classrooms. And also show the main problems
and activities that activate in speaking skill to help the learners to speak well.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature
Learning a foreign language in conversation difficult maybe made
comprehensible strong the mutual efforts of the participants to appropriate adjustments to
the interaction.
To practice speaking in classroom we should practice role play in pair or in
group with the reference to listening and speaking skill, students should be given different
phrase practice and development such as general interactional and social language and the
questions are the special key to activate speaking, there are easy ways when their teacher
wants their students to practice speaking.
They make question and answer to them about what they want to practice.
(Thorn bury.2007)- Designing a speaking syllabus depends on several
factors, the most obvious being the age and level of learners, the learning context and the
aim of teaching.
(Megadalena Aleksandraka)40
A modern -layered syllabus should specify the target aspects of the speaking
skill to be taught, as well as the grammar and vocabulary, and phonology.
Importantly as far as the stage of mental processing involved in speaking are
concerned, there is not much difference between native and target languages.
Both combine the process of conceptualizing, formulating, articulating,
self -monitoring and negotiating.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Chapter III
Research Methodology
This report is done by our group members have committed to this work and we
shared our responsibilities. One of us went to collect data at Cambodian University for
Specialties (CUS) and search by the internet and find some more documents at library and
another interviewed with English teachers at Hun Sen high school Meegan an English
teacher there and we are in charge of photocopying and reading in order to find relevant
parts for our report.
More importantly, we have our skillful adviser to advise us in compiling to make
this book.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Chapter IV
Presentation and Interpretation of Data
The Problems and Challenges in Teaching and learning Speaking skills
The article deals with the problems of teaching and learning speaking skills, in particular
those which are most relevant in the context of developing oral skills of foreign language
proficiency.
The complex nature of spoken discourse must be taken into account and reflect at each
stage of the learning process.
Thus the article examines the difficulties connect with choosing the appropriate framework
and approach and discuss the typical patterns of interaction in the foreign language
classroom.
It also examines form of control and evolution and suggests some speaking activities with
seem most suitable for language learners in the light of the above the original
consideration.
Why should we teach speaking skill in the classroom?

Motivation

Speaking is fundamental to human communication

Motivation: view learning the language as learning how to speak the language, if the right
activities are taught in the right way, speaking in class can be a lot of fun, raising general
learner motivation and making the speaking classroom a fun and dynamic place to be.
1. General problems in teaching speaking skill
The position of speaking in hierarchy of language skill has evolver the centuries rather
ignored in the grammar translation method, it became skill in the direct method, and
audiolingalism brought even more focus on speaking, although the linguistic principle, it
was based on view oral discourse as imitative routine behavior in typical and predictable
situations.
The grammatical syllabus of the cognitive method incorporated activities in all language
skill, attaching equal importance to each of them.
Finally, communicative language teaching added a more realistic dimension to teaching
oral discourse by introduction numerous forms of interaction to the classroom and
practicing the language in natural or probable situation which demanded defining of the
discourse genre and the roles of participants.
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Although the contribution of CLT to developing forms of speaking practice in the language
classroom can hardly be overestimate, (Magadalena Aleksandrzak)
Communication Situation
There is a growing tendency among researcher and practitioners to criticize it for its
insufficient recognition of the complexity of speaking as a psycholinguistic process and of
placing too strong an emphasis on information gap criterions as leading to artificial or
impractical task.
Nowadays in spite of the inevitable criticism of available methods, techniques or resources,
speaking is generally perceived as the most fundamental skill to acquire.
Since the onset of the communicative era it has been treated as the ultimate goal of
language training and its proper development has become the focus of attention of both
teacher and learners often finish a language course with the conviction that they are not
sufficiently prepared for speaking beyond the classroom.
This difficulty result basically from the character and inadequate frequency of speaking
opportunities in the classroom in comparison to the abundance of natural varieties and
genres of oral communication.
In fact, selecting the most appropriate types of spoken discourse for classroom practice in a
particular language course is a very hard decision which, unfortunately, hardly ever reflects
the natural occurrence and distribution of communicative situations.
Additionally teaching and learning speaking skills course should create optimal conditions
for developing learners sociocultural knowledge, which is The Culturally embedded rules
of social behaviors(Thornbury 2007)
And their linguistic knowledge, which include discourse and speech acknowledge and
knowledge of the grammar, vocabulary and phonology of the target language.
These knowledge areas must then be appropriate activated in order to be made available
for use in regular speaking practice in the classroom and beyond.
Importantly, as far as the stages of mental processing involved in speaking are concerned.
There is not much difference between native and target languages. Both combine the
process of conceptualizing and negotiating.
Yet the skill of speaking is not automatically transferable from speakers first language into
the second. (Thornbury2007)
Even extensive knowledge of the target languages grammar and vocabulary often
presented by the students of foreign language departments does not guarantee success in
oral communication when this knowledge is not properly intergraded or accessed.
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Problems in speaking maybe additionally aggravated by excessive use of self-monitoring


