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DATA QUALITY, STANDARDS


(OGC, NSDI & GSDI
initiatives)
R.S. POLICY ISSUES &
Internet Resources

P.L.N. Raju
North Eastern Space
Applications Centre, Shillong
raju@iirs.gov.in /
director@nesac.gov.in

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Errors, data quality and uncertainty

Basic concepts
Error
It encompasses both the imprecision of data
and its inaccuracies.

Accuracy
It is the degree to which information on a
map or in a digital database matches true or
accepted values.

Precision
refers to the level of measurement and
exactness of description in a GIS database.

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Errors, data quality and uncertainty

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Question Time?

Give two examples each for error,


accuracy and precision.
Note: The example should be different and
other than what I have explained as part
of my lecture
Note down the answers and send me when
the interaction time starts at 1700 hrs

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Errors, data quality and uncertainty

THREE MAIN GROUPS OF FACTORS


GOVERNING THE ERRORS:I

OBVIOUS SOURCES OF ERRORS

II

ERRORS RESULTING FROM NATURAL


VARIATION

III

ERRORS ARISES THROUGH PROCESSING

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I

Errors, data quality and uncertainty

OBVIOUS SOURCES OF ERRORS


AGE OF DATA
MAP SCALE
DENSITY OF OBSERVATION
FORMAT
ACCESSIBILITY
COST

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II

Errors, data quality and uncertainty

ERRORS RESULTING FROM NATURAL


VARIATION
POSITIONAL ACCURACY
ACCURACY OF CONTENT QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE
NATURAL VARIATION AND OBSERVED
BIAS

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III

Errors, data quality and uncertainty

ERRORS ARISES THROUGH


PROCESSING
NUMBERICAL ERRORS IN
COMPUTER
FAULTS ARISING THROUGH
MAP OVERLAY AND MISUSE
OF LOGIC
CLASSIFICATION AND
GENERALIZATION PROBLEMS

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Errors, data quality and uncertainty

Basic concepts
Data
A collection of facts from which conclusions
may be drawn

Quality
ISO considers quality to be the totality in
characteristics of a product that bear on its
ability to satisfy a stated and implied need
(Godwin, 1999)

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GIS Data Quality

Cartographic Quality
Relative accuracy
Absolute accuracy
Graphic quality

Informational Quality
Completeness
Correctness
Timeliness
Integrity

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Errors, data quality and uncertainty

Data quality components

Standards

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International Standard Organizations

ISO 9000

ISO 14000

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Standards

International and national Standard Organisation


for Geographic Information

Policy Issues
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Why do we need Earth Observation?
Exploration and peaceful uses
of Outer Space for the benefit
of Human kind
Strengthen capabilities of
countries in space applications
Int. Cooperation in Space
To solve regional and global
problems

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Policy Issues

Why do we need Earth Observation?


Understand worldwide phenomena
Infrastructure Development
Sustainable development of
resources
To protect the planet earth
To secure from external threats
To prevent from manmade and
natural disasters

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Policy Issues
Role of UN in Earth Observation
Data Policy

UNOOSA
Committee on the
Peaceful Uses of Outer
Space
WMO
ITU

iirs UN Principles : RS of the Earth


Principle 1 Specifying Remote Sensing activities
Principle 2 RS activities for the benefit of all countries
Principle 3 RS activities in accordance of International
Law
Principle 4 RS activities in accordance with article 1 of
treaty
Principle 5 Sensing states shall promote International
Co-operation

iirs UN Principles : RS of the Earth


Principle 6 States are encouraged to assist in
establishment and collection of data
through agreement
Principle 7 Participating in RS shall provide technical
assistance to interested states
Principle 8 UN shall promote international cooperation
Principle 9 RS activities carrying state shall inform for
registration of objects as per conventions of
UN

iirs UN Principles : RS of the Earth


Principle 10 RS shall promote the protection of the Earths
natural environment
Principle 11 RS shall promote the protection of mankind
from natural disasters
Principle 12 Sensed state shall have access to all primary
data from sensing state

iirs UN Principles : RS of the Earth


Principle 13

Sensing state upon request


participate in international
cooperation for mutual benefits

Principle 14

Sensing state shall abide by


norms of International Law
and UN treaties

Principle 15

Disputes from application of these


principles shall be resolved by
established procedures

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Policy Issues

Issues left out in UN Resolution


EO resolution better than 10 M
and Very high resolution (VHR)
data
Dissemination & usage issues of
VHR data
Privacy aspects of VHR
dissemination
Any military activities

