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DEPARTAMENTO DE MATEMTICA APLICADA

NOTES ON VECTOR CALCULUS


Alfredo Bermdez de Castro

October 2006

UNIVERSIDADE DE SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA

Contents
1 Mathematical background
1.1

1.2

1.3

Vector and tensor algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

Vector space. Basis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2

Inner product. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.3

Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.4

The Affine Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

Vector and tensor analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.2.1

Differential operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.2.2

Curves and curvilinear integrals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.2.3

Gauss and Greens formulas. Stokes Theorem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.2.4

Change of Variable in Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

1.2.5
1.2.6

The area enclosed by a plane curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Localization Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16
17

Differential Operators in Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.3.1

Cartesian Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

1.3.2

Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

1.3.3

Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

2 Some Equations of Continuum Mechanics in Coordinates

25

2.1

Mass Conservation Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

2.2

Motion Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

2.3

Constitutive Law for Newtonian Viscous Fluids in Coordinates . . . . . . . . . .

27

Chapter 1

Mathematical background
1.1
1.1.1

Vector and tensor algebra


Vector space. Basis.

A real vector space is an algebraic structure consisting of a set V endowed with two operations. One of them is an internal operation denoted by + and satisfying the following properties:

i) Associativity.
a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c a, b, c.
ii) Existence of a neutral element 0 such that
a + 0 = 0 + a = a a.
iii) Existence of symmetric element: for each a there exist b such that,
a + b = b + a = 0.
iv) Commutativity.
a + b = b + a a, b.
Thus, V with the + operation is a commutative group.
The second operation is an external one, the product by real numbers, satisfying the following
properties:
v) (a + b) = a + b.
vi) (a) = ()a.
vii) ( + )a = a + a.
viii) 1a = a.
3

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

Elements of V are called vectors.


A set of vectors {ei }N
i=1 is said
linearly independent if
N
X

i ei = 0 i = 0 i {1, . . . , N },

(1.1)

i=1

a system of generators if
v V i , i = 1, . . . , N, such that v =

N
X

i ei ,

(1.2)

i=1

a basis if it is both linearly independent and a system of generators.


If B = {e1 , . . . , eN } is a basis of V, then each v V can be written as a linear combination,
v=

N
X

vi ei ,

i=1

in a unique way. The vi R, i = 1, . . . , N, are called coordinates of v with respect to basis B.


N
Let us consider two bases in V, {ei }N
i=1 and {Ei }i=1 . In particular, vectors Ei can be written
as a linear combination of vectors {ei }N
i=1 , namely,
El =

N
X

Cli ei .

(1.3)

i=1

Now, let v be any vector in V. Let us denote by vie and viE , i = 1 . . . N , the coordinates of v with
N
e
respect to the basis {ei }N
i=1 and {Ei }i=1 , respectively. If we denote by v the column vector of
E
the former and by v the column vector of the latter, it is easy to see that
v e = [C]t v E ,
where [C] is the matrix [C]ij = Cij with Cij given in (1.3).

1.1.2

Inner product.

A mapping : V V R is called inner product if the following properties hold:


1) is bilinear :
1.1) (1 v1 + 2 v2 , w) = 1 (v1 , w) + 2 (v2 , w),
1.2) (v, 1 w1 + 2 w2 ) = 1 (v, w1 ) + 2 (v, w2 ).

(1.4)

1.1. VECTOR AND TENSOR ALGEBRA

2) is symmetric:
(v, w) = (w, v).
3) is positive definite:
(v, v) > 0 v 6= 0.

Finite dimensional vector spaces with inner product are called Euclidean vector spaces.
For them we can define a norm by,
1

|v| = (v, v) 2 .
In what follows we write v w instead of (v, w).
Two vectors v and w are said to be orthogonal if v w = 0.
A basis B = {e1 , . . . , eN } is said to be orthogonal if ei ej = 0 i 6= j and is said to be
orthonormal if

ei ej = ij =

1
0

if i = j,
if i =
6 j.

If B is orthonormal, then the i-th coordinate of a vector v is given by,


vi = v ei .
Moreover, the matrix to change coordinates with respect to two orthonormal basis is orthogonal, namely,
(1.5)
[C][C]t = [I],
where [I] is the identity matrix.

1.1.3

Tensors

The endomorphisms of V, that is the linear mappings from V in V are called (second order)
tensors. We denote by Lin the set of tensors on a vector space V. In Lin we can define a vector
space structure by introducing the following operations:
i) Sum:
(S + T)(v) = Sv + Tv.
ii) Product by scalars:
(S)(v) = Sv.