process and a tendency to formulate utterances in the native language first.
These mental operations create obvious cost in term of fluency and may lead to producing
artificial discourse.
Other problems that are commonly observed in language classroom are related to
individual learners personalities and attitudes to the learning. (Problems and challenges in
teaching and learning speaking skill at level 39).
Process and learning speaking in particular
They can be defined as follows (Ur1995:121)
Incitation fear of making mistakes, losing face, criticism, shyness
Nothing to say
learner have problems with find motive to speak formulating
opinions or relevant comments,
Low or uneven participation often cause by the tendency of some learners to
dominate in the group.
Mother-tongue
use particularly comment in less deplaned or less motivated
classes learner find it easier or more natural to express themselves in their native
language.
As many teachers observations indicate, the above situations occur in language classrooms
regardless of the level of proficiency or the number of students in the group.
Moreover, every learner enters any learning and communicative environment with his or
her entire personality additionally shaped by their prior learning and communicative
experiences, both positive and negative.
This individual dimension is particularly noticeable among older and more leaners who
often have a good insight into the nature of their individual difficulties, an accurate
assessment of the skills they have already development and consequently clearly defined
needs.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Choosing an Approach
Designing a speaking syllabus depends on several factors, the most obvious being the age
and level of learners, the learning context and the aim of teaching.
First, it must be defined how much emphasis can be given to speaking with in a particular
course and whether speaking is to be taught separately or integrated with the teaching of
other skill and areas of the language.
Secondly, it is essential to choose an approach which defines the teaching procedure. The
selection between a task based approaches a genre based one or the combination of both
type in the most crucial step in designing the course as it influences all the elements of the
learning process in process.
Nevertheless, a modern multi-layered syllabus should specify the target aspects of the
speaking skill to be taught, as well as the grammar and vocabulary, phonology components
(Thornbury 2007)
A genre based approach focus on the notion of the communicative situation which centers
around a particular spoken genre or genres.
Needless to say, the variety of types of communicative situation is virtually unlimited.
As a consequence, the teachers face the necessity of deciding which situations should be
included in the language course he or she coordinates.
This section, however well-thought-out it maybe, it always connected. (Megdalena
Aleksandrak)
With eliminating or ignoring a number of relatively significant situations and concentrating
on those which seem most relevant to particular learning context.
The next step is defining the most important parameters of the selected situations, such as
the topic, goals, and discourse genre, social and cultural norms.
The actual teaching procedure starts from establishing the social purpose and cultural
context of a given genre, later a typical example is presented and analyzed.
Finally learners create their own samples of appropriate communicative events.
(Thornbury2007-121)

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

10

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

In contrast a task-based approach stems from the general idea that a language is best
learned through using it, rather than learned and then used.
Consequently, it is believe that accuracy results from fluency, in other words the need of
communicate effectively leads to the refinement of learning and language.
A task based syllabus, then takes the form of sequence of integrated tasks which involved
speaking and which reflect the situations that learners are likely to meet in real
circumstances. Both approaches have their advantages and drawbacks.
The task-based approach has been citizen for giving priority to process of using language
that learners actually produce.
However, that more learners may benefit more from a genre based framework since it
emphasis the importance of social context, purpose, register and interlocutor expectations,
which is the components of communicative situation which are covered or analyzed in
classrooms of speaking language.
It must be stressed that all oral discourse stems from a communicative intention, that are
the speakers have a defined aim which he or she wants to achieve in a particular
communicative situation.
This situation may require creative thinking and producing a highly personal
individualized utterance or replying on automatic reaction in accordance with established
social and cultural norms.
Yet in order to implement a communicative goal, a speaker must enable the interlocutor to
understand, interpret and evaluate the information being passed.
Seen from such a perspective, speaking seems a very complex activity which combines the
process of intending, planning, constructing and monitoring.
Additionally, these operations have to be executed in fractions of seconds according to the
demands of communicative fluency. (Dakowska 2005-233)
In the light of the above assumptions it may be claimed that ongoing language performance
is an extremely significant element in the process of developing speaking skills.
In other words, it seems obvious that in order to learn to speak or develop this ability,
learners have to speak.
As Skenhan(1998) claims, a comprehension base approach is not sufficient on its own,
(Problem and challenges in teaching and learning speaking skill).
And replying on listening tasks as the only source of language input does not guarantee
success in language learning.
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

