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Utilization of Biomass for Energy:

Prospect, Challenge and Industrialization


Strategy in Indonesia
by
Unggul Priyanto
The Deputy Chairman for Technology of Information, Energy, and Material
Agency For The Assessment And Application Of Technology (BPPT)
BPPT Buliding 2, Jl. M.H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340
Phone: 62-21-3169853, Fax.: 62-21-3923935
E-mail: unggul.priyanto@bppt.go.id; upriyanto@hotmail.com

1. INTRODUCTION

2. BIOMASS POTENCY
3. RECENT ACTIVITIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN

BIOFUEL TECHNOLOGY
4. CURRENT STATUS OF BIOMASS UTILISATION
FOR ENERGY IN INDONESIA
5. STRATEGY FOR BIOFUEL INDUSTRIALIZATION
6. CONCULUSION
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INTRODUCTION

15/11/2012

Liquid Fuel Consumption


1400
1200

800
600
400
200

Produksi

Impor

Ekspor

2030

2029

2028

2027

2026

2025

2024

2023

2022

2021

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

Juta barel

1000

Konsumsi Crude

15 November 2012

Opportunities for Biofuel


Bio-fuels are available in liquid state
Biofuel is renewable energy
Biofuel can give a large contribution to reducing
GHG emissions
Biofuel is a clean energy source
Biofuel markets provide major business
opportunities (bio-diesel, bio-ethanol)
Biofuel can provide a key lever for rural
development and enhanced agricultural production
methods

CHALLENGES
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

Land availability for Biofuel Development


Land availability inventory, synchronizing data among Forestry
Department, National Land Affairs Agency and Regional
Government
High price of biofuel feedstock, and Competition between food
and biofuel feedstock
Feedstock diversification is needed
Improving quality of Biofuel commodities
Agricultural research on biofuel commodities sector
Improving national technological capabilities on biofuel processing
Research and Development, technology transfer on biofuel
processing with more experienced parties
The price of biofuel that has not yet competitive in compare with
fossil fuel
Subsidy Fossil fuels/oil
Feedstock diversification and effective technology will decrease
the price of biofuel

BIOMASS POTENCY

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Raw materials for Biofuel-First Generation


PURE PLANT OIL(PPO ) or BIODIESEL

BIOETHANOL

Jathropa

palm

mollases

Cassava

Coconut

Hydrolysis + Fermentation
Crude Vegetable oil
Bioethanol ( 9% )

Pure Plant Oil

Methanol
Dehydration

Biodiesel

Bioethanol ( FG )

5-20%

diesel oil

Bio-Solar

5-20%

diesel oil

Diesel Engine: car, Genset

BioPremium

Gasolin Engine

Gasoline

Resource Base of Vegetable Oil


There are 350 plantations that supply vegetable oil
Plantation

Kg oil per Ha

L oil per ha

Palm oil

5000

5950

coconut

2260

2689

jatropha

1590

1892

rapeseed

1000

1190

peanuts

890

1059

sunflowers

800

952

soybean

375

446

corn (maize)

145

172

Resource Base of Bioethanol


Plant

Part of Plant

Ethanol
Productivity(L/ha/yr)

Cassava

Root

4,500

Sweet potato

Root

7,800

Sugar Cane

Stalk

5,000 6,000

Corn

Grain

5,000 -6,000

Sorghum

Grain

3,000 -4,000

Sweet sorghum

Stalk

5,500 6,000

Sago

Stalk

4,000 5,000

Palm Sugar/Aren

Sap

10,000-20,000

Nipah (Mangrove)

Sap

5,000 -15,000

Lontar

Sap

8,000 10,000

Coconut

Sap

8,000 10,000

Production Forecast CPO & Biomass


From Palm Oil Industry

Noted:
CPO = Crude Palm Oil
EFB = Empty Fruit Bunch

MF = Messocarp Fiber POME = Palm Oil Mill Effluent


PKS = Plam Kernel Shell
Source:. SBRC, IPB

LIGNOCELLULOSE FEEDSTOCKS
Sugar Industry

Palm Oil Industry


Rice Mills

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12

Lignocellulose feedstocks
Palm FFB

CPO

Palm EFB

Fibers

18%

Boiler
Bio
compost

9%

Kernel sheel
20%

5%

Steam Process

Biofuel

POME
48%

Power Generation

Bio Gas

Electricity
13

RECENT ACTIVITIES AND


DEVELOPMENT IN BIOFUEL
TECHNOLOGY

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14

Caracteristics Methyl Esther from various vegetable oil


Density at
15 oC,
kg/liter

Kinematics
Viscosity at
40 0C, cSt

Hc,
MJ/liter

Cetane
number

CFPP,
oC.

