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TMHP51

IEI / Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems

____________________________________________________________________________________

Karl-Erik Rydberg

2008-10-15

J1

Dm

qm

xv

KL

BL

J2

qL

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

The design of hydraulic systems is often based on a simple load model, represented by single

lumped parameters. This type of load model can be used if the connection between the

hydraulic system and the mechanical load is stiff. However, in many applications, the

mechanical system, which the hydraulic power elements are connected to, is weak compared

to the stiffness of the hydraulic system. Such weak mechanical structures cause resonances

which can be lower than the hydraulic natural frequency. If the structural resonances

dominate the frequency response of the servo system, it is extremely important to take this

fact into account in system design. The main reasons are that the stability of the systems and

the bandwidths are limited by the lowest natural frequency in the control loop.

A simple valve-controlled hydraulic cylinder with a load represented by a mass Mt and an

arbitrary load force FL is shown in Figure 1. The four-way valve is assumed to be a

servovalve with constant flow gain Kq.

For the special case of centered piston, the oil volumes between the piston and the valve are

V1 = V2 = Vt/2. If then the load pressure is defined as pL = p1 - p2 the following linearized

and laplace transformed equations can be derived:

Vt

s P

4 e L

(1)

Mt s 2 Xp = Ap PL FL

(2)

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

Hydraulic system

Kce

Xv

Kq

1

_____

Vt

___

s

4e

PL

QL

FL

Ap

1

____

Mt s

Xp

1

_

s

Xp

Ap

The question is now to define a load model, which is simple to connect to the hydraulic

system. As can be seen from Figure 2 the transfer function of the mechanical load can be

expressed as

Gm(s) =

1.

QL

PL

QL = Ap sXp

(3)

An hydraulic cylinder acting on a simple mass load is illustrated in Figure 3. This is a load

with one degree of freedom.

Ap

p1 C1

xp

Ap

Mt

C2 p2

FL

For a double acting symmetric cylinder loaded by a mass Mt and an external force FL

according to Figure 3, the piston position Xp is given by equation (2) as

Xp =

Ap PL F L

Mt s

FL = 0 Gm(s) =

Ap s

Mt s

1

Mt

2

Ap

(4)

s

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

The load dynamics, from force to piston velocity, is in this case represented by a pure

integrator. Introducing the total capacitance of the cylinder CL the transfer function Gm(s) can

be rewritten as

Gm(s) =

QL

CL

=

PL

CLMt

A2p

=

s

CL

s

(5)

2h

V1

1

1

1

=

+

; C1 =

och

CL C1 C2

e

C2 =

V2

e

(6)

Centered cylinder piston gives the Capacitance CL and the hydraulic natural frequency h as

Vt

V1 = V2 =

2

Vt

CL =

4 e

4 eA2p

Vt Mt

h =

(7)

Figure 4 shows a more general load situation where the mass load is completed with a spring

gradient KL and a viscous damping coefficient BL. The cylinder is also defective with viscous

friction, the coefficient Bp.

Ap

KL

Ap

Mt

p1 C1

C2 p2

xp Bp

FL

BL

Figure 4: Symmetric hydraulic cylinder with a mass, spring and damping load

The load transfer function will be expressed in the same way as in equation (5) which gives

Gm(s) =

QL

=

PL

CLMt

A2p

s +

CL s

CLBe

A2p

s+

CLKL

A2p

A2p

s

KL

=

Mt 2 Be

s +

s+1

KL

KL

(8)

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

In real systems, we always have a certain elasticity in the mechanical structure. For a cylinder

this weakness can be related to spring systems in the rear mounting end (K1) and in the piston

rod (KL) as shown in Figure 5.

K1

Ap

x1

p1 C1

xp

Ap

KL

C2 p2

Bp

x2

Mt

FL

xL

Suppose that the piston and rod have no mass and the external force FL = 0. The resulting

force equation will now be expressed as

Ap P L = Mt s 2 XL = K1 X1 = KL(X2 XL)

(9)

QL = Ap s (X2 X1 ) = Ap sXp

(10)

A 2p

QL

1

2 1

+1

Gm =

=

M

s

+

t

PL M ts

K1 K L

(11)

Consider the system shown in Figure 5 and let the cylinder be controlled by a 4-port servo

valve with the coefficients Kq and Kc. This system is shown in Figure 6.

x1

xp

K1

V1

Ap V2

p1

p2

x2

xL

KL

Mt

xv

According to Figure 2 the block diagram for the system will be developed as in Figure 7.