11

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
He underlines the importance of output that is the actual practice of output that is the actual
practice of interactive, speaking and identifies the roles it may play inter language
development.(Skehan 1998:16-19)
To generate better input-speaking is used as a signaling device to obtain better input, it
enable the negotiation for meaning in the form of clarification request and comprehension
or confirmations checks, to force syntactic processing- being aware that they have to speak
make more attentive to syntax while listening, as a result listening tasks become more
effective for inter language development.
To develop automaticity to become effective as a speaker, the learner needs to achieve a
degree of a natural level of speed and rhythm; frequent speaking practice cannot focus only
on short turns but it also give opportunities for taking part in extended discourse, this
allows for developing discourse management and turn-taking skills, which underlie the
negotiation of meaning in ongoing communication.
To develop a personal voice- learners who rely exclusively on what others say are not
likely to develop a personal manner of speaking. They are dependent on the meaning they
are exposed and cannot steer conversations, each learner should learn how to meaningfully
influence ongoing discourse and find ways of individual expression.
The above approach suggests that frequent and well-planned speaking practice has a great
impact on learners inter language development.
However the question of whether it is a sufficient condition for language learning till
remains open for theoretical and practical conversation. (Skehan 1998)

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

12

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Patterns of interaction in teaching learning speaking classroom:


In every speaking language classroom, language functions as the medium through which
teachers and students demonstrate what they have learned. (Johnson 1995)
Teachers use the target language to control both the content and the structure of classroom
interactions, learners try to respond to their teachers use of second language.
However, the overall picture of classroom communication depends on the types of
relationships between teachers and learners, and the actual patterns of communication
established and maintained during regular lesson.
Interestingly, these patterns are hardly ever permanents, but they tend to be reconstructed
and modified according to the requirements of the ongoing learning process.
This flexible nature and culture of classroom communication which in spite of many
similarities, are always unique and unpredictable.
In an attempt at constructing an intergraded view of communication in speaking second
language classroom. (Johnson 1995:9)

An interview with Meegan an English teacher at Hun Sen Skun high school
What are the problems in teaching learning speaking classroom?
By her experiences she said that:
There are many problems in teaching and learning speaking skills, but I notice about
pattern of inter action teachers and students, and students with students.
Some students wont talk or say anything some feel really shy about talking in front of the
teachers and other students
Then one way to go about breaking this natural and cultural is to create and establish our
classroom culture and where speaking out loud in English or second language in teaching
and learning speaking classroom.

Step by Step
From day one teach our students classroom speaking language and keep on teaching it and
encourage our students to ask for things and request something by speaking in English or
other second language .We start from easy conversation by step one to another or step by
step. For Example: (Classroom conversation)

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

13

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

T: Good morning everyone!


