Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

CALCULUS 1

INTEGRATION

INTEGRATION

Oktober 2016

INTEGRATION

1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA PROBLEM

2. THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

3. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION

4. THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

5. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS

AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA

PROBLEM

THE AREA PROBLEM

THE AREA PROBLEM
THE AREA PROBLEM
THE AREA PROBLEM

THE AREA PROBLEM

Given a function f that is continuous and nonnegative on an interval [a, b], find the area between the graph of f and the interval [a, b] on the x-axis.

nonnegative on an interval [ a , b ], find the area between the graph of

THE RECTANGLE METHOD FOR FINDING

AREAS

THE RECTANGLE METHOD FOR FINDING AREAS
THE RECTANGLE METHOD FOR FINDING AREAS
THE RECTANGLE METHOD FOR FINDING AREAS
THE RECTANGLE METHOD FOR FINDING AREAS

THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR

FINDING AREAS

THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR FINDING AREAS If f is a nonnegative continuous function on the interval

If f is a nonnegative continuous function on the interval [a, b] If A(x) denotes the area under the graph of f over the interval [a, x], where x is any point in the interval [a, b] then :

A’(x) = f(x)

THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR

FINDING AREAS

EXEMPLE 1

For each of the functions f , find the area A(x) between the graph of f and the

interval [a, x] = [−1, x], and find the derivative A (x) of this area function

x ], and find the derivative A ( x ) of this area function EXEMPLE 2
x ], and find the derivative A ( x ) of this area function EXEMPLE 2
x ], and find the derivative A ( x ) of this area function EXEMPLE 2
x ], and find the derivative A ( x ) of this area function EXEMPLE 2

EXEMPLE 2 Use the antiderivative method to find the area under the graph of y = x 2 over the interval [0, 1].

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

ANTIDERIVATIVES

ANTIDERIVATIVES
ANTIDERIVATIVES

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

If :

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL  If :  We have : The expression  is called an

We have :

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL  If :  We have : The expression  is called an

The expression is called an indefinite integral , the

function f (x) is called the integrand and C is represent an

arbitrary constant.

f xdx

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

EXEMPLE

INTEGRATION FORMULAS EXEMPLE

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL EXEMPLE Evaluate
PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL EXEMPLE Evaluate
PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL EXEMPLE Evaluate
PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL EXEMPLE Evaluate

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL EXEMPLE

EXEMPLE

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL CURVES

Graphs of antiderivatives of a function f are called integral

curves of f

INTEGRAL CURVES Graphs of antiderivatives of a function f are called integral curves of f

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

The problem of finding a function y(x) whose derivative is f(x) and whose graph passes through the point (x 0 , y 0 ) is expressed as :

through the point ( x 0 , y 0 ) is expressed as : This is

This is called an initial-value problem, and the requirement that y(x 0 ) = y 0 is called the initial condition for the problem.

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

EXEMPLE

Solve the initial-value problem

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS EXEMPLE Solve the initial-value problem
INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS EXEMPLE Solve the initial-value problem
INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS EXEMPLE Solve the initial-value problem
INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS EXEMPLE Solve the initial-value problem

EXERCISE 1

1. Find the derivative and state a corresponding integration formula

the derivative and state a corresponding integration formula 2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer
the derivative and state a corresponding integration formula 2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer

2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer by differentiating.

integration formula 2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer by differentiating. 3. Solve the initial-value
integration formula 2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer by differentiating. 3. Solve the initial-value

3. Solve the initial-value problems

integration formula 2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer by differentiating. 3. Solve the initial-value
integration formula 2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer by differentiating. 3. Solve the initial-value

EXERCISE

4. Find an equation of the curve that satisfies the given conditions

At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is 2x + 1; the curve passes through

the point (−3, 0).

At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is −sin x; the curve passes through the point (0, 2).