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

Kce

Xv

Kq

1

_____

Vt

___

s

4e

PL

QL

1

1 Xp

1

2

+ 1

+

M t s

K1 KL

M ts

Ap

1_

s

Xp

Ap

Figure 7: Block diagram for a valve controlled cylinder with elastic mountings

Reduction of the block diagram in Figure 7 and completing with the transfer function from Xp

to XL gives the following diagram.

1

1

M ts 2

+

+1

K1 K L

s2

'h

+

2

+1

'h2

'h

Xv K q

Ap

Xp

1_

s

Xp

1

1

1

M ts

+

+1

K1 K L

XL

Figure 8: Complete block diagram for a valve controlled cylinder with elastic mountings

where 'h =

Ke

Mt

1

Vt

1

1

K ce M t 'h

'

=

+

+

and

2

h

Ap

2

Ke 4 e A 2p K 1 K L

If can be noted that the effective spring gradient Ke is derived from the series connection

2

4 e A p

and the two mechanical springs K1, KL.

between the hydraulic spring gradient

Vt

2.

Assume that the load consists of two masses (M1 and M2), of which the first one is fixed

mounted to the piston and the second mass is connected by a spring (KL) and a viscous

damper (BL) to the first mass.

Ap

p1 C1

xp

Ap

C2 p2

KL

M2

M1

BL

xL

FL

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

The force balance equations for the masses M1 and M2 are for FL = 0

M1 s 2 Xp + M2 s 2 XL = Ap PL

(12)

(13)

M2 2 BL

A P

KL s + KL s + 1 p L

Xp =

M1 M2

BL

2

(M1 + M2 ) s2

+

s + 1

s

KL(M1 + M2 )

KL

(14)

BL

M2

CL K s 2 +

s + 1

QL

KL

L

Gm(s) =

=

PL

CL

M1 M2

BL

2

(M1 + M2 ) s

s

+

s + 1

2

(

)

K

L

KL M1 + M2

Ap

(15)

2a

s2

+

s

+

1

a

2a

A2p

Gm(s) =

(M1 + M2 ) s s2

21

+

s

+

1

1

21

KL

,

M2

a =

where

a =

BL

2

1

,

KLM2

KL(M1 + M2 )

= a

M1 M2

1 =

1 =

BL

2

M1 + M2

= a

KLM1 M2

(16)

1+

1+

M2

M1

M2

M1

From equation (16) it can be seen that the two coupled masses cause one natural frequency of

the fundamental mode 1 and one natural frequency of nodes of vibration a. For these

frequencies, it is always evident that a < 1 and the damping ratio a < 1. A Bode diagram for

equation (16) is shown in Figure 10.

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

Amplitude

101

100

10-1

10-2

100

101

102

Frequency [rad/s]

Phase

50

0

-50

-100

100

101

Frequency [rad/s]

102

valid for M1 = M2 and dashed line for M1 = M2/2

Figure 10 explains how the amplitude and the phase curve change when the mass M1 is

reduced in proportion to M2. If M1 instead increases in proportion to M2 the frequency

response will be influenced in the way as expressed in Figure 11.

Amplitude

100

10-1

10-2

100

101

102

Frequency [rad/s]

Phase

50

0

-50

-100

100

101

Frequency [rad/s]

102

valid for M1 = M2 and dashed line for M1 = 2M2

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

It is convenient to combine equation (16) with the hydraulic part of the system. If the external

force FL = 0, the valve cylinder combination (compare with Figure 1) and the load with two

masses give the block diagram illustrated in Figure 12.

Kq

Xv ___

Ap +

Ap

__________

Vt

Kce + ___ s

4e

PL

Ap

s2

GLX(s ) =

where

1

__________

GLX(s)

(M1 + M2) s

2a

s2

21

2 a

s+1

a

2 1

s+1

1

Xp

Figure 12: Block diagram for a valve-controlled cylinder with a load of two masses (FL = 0)

From Figure 12 the transfer function for the hole system, with valve opening Xv as input

signal and piston velocity dXp/dt as output signal, can be derived as

GHL(s ) =

GLX(s)

sXp Kq

=

Xv

Ap s 2

where

h =

(17)

2 h

+

s + GLX(s )

h

2h

4 eAp

Vt (M1 + M2 )

h =

Kce

Ap

e(M1 + M2 )

Vt

(18)

The frequency response for equation (17), when the hydraulic natural frequency h is lower

than the structural resonances (a and 1) is shown in Figure 13 (see next page). The dashed

lines in the diagrams illustrated the response when the mass M2 is increased 5 times compared

to the situation of the solid lines. The hydraulic spring rate Kh (=4eAp2/Vt) has the same

value for both cases.