S: Good morning teacher!
T: How are you today?
S: Fine, thank you teacher!
T: And, How are you teacher?
T: I am ok, Thanks.
T: Sit down please!
S: Thank you teacher!
T: What day is it today?
S: It is Saturday.
T: What is the date?
S: It is 2nd
T: What is the month?
S: It is August.
S: Excuse me teacher! I am late.
T: Ok, come in please.
S: May I go to the bathroom?
T: Ok, please.
Giving positive feedback also help to encourage and relax shy students to speak more and
more.
Another way to get students motivated to speak more is to allocate a percentage of their
final grade to speaking skill and let the student know they are being assessed continually
on their speaking practice in class throughout the term.
Other reasons:
Different reasons for silence students may be that the class activities are boring or are
pitched at the wrong level:
Level
:1
Level
:2
Level
:3
Level
:4
Level
: 5 6 7..
So maybe you need to take a closer look at the type of speaking activities you are using
and see if they really capture students interest and create a real need for communication.
Totally about problems of speaking class
-Students wont talk or say anything (they are shy)
-When students work in pair or groups they just end up their own language.
-When all the students speak together it gets, too noisy and the teacher lose
control of the classroom.
-The students do not get any opportunity to speak second language in
speaking class.
-The speaking skill should be taught and practiced in the speaking language
classroom.
-The class activities are boring with the wrong level.
-Another way to encourage our students to speak English or second
language is simply to speak in English yourself
as much as possible in
class. The teachers to students or the students to other students.
-If you are shy about speaking in English or second language, how can you
expect your students to overcome their fears about speaking English well?
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

14

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
-Dont worry if you are not completely fluent or dont have perfect native
accent, as SWAIN wrote We learn to speak by speaking.
And that goes for teachers as well as students. The more you speak the more you practice
the more you will improve your own oral skills as well as help your students improve
theirs.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

15

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Learning speaking language classroom


Forms of teachers control of classroom communication- shaped mostly by their
professional of these patterns- norms and expectation based on their previous learning
experience including preconceived notions of appropriate classroom communication,
Classroom Communication
Students use of the target language,
The extent to which the existing patterns of communication create opportunities for
students to use of the target language for learning.
Analysis of the above elements may prove particularly classroom at beginner to upper
level as it allows for the adequate tailoring of the language of instruction and introducing
more elements of natural social discourse in a given learning context.
How many type of interaction in speaking classroom
There are two basic types of interaction which may be observed in teaching and learning
speaking foreign language classrooms: teacher-students and students-students interaction
Teacher- students interaction
The most traditional version of teacher student interaction is illustrated by the so-called
IRE model (teacher initiation, students, student response, teachers evaluation that
response).
However, the extent of a teachers control over classroom communication many vary,
connected with the pedagogical purpose of the language course or lesson.
When learners take on all of them (initiation, response, evaluation), the sequence is
abandoned altogether and the pattern change into student-student interaction.
Student-student interaction
In general student-student interaction is the dominant pattern of communication in learner
centered classrooms, since it expends student talking time and fosters student use of
language for learning, as opposed to only demonstrating what they have learnt working in
groups on cooperative learning task produce many constructive student-student
interactions which in turn, enhance learners educational achievement, aspiration,
motivation, self-esteem, positive attitude to learning and helps develop social skill.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

16

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
Yet collaborative learning and speaking task may also generate conflicts which are less
likely to occur in teachers center classes, where teacher-student interaction usually
dominates.

Speaking activities at upper level


According to Thornbury (2007:40) The process of developing speaking skills consists of
three stages:
Awareness learners are made of features of target languages knowledge
(Magadalena Aleksandrzak44)
Appropriation these features are integrated into their existing knowledge base
Autonomy learners develop the capacity to mobilize these features under real- time
condition without assistance.
It seems that at the upper level of foreign language proficiency students and teachers
efforts should be focused on the stage of appropriation and its effective movement towards
autonomy in target language use.
The speaking activities presented below take into account the above assumptions.
Speaking in Foreign language classroom
Conversation in foreign language classrooms are consider to be not the result of language
learning but rather the context in which learning actually occur(Thorn bury 2007).
On the other hand, it is not easy to incorporate meaningful conversational interaction into a
planned lesson as casual conversation is by its very nature, spontaneous and unstructured.
It became easier when conversation activities are based on a set of selected teams which
are previously negotiated with learners.
Useful conversation routines and helpful communication strategies should be taught and
practiced beforehand to give students appropriate devices for successful communication.
Conversation activities may proceed from more controlled ones, in which the language is
limited by instructions, through awareness activities which make use of audiovisual
material, fluency practice, to feedback sessions during which students analyze their own
interactions. (Nolasco and Arthur 1987).

