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THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE

Protoplasm
refers to the substance associated
with life.
the substance out of which cells and
organisms are made.
a mixture of substances composed
essentially of water, organic
substances and inorganic substances.
Water
Living organisms are absolutely
dependent upon water for their
existence.
Chemical and physical processes of
life requires water to move about,
encounter one another and change
partners frequently in the complicated
process of metabolism and synthesis.
The fluid environment that allows
molecular mobility in living system is
provided by water.
The medium in which transport of
nutrients, enzyme-catalysed reaction
of metabolism and the transfer of
chemical energy occur.
The nutrients which a cell consumes
the oxygen it uses in oxidation of
those nutrients and the waste
products it produces are all
transported by water.
70% - 90% of the weight of most
forms of life is made up of water.
Also represents the continuous phase
of living organisms.
Often regarded as bland, inert liquid
and a mere space filler in organisms.
Structure of Water
Made up of two (2) hydrogen and one
oxygen covalently bonded with each
other.

A bent molecule with a bond angle of


105 and an uneven sharing of
electrons.
Two (2) of the outer six (6) electrons of
the oxygen atom are involved in
covalent bonds to the hydrogens.
The other four (4) electrons exist in
non-bonded pairs, which are excellent
hydrogen bond acceptors.
The OH groups in water are strong
hydrogen bond donors.
Carbohydrates
The name "carbohydrate" means a
"hydrate of carbon.
The name is derived from the general
formula of carbohydrate is Cx(H2O)y-x
and y may or may not be equal and
range in value from 3 to 12 or more
For example glucose is: C6(H2O)6 or is
more commonly written, C6H12O6.
General names for carbohydrates
include sugars, starches, saccharides,
and polysaccharides.
The term saccharide is derived from
the Latin word " saccharum" from the
sweet taste of sugars.
Major source of energy
The chemistry of carbohydrates most
closely resembles that of alcohol,
aldehyde, and ketone functional
groups.
As a result, the modern definition of a
CARBOHYDRATE is that the
compounds are polyhydroxy
aldehydes or ketones.
The chemistry of carbohydrates is
complicated by the fact that there is a
functional group (alcohol) on almost
every carbon. In addition, the
carbohydrate may exist in either a
straight chain or a ring structure.
Ring structures incorporate two
additional functional groups: the
hemiacetal and acetal.

A major part of the carbon cycle


occurs as carbon dioxide is converted
to carbohydrates through
photosynthesis.
Carbohydrates are utilized by animals
and humans in metabolism to produce
energy and other compounds.

Carbohydrates Synthesis
Carbohydrates are initially synthesized
in plants from a complex series of
reactions involving photosynthesis.

associated with other entities such as


glycosides, vitamins and antibiotics)
form structural tissues in plants and in
microorganisms (cellulose, lignin,
murein)
participate in biological transport, cellcell recognition, activation of growth
factors, modulation of the immune
system
Major source of metabolic energy,
both for plants and for animals that
depend on plants for food.
Structural material in the cell walls in
the form of cellulose.
Component of energy transport
compound ATP.
Recognition sites on cell surfaces.

Photosynthesis is a complex series of


reactions carried out by algae,
phytoplankton, and the leaves in
plants, which utilize the energy from
the sun
The simplified version of this chemical
reaction is to utilize carbon dioxide
molecules from the air and water
molecules and the energy from the
sun to produce a simple sugar such as
glucose and oxygen molecules as a by
product.
Biological Functions
Store energy in the form of starch
(photosynthesis in plants) or glycogen
(in animals and humans).
Provide energy through metabolism
pathways and cycles.
Supply carbon for synthesis of other
compounds.
Form structural components in cells
and tissues.
intermediates in the biosynthesis of
other basic biochemical entities (fats
and proteins)

One of the three essential components


of DNA and RNA.
After a meal, carbohydrates tend to
make you sleepy while protein makes
you more alert.
Classification Based on the Number of
Sugar Units
Monosaccharides - simple sugars
with multiple OH groups; simplest
carbohydrate that cannot be broken
down into smaller carbohydrate
molecules
Disaccharides - 2 monosaccharides
covalently linked.
Oligosaccharides - a few
monosaccharides covalently linked,
more specifically 10 monomers
Polysaccharides - polymers
consisting of chains of
monosaccharide or disaccharide units
LIPIDS
FATTY molecules
Made of long chains of H & C
followed by COOH