Policy Issues

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Legal Issues in Earth


Observation Data Policy
Licensing
Licensing activities or entities to undertake
certain activities or entities is an efficient
means to control, legally as well as factually
those activities.
Note : UN treaty on exploration of Outer Space for
Peaceful uses with Articles (1to 17) UN resolution
27/1/1967

Policy Issues
Legal Issues in Earth
Observation Data Policy

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Liability
It is the legal accountability of a person
or entity for damage caused to another
person or entity as defined and regulated
by a particular set of rules and principles.
(Article 7 of the Outer Space Treaty, the Liability Convention
provides that a launching State shall be absolutely liable to pay
compensation for damage caused by its space objects on the
surface of the Earth or to aircraft, and liable for damage due to its
faults in space)
- ESA and ETSO declared their acceptance of the rights and obligations
provided for in this Agreement.

Policy Issues
EO data Acquisition Complex
Policy Issues

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Data acquisition and distribution rights


for nation/region
International /National ground stations
Distribution of primary and processed
data
Pricing : free/commercial rates
Public owned / Commercial owned
ground stations

Policy Issues
EO Data Pricing Policy Pricing
models

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Free data for all users


Marginal cost price for all users
Market driven, realizable prices for all
users
Full cost pricing
Two tier pricing
Information content pricing
Access key pricing

Policy Issues

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EO Data Archival Policy Present scenario


USA

Good long term policy


Landsat archival policy (USGS)
US EOS (15 years data)
Europe
No clear mandate for long term policy
Project specific archival policy
India
Medium term policy (5 years data)
No long term policy

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Internet Resources

Data access
Computing resources
GIS Software
Learning resources

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Internet resources

S.No. Hosted by & Website link


Nature of resources
Web access to Geospatial Information in India
National Natural Resources
Natural Resource Repository (NRR)
1
Information System
generated under NNRMS, ISRO/DOS
http://www.nnrms.gov.in
Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) data
National Remote Sensing Centre
/thematic outputs of Indian
2
bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in
3

National Informatics Centre


http://gis.nic.in/
Indian National Centre for Ocean
Information Service (INCOIS)
http://www.incois.gov.in/
Meteorological and
Oceanographic Satellite Data
Archival Centre
http://www.mosdac.gov.in/

RS & GIS basic reading material


National level spatial information
search facility
Provide ocean information and
advisory services to the society,
industry, government, and scientific
community
Meteorological and Oceanographic
geophysical data products

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Internet resources

S.N
o.

Hosted by & Website link

Nature of resources

Web access to Geospatial Information


USGS Education material
Common place to refer for
http://education.usgs.gov/
education material on RS, GIS
and GPS
CGIAR consortium for spatial
Site for downloading SRTM DEM
information
data at 90 m resolution
http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/
IIRS e-learning courses
http://elearning.iirs.gov.in/

Open to all to learn Remote


Sensing and Geo-information
Science

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Internet resources

S.No. Hosted by & Website link


Nature of resources
Web access to Geospatial Information in India
GIS Reading Material
1
GIS Development monthly magazine
GIS reading material and published
http://www.geospatialmedia.net/
articles in the magazine for more than ten
years
My Coordinates monthly magazine
http://www.mycoordinates.org/

GPS, GIS and RS reading material with


more emphasis on positioning technology

Indian Society of Geomatics


http://www.isgindia.org/
NNRMS Bulletin

Newsletter (quarterly) on RS, GIS and GPS

Geospatial Today
http://www.geospatialtoday.com/

Monthly magazine on Geospatial


technologies

Geo Place
http://www.geoplace.com/

Website of multiple GIS and business


related publications

Biannual technical publication from


ISRO/NNRMS bringing out RS & GIS
application project outputs

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Thanks
Please send questions
to clarify your doubts