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CALCULUS 1

INTEGRATION

Oktober 2016

INTEGRATION

1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA PROBLEM

2. THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

3. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION

4. THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

5. THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS

AN OVERVIEW OF THE AREA

PROBLEM

THE AREA PROBLEM

THE AREA PROBLEM

Given a function f that is continuous and nonnegative on an interval [a, b], find the area between the graph of f and the interval [a, b] on the x-axis.

THE RECTANGLE METHOD FOR FINDING

AREAS

THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR

FINDING AREAS

If f is a nonnegative continuous function on the interval [a, b] If A(x) denotes the area under the graph of f over the interval [a, x], where x is any point in the interval [a, b] then :

A’(x) = f(x)

THE ANTIDERIVATIVE METHOD FOR

FINDING AREAS

EXEMPLE 1

For each of the functions f , find the area A(x) between the graph of f and the

interval [a, x] = [−1, x], and find the derivative A (x) of this area function

EXEMPLE 2 Use the antiderivative method to find the area under the graph of y = x 2 over the interval [0, 1].

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

ANTIDERIVATIVES

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

If :

We have :

The expression is called an indefinite integral , the

function f (x) is called the integrand and C is represent an

arbitrary constant.

f xdx

THE INDEFINITE INTEGRAL

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

INTEGRATION FORMULAS

EXEMPLE

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

PROPERTIES OF THE INDEFINITE

INTEGRAL

EXEMPLE

INTEGRAL CURVES

Graphs of antiderivatives of a function f are called integral

curves of f

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

The problem of finding a function y(x) whose derivative is f(x) and whose graph passes through the point (x 0 , y 0 ) is expressed as :

This is called an initial-value problem, and the requirement that y(x 0 ) = y 0 is called the initial condition for the problem.

INTEGRATION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

EXEMPLE

Solve the initial-value problem

EXERCISE 1

1. Find the derivative and state a corresponding integration formula

2. Evaluate the integral and check your answer by differentiating.

3. Solve the initial-value problems

EXERCISE

4. Find an equation of the curve that satisfies the given conditions

At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is 2x + 1; the curve passes through

the point (−3, 0).

At each point (x, y) on the curve the slope is −sin x; the curve passes through the point (0, 2).

INTEGRATION BY

SUBSTITUTION

u - SUBSTITUTION

The chain rule implies that the derivative of F(g(x)) can be expressed as :

which we can write in integral form as :

or since F is an antiderivative of f :

can be expressed as :

with substitution :

u - SUBSTITUTION

EXEMPLE

If we let u = x 2 + 1, then du/dx = 2x, which implies that du = 2x dx

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS

The easiest substitutions occur when the integrand is the derivative of a known function

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

EASY TO RECOGNIZE SUBSTITUTIONS

EXEMPLE

Evaluate

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS

Evaluate

LESS APPARENT SUBSTITUTIONS

Evaluate

we write

and solve the equation du = cos x dx for u = sin x. Since sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1, we then have

EXERCISE 2

1. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

2. Evaluate the integrals using the indicated substitutions

3. Evaluate the integrals using appropriate substitutions

THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE

INTEGRAL

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE

INTEGRAL

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826–1866)

RIEMANN SUMS AND THE DEFINITE

INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

PROPERTIES OF THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

DISCONTINUITIES AND INTEGRABILITY

EXERCISE 3

1. Evaluate the integrals

EXERCISE 3

2. Suppose that f and g are continuous functions and that

2

2

f (x)dx

Find

5,

4

2

f (x)dx



3,

2

4 f (x)dx

3

4

2 f (x)dx

2

2 2 f (x)dx

2*5=10

3

3 f (x)dx

-3 + 5 = 2

0

4

2

h(x)dx

6

2

4

f (x)dx

-5 -3 = -2

4

2 [3 f (x)

2h(x)]dx

3*(-3)- 2 * 6 = -21

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

OF CALCULUS

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS

we can express (2) as :

THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS

EXEMPLE

1.

2. Show that the area under the graph of y = 9 − x 2 over the interval [0, 3] is 18 (square units)

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

When applying the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus there is no need

to include a constant of integration because it will drop out anyway :

Thus, for purposes of evaluating a definite integral we can omit the constant of integration in :

which relates the definite and indefinite integrals

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEFINITE

AND INDEFINITE INTEGRALS

If f is a continuous function on the interval [a, b], then we define the total area

between the curve y = f(x) and the interval [a, b] to be :

EXEMPLE

Find the total area between the curve y = 1 − x 2 and the x-axis over the interval [0, 2]

THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR

INTEGRALS

THE MEAN-VALUE THEOREM FOR

INTEGRALS

EXEMPLE

Since f(x) = x 2 is continuous on the interval [1, 4], the Mean-Value Theorem for Integrals guarantees that there is a point x in [1, 4] such that :

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

OF CALCULUS

PART 2 OF THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM

OF CALCULUS

EXEMPLE

Find

EXERCISE 4

1. Find the area under the curve y = f(x) over the stated interval.

2. Find all values of xin the stated interval that satisfy Equation in the Mean- Value Theorem for Integrals

3. Use Part 2 of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus to find the derivatives.