In this system, the frequency response will be dominated by the hydraulic system. In the low

frequency range is GLX(s) 1 and the system can be treated as a one-mass system with the

load mass Mt = M1 + M2.

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

101

Amplitude

100

10-1

10-2

10-3

100

a 1

h

101

Frequency [rad/s]

102

101

Frequency [rad/s]

102

0

Phase

-50

-100

-150

-200

100

Figure 13: Frequency response for GHL(s) according to equation (17). Solid line: M1 = M2 = 1.

Dashed line: M1 = 1 and M2 =5. Kh = 0,1.KL for both curves

If we now consider that the structural resonances are lower than the hydraulic natural

frequency, the system response will change drastically, which can be seen in Figure 14.

Amplitude

101

100

a

10-1

100

'h

101

Frequency [rad/s]

102

101

Frequency [rad/s]

102

Phase

100

0

-100

-200

100

Figure 14: Frequency response for GHL(s) according to equation (17). Solid line: M1 = M2 = M0.

Dashed line: M1 = M0 and M2 =5M0. Kh = 10.KL for both curves

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

10

2008-10-13

In Figure 14 the hydraulic spring rate Kh is 10 times greater than the mechanical spring rate

KL which means that h will be the highest frequency. If we look at the amplitude of the

transfer function GLX (see Figure 13) with frequencies greater than 1, this equation will

reach a constant value

2

M2

1

GLX(s)>1 =

=

1

+

a

M1

(19)

Since the hydraulic resonance occur at a frequency higher than the structural resonances, the

value of h have to be influenced by the function GLX written as equation (19). For this case,

the hydraulic frequency and damping, here named h and h, may be changed from the

original expression (equation 18) to

,h

= h

,h = h /

M2

1+

=

M1

1+

M2

Kce

=

M1

Ap

Kh

=

M1

4 eA2p

Vt M1

(20)

eM1

Vt

This equation shows that the dynamics of the hydraulic system only is dependent on the mass

M1. Increasing of the mass M2, of course, will lower the mechanical resonances but the

hydraulic frequency h is not influenced by change of this mass. The reason is that the

movement of the mass M2 is approximately zero at such high frequencies as h. The

hydraulic natural frequency is solely determined by the mass M1 which is stretched between

the hydraulic spring in the cylinder Kh and the load spring KL. However, the low value of KL

compared to Kh means that KL cannot be seen in equation (20).

If the system is changed so that only the hydraulic spring constant Kh (see eq 20) increases,

the variation in amplitude and phase shift according to the mechanical structure will be

reduced. This situation is shown in Figure 15. From equation (17) it can also be seen that, if

the structural resonances (GLX(s)) are dominant, the transfer function from valve opening to

piston speed approaches

GHL(s) = sXp/Xv Kq/Ap

(21)

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

11

2008-10-13

Amplitude

101

100

10-1

10-2

100

101

102

Frequency [rad/s]

Phase

100

0

-100

-200

100

101

102

Frequency [rad/s]

Figure 15: Frequency response for GHL(s) according to equation (17). Solid line: Kh = Kh0.

Dashed line: Kh = 5.Kh0. M1 = M2/2 for both curves

Another situation where h increases and makes the hydraulic system stiffer will arise if the

mass M1 is reduced. Figure 16 shows how the frequency response develops when M1 is

reduced from M1 = M10 to M1 = 0,2.M10. Since M1 also influences the mechanical

resonances this rise of h will not cause a reduction of the structural resonances as in the

case of increased hydraulic stiffness.

Amplitude

101

100

10-1

10-2

100

10 1

102

Frequency [rad/s]

Phase

100

0

-100

-200

100

10 1

102

Frequency [rad/s]

Figure 16: Frequency response for GHL(s) according to equation (17). Solid line: M1 = M10.

Dashed line: M1 = 0.2.M10. Kh and KL are the same for both curves

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

12

2008-10-13

The conclusion to be drawn from these examples is that the structural resonances are reduced

by a stiff hydraulic system if h is always higher than the mechanical frequencies. This

stiffness can be achieved by low hydraulic capacitance for the valve cylinder combination

and/or feedback control.

b) Two-mass system with mechanical flexibility in the rear mounting end

A further example of a hydraulic cylinder loaded by a two-mass system is shown in Figure 17.