Do not DISSOLVE in WATER


Lipids have less OXYGEN than
carbohydrates
Examples of Lipids are: FATS, OILS,
AND WAXES
Functions
Energy storage

Structure of cell

membranes

Thermal blanket and

cushion

Precursors of hormones
(steroids and prostaglandins)

20 Amino Acids are:


Hydrophobic: Glycine(G), Proline(P),
Alanine(A), Methionine(M), Valine(V),
Phenylalanine(F), Isoleucine(I),
Tryptophan(W), Leucine(L)
Hydrophilic: Asparagine(N),
Glutamine(Q), Serine(S), Threonine(T),
Tyrosine(Y), Cysteine(C)
Acidic: Asparatic Acid (D), Glutamic
Acid(E)
Basic: Lysine(K), Arginine(R),
Histidine(H)
Biological importance of amino acids
Some AA are converted into CHOs
(glucogenic amino acids)
Specific AA gives specialized products
Tyr thyroid hormones,
epinephrine and norepinephrine
and melanin

Proteins play key roles in a living


system
Three examples of protein functions
Catalysis:
Almost all chemical reactions in a
living cell are catalyzed by protein
enzymes.
Transport:
Some proteins transports various
substances, such as oxygen, ions, and
so on.
Information transfer:
For example, hormones.
Amino Acids: Building blocks of Protein
Basic unit of protein

Trp niacin
Gly, Arg, Met creatine
Gly, Cys bile salts
Glu, Cys, Gly glutathione
Gly heme and tripeptides
Some AA such as gly and cys are used
as detoxicants
Met transfers methyl group to various
substances by transmethylation
Cys and Met are sources of sulfur
Essential & Nonessential Amino Acids
Nine amino acids
Cannot be made (synthesized) by the
body from other amino acids
Protein foods must be eaten daily that
contain these amino acids
11 amino acids
Can be made from other parts

Different side chains, R, determines the


properties of 20 amino acids.

Nitrogen (other proteins)

Backbone (carbohydrates and


fats)
Some amino acids are considered
essential at different stages of life or
in states of illness.

Hierarchical nature of protein structure


Primary structure (Amino acid sequence)

Secondary structure -helix, -sheet

Conditionally essential
Proteins
Derived from the Greek word Proteios
which means first or primary. The
name is given because they are the
first among natural polymers essential
for growth and maintenance of life
Complex nitrogenous polymers
present in all forms of living matter
Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
and nitrogen. (may also contain sulfur
and phosphorus)

Tertiary structure Three-dimensional


structure formed by assembly of secondary
structures

Quaternary structure Structure formed


by more than one polypeptide chains
The Functions of Proteins
A. Growth & Maintenance
Dietary protein ensures that amino
acids are available to build the
proteins needed for new tissue.
Nearly all cells are constantly
replaced, requiring protein.
B. Enzymes
Proteins such as enzymes are
catalysts that help chemical reactions
take place.

Peptides
Composed of amino acids linked
together but they possess much
smaller molecules than proteins and
contain much fewer amino acids.
2 AA dipeptide
3 AA tripeptide
4 -10 AA oligopeptide
>10 AA polypeptide

Each enzyme is specific for a


particular reaction.

C. Hormones
Some hormones, but not all, are
proteins
Hormones signal the appropriate
enzymes to act.
E. Fluid Balance
Proteins help regulate the quantity of
fluids to help maintain fluid balance.

Cells and the spaces between cells


must contain a constant flux of and
amount of fluid.
Water can diffuse freely in and out of a
cell; proteins can not
G. Transport Proteins
Move nutrients and other molecules in
and out of cells
Turn on and off
Hormones do the switching
Move substances from one organ to
another
Lipoproteins
Vitamins and minerals
G. Energy

Snake venom enzyme that can cause


hemolysis
Nucleic Acid
A complex, high-molecular-weight
biochemical macromolecule composed
of nucleotide chains that convey
genetic information
The most common nucleic acids are
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and
ribonucleic acid (RNA).
Found in all living cells and viruses.
Chemical structure
The term "nucleic acid" is the generic
name of a family of biopolymers,
named for their prevalence in cellular
nuclei.

Protein may be sacrificed to provide


energy if insufficient carbohydrate and
fat are eaten.

The monomers from which nucleic


acids are constructed are called
nucleotides

Amino acids are degraded for energy.