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

17

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Discussion of Classroom interaction


Discussion is another popular and useful from of classroom interaction. However it must
be stressed that the actual potential of this activity for developing an individual learners
speaking ability can be implement only under certain conditions particularly that:
The topic is controversial enough to open different perspectives and interpretations,
Learners participate in the choice of the topic and are given enough communicative
autonomy to be able to express their personal opinions and ideas.
Students are interested in the topic and their general knowledge is sufficient enough
to discuss it.
Discussion is planned as a complex activity which combines working in pairs or
groups and open-class or panel forms of interaction.
Additionally, news points and arguments may emerge during the discussion. It is important
that the arguments are logical and well-balanced and that they are presented in accordance
with the social and cultural norms of the target language community.
Academic Presentation
Academic presentation (Thorn bury 2007) are particularly useful for learners who study
speaking language for academic purpose and need practice in giving presentations or
conference paper.
This activity should be proceeding by discussing the formal features of the genre and
analyzing the specific language patterns typical of each stage of an academic presentation.
Watching model or authentic presentation before students actually starts preparing their
own speech should be treated as an important part of the activity, as well as discussing the
effectiveness of individual presentations(reactions of the audience, delivery style, timemanagement) afterwards.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

18

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Role-plays Activities
Other activities that the learners may benefit from include:
-Story telling
-Jokes
-and Anecdotes which are comment ingredients of casual conversations
-Drama, role play and simulation activities.
They greatly expand the scope of registers and social roles that learners may en counter in
the classroom, (For example, but introducing simulated interactions with total strangers or
face-threatening speech acts).
The perception and reception of such tasks, however, may be different in different students
and they depend to some extent on the personality of the individual learners.
Example: Activities in Role play.
In role plays, students are assigned roles and put into situation that they may eventually
encounter outside classroom. Because role play imitates life, the range of language
functions that may be used expands considerably.
Also the role relationship among, the students as they play the parts call for them to
practice and develop their social linguistic competence. They have to use language that is
appropriate to the situation and to the characters.
Students usually find role playing enjoyable, but students who lack self-confident or have
lower proficiency levels may find them intimidating at first. To succeed with role plays:
Prepare carefully: Introduce the activity by describing the situation and making
sure that all of the students understand it.
Use role card
: Give each student a card that describes the person or role to
be play.
Brainstorms
: Before start the role play, have students brainstorm as a
class to predict what vocabulary, grammar, and idiomatic expressions they
might use.
Keep groups small: Less confident student will fed more able to participate if
they do not have to compete with many voices.
Give students time to prepare: Let them work individually to outline their ideas
and the language they will need to express them.
Do linguistic follow up: After the role play is over give feedback on grammar
or pronunciation problems you have heard.
This can wait until another class period when you plan to review pronunciation or grammar
anyway.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

19

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Problems of Evaluation
Testing the oral proficiency of foreign language student is a complex task which may cause
considerable problems at any stage of the process.
The difficulties concern not only the choice of the appropriate elicitation technique and
form of assessment, but they may also emerge while designing or administering the test.
Practitioners and researchers are divided in their opinions as to the validity of oral testing
and put forward arguments for and against it.
The most comment arguments in favors of testing oral fluency are as follows:

Each general language test should include all accepts and areas of the language,
therefore include speaking.

Speaking is generally considered to be the most important language skill, which is


why it should take priority in any language test.

An oral proficiency at the end of the course will guarantee that teachers and
students devote more time to speaking practice during the course. Otherwise a
tendency to neglect extensive speaking practice or not to give it enough time and
effort can be observed.

There are many students who speak well but write badly, a test based on writing
may discriminate such learners and their overall assessment will not reflect their
actual and abilities. However there are also numerous convincing arguments
against oral testing.

Designing and reliable tests that make learners improvise speech in the target
language is very difficult.

Speech is very difficult to assess quickly and objectively, recordings can be made
but this form of evaluation is extremely-time-consuming and it does not guarantee
objectively.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

20

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
There is a problem of finding the right balance between accuracy and fluency
testing. It is often not clear what criteria should be selected for assessment of the
speaking skill or which should be given priority and why.

Even a well-balanced selection of a set of criteria does not mean that tester will
apply them in an identical manner, consistent and objective assessment may be
extremely difficult to reach.