Iodine
Number, gI2/(100 g)

Coconut

0,869

2,7

30,80

63

8,0

10

Palm

0,874

4,40

32,40

63

16,0

52

Cooking Oil

0,880

4,20

32,80

49

-5 +8

60 120

Jatropha Curcas

0,879

4,20

32,80

51

Canola

0,882

4,20

32,80

49

-12

114

Sunflower

0,885

4,00

32,80

47

-4

129

Soybean

0,885

4,05

33,50

46

-4

131

Linseed

0,891

3,70

33,0

53 (?)

Diesel No. 2

0,8400

2,7

37,08

47,0

Methyl Ester

95 106

183
-15,0

-33,0

Source : Soerawidjaja, T., H., 2006 (1), Skenario-skenario struktur Perindustrian Biodiesel, Indonesian Biodiesel Symposium,
Jakarta, 5-6 September 2006

Case : Biodiesel
Research

Development

Biodiesel Processing :
Process Optimization
Feedstock Diversification
Product Quality Assessment
(SNI 04-7182-2006)
Product Quality Upgrading

Goals :
1. Optimum Process Design
2. Improvement of Biodiesel Quality
3. Industrial Application

Laboratory

Engineering Design

Engineering
1. Engineering Design:
Conceptual
Basic Design
Detailed Design
2. Construction

Operation
Commissioning
Supervision
Promotion
Socialization
Training

Value Proposition :
Enhance the industrial competitiveness
Pilot Plant

Industrial Application

BPPT has been developing several types of biodiesel processing since 2002
a. Type 1 and 2 : Simple Old Versions ( Yield of Biodiesel < 93 % )

b. Type 3 :
Feed (CJO)

Pretreatment

Trans-Esterification

FFA Recovery

Biodiesel Plant : 6 ton/day

Purification

Esterification

Biodiesel
97.7 %

Trans-Esterification

Applied in Province of South Sumatera (2008)

c. Type 4 :
Feed (CJO)

Pretreatment

FFA Separator

Trans-Esterification
Purification

Esterification

Trans-Esterification

Applied by Komatsu Marketing & Support Indonesia (KMSI), Co. Ltd.


in Province of South Kalimantan ( 2011 )

Biodiesel
97.7 %

Promoting Public Awareness


(by Roadshow)

Utilization B10 for BPPTs employee


transportation

Road Test Jawa Sumatera 2002, B30,


5000 Km, in cooperation with PT.
Toyota Astra Motor

Road Test Jawa Bali 20.000 km,


B30,
Sept. Des. 2004, in cooperation
with PT. Pantja Motor

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Conventional Biodiesel Processing


MeOH
Vegetable/
Plant oils,
etc.

a.

Upgrading of Biodiesel Quality


H2 Catalyst

Catalyst

Esterification/
Transesterification

Partial
Hydrogenation

Biodiesel

1st Generation Glycerine

b.

H2 Catalyst
Hydrodeoxygenation

Gas

H2 Catalyst

C3H8, H2O, CO2, CO, etc.

Gasoline

Isomerization

Diesel oil

1.5th Generation
Woody
Biomass

2nd Generation

High Quality
Biodiesel

Pirolysis

Bio-oil

Gasification

Syn-gas

HydroCracking
H2, Methanol, DME, etc

FT

Liquid Fuels

BIOETHANOL DEVELOPMENT
Sugar-based : Sugar cane, Molasses, Sugar palm,

1 st G

Sweet sorghum, etc.


Starch-based : Cassava, Sago, etc

Sugar cane

Cassava

2nd G

Lignocellulose-based
EFB

1st G
2nd G

Bagasse

Rice straw

Mostly compete with food


Economically feasible
Agriculture waste/residue (abundant in Indonesia)
Lab / Pilot Scale Development
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Strategy for Utilization of Biomass for Bioethanol

Selected biomass should not compete with food or feed

Select huge resource biomass that easy to collect

Suitable technology for hydrolysis (environmental friendly, the


residue can be used as fertilizer)

1. Sago (sago forest, almost unutilized) and sweet sorghum


(food & energy win-win) (1st G)
2. Cellulosic Biomass : EFB, bagasse, rice straw & rice husk
3. Pretreatment technology (2nd G) : Liquid Hot Water Treatment
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FLOW PROCESS IN BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION


Sugar

STARCH

ENZYME STEAM

ENZYME

MICROBES CELL

LIQUIFACTION OF
COOKING

SUCCHARIFICATIO
N (HYDROLYSIS)

