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Changes to the 2016

Edition of ASCE 7
J. G. (Greg) Soules, P.E., S.E.
Principal Engineer CB&I Inc.
Vice Chair, ASCE 7-16 Main Committee

While using ASCE 7, please keep in mind the old


adage A camel is a horse designed by committee.

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 1 (General)


We have changed the title of the document!
ASCE 7-16 will be known as:
Minimum Design Loads and Associated Criteria
for Buildings and Other Structures

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 1 (General)


ASCE 7 has for quite some time contained more than
just design loads.
Chapter 1 contains a Risk Category Table, Strength and
Stiffness requirements, performance-based design
requirements, serviceability requirements, and General
Structural Integrity provisions.
The flood chapter makes an explicit declaration that the
effects of scour and erosion be considered.
The rain chapter places requirements on the drainage and
consideration of ponding instability.
61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 1 (General)


ASCE 7 has for quite some time contained more than
just design loads.
The Atmospheric Ice section contains a specific design
procedure for the consideration of ice loads.
The Earthquake chapters contains requirements on
analysis, structural configuration directives, and prohibits
some structural systems and detailing methods.
Appendix C contains serviceability requirements.

The scope and commentary are also revised to


reflect this change in title.
61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 1 (General)


Reliability Basis for use in Performance-Based Design moved
from Commentary to Provisions.

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 1 (General)


The current load combinations and companion resistances
used in our prescriptive design procedures are intended to
provide reliabilities similar to those shown in the target
reliability table.
The ASCE 7 committee is looking at these reliabilities in the
context of many of our existing environmental loads.
Later in the presentation, you will see how the reliability
impacts wind loads for Risk Category IV structures.
Performance-based procedures must also demonstrate that
they provide a reliability not less than these target
reliabilities.
61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 2 (Load Combinations)


A new non-mandatory appendix (Appendix E)
has been added on:
Performance-Based Design Procedures for Fire
Effects on Structures

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 2 (Load Combinations)


Appendix E is not a mandatory part of the standard.
Provides procedures for performance-based design
and evaluation of structures for fire conditions that
result in fire-induced effects on a structures members
and connections.
Constitutes an alternative methodology to meet
project design requirements, as is permitted by
Section 1.3.6 and the alternate means and methods
of construction provision in the building codes.
Does not provide for design using standard fire
resistance design with prescriptive methods, nor does
it address explosions.
61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 4 (Live Load)


Table 4-1 (Minimum Uniformly Distributed
Live Loads)had no fewer than 16 very detailed
footnotes in ASCE 7-10.
In ASCE 7-16, Table 4-1 has NO footnotes.
Footnotes were not deleted. They simply
were moved over to the provisions.
This change makes use of Table 4-1 easier and
increases the clarity of the requirements.
61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 4 (Live Load)


Old Table 4-1

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 4 (Live Load)


New Table 4-1

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

New Chapter 6 (Tsunami)


Significant loss of life was experienced during the
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku
(Japan) Tsunami.
Significant populations are at risk from Tsunamis in
California, Oregon, Washington, Hawaii, and Alaska.
ASCE 7-10 is silent on how to deal with Tsunami risk.

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

New Chapter 6 (Tsunami)


The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the
ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee has developed a
new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the
ASCE 7-16 Standard, which has been approved.
ASCE 7-16 to be published in 2016
Tsunami Provisions would then be referenced in IBC
2018
State Building Codes of AK, WA, OR, CA, and HI ~ 2020
ASCE will be publishing two design guides in 2016
with design examples.
61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

New Chapter 6 (Tsunami)


The following buildings and other structures located within the
Tsunami Design Zone shall be designed for the effects of
Maximum Considered Tsunami including hydrostatic and
hydrodynamic forces, waterborne debris accumulation and
impact loads, subsidence, and scour effects in accordance
with this Chapter:
a.
b.

Tsunami Risk Category IV buildings and structures;


Tsunami Risk Category III buildings and structures with inundation depth at
any point greater than 3 feet, and
c. Where required by a state or locally adopted building code statute to include
design for tsunami effects, Tsunami Risk Category II buildings with mean
height above grade plane greater than the height designated in the statute,
and having inundation depth at any point greater than 3 feet.
Exception: Tsunami Risk Category II single-story buildings of any height without
mezzanines or any occupiable roof level, and not having any critical equipment or
systems need not be designed for the tsunami loads and effects specified in this
Chapter.

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

New Chapter 6 (Tsunami)


For the purposes of this chapter, Tsunami Risk Categories for
buildings and other structures shall be the Risk Categories
given in Section 1.5 with the following modifications:
1.

2.

State, local, or tribal governments shall be permitted to include Critical


Facilities in Tsunami Risk Category III, such as power-generating stations, water
treatment facilities for potable water, waste water treatment facilities and
other public utility facilities not included in Risk Category IV.
The following structures need not be included in Tsunami Risk Category IV and
state, local, or tribal governments shall be permitted to designate them as
Tsunami Risk Category II or III:
a.
b.
c.
d.

3.

Fire stations and ambulance facilities, emergency vehicle garages


Earthquake or hurricane shelters
Emergency aircraft hangars
Police stations that do not have holding cells and that are not uniquely required for postdisaster emergency response as a Critical Facility.

Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Refuge Structures shall be included in Tsunami


Risk Category IV.

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 7 (Snow)


Updated Map
SEA state snow maps for Oregon, Colorado, Idaho,
Montana, New Mexico, and Washington
incorporated.
Tables created with values for major cities within
state with reference to the original SEA document.
Eliminates conflicts between previous ASCE 7 map
and SEA maps.
Eliminates case study (CS) areas in these states.
61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Chapter 7 (Snow)

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Seismic
Too many changes to the seismic provisions to go
through all of them.
We will look at the changes to the horizontal
ground motions and the new site factors.
We will briefly look at the changes to Chapter 16.

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

New Seismic Ground Motions


Based on USGSs 2014 National Seismic Hazard
Maps.
New/updated fault characterizations.
New Ground Motion Prediction Equations.

Changes resulting from updated soil


amplification factors.
The Problem at softer soil sites whose seismic
hazard is dominated by large magnitude events.
The Light at the End of the Tunnel Project 17.
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New Seismic Ground Motions


The ground motions are changing!
AGAIN!

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March 3, 2016

New Site Factors Fa & Fv

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March 3, 2016

New Site Factors Fa & Fv


Site factors adjusted to a reference site condition
of vs = 760 m/s (instead of Site Class B) and to
reflect more recent knowledge and data
pertaining to site response.
Some values have gone up and some have gone
down.
As before, if site class is unknown, use Site Class
D EXCEPT minimum value of Fa is 1.2.
Section 11.4.7 will be discussed in a moment.
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DERIVED SITE FACTOR STUDY

PROPOSED APPROACH TO MINIMIZE POTENTIALLY UN-CONSERVATIVE


SEISMIC LOADS OF THE ELF AND MRSA DESIGN METHODS
Provisions Update Committee Meeting - September 15-16, 2014

Charlie Kircher
Kircher & Associates, Palo Alto, CA
Nicolas Luco
USGS, Golden CO

BackgroundRoot Cause of the


Problem
Section 11.4 of ASCE 7-10 (ASCE 7-16) - Use of only two
response periods (0.2s and 1.0s) to define ELF (and MRSA)
design forces is not sufficient, in general, to accurately
represent response spectral acceleration for all design periods
Reasonably Accurate (or Conservative) When peak MCER
response spectral acceleration occurs at or near 0.2s and peak
MCER response spectral velocity occurs at or near 1.0s for the
site of interest.
Potentially Non-conservative When peak MCER response
spectral velocity occurs at periods greater than 1.0s for the site
of interest (e.g., softer soil sites whose seismic hazard is
dominated by large magnitude events).

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Example ELF Design Spectrum based on ASCE 7-16


(Revised) Site Factors M8.0 earthquake ground motions
at RX = 8.5 km, Site Class DE
2.0
MCEr - BC (Vs,30 = 2,500 fps)

ELF Design Spectrum


Cs x (R/Ie) = min[SDS, SD1/T]

1.8

MCEr - DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)


Design DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)

1.6

ELF DE (Vs,30 = 600 fps)

Spectral Acceleration (g)

1.4

ASCE 7-16 (Revised)


Fa = 0.9 = (1.0 + 0.8)/2
Fv = 1.85 = (1.7 + 2.0)/2
Ts = 0.85s

1.2
1.0

Conservative

0.8
0.6

Non-Conservative
0.4

Ground Motion Values


SDS = 2/3FaSs = 2/3 x 0.9 x 1.56g = 0.94g
SD1 = 2/3FvS1 = 2/3 x 1.85 x 0.70g = 0.86g

0.2
0.0
0.1

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1.0
Period (seconds)

10.0

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March 3, 2016

How to fix the Problem


Multipoint spectrum is the ultimate solution but is not
ready for the 2016 Edition (Future Project 17).
Factors could be applied to the current ground motions to
make the correction (fix rejected by ASCE 7).
Require site-specific response analysis in the following
situations (fix accepted by ASCE 7 in Section 11.4.7):
structures on Site Class E sites with SS greater than or equal to 1.0.
structures on Site Class D and E sites with S1 greater than or equal
to 0.2.

Site-specific studies will become more common place in


large portions of the country.

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Background - Map of TL Regions (and Relationship to Earthquake Magnitude)


(Chapter 22, ASCE 7-05, ASCE 7-10 and ASCE 7-16)

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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Project 17
Joint BSSC USGS project to develop
consensus between earth science and
geotechnical communities as to basis for maps
in ASCE 7-22
Initiated in February 2013
Will complete mid-year 2018 with publication
of preliminary maps for ASCE 7-22

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Project 17
Multi-period spectra
Precision vs. Uncertainty
Small changes in earth science mean radical
change in contours
Maps change significantly every cycle
Changes are not statistically significant

Acceptable Collapse Risk


Use and definition of deterministic caps
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Chapter 16 Changes
Big Picture
ASCE 7-10
Chapter 16 covered linear
and nonlinear response
history analysis

ASCE 7-16
Chapter 16 limited to
nonlinear response history
analysis
Linear moved to Chapter 12

Conducted at Design
Earthquake shaking
Acceptance values = 2/3 of
failure level demands
Alternate procedure to ELF,
RSA

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Conducted at MCER shaking


Acceptance values taken at
statistical probability of
failure
Supplementary procedure
to ELF, RSA, or linear
response history
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March 3, 2016

Motivation

Performance-based Seismic Design


of Tall Buildings

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Important New Concepts


Acceptance based on
local and global
behavior
Failure probability tied
to overall
performance goal
(10% probability
collapse given MCER)
61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Wind
New/Revised Wind Maps
New MRI/Map for Risk Category IV Structures
based on reliabilities consistent with new Table
1.3.1.3a.
Revised all maps to incorporate more stations,
additional years of data, and updated
analysis/modeling methods.

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Wind

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Changes to Wind

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

University of Kansas

March 3, 2016

Changes to Wind

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

University of Kansas

March 3, 2016

Changes to Wind

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016

Questions?

61st Annual Structural Engineering Conference

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March 3, 2016