Each nucleotide consists of three


components: a nitrogenous
heterocyclic base, either a purine or a
pyrimidine; a pentose sugar; and a
phosphate group.

Amino acids will only make proteins if


carbs and fat are providing proteinsparing energy.
Protein-sparing: Leave amino
acids alone to make proteins
Contractile protein
Myosin thick filaments in myofibril
Actin thin filaments in myofibril
Dynein cilia and flagella

Nucleotide
A nucleotide is a chemical compound
that consists of 3 portions: a
heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or
more phosphate groups.
In the most common nucleotides the
base is a derivative of purine or
pyrimidine, and the sugar is the
pentose (five-carbon sugar)
deoxyribose or ribose.

Structural protein
Collagen connective tissues
Elastin ligaments
Fibroin silk of cocoon, spiderwebs
Keratin skin, feathers, nails, hoofs
Toxins
Diptheria toxin bacterial toxin

Nucleotide
Nucleotides are the monomers of
nucleic acids, with three or more
bonding together in order to form a
nucleic acid.

Nucleotides are the structural units of


RNA, DNA, and several cofactors CoA, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP.
In the cell they have important roles in
energy production, metabolism, and
signaling.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A nucleic acid molecule that contains
the genetic instructions used in the
development and functioning of all
living organisms.
The main role of DNA is the long-term
storage of information and it is often
compared to a set of blueprints, since
DNA contains the instructions needed
to construct other components of
cells, such as proteins and RNA
molecules.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
The DNA segments that carry this
genetic information are called genes,
but other DNA sequences have
structural purposes, or are involved in
regulating the use of this genetic
information.
Within cells, DNA is organized into
structures called chromosomes and
the set of chromosomes within a cell
make up a genome.
These chromosomes are duplicated
before cells divide, in a process called
DNA replication.
Physical and chemical properties
The double helix is a right-handed
spiral.
As the DNA strands wind around each
other, they leave gaps between each
set of phosphate backbones, revealing
the sides of the bases inside.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)


A nucleic acid polymer consisting of
nucleotide monomers, that acts as a
messenger between DNA and
ribosomes, and that is also responsible
for making proteins out of amino
acids.
RNA polynucleotides contain ribose
sugars and predominantly uracil unlike
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which
contains deoxyribose and
predominantly thymine.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
It is transcribed (synthesized) from
DNA by enzymes called RNA
polymerases and further processed by
other enzymes.
RNA serves as the template for
translation of genes into proteins,
transferring amino acids to the
ribosome to form proteins, and also
translating the transcript into proteins.
Difference of RNA & DNA

A tour of

The cytoplasm is the living matter


within the cell, excluding the nucleus,
and has fluid and jellylike substance
called hyaloplasm.

THE CELL
THE CELL THEORY
All living things are made of cells
Smallest living unit of structure and
function of all organisms is the cell
All cells arise from preexisting
cells(this principle discarded the idea
of spontaneous generation).
Two (2) types of cell
1) Eukaryotic cell
2) Prokaryotic cell

THE NUCLEUS: INFORMATION CENTRAL


Separated by a porous nuclear
membrane within the hyaloplasm.
It has liquid portion called
karyolymph, where chromatin
materials and nucleolus are found.
Chromatin is the thread-like
materials that form a network within
the nucleus. It is rich in
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that
controls the formation of the enzymes
in the cell, thus controlling all its
chemical reactions.
During cell division, the chromatin
materials coil and become a major
part of chromosomes.
Nucleolus is an aggregate of granules
made of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and
located inside the nucleus.
CELL MEMBRANE
The cell membrane is the outer layer
of the living cell.
It is a membrane composed of double
layer phospholipids in which proteins
are embedded.
It gives form to the cell and controls
the passage of materials in and out of
cell.
In plants, cell wall is found next to
the cell membrane.

STRUCTURES OF THE CELL


Three components of cells:
1) Cell membrane
2) Cytoplasm
3) DNA
The membrane is continuous with the
cells internal membrane system.