FERMENTATION 7
PURIFICATION

LIGNOCELLULOSIC

PRETREATMENT

SACCHARIFICATION
(HYDROLYSIS)

BIOETHANOL

STILLAGE

ANAEROBIC

DIGESTER

BIOGAS

FLOW DIAGRAM BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION USING DIFFERENT RAW MATERIAL

FERTILIZER

COMBUSTION

STEAM
ENZYME
ACID

ENZYME
ACID

Green Diesel (Biomass To Liquid)


Biodiesel
Methanol/
Ethanol

Veg Oil/
Grease

Jathropa

Rice Husk

H2

Trans-esterification

palm
Wood waste

FAME/FAEE
Biodiesel

Source: NREL

FT Process

Glycerol
Green
Diesel

Fuel Additives / Blends


Ethanol
(Sugar,
Grain)

CO

Biodiesel

Ethanol
(Biomass)

Fuels
Diesel

Gasoline

DME

CURRENT STATUS OF
BIOMASS UTILISATION FOR
ENERGY IN INDONESIA

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24

BIOFUEL PLANT CAPACITIES AND PRODUCTION


Plant Capacities

Production

Source: APROBI, 2010

Biofuel Production 2011


No

Utilization

Type

Production (kL)

Domestic (kL)* Export Realization (kL) **


1

Biodiesel

Bioethanol / ethanol

358.812

1.091.306

1.450.118

35.690

35.690

Note:
National utilization is limited only biofuel mixed to Public Service Obligation (PSO) fuel,
data up to December 31, 2011.
** Export realization data is limited to the company who reported their export realization from
a part of export quota permit of their company. For biodiesel data, one of six company which
has already got the export recommendation was not send a reporte.

Source: DJEBTKE ESDM, 2012

Biofuel Utilization Mandatory Realization


Biodiesel
2009 (KL)

2010 (KL)

2011 (KL)

Mandatory

775.941

1.076.051

1.297.000

Realization

119.348*

223.041*

358.812*

Percentage of
Utilization

15,38 %

20,73 %

27,66 %

2009 (KL)

2010 (KL)

2011 (KL)

Mandatory

215.824

Realization

1.058

660.980
-

694.000
-

0.49 %

0%

Bioethanol

Percentage of
Utilization

* Biofuel utilization realization only in transportation sector


Source: DJEBTKE ESDM, 2012

Biodiesel Implementation
Subsidized Diesel
7,5% Biodiesel mixture in Java, Madura, Bali, Sumatra.
2012 coverage plan to Kalimantan
Non Subsidy Diesel
May 2012, 2% Biodiesel Mixture For Transportation
July 2012, 2% Biodiesel mixture for Mining
June 2012 Biodiesel usage for Industry

Fuel Consumption in Industrial Sector

Tahun

Kerosene
(kL)

ADO
(kL)

IDO
(kL)

Fuel Oil
(kL)

Total Fuel
(kL)

2005

649.626

6.155.112

732.888

2.243.407

9.781.033

2006

572.676

5.399.470

397.599

2.320.623

8.690.367

2007

565.550

5.208.388

215.233

1.990.450

7.979.620

2008

451.457

5.452.504

128.424

1.460.903

7.463.288

2009

273.095

6.044.950

111.242

1.204.418

7.633.705

* Year 2010, Fuel utilization realization data in mining industry (Cooperation agreement mining and coal
business) is 2.270.496 kL or arround 30% of fuel consumption in industry sector.

Source : Pusdatin ESDM

Biofuel Utilization Mandatory in Industrial Sector in 2012


No

Nama Perusahaan

Lokasi Tambang
(Provinsi)

1
Kaltim Prima Coal, PT
Kaltim
2
Adaro Indonesia, PT
Kalsel
3
Indominco Mandiri, PT
Kaltim
4
Arutmin Indonesia, PT
Kalsel
5
Berau Coal, PT
Kaltim
6
Kideco Jaya Agung, PT
Kaltim
7
Wahana Baratama Mining, PT
Kalsel
8
Mahakam Sumber Jaya, PT
Kaltim
9
Trubaindo Coal Mining, PT
Kaltim
10 Gunung Bayan Pratamacoal, PT
Kaltim
11
Tanito Harum, PT
Kaltim
12 Mandiri Intiperkasa, PT
Kaltim
13 Asmin Koalindo Tuhup, PT
Kalteng
14 Perkasa Inakakerta, PT
Kaltim
15 Baramarta, PD
Kalsel
16 Riau Bara Harum, PT
Riau
17 Teguh Sinar Abadi, PT
Kaltim
18 Multi Harapan Utama, PT
Kaltim
19 Marunda Graha Mineral, PT
Kalteng
20 Insani Bara Perkasa, PT
Kaltim
21 Santan Batubara, PT
Kaltim
22 Sumber Kurnia Buana, PT
Kalsel
23 Lanna Harita Indonesia, PT
Kaltim
24 Tanjung Alam Jaya, PT
Kalsel
25 Singlurus Pratama, PT
Kaltim
Total Volume mandatory pemanfataaan BBN (Biodiesel)
* Biodiesel utilization mandatory, 2%
** Fuel consumption in mining industry data, year 2010

