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GENTLE INTRODUCTION to GIS

P.L.N. Raju
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing
Indian Space Research Organisation
raju@iirs.gov.in

OVERVIEW & INTRODUCTION to GIS

Outline of Presentation

General Understanding of GIS


Concepts of GIS
Potential of GIS
H/W and Software
History
Interaction session

General Understanding of GIS

Understanding GIS (1)


Map reading and
information how it is
related to GIS?

What you get from the map?


Can we measure and
quantify?
Can we find the optimum
route/path?
Is it possible to find the
changes?
How is it related to GIS?

Topo map reading

General Understanding of GIS

Understanding GIS (2)


Remote Sensing data and relation to
GIS
What we get from satellite data?
Can we find the changes and how?
How time series helps in finding
patterns?
Can we quantify the information?
How RS is related to GIS?

Satellite Image in GIS

General Understanding of GIS

Understanding GIS (3)


GNSS and its relation to GIS
Provides positional information
Data generated in the form of point / line /
area theme can be directly brought into GIS
Updating of GIS information will be easy and
fast using GNSS device
GIS use in GNSS/Mobile?

GNSS in GIS

General Understanding of GIS

Understanding GIS (4)


Models and GIS
We ask children to make models
about our earth, Why?
Global warming and climatic
change how it is done?
Models and its role in GIS

Potential of GIS

What GIS can do?


What GIS can do? Real world problems
Identification
Locate
Optimum path
Patterns

Trend
Models

Where ?
What is there?
What is the best route?
What relations exists
between?
What has changed ?
What if ?

General Understanding of GIS

In Summary GIS is
Integrating technology consisting of:

Remote Sensing
Cartography and Mapping
GPS
Computers
RDMS
Information & Communication technology
Survey and field data collection

Quiz on what GIS can do


How do you find a place that you are searching for?
Given two points with X,Y, Z coordinates , what will
be the distance between both the points?
How many input images/maps/GIS layers required to
find the changes?
How many input images/maps/GIS layers required to
find the patterns?
What it is called to predict the future scenario?

Concepts of GIS

Explaining Meaning of GIS (1)


GEOGRAPHICAL
INFORMATION
SYSTEM

Concepts of GIS

GEOGRAPHY

The science of Earths physical

features, resources, climate,


population etc.

Concepts of GIS
GEOGRAPHY = Geo + Graphy
SNAKES & LADDER

What & Where

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Location is important

Concepts of GIS
INFORMATION

Concepts of GIS

Explaining Meaning of GIS (1)


A

P
O

D
A

How we derive information?

Concepts of GIS

Explaining Meaning of GIS (1)


A

Concepts of GIS
Descriptive

Graphical

Explaining Meaning of GIS (1)

Concepts of GIS

What is the specialty of GIS?


Facilitates faster process of operations
Provides solution for many real world

problems with options of many scenarios


Decision making tool with the support of

organized data
Integrating technology

Dynamic map display and interactive


query

Concepts of GIS
Hardware
+
Software
+
Data ware
+
Human-ware

=
GIS

Concepts of GIS
GIS terminology
Geographical Information System
Geographical Information Science
Geoinformatics
Geomatics
Spatial information system
Geospatial systems
Geospatial information engineering
Land information system
.

Concepts of GIS

Defining GIS

Toolbox based

- set of tools
- a system
- an information system

Database definitions

for capturing, storing,


retrieving, analyzing and
displaying which are
spatially referenced to earth

- a database system in which most of the data are


spatially indexed, and upon which a set of procedures
are operated in order to answer queries about spatial
entities in the database.

Organization based definitions


- a decision support system involving the integration of
spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment

Concepts of GIS

How GIS Works?

Concepts of GIS

How it works?
A Powerful tool for solving real-world problems

A method to
visualize, manipulate, analyze,
and display spatial data

Concepts of GIS
RASTER - VECTOR Data Models

Concepts of GIS

Types of GIS

Desktop GIS
Professional GIS
Enterprise GIS
Mobile GIS
Internet GIS
Embedded GIS
4 D GIS
Multimedia GIS

Potential of GIS
What Analysis GIS can do?
SIMPLE QUERY
SPATIAL QUERRYING
SINGLE LAYER OPERATION
MULTIPLE- LAYER OPERATIONS
SPATIAL MODELING
SURFACE ANALYSIS
NETWORK ANALYSIS
POINT PATTERN ANALYSIS
GRID ANALYSIS

GIS Application potential

Where it is used?
Natural resource management
Infrastructure development
Utility services
Business applications
Investigation services
e-governance

Potential of GIS
GIS Developments in India

GIS Entrepreneurs
ESRI India ltd

National level
organisations

DOS/ISRO
NRDMS/DST
NIC
TCPO/Urban Depts

State level departments


S&T Depts.. / SRSCs
Rural Departments
NGOs

Intergraph
ERDAS India ltd.
RMSI
RMS
TCS
Reliance Infocom
Infotech ltd
Infosys
Bentley India
ADCC
Kampsax India ltd.

H/W and S/W


GIS SOFTWARES
1. ARCGIS

2. Leica Geosystems
3. ERMAPPER

4. GEOMEDIA
5. GRASS (Open source)
6. IGiS (ISRO)

Proprietary S/W s
Open source S/W
Free Softwares
Costs
Free to
10/20 lakh

7. Free softwares
(ILWIS/GRASS/QGIS/TNTMIPS/GRASS/A
RCVIEW3.0/ MAPSERVER

History
Father of GIS

History
1989 TIGER, NCGIA & MGE S/W
1987 IJGIS, SPANS S/W & IDRISI S/W
1986 MAPINFO S/W & First PGIS book
1985 GRASS GIS s/w
1981 ESRI launched ARC/INFO
1971-80
ODYSSEY GIS, the first modern vector GIS
ERDAS was founded, 1978
The USGS developed DLG spatial data format
Minnesota Land Management Information System
IBM's GFIS (Geographic Information Systems)

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1960-70
ESRI, Intergraph and Laserscan, first commercial setups
US Bureau of Census DIME data format &ECU in London
SYMAP (Synagraphic Mapping System)
Harvard Lab for CGSA by Howard Fisher
CGIS (Roger Tomlinson)
- analyze Canada's national land inventory, a beginning

History
Beyond 2000

1991-00

Internet GIS
Mobile GIS
Location based services
Open access to satellite images (ex. Google Earth)
AAA

Multi- Media GIS


Expanding GIS potential
PC GIS
Maguire, Goodchild, & Rhind's,
the GIS Big Book published

The application of GIS is limited only by the imagination of


those who use it
~ Jack Dangermond

Thanks for your attention

Time to clarify your doubts


Please send us questions