K1

M1

Ap

Ap

p1 C1

xp

B1

x1

M2

C2 p2

FL

x2

Figure 17: Hydraulic cylinder with flexible rear flange and a load with two degrees of freedom

s2

2a

+

s

+

1

a

2a

QL

A2p

Gm(s) =

=

PL M2 s s2

21

+

s + 1

2

1

1

where

K1

,

M1 + M2

a =

a =

B1

2

K1

= a

M1

1 =

1

K1 (M1 + M2 )

, 1 =

(22)

B1

2

1+

1

= a

K1 M1

M2

M1

1+

M2

M1

GHL(s ) =

sXp Kq

=

Xv

Ap s 2

G LX(s ) =

(23)

2 h

+

s + GLX(s )

h

2h

s2

where

GLX(s)

2a

2

s

21

+

+

2 a

s+1

a

2 1

s+1

1

; h =

4 eA2p

Kce

; h =

Vt M2

Ap

eM2

Vt

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

13

2008-10-13

The Bode diagram for equation (23) is shown in figure 18. In this figure the hydraulic

resonance h is the dominant frequency, lower than a. If the hydraulic spring rate Kh is

changed, the value of h will also be changed which is illustrated in the figure.

Amplitude

10 1

10 -3

10 0

10 1

10 2

Frequency [rad/s]

Phase

0

-100

-200

10 0

10 1

Frequency [rad/s]

10 2

Figure 18: Frequency response for GHL(s) according to equation (23). Solid line: Kh = 0,04 KL.

Dashed line: Kh = 0,1 KL. M1 = 1, M2 = 2 and KL = 1000 (same for both curves)

If the hydraulic cylinder is stiffer than the mechanical structure (Kh > KL), we will have a

system with a behaviour similar to that described in Figure 15. An increase of Kh is shown in

Figure 19 and we can see that the structural resonances are reduced by the large value of h.

Amplitude

10 1

10 0

10 -1

10 -2

10 0

10 1

10 2

Frequency [rad/s]

Phase

100

0

-100

-200

10 0

10 1

10 2

Frequency [rad/s]

Figure 19: Frequency response for GHL(s) according to equation (23). Solid line: Kh = 4 KL.

Dashed line: Kh = 10 KL. M1 = 1, M2 = 2 and KL = 100 (same for both curves)

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

14

2008-10-13

With this stiff hydraulic system, the real hydraulic frequency and damping, h and h , are

changed from the original expression (compare with eq 20) to

,

h

M2

1+

=

M1

= h

M2

Kce

1+

=

M1

Ap

h = h /

4 eAp (M1 + M2 )

Vt M1 M2

(24)

eM1 M2

Vt (M1 + M2 )

Figure 20 shows the frequency response when the mass M2 is increased five times. Note that

the reduction of h increases the variation in amplitude and phase shift for the mechanical

structure which can also be seen from the expression of a and a (eq 22).

Amplitude

101

100

10-1

10-2

100

101

102

Frequency [rad/s]

Phase

100

0

-100

-200

100

101

Frequency [rad/s]

102

Figure 20: Frequency response for GHL(s) according to equation (23). Solid line: M1 = M2 = 1.

Dashed line: M1 = 1, M2 = 5. Kh = 4 KL (= 100) for both curves.

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

15

2008-10-13

Bm

KL

J1

Dm

BL

TL

J2

L

Figure 21: Hydraulic motor with a load with two degrees of freedom

This hydraulic motor system with two inertia loads is identical with the cylinder application

illustrated in Figure 9.

Consider the system shown in Figure 21 and let the motor be controlled by a 4-port servo

valve with the coefficients Kq and Kc. The block diagram of the overall system will be

developed as in Figure 22.

TL

Kq

Xv ___

Dm +

Dm

__________

Vt

Kce + ___ s

4e

PL

G LT(s)

Dm

m

1

________

G L(s)

(J1 + J2) s

Figure 22: Block diagram for a valve-controlled motor with two inertia loads and a load torque (TL)

From Figure 22 it can be seen that the mechanical structure has influence on the torque

disturbance (TL) by the transfer function GLT(s). The transfer function GL(s) is similar to

GLX(s) in Figure 9. These transfer functions can be expressed as

1+

GLT(s ) =

2a

where

21 1

2a

s+1

a

KL

,

J2

a =

a =

BL

2

s2

1

,

KLJ 2

GL(s ) =

21

2a

s+1

a

BL

2

(25)

21

s+1

1

KL(J1 + J 2 )

= a

J 1 J2

1 =

1 =

2a

J1 + J2

= a

KLJ 1 J 2

1+

1+

J2

J1

J2

J1

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

Appendix

Transfer functions for loads with 2 DOF

16

Linkpings universitet

IEI / FluMeS, K-E Rydberg

2008-10-13

17

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