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

The dimension of this vector space is N 2 .


Let a and b two vectors in V. The tensor,
(a b)v := v b a,
is called the tensor product of a and b. We notice that is a bilinear mapping from V V in
Lin.
If e is a unit vector then
(e e) v = (v e) e,
is the orthogonal projection of v on the straight line generated by e. Moreover,
(I e e)v = v (v e) e,

(1.6)

is the projection of v on the orthogonal plane to e.


Let B = {e1 , . . . , eN } an orthonormal basis in V. The set of tensors {ei ej : 1 i, j N }
is a basis of Lin. More precisely, we have
S=

N
X

Sij ei ej ,

i,j=1

where
Sij = S ej ei
are the coordinates of S with respect to basis B.
We notice that the coordinates of a tensor S can

S11 . . .
..
..
[S] = .
.
SN 1 . . .

be arranged as a matrix,

S1N
..
. .
SN N

Actually, this matrix is the standard matrix associated with the endomorphism S for the basis
B.
For example, the coordinate matrix of tensor a b with respect to basis B is the matrix
product

a1
a2

(1.7)
.. (b1 b2 . . . bN ),
.
aN
where a =

N
X
i=1

ai ei and b =

N
X

bi ei .

i=1

Let us see how tensor coordinates change when we change basis in the vector space. Let
S Lin a tensor. Let us denote by Seij and SE
ij , i, j = 1 . . . n, its coordinates with respect to basis
N
{ei }N
and
{E
}
,
respectively.
Then
it
is
not difficult to see that the following relation holds:
i i=1
i=1
[SE ] = [C][Se ][C]t .

(1.8)

1.1. VECTOR AND TENSOR ALGEBRA

In vector space Lin we can introduce another internal operation which is the mapping composition, namely, given two tensors S and T, ST is the tensor defined by
(ST)v = S(Tv).
It is easy to see that the matrix of coordinates of ST is the product of those corresponding to S
and T.
The transpose tensor of S is the unique tensor St satisfying,
Sa b = a St b a, b V.
A tensor is called symmetric if S = St and skew if S = St . The subspace of symmetric
tensors will be denoted by Sym and that of skew tensors by Skw.
We can also define an inner product of tensors by,
S T = tr(St T),
where tr denotes the trace operator which is the unique linear operator from Lin to R satisfying,
tr(a b) = a b.
We have,

tr(S) = tr

N
X

N
X

Sij ei ej =

i,j=1

Sij ei ej =

i,j=1

N
X
i,j=1

Sij ij =

N
X

Sii ,

i=1

and hence
ST=

N
X

Sij Tij .

i,j=1

If T Sym and W Skw it is easy to show that T W = 0.


Any tensor S is the sum of one symmetric tensor E and another one skew W. More precisely,
E and W are defined by

1
S + St ,
2

1
W=
S St .
2
E=

(1.9)
(1.10)

Tensor E is called the symmetric part of of S and W is called the skew part of S. Furthermore,
this decomposition is unique, more precisely,
Lin = Sym
The following equalities can be easily proved:

Skw

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

(a b)t = (b a)

(1.11)

(a b)(c d) = (b c)a d

(1.12)

R (ST) = (St R) T = (RTt ) S R, S, T Lin

(1.13)

I S = tr(S)

(1.14)

S (a b) = a Sb

(1.15)

(a b) (c d) = (a c)(b d)

(1.16)

A tensor S is invertible if there exists a tensor S1 , called the inverse of S, such that
SS1 = S1 S = I.

(1.17)

A tensor Q is orthogonal if it preserves the inner products:


Qu Qv = u v.

(1.18)

A necessary and sufficient condition for Q to be orthogonal is that


QQt = Qt Q = I,

(1.19)

Qt = Q1 .

(1.20)

which is equivalent to
In particular, det Q must be 1 or 1, where det Q := det[Q].
A rotation is an orthogonal tensor with positive determinant. The set of rotations is a subset
of Lin which will be denoted by Orth+ .
A tensor S is positive definite if
v Sv > 0

v 6= 0.

(1.21)

A real scalar is an eigenvalue of S if there exists a non-null vector u such that


Su = u.

(1.22)

In this case u is an eigenvector associated to . The set of vectors


E = {u V : Su = u}

(1.23)

is a vector subspace of V called characteristic space or eigenspace of S corresponding to .


If this space has dimension M N , then M is called the geometric multiplicity of . The
spectrum of S is the set of its eigenvalues.

1.1. VECTOR AND TENSOR ALGEBRA

It is immediate to see that R is an eigenvalue of tensor S if and only if it satisfies the


characteristic equation
det(S I) = 0.
(1.24)
The multiplicity of as a root of this algebraic equation is called the algebraic multiplicity
of . The algebraic multiplicity of any eigenvalue is greater than or equal to the geometric one.
Now, let us assume that N = 3 for the rest of this paragraph. The principal invariants of
S are the three numbers
1 (S) = tr(S),
1
2 (S) = [(tr(S))2 tr(S2 )],
2
1
3 (S) = det(S) = [(tr(S))3 + 2(tr(S3 )) 3tr(S2 )tr(S)].
6

(1.25)
(1.26)
(1.27)

The set of principal invariants of S will be denoted by IS . Moreover, the characteristic equation
can be written as
(1.28)
det(S I) = 3 + 1 (S)2 2 (S) + 3 (S).
We have the following important results:
Proposition 1.1.1

1. The eigenvalues of a positive definite tensor are strictly positive.

2. Each symmetric tensor has exactly three eigenvalues accounting for their multiplicities as
roots of the characteristic equation (1.24) (called algebraic multiplicities).
3. The characteristic spaces of a symmetric tensor are mutually orthogonal.
Theorem 1.1.1 (Spectral theorem) Let S be a symmetric tensor. Then there is an orthonormal
basis in V consisting of eigenvectors of S. Furthermore:
1. S has three distinct eigenvalues if and only it has three eigenspaces which are orthogonal
lines through 0.
2. S has two distinct eigenvalues if and only if it has two eigenspaces which are a line through
0 and its orthogonal plane through 0.
3. S has one distinct eigenvalue if and only if it has one eigenspace (which is equal to V).
Moreover, when S is symmetric all the roots of the characteristic equation are real and the Vieta
relations lead to the following equalities:
1 (S) = 1 + 2 + 3 ,

(1.29)

2 (S) = 1 2 + 2 3 + 1 3 ,

(1.30)

3 (S) = 1 2 3 .

(1.31)

Let us assume that {e1 , e2 , e3 } is a positively oriented orthonormal basis in V. We define


the vector product of two vectors a and b by,

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

10

ab=

3
X

Eijk aj bk ei .

i,j,k=1

where
Eijk

1
1
=

if ijk is an even permutation of 123,


if ijk is an odd permutation of 123,
otherwise .

One can prove the following equality:


a (b c) = (a c)b (a b)c

(1.32)

showing, in particular, that the cross product is not associative.


There is an isomorphism between vector space V and the linear space of skew tensors. It is
defined by,
V Skw
w W
with Wv = w v v V. Vector w is called the axial vector associated to W.

1.1.4

The Affine Space

Let V be a vector space. A N -dimensional affine space is a triple (E, V, +) consisting of a


set E, a N -dimensional vector space V and a mapping
+
E V
E
(p, v) p + v
satisfying the following property:
For any p, q E there exists a unique v V such that p + v = q.
or q p.
pq
This vector v is usually denoted by
If V is an Euclidean vector space then the corresponding affine space is called Euclidean
affine space.
In an Euclidean affine space we can define a distance by,
d
E E R

(p, q) d(p, q) = |
pq|.
Thus (E, d) is a metric space and hence a topological space.
In an Euclidean affine space, a cartesian coordinate frame is a couple (o, {ei , i = 1, . . . , N })
where o is any fixed point in E called the origin and {ei , i = 1, . . . , N } is an orthonormal basis

1.2. VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

11

of the Euclidean vector space V.


For any point p E its coordinates with respect to the above cartesian frame are the numbers
pi , i = 1, . . . , N such that
N
X

op =
pi ei .
i=1

1.2

Vector and tensor analysis

A field is any mapping defined in a subset of E and valued in R, V or Lin, in which case it
is called scalar, vector or tensor field, respectively.

1.2.1

Differential operators

Let W be a normed vector space (in practice W = R, V, Lin). A mapping f : R E W


defined in an open set R of E is said differentiable at point x R if there exists a linear
mapping X : V W such that,
f(x + h) f(x) X (h) = o(h) as h 0,
which means
lim

h0

kf(x + h) f(x) X (h)kW


= 0.
khkV

If f is differentiable at x then linear mapping X is unique and it is called the differential of


f at x. Usually, it is denoted by Df(x).
The above definition can be extended to affine space-valued mappings. In this case the differential is a linear mapping from V into itself satisfying
kf(x + h) f(x) X (h)kV
= 0.
h0
khkV
lim

We notice that the expression in the numerator makes sense because f(x + h) f(x) V.
Examples:
1) Let be a scalar field which is differentiable at x. Then
D(x) : V R.
and the unique vector (x) V such that
D(x)a = (x) a a V,

12

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

is called the gradient of at x.


If is differentiable at all points in R we can define the vector field,
RE
x

V
(x)

which is called the gradient of .


2) Let us consider the case where W = V, i.e., u is a vector field. Then Du(x) : V V, that
is, Du(x) Lin.
If u is differentiable at all points in R, we can define the tensor field,
RE
x

Lin
Du(x)

which is called the gradient of vector field u.


We will use the notation u or gradu instead of Du, to denote this differential operator.
Given a differentiable vector field u, the scalar field
div u : R E
x

R
div u(x) =: tr(u(x))

is called the divergence of u.


Now, let S : R E Lin be a tensor field. We define the vector field div S, called
divergence of S as follows:
For any x R, div S(x) is the unique vector such that,
div S(x) a = div(St a)(x) a V.
For a scalar field : R E R, its Laplacian is the scalar field
(x) = div()(x).
For a vector field u : R E V, its Laplacian is the vector field
u(x) = div(u)(x).
From now on we assume that N = 3. Let u : R E V be a smooth vector field. The
curl of u at x is the unique vector, curl u(x), such that,

1.2. VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

curl u(x) a = (u(x) ut (x))a a V.


The following equalities hold:
(v) = v + v ,
div(v) = div v + v ,
(v w) = (w)t v + (v)t w,
div(v w) = v div w + (v)w,
div(St v) = S v + v div S,
div(S) = div S + S,
div(v w) = w curl v v curl w,
div vt = (div v)
curl(v) = v + curl v
curl(v w) = vw w div v + v div w wv,
div curl v = 0,
curl = 0,
v = (div v) curl(curl v),
() = (),
div(v) = (div v),
curl(v) = (curl v),
() = + + 2 .

1.2.2

Curves and curvilinear integrals.

A (regular) curve c in R is a class C1 mapping,


c : [0, 1] R,
such that c () 6= 0 [0, 1], where the derivative c () V is given by
c () = lim

h0

c( + h) c()
.
h

The curve is closed if c(0) = c(1).


The length of c is the number
Z
length(c) =

|c()| d.
0

13

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

14

Let v : R E V be a continuous vector field. The curvilinear integral of v along c is


defined by
Z

Z
v(x) dx =

v(c()) c () d.
0

Similarly, let S : R E Lin be a continuous tensor field. The curvilinear integral of


S along c is the vector defined by
Z
Z 1
S(x)dx =
S(c())c() d.
c

If v is the gradient of a scalar field , then


Z

Z
v(x) dx =

Z
(x) dx =

In particular

(c()) c ()d =
0

c (x)

d
( c)() d = (c(1)) (c(0)).
d

dx = 0 whenever c is closed.

A subset R E is simply connected if any closed curve in R can be continuously deformed


(more precisely, is homotopic) to a point without leaving R.
An open region (or domain) is any open connected subset of E. The closure of an open
region will be called closed region. We call regular region all closed region with smooth
boundary R.
Let R be a closed region and a field defined in R. We say that is C1 (R) if it is continuously
differentiable in the interior of R and and have continuous extensions to all of R.
We end this section on vector calculus by recalling some fundamental results.
Potential Theorem. Let v be a smooth vector field on an open or closed simply connected
region R and assume that,
curl v = 0.
Then there is a C2 scalar field : R R such that,
v = .

1.2.3

Gauss and Greens formulas. Stokes Theorem.

Divergence Theorem. Let R be a bounded regular region and let : R R, v : R V


and S : R Lin be smooth fields. Then,
R
R
1. R ndA = R dV,
R
R
2. R v ndA = R v dV,
R
R
3. R v ndA = R div v dV,

1.2. VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

15

R
vdA = R curl v dV,
R
R
5. R SndA = R div S dV,
4.

R n

where R denotes the boundary of R and n is an outward unit normal vector to R.


Greens formulas. Let R be a bounded regular region and let , : R R, v, w :
R V and S : R Lin be smooth fields. Then,
Z
Z
Z

dV +
dV .
1.
dA =
R
R n
R
Z
Z
Z
2.
Sn v dA =
S v dV +
v div S dV .
R

Z
3.

(Sn) v dA =
R

Z
4.

Z
v n dA =

v dV .
R

Z
w nv dA =

Z
div w v dV +

Z
6.

div S v dV .
R

div v dV +

5.

Sv dV +
R

v w n dA =
R

vw dV .
R

w curl v dV
R

v curl w dV.
R

Stokes Theorem. Let v be a smooth vector field on an open set R E. Let S be a smooth
surface in R bounded by c supposed to be a closed curve. At each point of S we choose a unit
normal vector n consistent with the direction of traversing c in that it causes a right-handed screw
to advance along n. Then,
Z
Z
curl v n dA = v dx.
S

1.2.4

Change of Variable in Integrals

Theorem 1.2.1 Let f be an injective smooth mapping, f : B E E, where B is an open


subset of the affine space E, and : f (B) R a smooth scalar field. Let c (resp. S) be a smooth
curve (resp. surface) in B and P an open subset of B. Then we have
R
R
1. f (c) t dlx = c f F k dlp ,
2.
3.
4.

f (S) n dAx

f (c) dlx =

f (S) dAx

R
S

f detF Ft m dAp ,

f kFkk dlp ,
f detFkFt mk dAp ,

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

16

5.

f (P) dVx

R
P

f detF dVp ,

where F denotes the gradient of f , k (resp. t) denotes a unit tangent vector to curve c (resp.
f (c)) and m (resp. n) denotes a unit normal vector to surface S (resp. f (S)).

1.2.5

The area enclosed by a plane curve

Let us consider a plane closed curve c which intersect itself at most at a finite number of
points. Let c(s), s [a, b], be a parametrization of c. We denote by R the open region enclosed
by this curve and by Ri , i = 1, , N, its connected components. Each of them has a boundary
Ri which consists of pieces of c which are walked in the same sense. To each Ri we associate
a sign si which is +1 if it is walked counter-clockwise, and 1 otherwise. Then the net area of
R is defined as
N
X
net area(R) =
si area(Ri ).
i=1

The following formulas for the net area of R hold:


Proposition 1.2.1 We have
Z

net area(R) =
a

dc2
c1 (s)
(s) ds =
ds

Z
a

c2 (s)

dc1
(s) ds.
ds

(1.33)

Proof.- It is an immediate consequence of the Stokes Theorem (in fact, for plane curves it is the
Greens Theorem). For a smooth plane vector field w defined in R it says that
Z
Z
curl w si e3 dA =
w dx.
(1.34)
Ri

Ri

Let us take
w(x) = x2 e1 + x1 e2 .

(1.35)

Then curl w = 2e3 and (1.34) yields


Z
2 si area(Ri ) =

w dx, i = 1, , N.

(1.36)

Ri

Adding the previous equalities we obtain


N

1X
net area(R) =
2
i=1

1
w dx =
2
Ri

1
w dx =
2
c

Z b
dc1
dc2
c2 (s)
(s) + c1 (s)
(s) ds.
ds
ds
a
(1.37)

Moreover, by integration by parts


Z b
Z b
Z b
dc2
dc2
dc1
(s) ds = (c1 (b)c2 (b) c1 (a)c2 (a)) +
c1 (s)
(s) ds =
c1 (s)
(s) ds.
c2 (s)
ds
ds
ds
a
a
a
(1.38)
because c is closed.
The result follows immediately by using (1.38) in (1.37).

1.3. DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS IN COORDINATES

1.2.6

17

Localization Theorem

Theorem 1.2.2 Let be a continuous scalar mapping defined in an open set R E. If


Z
dV = 0,
B

for every closed ball B R, then = 0 in R. Moreover, if is scalar and


Z
dV 0,
B

for every closed ball B R, then 0 in R.

1.3
1.3.1

Differential Operators in Coordinates


Cartesian Coordinates

Definition
f : = R3 R3

(1.39)

f (u1 , u2 , u3 ) = (u1 , u2 , u3 )

(1.40)

g1 = e1 ,

g2 = e2 ,

g3 = e3 .

(1.41)

g1 = e1 ,

g2 = e2 ,

g3 = e3 .

(1.42)

Basis
Contravariant
Covariant
Physical
e1 ,
Christoffel symbols of the second kind

0
1

0
jk =
0

0
2

0
jk =
0

0
3jk = 0
0

e2 ,

e3 .

0 0
0 0 ,
0 0

0 0
0 0 ,
0 0

0 0
0 0 .
0 0

Differential Operators in the Physical Basis

(1.43)

(1.44)

(1.45)

(1.46)

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

18

Gradient of scalar field


=

e1 +
e2 +
e3 ,
x1
x2
x3

(1.47)

Gradient of a vector field


w1
w1
w1
e1 e1 +
e1 e2 +
e1 e3
x1
x2
x3
w2
w2
w2
+
e2 e1 +
e2 e2 +
e2 e3
x1
x2
x3
w3
w3
w3
+
e3 e1 +
e3 e2 +
e3 e3 .
x1
x2
x3

w =

(1.48)

Convective term

w1
w1
w1
e1
(w)w = w1
+ w2
+ w3
x1
x2
x3

w2
w2
w2
+ w1
+ w2
+ w3
e2
x1
x2
x3

w3
w3
w3
+ w1
+ w2
+ w3
e3 .
x1
x2
x3

(1.49)

Curl of a vector field

w3 w2

e1
curl w =
x2
x3

w1 w3
+

e2
x3
x1

w2 w1
+

e3 .
x1
x2

(1.50)

Divergence of a vector field


div w =

w1 w2 w3
+
+
x1
x2
x3

(1.51)

Divergence of a tensor field

S11 S12 S13


div S =
+
+
e1
x1
x2
x3

S21 S22 S23


+
+
+
e2
x1
x2
x3

S31 S32 S33


+
+
+
e3 .
x1
x2
x3

(1.52)

1.3. DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS IN COORDINATES

19

Laplacian of a scalar field


=

2 2 2
+
+
.
x21
x22
x23

(1.53)

Laplacian of a vector field


w = w1 e1 + w2 e2 + w3 e3 .

(1.54)

Measure elements for integration


Line
dx1 , dx2 , dx3 .

(1.55)

dx2 dx3 , dx1 dx3 , dx1 dx2 .

(1.56)

dx1 dx2 dx3 .

(1.57)

Surface

Volume

1.3.2

Cylindrical Coordinates

Definition
f : = (0, ) (0, 2) (, ) R3

(1.58)

f (r, , z) = (r cos , r sin , z)

(1.59)

g1 (r, , z) = cos e1 + sin e2 ,


g2 (r, , z) = r sin e1 + r cos e2 ,

g3 (r, , z) = e3 .

(1.60)

1
g (r, , z) = cos e1 + sin e2 ,
g2 (r, , z) = 1r sin e1 + 1r cos e2 ,
3
g (r, , z) = e3 .

(1.61)

er (r, , z) = cos e1 + sin e2 ,


e (r, , z) = sin e1 + cos e2 ,

ez (r, , z) = e3 .

(1.62)

Basis
Contravariant

Covariant

Physical

20

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

x3
r

.x

z
x32
x1
Figure 1.1: Cylindrical coordinates.
Christoffel symbols of the second kind

1jk

0 0 0
= 0 r 0 ,
0 0 0

(1.63)

0
0 0 ,
0 0

(1.64)

0 0 0
= 0 0 0 .
0 0 0

(1.65)

2jk =

0
1
r

1
r

3jk

Differential operators in the physical basis


Gradient of scalar field

er +
e +
ez .
r
r
z

(1.66)

Gradient of a vector field

wr
1 wr
1
wr
w =
er er +
w er e +
er ez
r
r
r
z

w
w
1 w 1
+
e er +
+ wr e e +
e ez
r
r
r
z
wz
1 wz
wz
+
ez er +
ez e +
ez ez .
r
r
z

(1.67)

1.3. DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS IN COORDINATES

21

Convective term

(w )2
wr
1 wr
wr
(w)w = wr
+ w
+ wz

er
r
r

z
r

w 1 w
w wr w
+ wr
+ w
+ wz
+
e
r
r

z
r

wz
1 wz
wz
+ wr
+ w
+ wz
ez .
r
r

(1.68)

Curl of a vector field

w
1 wz
curl w =
er

r
z

wz
wr
+
+
e
r
z

1
1 wr
+
(rw )
ez .
r r
r

(1.69)

Divergence of a vector field


div w =

1 w wz
1
(rwr ) +
+
.
r r
r
z

(1.70)

Divergence of a tensor field

Sr
Srz
1
(rSrr ) +
+r
S er
div S =
r r

Sr
1 S Sz
1
1
+
+
+ Sr + Sr e
+
r
r
z
r
r

Sz
1
Szz
+
(rSzr ) +
+r
ez .
r r

(1.71)

Laplacian of a scalar field


=
r
+
+
r
r r
r
r
z
z

2
2
1

1
=
r
+ 2 2 + 2.
r r
r
r
z

(1.72)

Laplacian of a vector field

1
2 w
1
2 wr
w = wr 2 wr 2
er + w 2 w + 2
e + wz ez .
r
r
r
r
(1.73)
Measure elements for integration

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

22

Line
dr, r d, dz.

(1.74)

r ddz, drdz, r drd.

(1.75)

r drddz.

(1.76)

Surface

Volume

1.3.3

Spherical Coordinates

Definition

f : = (0, ) (0, ) (0, 2) R3


f (r, , ) = (r sin cos , r sin sin , r cos )

(1.77)

x3

.
r

x32

x1
Figure 1.2: Spherical coordinates.
Basis
Contravariant

Covariant

Physical

g1 (r, , ) = sin cos e1 + sin sin e2 + cos e3 ,


g2 (r, , ) = r cos cos e1 + r cos sin e2 r sin e3 ,

g3 (r, , ) = r sin sin e1 + r sin cos e2 .

(1.78)

1
g (r, , ) = sin cos e1 + sin sin e2 + cos e3 ,
g2 (r, , ) = 1r cos cos e1 + 1r cos sin e2 1r sin e3 ,
3
1
1
g (r, , ) = r sin
sin e1 + r sin cos e2 .

(1.79)

er (r, , ) = sin cos e1 + sin sin e2 + cos e3 ,


e (r, , ) = cos cos e1 + cos sin e2 sin e3 ,

e (r, , ) = sin e1 + cos e2 .

(1.80)

1.3. DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS IN COORDINATES

23

Christoffel symbols of the second kind

0 0
0
,
0
1jk = 0 r
2
0 0 r sin

0
0 1r
,
0
2jk = 1r 0
1
0 0 2 sin 2

1
0
0
r
0
cot .
3jk = 0
1
0
r cot

(1.81)

(1.82)

(1.83)

Differential operators
Gradient of a scalar field
=

1 2 3
1
1
g +
g +
g =
er +
e +
e ,
r

r
r
r sin

(1.84)

Gradient of a vector field

wr
1 wr
1
1 wr
1
w =
er er +
w er e +
w er e
r
r
r
r sin
r

w
1 w
1
1 w
1
+
e er +
+ wr e e +
cot w e e
r
r
r
r sin
r

w
1 w
1 w 1
1
e er +
e e +
+ wr + cot w e e .
+
r
r
r sin
r
r
(1.85)
Convective term

(w)w =
(
+

w2 + w2
w wr
wr
1 wr
wr
+ w
+

r
r

r sin
r

)
er

w2 cot
w w
w
1 w
wr w
wr
+ w
+
+

r
r

r sin
r
r

)
e

w 1 w
w w wr w w w cot
+ wr
+ w
+
+
+
e .
r
r

r sin
r
r

(1.86)

Curl of a vector field

w
1
(w sin )
er
curl w =
r sin

1 wr
1
+

(rw ) e
r sin
r r

1
wr
+
(rw )
e .
r r

(1.87)

CHAPTER 1. MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

24

Divergence of a vector field


div w =

1
1 w
1 2
(r wr ) +
(sin w ) +
.
2
r r
r sin
r sin

(1.88)

Divergence of a tensor field

Srr
1 Sr
1 Sr
1
div S =
+
+
+ (2Srr S S + Sr cot ) er
r
r
r sin
r

Sr
1 S
1 S 1
+
+
+
+ ((S S ) cot + 3Sr ) e
r
r
r sin
r

Sr
1 S
1 S
e .
+
+
+
(1.89)
r
r
r sin
Laplacian of a scalar field

1
2
= 2
r sin
+
sin
+
r sin r
r

sin
1

1
2
= 2 (r2
)+ 2
(sin ) + 2 2
.
r r
r
r sin

r sin 2

(1.90)

Laplacian of a vector field

2
2
2 w
2 w
w = wr 2 wr 2
2 w cot 2
er
r
r
r
r sin

1
2 wr
2 cos w
2 2 w 2 2
e
+ w + 2
r
r sin
r sin

1
2 wr
2 cos w
+ w 2 2 w + 2
+ 2 2
e .
r sin
r sin
r sin

(1.91)

where the Laplacian operators in the right-hand side are given by (1.90).
Measure elements for integration
Line
dr, r d, r sin d

(1.92)

r2 sin dd, r sin drd, r drd.

(1.93)

r2 sin drdd.

(1.94)

Surface

Volume

Chapter 2

Some Equations of Continuum


Mechanics in Coordinates
In this section we write some partial differential equations of continuum mechanics in cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates.

2.1

Mass Conservation Equation

It is given by

+ div(v) = 0,
t

(2.1)

where is density and v is velocity.


Cartesian coordinates

(v1 ) (v2 ) (v3 )


+
+
+
= 0.
t
x1
x2
x3

(2.2)

1
1 (v ) (vz )
+
(rvr ) +
+
= 0.
t
r r
r
z

(2.3)

1
1
1 (v )
+ 2 (r2 vr ) +
(sin v ) +
= 0.
t
r r
r sin
r sin

(2.4)

Cylindrical coordinates

Spherical coordinates

2.2

Motion Equation

The general motion equation has the form


(

v
+ (grad v)v) = div T + b,
t

where T is the Cauchy stress tensor and b is the body force.