It is composed of cellulose and a


variety of complex carbohydrate and
amino acid combinations.
The cell wall provides support and
may even keep the plant cells from
bursting in hypo-osmotic
environments.
RIBOSOMES: Protein Factories

May occur as free particles suspended


within the cytoplasm or sometimes
attached to the membranous wall of
the endoplastic reticulum.
They are granular particles composed
of protein and RNA molecules.
Ribosomes synthesize protein
molecules that may be used to build
cell structures or to function as
enzymes.
Some of the proteins synthesized are
secreted by the cell to be used
elsewhere in the body.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: Biosynthetic
Factory
A series of membranous channels that
traverse the cytoplasm of most
eukaryotic cells.
It forms a continuous network
extending from the cell membrane to
the nuclear membrane.
In some cases, ribosomes are attached
to ER that gives them the rough
appearance thus, called rough ER
(RER) that is usually associated with
active protein synthesis process.
Smooth ER (SER), on the other hand
does not contain ribosomes and is
associated with cellular regions and
involved in the synthesis and transport
of lipids or detoxification of a variety
of poisons within the cell.
GOLGI APPARATUS: Shipping and
Receiving Center
A cluster of flattened membranous
sacs that are continuous with the
channels of the SER.
It is responsible for the storage,
modification and packing of materials
produced for secretory export.
The outer portion of the Golgi
apparatus releases its secretory
material within vesicles that migrate
to the surface of the cell.
It is also involved in the formation of
lysosomes and other transport
vesicles of the cell.

MITOCHONDRIA: Chemical Energy


Conversion
Are double-walled membranous sacs
with folded inner partitions called
cristae.
It releases energy from food molecules
and transform energy into usable ATP
which happens during cellular
respiration.
It contains its own DNA and
ribosomes, thus independently
replicate itself and appear to control
the synthesis of its membranes.

CHLOROPLASTS: Capture of Light


Energy
Are double membrane organelles with
inner folds called thylakoids.
Its characteristic is quite similar with
the mitochondria but it is responsible
in the conversion of light energy to
chemical energy of sugars in the
photosynthesis process in plants.
LYSOSOMES: Digestive Compartments
Are single-walled membranous sacs
responsible in digestion of nutrients,
bacteria and damaged organelles.
They are also used to destroy certain
cells in the process known as
apoptosis or programmed cell death
during embryonic development.

PEROXISOMES: Oxidation

Are spherical membranous vesicles


that contain enzymes which detoxify
harmful molecules.
The enzymes produced are involved in
the oxidative deamination of amino
acids and break down of hydrogen
peroxide.
VACUOLES: Diverse Maintenance
Compartments
Are membranous sacs that store and
release various substances within the
cytoplasm.
This is also responsible for the cells
enlargement and water balance.
The plant cells vacuoles are normally
large occupying almost the entire
cytoplasmic area.
CYTOSKELETON: Support, Motility, and
Regulation
Cytoskeletons are used in the
maintenance of the cell shape.
This includes the centrosomes, cilia,
flagella, fibrils and microtubules
found in either plant or animal cells.
Centrosomes are non-membranous
mass of two rod like centrioles found
only in animal cells, which helps to
organize spindle fibers and distribute
chromosomes during mitotic cell
division.
Cilia and flagella are minute
cytoplasmic projections found in
animal cells that extend from the cell
surface and responsible to move
particles along cell surface or to move
the cell itself.
Fibrils and microtubules are thin,
hollow tubes that support the
cytoplasm and transport materials
within the cytoplasm.

MATERIAL TRANSPORT IN CELLS


Transport Mechanisms - moving
material in and out of the cell
Concentration gradient - the
difference in the amount of a
substance inside and outside of the
cell
1) Going with the gradientmoving from high to low
concentration

2) Going against the


gradient- moving from low to
high concentration
3) Equilibrium exists when the
concentration of molecules is
the same throughout a space
(inside and outside the cell).
TYPES OF CELLULAR TRANSPORT
Passive Transport

cell doesnt use energy

Going with the gradient

Types:
1. Diffusion
2. Facilitated Diffusion
3. Osmosis
Active Transport

cell use energy

Going against the gradient

Types:
1. Protein Pumps
2. Endocytosis
3. Exocytosis
Passive Transport

Examples of gases include O2, and


CO2; examples of small polar
molecules include ethanol, H2O, and
urea.
Molecules move to equalize
concentration
OSMOSIS
Water Potential
The physical property predicting the
direction in which water will flow,
governed by solute concentration and
applied pressure.
NOTE: Water always falls from a high
to low water potential.
Special form of diffusion
Fluid flows from lower solute
concentration
Often involves movement of water

Into cell
Out of cell

Osmosis: diffusion of water through


a selectively permeable membrane
Water moves from high to low water
concentrations

Cell uses no energy

Water moves freely through pores.