INTEGRATION BY

SUBSTITUTION

u - SUBSTITUTION

The chain rule implies that the derivative of F(g(x)) can be expressed as :

that the derivative of F ( g ( x )) can be expressed as : which

which we can write in integral form as :

be expressed as : which we can write in integral form as : or since F

or since F is an antiderivative of f :

we can write in integral form as : or since F is an antiderivative of f

can be expressed as :

with substitution :

we can write in integral form as : or since F is an antiderivative of f
we can write in integral form as : or since F is an antiderivative of f

u - SUBSTITUTION

EXEMPLE

u - SUBSTITUTION EXEMPLE If we let u = x 2 + 1, then du/dx =

If we let u = x 2 + 1, then du/dx = 2x, which implies that du = 2x dx

u - SUBSTITUTION EXEMPLE If we let u = x 2 + 1, then du/dx =

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS

The easiest substitutions occur when the integrand is the derivative of a known function

TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS  The easiest substitutions occur when the integrand is the derivative of a
TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS  The easiest substitutions occur when the integrand is the derivative of a

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS EXEMPLE Evaluate
EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS EXEMPLE Evaluate

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS EXEMPLE Evaluate
EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS EXEMPLE Evaluate

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS

Evaluate

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS Evaluate
LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS Evaluate

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS

Evaluate

we write

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS Evaluate we write and solve the equation du = cos x dx for
LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS Evaluate we write and solve the equation du = cos x dx for

and solve the equation du = cos x dx for u = sin x. Since sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1, we then have

we write and solve the equation du = cos x dx for u = sin x

EXERCISE 2

1. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

1. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions 2. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

2. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

2. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions 3. Evaluate the integrals using appropriate substitutions

3. Evaluate the integrals using appropriate substitutions

2. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions 3. Evaluate the integrals using appropriate substitutions
2. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions 3. Evaluate the integrals using appropriate substitutions

THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE

INTEGRAL

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE

INTEGRAL

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826–1866)
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826–1866)

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE

INTEGRAL

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL
PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY
DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY
DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

EXERCISE 3

1. Evaluate the integrals

EXERCISE 3 1. Evaluate the integrals

EXERCISE 3

2. Suppose that f and g are continuous functions and that

2

2

f (x)dx

Find

5,

4

2

f (x)dx



3,

2

4 f (x)dx

3

4

2 f (x)dx

2

2 2 f (x)dx

2*5=10

3

3 f (x)dx

-3 + 5 = 2

0

4

2

h(x)dx

6

2

4

f (x)dx

-5 -3 = -2

4

2 [3 f (x)

2h(x)]dx

3*(-3)- 2 * 6 = -21

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

OF CALCULUS

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS we can express (2) as :

we can express (2) as :

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS we can express (2) as :

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS

EXEMPLE

1.

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS EXEMPLE 1. 2. Show that the area under the graph of
THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS EXEMPLE 1. 2. Show that the area under the graph of

2. Show that the area under the graph of y = 9 − x 2 over the interval [0, 3] is 18 (square units)

EXEMPLE 1. 2. Show that the area under the graph of y = 9 − x

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

When applying the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus there is no need

to include a constant of integration because it will drop out anyway :

a constant of integration because it will drop out anyway : Thus, for purposes of evaluating

Thus, for purposes of evaluating a definite integral we can omit the constant of integration in :

a definite integral we can omit the constant of integration in : which relates the definite

which relates the definite and indefinite integrals

a definite integral we can omit the constant of integration in : which relates the definite

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS EXEMPLE
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS EXEMPLE
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS EXEMPLE
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

If f is a continuous function on the interval [a, b], then we define the total area

between the curve y = f(x) and the interval [a, b] to be :

the curve y = f ( x ) and the interval [ a , b ]

EXEMPLE

Find the total area between the curve y = 1 − x 2 and the x-axis over the interval [0, 2]

b ] to be : EXEMPLE Find the total area between the curve y = 1
b ] to be : EXEMPLE Find the total area between the curve y = 1

THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR

INTEGRALS

THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR INTEGRALS
THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR INTEGRALS

THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR

INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

Since f(x) = x 2 is continuous on the interval [1, 4], the Mean-Value Theorem for Integrals guarantees that there is a point x in [1, 4] such that :

interval [1, 4], the Mean-Value Theorem for Integrals guarantees that there is a point x ∗

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

OF CALCULUS

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

OF CALCULUS

EXEMPLE

Find

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS EXEMPLE Find
PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS EXEMPLE Find
PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS EXEMPLE Find

EXERCISE 4

1. Find the area under the curve y = f(x) over the stated interval.

area under the curve y = f(x) over the stated interval. 2. Find all values of

2. Find all values of xin the stated interval that satisfy Equation in the Mean- Value Theorem for Integrals

satisfy Equation in the Mean- Value Theorem for Integrals 3. Use Part 2 of the Fundamental

3. Use Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to find the derivatives.

in the Mean- Value Theorem for Integrals 3. Use Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem of