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Biology Test

Chapter 4: Cell Structure and Function


4.1 What is the Cell Theory?
Rudolf Virchow developed cell theory, which is a fundamental
concept in biology.
Every organism is made up of one or more cells.
The smallest organisms are single cells, and cells are the
functional units of multicellular organisms.
All cells arise from preexisting cells.
4.2 What are the basic attributes of cells?
Cells functions include: obtaining energy and nutrients,
synthesizing biological molecules, eliminating wastes, interacting
with other cells, and reproducing.
Most cells range in size from about 1 to 100 micrometers. Cells
are small because it is vital for them to exchange nutrients and
wastes with their external environment through the plasma
membrane.
Diffusion

is
the
process
[-[+
\by which molecules dissolved in fluids disperse from regions
where their concentration is higher to regions where
concentration is low.
All Cells Share Common Features:
Modern cells include the simple prokaryotic cells of bacteria and
archaea, as well as far more complex eukaryotic cells of protists,
fungi, plants, and animals.
The Plasma Membrane Encloses the Cell and Allows Interactions
Between the Cell and its Environment:
Plasma membrane extremely thin, rather fluid membrane that
surrounds the cell.
Membranes consist of a double layer of phospholipids and
cholesterol molecules, with many different proteins embedded
within the bilayer. Functions:
Selectively isolating the cells contents from the external
environment.
Regulating the flow of materials into an out of the cell
Allowing communication with other cells and with the
extracellular environment.

Phospholipid bilayer - helps isolate the cell from its


surroundings allowing the cell to maintain essential differences in
concentrations of materials inside and outside.
Proteins facilitate communication between the cell and its
environment.

All Cells Contain Cytoplasm:


Cytoplasm consists of all the fluid and structures that lie inside
the plasma membrane but outside of the nucleus.
The fluid portion of the cytoplasm, in prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells, is called cytosol.
It contains water, salts, and an assortment of organic molecules,
including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, sugars, amino acids,
and nucleotides.
Most of the cells biochemical reactions that support life occur in
the cytoplasm.
Cells must synthesize proteins.
All Cells Use DNA as a Hereditary Blueprint and RNA to Copy the
Blueprint and Guide Construction of Cell Parts:
The genetic material in the cells (DNA), an inherited blueprint
that stores the instructions for making all the parts of the cell
and for producing new cells.
During cell division they pass the exact same DNA to their
offspring.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA), which is chemically similar to DNA,
copies the genes on DNA and helps construct proteins based on
this genetic blueprint. All cells contain DNA and RNA.
There Are Two Basic Types of Cells Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic:
Prokaryotic (before the nucleus) form the bodies of bacteria and
archaea, the simplest forms of life.
Eukaryotic (true nucleus) more complex and make up the
bodies of animals, plants, fungi, and protists.
The genetic material in a eukaryotic cell is contained within a
membrane enclosed nucleus.
The genetic material of a prokaryotic cell is not enclosed within a
membrane.
The nucleus and other membrane enclosed structures are known
as organelles.
4.3 What are the major features of eukaryotic cells?

Within the body of any multicellular organism there exists a huge


variety of eukaryotic cells specialized to perform different
functions.
The cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells includes organelles that
perform specific functions within the cell.

Some Eukaryotic Cells Are Supported by Cell Walls:


The outer surfaces of plants, fungi and some protists are covered
with nonliving, relatively stiff coatings cell walls.
Protists cellulose, protein, or glassy silica.
Plant cellulose
Fungi chitin.
Prokaryotic cells have cell walls made of different
polysaccharides.
Cell walls protect the delicate plasma membrane and its
cytoplasmic contents.
They are usually porous. Plant cell walls are perforated by
openings called plasmodesmata that connect adjacent cells.
The Cytoskeleton Provides Shape, Support, and Movement:
Cytoskeleton is a scaffolding of protein fibers within the
cytoplasm.
Cell Shape supports and determines the shape of the cell.
Cell Movement occurs as microfilaments or microtubules
assemble, disassemble, or slide past one another.
Organelle movement microtubules transport organelles.
Cell
division

microtubules
guide
chromosome
movements, and microfilaments separate the dividing cell
into two daughter cells.
Cilia and Flagella move the Cell through Fluid or Move Fluid Past the
Cell:
Both cilia (eyelash) and flagella (whip) are hair like structures
that propel cells through fluids or move fluids past cells. Both are
covered by extensions of the plasma membrane and supported
internally by microtubules of the cytoskeleton.
They move with the help of tiny protein sidearms. They use the
ATP for energy.
Flagella is longer than cilia. The microtubules of each cilium and
flagellum arise from a basal body.