Total bahan bakar


(Liter)

*Volume Mandatory
(Liter)

710,580,340
245,553,700
223,706,345
156,196,957
150,215,441
144,000,000
86,722,495
68,312,619
67,211,253
61,891,837
56,455,160
36,212,137
33,993,050
31,877,025
30,464,054
27,231,539
21,188,403
20,149,118
19,551,209
18,948,938
14,615,799
12,371,212
12,282,641
10,487,172
10,278,256

14,211,607
4,911,074
4,474,127
3,123,939
3,004,309
2,880,000
1,734,450
1,366,252
1,344,225
1,237,837
1,129,103
724,243
679,861
637,541
609,281
544,631
423,768
402,982
391,024
378,979
292,316
247,424
245,653
209,743
205,565
45,409,934

Source: DJEBTKE ESDM, 2012

Map of Licenced Biodiesel Company and Coal Mining Company

PT. Pelita Agung Agri


Industries
200.000 MT/Th

Total Biodiesel Plant


Installed Capacity: 4,2 million kL

KALIMANTAN TENGAH
PT . Asmin Koalindo Tuhup
PT . Marunda Graha Mineral

PT. Bioenergy Pratama


Jaya
66.000 MT/Th

PT. Musim Mas


420.000 MT/Th
PT. Petro Andalan
Nusantara
150.000 Kl/Th

PT. Cemerlang
energi perkasa
400.000 MTl/Th

PT. sumi asih Oleo


Chem.
100.000 MT/th
PT. Darmex
Biofuels
150.000 MT/th

PT. Wilmar Bioenergy


Ind
1.050.000 MT/Th

PT. Wahana Abdi tirta


tehnika
13.200 KL/th

PT. Alia Mada Perkasa


11.000 KL/th

PT. Sintong Abadi


35.000 Kl/Th

KALIMANTAN TIMUR

PT. Ciliandra
250.000 MT/Th
KALIMANTAN SELATAN
RIAU

PT. Sinar Alam


Permai
41.400 MT/Th

PT . Riau Bara Harum

PT . Adaro Indonesia
PT .Arutmin Indonesia
PT .Wahana Baratama Mining
PD. Baramarta
PT .Sumber Kurnia Buana
PT .Tanjung Alam Jaya

PT. Pasadena Biofuels


Mandiri
Biodiesel:10.240 Kl/th

PT. Multikimia Inti


Pelangi
14.000 Kl/Th

PT. Indo Biofuels


Energy
60.000 MT/Th

PT. Energi alternatif


7.000 MT/Th

PT. Eternal Buana


Chem, Ind
40.000 MT/Th

PT. Primanusa Palma


Energi
24.000 Kl/Th

PT .Kaltim Prima Coal


PT .Indominco Mandiri
PT .Berau Coal
PT .Kideco Jaya Agung
PT .Mahakam Sumber Jaya
PT .Trubaindo Coal Mining
PT .Gunung Bayan Pratamacoal
PT .Tanito Harum
PT .Mandiri Intiperkasa
PT .Perkasa Inakakerta
PT .Teguh Sinar Abadi
PT .Multi Harapan Utama
PT .Insani Bara Perkasa
PT .Santan Batubara
PT .Lanna Harita Indonesia
PT .Singlurus Pratama

PT. anugerah inti


gemanusa
40.000 MT/Th
PT. Damai sejahtera
sentosa
120.000MT/Th

PT. eterindo Nusa


Graha
40.000 MT/Th

Badan Usaha
Pertambangan Batubara
BU BBN Non Asosiasi
BU BBN anggota Aprobi

Source: DJEBTKE ESDM, 2012

STRATEGY FOR BIOFUELS


INDUSTRILIZATION

Gasoline

26 million kilo Liter


Diesel Oil

31 million kilo Liter

Demand of Bioethanol
(ESDM Reg No. 32/2008)

Existing Supply of
Bioethanol

Opportunity

780,000 kilo Liter

780,000 kilo Liter

Demand of Bioediesel
(ESDM Reg No. 32/2008)

Existing Supply of
Biodiesel

Opportunity

1.5 million kilo Liter

350,000 kilo Liter

1.15 million kilo Liter

Imported Fuel

Demand of Bioediesel
(ESDM Reg No. 32/2008)

Reduction Potential of Imported Fuel

25.4 million kilo Liter

3.1 million kilo Liter

12.1 %

Note : 2011 data, Source : APROBI, 2012

The potential market of biofuels either in domestic or international market is clear.