Oral testing is a very time-consuming procedure, students are tested individually or


in pairs in real time, educational institutions have problems with ensuring the
adequate amount of time for every student to be tested appropriately. The above
arguments show that an assessment of learners speaking skill is a very complicated
process which involves taking many binding decisions as early as at the stage of
planning the language course. Yet despite all the difficulties, oral testing procedure
constitutes an important part of overall students evolution in most intuitional
language course. Testing may in fact be the starting point of the course and usually
occurs at the end of it too. Oral testing is practically implemented by many of the
following spoken test types. (Thorn bury2007:126)

Interviews- learners are interviewed individually or in pairs but the formal nature
of such interviews hardly ever allows for testing informal, conversational speaking
style and affect the interviews performance. (The interview is also the assessor).

Live monologues- students present a talk or presentation on a preselected topic.


The interview effect is then eliminated but the test provides rather restricted
information on the speakers actual skill as it does not check students abilities to
handle a casual conversation.

Recorded monologues or dialogues they are less stressful than live performance
and give examiners more opportunities to workout consistent and possibly more
objective assessment.

Role-play- This test format may be particularly reliable if it matches the need of
learners and aims of the language course.

However the influence of interlocutor on the affirmance of the tested is hard to predict and
control. There are two basic types of scoring employed in oral testing. Holistic scoring
reflects the overall impression the leaner made on examiners and it takes the form of a
single score, therefore it is often used in informal testing of individual process.
Analytic scoring is more-time consuming as it involves giving a separate score for different
aspects of the learners performance.
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

21

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
As a result it takes language but offers a more complete, varied and consequently, more
reliable picture of students skills.
For these reasons it is more valuable in terms of the received feedback for higher level
students.
Learners of speaking language proficiency are more likely to benefit from detailed
description of their speaking skills than from a single score which depicts their ability to
communicate in general.
The criteria used for any type of scoring usually take into account the categories of
grammar, vocabulary discourse management and interactive communication.
(Thornbury 2007:127).
The specific more detailed criteria may be defined within each category with respect to the
aims and character of the general evaluation procedure and the chosen spoken test format.

How to teach and learn English speaking skills


Important to practice English speaking skills
English is one of the worlds major languages with approximately 341 million native
speakers and an additional 267 million people who speak it as a second language.
There is high international demand to learn English due to its use as linguistic franchise in
global industries such as tourism and media.
However, the irregular pronunciation and stress patterns of English mean that many
students lack confident in their ability to speak English skills can never the less be
achieved with regular practice and motivation.
Teaching: Phonology and Pronunciation
Perfect your pronunciation. Practice saying the letters of the alphabet aloud, one by one,
and identify those that you struggle to pronoun accurately.
Pay particular attention to mastering English sounds that are not present in your native
language: are letters that often present students with problems.
Example:

Th:[] Three, Thank


r : red, irregular
l : language
[]: shoesfish.wash
[]: bad, man
[e]: bed, men..
Ex: It is a bed. [bed]

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

22

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


It is a bad one. [bd]

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Teaching Pronunciation
The main features of English pronunciation:
1. The individual sounds of English
2. Words ending
3. Word stress
4. Strong and weak forms
5. contractions
6. Linking
7. Sentence stress and rhythm
8. Intonation
There are 26 letters, but 44 sounds in spoken English: 24 consonants, 12vowels and 8
diphthongs.
English has 3 types of vowels sounds:
Long

Short

Diphthongs

Thirteen, bird

Paper, over

date, cow

Teaching:
Word stress
English words are made up of syllable. A syllable always has one vowel or diphthong:
Ex: book
: one syllable
Open
: two syllables
Important
: three syllables
With the stress
-Open: main stress is on O weak stress is on pen

Open
-Important: main stress on the second

Important
Teaching:
Intonation
The falling tone is usually used for statement, commands, and wh-questions.
Ex: - Where are you going?
-

I am a teacher.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

23

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


- Be quiet!

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

The rising tone is used for Yes/No question, to express surprise and when we want to make
a statement into question.

Ex: -Is this your house?