25

(2.5)

26

CHAPTER 2. SOME EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS IN COORDINATES

Cartesian coordinates

v1
t

+
=

v2
t

+
=

v3
t

+
=

v1
v1
v1
+ v2
+ v3
v1
x1
x2
x3

T11 T12 T13


+
+
+ b1 ,
x1
x2
x3

v2
v2
v2
+ v2
+ v3
v1
x1
x2
x3

T21 T22 T23


+
+
+ b2 ,
x1
x2
x3

v3
v3
v3
+ v2
+ v3
v1
x1
x2
x3

T31 T32 T33


+
+
+ b3 .
x1
x2
x3

(2.6)

(2.7)

(2.8)
(2.9)

Cylindrical coordinates

vr
t

+
=

v
t

+
=

vz
t

+
=

v2
vr
v vr
vr
vr
+
+ vz

r
r
z
r

1
Tr
Trz
1
(rTrr ) +
+r
T + br ,
r r

z
r

v
v v
v
vr v
vr
+
+ vz
+
r
r
z
r

Tr
1 T
Tz
1
1
+
+
+ Tr + Tr + b ,
r
r
z
r
r

vz
v vz
vz
vr
+
+ vz
r
r v
z

1
Tz
Tzz
(rTzr ) +
+r
+ bz .
r r

(2.10)

(2.11)

(2.12)

2.3. CONSTITUTIVE LAW FOR NEWTONIAN VISCOUS FLUIDS IN COORDINATES

27

Spherical coordinates

vr
t

Trr
=
r

v2 + v2
v vr
vr
1 vr
vr
+ v
+

r
r
r sin
r

1 Tr
1 Tr
1
+
+ (2Trr T T + Tr cot ) + br ,
r
r sin
r
(2.13)

v
t

Tr
r

v2 cot
v v
v
1 v
vr v
vr
+ v
+
+

r
r
r sin
r
r

1 T
1 T 1
+
+ ((T T ) cot + 3Tr ) + b ,
r
r sin
r
(2.14)

Tr
=
r

+
+

v 1 v
v v vr v v v cot
vr
+ v
+
+
+
r
r
r sin
r
r

1 T
1 T
+
+ b .
r
r sin

(2.15)

2.3

Constitutive Law for Newtonian Viscous Fluids in Coordinates

In terms of the stretching D, it is given by

T = 2D + div vI,

(2.16)

1
D = (grad v + grad vt ).
2

(2.17)

where

28

CHAPTER 2. SOME EQUATIONS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS IN COORDINATES

Cylindrical coordinates

v1
,
x1
v2
T22 = div v + 2
,
x2
v3
T33 = div v + 2
,
x3

v1
v2
T12 = T21 =
+
,
x2 x1

v3
v1
+
,
T13 = T31 =
x3 x1

v3
v2
+
,
T23 = T32 =
x3 x2
T11 = div v + 2

(2.18)
(2.19)
(2.20)
(2.21)
(2.22)
(2.23)

with
div v =

v2
v3
v1
+
+
.
x1 x2 x3

(2.24)

Cylindrical coordinates

vr
Trr = div v + 2
,
r

1 v
vr
T = div v + 2
+
,
r
r
vz
Tzz = div v + 2
,
z

1 vr
v
Tr = Tr =
+r
,
r
r r

vr
vz
Trz = Tzr =
+
,
z
r

v
1 vz
Tz = Tz =
+
,
z
r

(2.25)
(2.26)
(2.27)
(2.28)
(2.29)
(2.30)

with
div v =

1
1 v
vz
(rvr ) +
+
.
r r
r
z

(2.31)

2.3. CONSTITUTIVE LAW FOR NEWTONIAN VISCOUS FLUIDS IN COORDINATES

29

Spherical coordinates
vr
Trr = div v + 2
,
r

1 v
vr
T = div v + 2
+
,
r
r

v cot
1 v vr
+
+
,
T = div v + 2
r sin
r
r

1 vr
v
Tr = Tr =
+r
,
r
r r

v
1 vr
Tr = Tr = r
+
,
r r
r sin

1 v
sin v
,
T = T =
+
r sin
r sin
with
div v =

1 2
1
1 v
(r vr ) +
(sin v ) +
.
r2 r
r sin
r sin

(2.32)
(2.33)
(2.34)
(2.35)
(2.36)
(2.37)

(2.38)