Challenges :
1. Policy
2. Technology

: raw materials, infrastructure, distribution, etc.


: high quality of biofuels (fuel stability, etc.), lower production cost, etc.

1. Policy
2. Price
3. Product
4. Production

Encourage
Investment
Biofuel
vs
Fossil Fuel

Product
Standards

Security of
Supply

Policy
Options

Regulatory :
Mandates & Obligations
EMR Ministry Reg. 32/2008
Govt. Reg. No 45/2009, etc.
Price
Fiscal :
Fuel Tax & Subsidies
Vehicle taxes
Carbon reflective fuel tax
Specification/Fuel Standard
Dir. Gen. of Oil and Gas
No. 3674/3675
Investment :
Capital Investment Incentives
Integrated business of Biofuel
Plant

BPPT actively supports the industrialization of biofuels by means of providing :


a. efficient and competitive biofuels technology with a good quality product as
requirements in national standards ( exp. SNI 04-7182-2006 for biodiesel )
b. Engineering, supervision, and commissioning works for biofuels plant projects

Existing
CPO Plant

Biodiesel
Plant

Existing
Sugar Plant

Bioethanol
Plant

BPPT is promoting an integrated plant concept to enhance industrialization potential :


1. obtain cheaper raw materials cost
2. reduce production cost (process steam and utility, etc.)
3. increase the efficiency of biofuel plant
4. overcome the waste problems faced by the existing plant

First things to do :
1. Feasibility study : technical operability and financial analysis
2. Engineering design : conceptual, basic, and detailed design

540 T/Y
EFB to Farm (30%)

EFB to Power Plant

ROR

Palm
Farming

Biomass
Power Plant
Methane
From POME

EFB

Typical Existing CPO Plant


54,000 T/Y

233,000 T/Y
60 T/H

Biodiesel

Biodiesel
Plant

Remnant Oil : 2,400 T/Y

1,860 T/Y

Steam
&
Electricity

Excess Shell
for PP

37,400 T/Y

FFB

Fiber

Palm Oil Mill


53,600 T/Y

POME
Treatment

CPO

Sludge

15,200 T/Y

10,000 T/Y

Shell

2,500 T/Y

Steam
&
Electricity

Fuel

Power Plant

23 % of FFB

Excess Shell
for
Other Purpose

Gasification
Plant
Electricity for CPO Plant

Electricity

Effluent for Farming

0.8 % of FFB

Electricity Co.

FFB : Fresh Fruit Bunches


EFB : Empty Fruit Bunches
ROR: Remnant Oil Recovery

BPPT is also considering an energy farming concept which integrating


upstream to downstream businesses.

FFB

Price

CPO Mill

Plantation

Price

CPO

Biodiesel Plant

Existing Business (Biodiesel Case) :


Relatively
Fixed Price

Market
Biodiesel

Market Mechanism

Energy Farming Concept:

FFB

Energy Farming :
Stable Price

Price

CPO

Biodiesel Plant

Price

CPO Mill

Plantation

Stable Price

The price of raw materials fluctuates


and tends to increase, highly
depending on market mechanism.
While, the price of biofuels is relatively
fixed price.
Less promising business on biofuels
Only big capacity and efficient
biofuels plants may be survive.

Price

Biodiesel

Market

An integrated business owned by the


states company, where the raw
material produced from this business is
merely dedicated for producing biofuel
only (NOT for other purposes).
Stabled price of raw materials
Stabled price of biofuels
More promising business on biofuels

conclussion
All stakeholder must have strong commitment and its
implementation on biofuels. Indonesia has a potency to be a
champion of biofuel in the world
Second generation biofuels are much more productive in terms of
land use and foods competition. However, the feedstock of
second generation biofuel production is not sufficient to
substitute petroleum oil.
Green diesel and Gasoline are completely compatible with
conventional fuels such as synthetic diesel and gasoline and
natural gas
It is necessary to build integrated biofuel plants
from
downstreams and upstreams and to build plants in Kalimantan
and East Indonesia to make distribution efficiently
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