-You like cats?
-Really?
-Have you finished?
-Are you ready?
T. say and let students guess the intonation pattern.
SS. marks the pattern on the board.
T. quickly drills the sentences chorally and individually.
Teaching:
Contractions
Joining two words together in spoken English to make one word can be easier and quicker
to say:
Ex: -John is living in Kampong Cham town.
-Johns living in Kampong Cham town.
Teaching:

Linking

When we write English, we keep the words separate but when we speak, we often link
them.
Ex: -Repeat after me.
-She lives on a boat.
-I think of you.
-Look at me, please.
- What do you think about?
Teaching:

Sentence stress and Rhythm

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

24

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Usually, the words that are stressed are words which carry the most meaning: nouns, verbs,
adjectives, and demonstrative, unstressed are often the grammatical words.
Teaching:

Sentence Stress

1. She went to the market for rice.

2. They met on the way to school.


3. She lives in the house by the river.
4. It grows in the sun, you know.
T Read the sentences aloud and SS. mark the stress words.
T Call a student to come and mark the stress on the board.
T Quickly drills the sentences chorally and individual.
Teaching:
Word Ending
S ending for
-Plural nouns
-Possessive nouns
-3rd person singular verbs
-Contractions
3 s ending /iz/
/z/
/s/
- /iz/ after
/s/ /z/ / / /t/ / l/ /d / //
- /z/ after all the vowels these voiced consonants
/b/ /d/ /g/ /v/ /o/ /m/ /n/ /ng/ /l/ /r /
-/s/ after these unvoiced consonants: /p/ /t/ /k/ // //
Ed ending
/id/ after the last consonants (t d)
Ex: started, decided
/d/ after all the vowels and voiced consonants:
(b, g, , d, o, , l, m, n, v, z )
Ex: climbed, lived
/t/ after unvoiced consonants:
(p, f, k, s, , , t, )
Ex: worked, walked
Teaching:

Different Sounds

Procedure:
T. before the class, T. prepares a set of 4 words:
3 the same but 1 different in sound.
T. write the words on one side of the board and dots to represent the stress patterns.
Ex:
Grow
show
cow
sew
Bread
seat
eat
meat
Half
plough
cough
laugh
Teaching:

Vocabulary

Learning new vocabulary:


Students often lack confidence in speaking English because they fear they do not know the
correct words to express their ideas.
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

25

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
Develop a routine for learning new vocabulary focusing on words that are likely to be used
to you when speaking English in real life.
If you are learning English for work reasons. For example, concentrate on learning words
that relate to your particular field.
Knowing these words in future will give you the confidence to communicate more clearly.
If we know more and more words we can make conversation with each other in speaking
easily.
Teaching:
New words
Vocabulary:
The meaning of words
If you do not understand the meaning of words:
Ex: Is it an easy conversation?
Conversation (n) with sb : informal talk between, people, a talking together.
Ex: He was deep in conversation with his accountant.
- Have you ever been in abroad?
abroad (adj) (adv) : out of house or country.
-No, I havent. I have been in my local area.
Local (adj): belonging to a particular place or a small area, not general.
- Have you ever seen any monument?
Monument (n): thing [especially a structure] designed or serving to celebrate or, to
keep alive the memory of a person or event.
- In my country there are a lot of fantastic monuments.
Fantastic (adj): absurdly fanciful, imaginary, unreal, grotesque, odd, capricious,
eccentric, incredible.
-oh, its wonderful, I want to see them.
Wonderful (adj): marvelous, surprisingly, fine, or excellent, very good.
- You will go with me to my country, please.
Country (n): a nation, the land, an area, a region, the land of person birth.
Teaching:

Grammar

Grammar is a mental entity, represented in the mind, brain of an individual and


characterizing individuals linguistic capacity.
Grammar has as many meaning as language. We might see a set of contrasts action by
using tense form in active or passive voice.
Grammar is a really important piece of learning English speaking; it gives them a handle of
language, helps them to become reflective about the language and helps them build
fluency. The goal of the grammar lesson is to present the grammar to comprehend the main
points and then to move into practice, which starts more controlled practice and then
moves to freer practice and the goal really is for them to develop fluency with grammar
structure.
Present Grammar Point in meaningful context
This is now it is important to set up the grammar and the first thing. I did was bring in my
own personal experience which is a clue that this grammar point.
We are talking about has meaning. Okay now
I am an English teacher. I am using this grammar point to talk about my life, and I talk
about my family, I talk about different students in class. I want to establish the fact that this
grammar point is very useful in communication. Very useful to talk about things like what
we did before, what we are doing now, so it also peaks their interest in the grammar point
now, what time?
- I am an English teacher now.
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

26

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
- I was a student 12 years ago.
- My husband is a teacher too.
- He was a monk when he was 18.
- We have 2 daughters.
- The elder daughter is an English teacher and now she is married.
- The second daughter is a nurse.
- We start with only two members in my family, but now we have 10
members, and will be more and more members in the future.
The first thing that we did was focus on the grammar.
I am
Were you a teacher?
I was
Were you a student?
And we went over that..
This is already route in meaning because of what I have brought before and we know about
tense in present, past, or future.
Past

Now

Future

2013

Present 2014

2015

Ex

-She was a student before in 2010.