Molecules move randomly

Solute too large to move across.

Molecules spread out from an area


of high concentration to an area
of low concentration.
SIMPLE DIFFUSION (Lipid Diffusion)
Random movement of gases or small
uncharged polar molecules across a
phospholipid bilayer membrane from
an area of high concentration to
an area of low concentration.
(High to Low).
Diffusion continues until all molecules
are evenly spaced (equilibrium is
reached).

EFFECTS OF OSMOSIS ON LIFE


A cell can find itself in one of three
environments: isotonic , hypertonic or
hypotonic
Hypotonic Solution
The solution has a lower concentration
of solutes and a higher concentration
of water than inside the cell. (Low
solute; High water).
Result: Water moves from the solution to
inside the cell): Cell swells and bursts
open (cytolysis)!
Hypertonic Solution

The solution has a higher


concentration of solutes and a lower
concentration of water than inside the
cell. (High solute; Low water)
Result: Water moves from inside the cell
into the solution: Cell shrinks
(Plasmolysis)
Isotonic Solution
The concentration of solutes in the
solution is equal to the concentration
of solutes inside the cell.
Result: Water moves equally in both
directions and the cell remains same size.
(Dynamic Equilibrium)

FACILITATED DIFFUSION
Diffusion of specific particles through
transport proteins found in the
membrane
a) Transport Proteins are specific
they select only certain
molecules to cross the membrane.
b) Transports larger or charged
molecules.
Transporters are of two general
classes: carriers and channels.

PROCESS OF FACILITATED TRANSPORT


Protein binds with molecule
Shape of protein changes
Molecule moves across membrane
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
Cell uses energy
Actively moves molecules to where
they are needed
Movement from an area of low
concentration to an area of high
concentration
(Low High)
ENDOCYTOSIS
A cell takes in solutes or particles by
enclosing them in vesicles or vacuoles

pinched off from its cytoplasmic


membrane. There are three forms of
endocytosis:
a) Phagocytosis (cell eating)
b) Pinocytosis (cell dinking)
c)

Receptor-mediated endocytosis.

PROCESS OF ENDOCYTOSIS
Plasma membrane surrounds material
Edges of membrane meet
Membranes fuse to form vesicle

A) Phagocytosis )cell eating)


is the ingestion of solid particles by
endocytosis. The cytoplasmic
membrane invaginates and pinches
off placing the particle in a
phagocytic vacuole. The phagocytic
vacuole then fuses with lysosomes
forming a phagolysosome and the
material is degraded.
B) Pinocytosis (cell drinking)
Is the ingestion of dissolved
materials by endocytosis. The
cytoplasmic membrane invaginates
and pinches off placing small
droplets of fluid in a pinocytic
vesicle. The liquid contents of the
vesicle is then slowly transferred to
the cytosol
C) Receptor- Mediated Endocytosis
The cells use receptors that
specifically recognize and bind to the
particle. The receptors are clustered
together in a reinforced membrane
structure called a coated pit
Exocytosis
During exocytosis, a cell releases
waste products or specific secretion
products by the fusion of a vesicle
with the cytoplasmic membrane.
Reverse of endocytosis.
PROCESS:

1) Vesicle moves to cell surface


2) Membrane of vesicle fuses
3) Materials expelled
COMPARISON OF THE WAYS MOLECULES
MOVE INTO AND OUT OF CELLS

Each step in the cellular respiration


pathway is catalysed by a specific
enzyme.
Living cells require a constant supply
of energy to fuel the chemical
activities that sustain life.
Glucose is the major supplier of the
cells energy.
The cell is able to extract energy from
glucose in small packets.
The released energy is then stored in
the third phosphate bond of
adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
When this unstable and excitable bond
is broken, energy and inorganic
phosphate are released and
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
remains.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
The first step is altering the food to its
component chemical compounds and
then getting those molecules into your
cells.
That process is called digestion.

ENERGY TRANSFORMATION
IN CELL
Respiration includes all of the
processes used continuously by cells
to produce usable energy.
Energy enables cells to do work of
building up some molecules
(synthesis) and taking others apart.
Synthesis is a process that consumes
energy, while decomposition (taking
molecules apart) releases energy.
Cellular respiration is a pathway of
decomposition: it is a series of
reactions that break down sugars,
releasing energy along the way.

