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Module 1: The Internal Combustion Engine

Key Terms
external combustion engine
four-stroke engine
two-stroke engine
fuel mixture

motor s vanjskim izgaranjem

etverotaktni motor
dvotaktni motor
ispiranje cilindra
smjesa goriva i zraka

Text Summary
The development of the internal combustion engine was made possible by the earlier development of the steam
engine. The steam engine is an external combustion engine, because it has one chamber in which the fuel is
burned to heat a fluid and another for the piston which is pushed by the vapor from the heated fluid. Anything
combustible can be used as a fuel in a steam engine. In the internal combustion engine, the burning takes place
in the combustion chamber which also contains the piston. The combustion is very sudden, amounting to an
explosion which pushes the piston.
In 1862 de Rochas published his theory of a four-stroke internal combustion engine, but he never built any
engines. He also realized that a four-stroke engine would be more efficient at scavenging than a two-stroke
engine. A two-stroke engine provides for intake of fuel, combustion and exhaust of burned gases with each
back-and forth motion of the piston, while a four-stroke engine requires two revolutions of the crankshaft. This
makes the two-stroke engine more powerful but also more wasteful. In 1876 Otto engine, the first modern
internal combustion engine was built.
The four-stroke cycle operates as follows: the intake of the fuel mixture happens on the first down-stroke of the
piston through the intake valve. The compression happens on the next upstroke with all valves closed, and at
the beginning of the second down-stroke combustion takes place and forces the piston downwards. On the
second upstroke, the exhaust of the burned gases takes place through the exhaust valve.

Text and Vocabulary Exercises

1) Fill in the following charts that describe the two -stroke cycle and the four-stroke cycle. The
arrows show the movement of the piston.

Vocabulary tip!
Make word cards like the one on the left. On the back
of the card you can write collocations or phrases this
word appears in. You can also write other meanings
that the word takes in different contexts.
You can use the cards to memorize and practice
individual words, compound nouns or even phrases by
combining two or more cards.
Try to make compound nouns from the following


2) Suggestions for further research choose one of the topics, find information online, discuss
within your group then report to the class.
What are the modern engines like (road vehicles, trains, airplanes, ships) and how does this affect traffic,
economy and environment?
What kinds of alternative engines are there and what principles are they based on? How would their
implementation affect traffic, economy and environment?
How can you reduce fuel consumption and pollution from exhaust gasses through traffic management?

Grammar: Participles (Present, Past, Perfect)


Spelling exceptions


Present Participle

Past Participle

infinitive + -ing

infinitive + -ed for regular verbs

third column for irregular verbs
Silent e is dropped, but not for ee
After final e, only add d. (love loved)
(come coming, but agree - agreeing) After a short, stressed vowel, the final
After a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled (admit admitted)
consonant is doubled (sit - sitting)
Final l is doubled in British English, but
After a vowel, the final consonant l is not in American (travelled BE, traveled AE)
doubled in British English, but not in
After a consonant, final y becomes i, but
American (travelling BE, traveling AE)
not after a vowel (worry worried, but:
Final ie becomes y (lie - lying)
play played)

Perfect Participle
having + past part. of
the main verb
All exceptions
about form and
spelling of present
and past participle
also apply to perfect

having looked
having had

Use in tense formation

Present To form the continuous tenses: I am working.
To form perfect tenses: I have spoken.
To form the passive voice: that all men are created equal
Perfect Use as an adjective
Present With active meaning: It was a long and boring lesson.
With passive meaning: Im bored to death.
Perfect Use in different patterns
Present After verbs of movement/position: verb + pres. part.: She went shopping.
After verbs of perception: verb + object + pres. part.: I heard her singing.
With the verbs spend and waste: verb + time/money expression + pres. part.: He spends two hours a
day travelling to work.
With the verbs catch and find, in the pattern: verb + object + pres. part.: We found some money
lying on the ground.
In different expressions with the meaning have something done: have + something + past part.: I had
my hair cut.
Making the past form of infinitives: to + have + past part.: Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie believed to
have wed in secret.
Perfect Use when combining two clauses with the same subject:
Present When two actions occur at the same time, we can use a present participle to describe one of them:
They went laughing out into the snow.
When two actions happen very quickly one after another, we can express the first action with a
present participle: Putting on his coat, he left.
Instead of a phrase starting with: as, since, because, and explaining the cause or reason for an action:
Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes.
With passive clauses: Given an apple, the boy stopped crying.
Perfect When two actions occur one after the other, we can express the first action with a perfect participle:
Having bought a bike, she cycled home.
When one action has been going on for a period of time when another action starts, we can express
the first action with a perfect participle: Having lived there for years, he didn't want to move.

Grammar Exercises
1) Write the forms of the three participles for the following verbs.

Present Participle

Past Participle

Perfect Participle

a) be
b) bore
c) have
d) heal
e) interest
f) love
g) signal
h) sit
i) surprise
j) work
2) Fill in the gaps with the correct participle forms.
a) He was sitting in an armchair __________________ (read) a magazine.
b) __________________ (work) in the company for many years, he knew everyone and everything.
c) The cup __________________ (fill) with milk stood on the table.
d) Not __________________ (see) each other for ages, they had a lot to talk about.
e) __________________ (have) a rich father, she got everything she wished for.
f) __________________ (be) the child of poor people, he often went to bed hungry.
g) __________________ (regret) his words, he apologized.
h) Well __________________ (do) we are very proud of you.
i) __________________ (park) the car, he went to a restaurant.
j) __________________ (watch) the film a dozen times, she knew the dialogues by heart.
3) Combine the clauses using participle constructions.
a) The documentation which was telecast last Tuesday was impressive.
b) We had great fun at the party. We played silly games.
c) He had saved a little money. He travelled to Australia.
d) They were chatting along and didn't see the car coming.
e) The reception had been prepared carefully and was a great success.
f) He was picked up by his mother and didn't have to wait for the bus.
g) She was listening to the radio and didn't hear the doorbell.
h) The room had not been tidied up yet and looked like a battlefield.

4) Rewrite the sentences without the participle constructions

a) We were sitting around the fire singing songs.
b) Did you see the boy jumping up and down?
c) While being on the boat, Bob got seasick.
d) Being an exemplary pupil, he always does his homework.
e) Having told me the news, he went away.
f) Sleeping in the garden, I didn't hear the telephone.
g) The children were sitting at the beach building a sandcastle.
h) Last month I read a book written by a Scottish author.