-Now she is a nurse.
-She will be a mother in the future.
This is a way to know about tense in grammar and practice about grammar point.
It is very important to know about the main grammar spot.
If they not making these distinctions between was and were, if they not picking up
clues for he, she, they and so on they cannot really follow in their speaking and there are
many ways of looking at grammar.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

27

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Conclusion
Teaching speaking is a very important part of second language learning. The ability to
communicate in a second language clearly and efficiently contributes to the success of the
learners in school and success later in every phase of life.
Therefore it is essential that language teachers pay great attention to teaching speaking.
Rather than leading students to pure memorization providing a rich environment where
meaningful communication takes place is desired. With this aim, various speaking
activities such as those listed above can contribute a great deal to students in developing
basic interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students more active in the
learning process and at the same time make their learning more fun for them.
We learn to speak by speaking The more you speak the more you practice you
will improve your own speaking skill

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

28

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

Suggestions for Teaching in Teaching Speaking

Here are some suggestions for English language teachers while teaching speaking skills.
Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by providing
a rich environment that contain collaborating work, authentic materials and tasks,
and share knowledge.
Try to involve each student in very speaking activity, for this aim, practice different
way of student participation.
Reduce teacher speaking time in class while increasing student speaking time. Step
back and observe students.
Indicate positive sings when commenting on a students response.
Ask eliciting question such as What do you mean? How did you reach that
conclusion? in order to prompts students to speak more.
Do not correct students pronunciation mistakes very often while they are speaking.
Correct should not distract students from his or her speech.
Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of class, contact parents and
other people who can help.
Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track and see
whether they need your help while they work in groups or pairs.
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

29

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking activities.
Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in expressing themselves
in the target language and provide more opportunities to practice the spoken
language.

Recommendation
Throughout our conclusion, we have drawn the following potential points for those who
want to avoid some problems in teaching and learning skills and want to improve our
knowledge of speaking there are:
-Student the rules for word stress in English.
-Learning to stress the correct syllable in words is one of the best things you
can do to perfect your accent and sound less like a foreigner when you speak.
-Stress in English can be complicate and there are some words where not even
native speaker can agree.
-However by learning the basic rules, you can significantly improve your
English speaking skills.
-Listen to English language multimedia.
-Try listening to English pop music on your way to work.
-Or watch English films and television programs in the evenings.
-This is a fun way to get exposure to the English language as spoken by fluent
native speakers.

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

30

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties


Faculty of Human and Linguistics
-While enjoying the music and videos, you will subconsciously absorb
information about the tone and rhythm of the language, as well as new vocabulary.
-Practice more speaking English language.
-Look for native speakers in your local area who might be willing to meet up
with you and practice speaking English.
-If this is not possible, try arranging conversation over the internet using
programs like Skype.
-Ask the native speaker to make notes on your pronunciation and grammatical
during the conversation and give you feedback afterwards about ways you can improve.

Bibliography

Thotnbury,S..2007. How to teach speaking skills


Johnson, K .E ..1995. Understanding Communication in Second Language classroom.
Cambridge University
Skehan, P.1998. A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning, Oxford University.
Megadalenda Alek Sandrzak.40. University Im Adama Mickiewicza W Poznaniu
Webb,N-M,1992.Student interaction and learning in small groups: In review of
Educational research 52(3), 421-425
http: WWW.ehow.com/how 7978609-learn-english -speaking-skills.
Html#ixzz31kr4nnEh
Experience and interview of Meegan an English teacher in Hun Sen Skun high school
Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill
Degree

31

Major Report for Bachelor

Cambodian University for Specialties

Problems in Teaching and Learning Speaking Skill


Degree

Faculty of Human and Linguistics

32

Major Report for Bachelor