Once inside your cells, the process of


turning that bite of food into useful
energy by cellular respiration
begins.
The process of digestion results with
carbohydrates and other molecules
being removed from the consumed
food and transported into the
bloodstreams.
From there, nutrients, like the
carbohydrate glucose, will leave the
bloodstream through a capillary wall
and enter a tissue.
Once inside the cell, the cellular
respiration will completely oxidize the
glucose molecule, releasing highenergy electrons.
The overall goal is to make ATP
(Adenosine Triphosphate), a
storage form of energy for most cells.

CELLULAR RESPIRATION is a four


(4)-stage process that begins with
glycolysis.
GLYCOLYSIS
splitting sugar
The first step of cellular respiration
Occurring in the cytoplasm of the cell.
Consists of two (2) distinct phases:
Energy investment phase
Energy harvesting phase
In the energy investment phase,
two ATP molecules transfer energy to
the glucose molecule, forming a 6carbon sugar diphosphate
molecule.
This molecule splits, and the energy
harvesting phase begins.
During the energy harvesting phase,
the two (2) 3-carbon molecules are
converted to pyruvate, and ATP is
formed.
Glycolysis is a ten-step reaction that
involves the activity of multiple
enzymes and enzyme assistants.
In the process, a net of two (2)
molecules of ATP, two (2)
molecules of pyruvate and two (2)
high energy electron carrying
molecule of NADH (nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide + hydrogen
ion) are produced.
TRANSITION STATE

(nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide) producing NADH and a
carbon is lost, forming carbon dioxide
(CO2).
KREBS CYCLE
Also known as the Citric acid cycle
and Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA).
In this process, the acetyl-CoA will
bind with starting compound called
oxaloacetate, and through a series of
enzymatic redox reactions, all
carbons, hydrogen and oxygen in
pyruvate ultimately end up as carbon
dioxide and water.
The pathway is called a cycle because
oxaloacetate is the starting and
ending compound of the pathway.
For every glucose enters glycolysis,
the cycle completes twice, once for
each molecule of pyruvate that
entered the mitochondria.
During pyruvate oxidation and the
Krebs cycle a net of 8 NADH, 2
FADH2, 2 ATP and 6 CO2 are
produced for each glucose molecule.
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN (ETC)
In order to understand how the
majority of the energy is produced by
aerobic respiration (with oxygen),
we need to follow the NADH and
FADH2 molecules in the next stage of
cellular respiration.
The electron transport chain (ETC)
is a series of membrane-bound
carriers in the mitochondria that pass
electrons from one to another.

When oxygen is present, the pyruvate


molecules and NADH enter the
mitochondria, beginning the next
stage of cellular respiration.

As the electrons are transferred


between the membrane proteins,
the cell is able to capture energy and
use it to produce ATP molecules.

The next stage involves the movement


of pyruvate into the mitochondria,
where it undergoes oxidation.

Proteins in the chain pump hydrogen


ions across a membrane.

Each pyruvate molecule is converted


into a compound called acetyl-CoA.
In the process of pyruvate oxidation,
electrons are transferred to NAD

When the hydrogen ions flow back


across the membrane though an ATP
synthase complex, ATP is
synthesized by the enzyme ATP
synthase.

Oxygen acts as the terminal


electron acceptor. By accepting
electrons, oxygen is reduced to form
water, a by-product of the ETC.
All the high energy electron carriers
(NADH and FADH2) from the previous
stages of the cellular respiration bring
their electrons into the chain.
From this, the bulk of ATP from the
entirety od cellular respiration is
produced: a net of 32-36 ATP.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION
In summary, we have seen how the
four (4) stages of the cellular
respiration are responsible for
converting the energy found in the
glucose molecule into ATP, the energy
battery of the cell.

On average, 36 ATP molecules are


produced per glucose molecule that
entered the cell.
In the process of producing ATP,
oxygen is brought in from the
bloodstream to be the final electron
acceptor in the ETC and carbon
dioxide that is produced as a byproduct is released.
The goal of cellular respiration is to
transfer the energy from the food that
we eat daily into ATP that our bodies
can use.
This process starts with the eating of a
snack or meal, and ends with
capturing the energy from the
complete breakdown of nutrients into
energy and carbon dioxide.

***Although were not in good terms, I still


made this for you. Forgive me.