You are on page 1of 41

P.L.N.

RAJU
IIRS, ISRO
Dehradun
raju@iirs.gov.in

What is Digitising?

Digitisation means Converting Analog Data into a Digital


Data
In other words, DIGITISING is a method of data capture
of existing maps. Number of digitising techniques
exists
Scanning can also called Digitising, in general sense.

iirs

Digitising Process
1

2
4

5
Rasterisation

Spatial Database 6
Source: ITC

iirs

Digitisers

iirs

On-screen digitising
(manual or semi-automatic)

Gandhi Road

iirs

On-screen vs manual digitising


more comfortable for the operator
more accurate (zooming facilities)
faster (semi-automatic, digitising and editing at
the same time)

Same work can be shared


up-dating is easy (geometrically corrected
satellite imagery and scanned aerial photos can be
overlaid with the old vector data )

iirs

Map registration

Digitizer
tablet
wires
Or screen
pixels

y
y

Local
coordinate
system
(digitizer /
screen)

Control
point

World
coordinate
system
(Map)
4

iirs

Map registration

Point
number

X,Y coordinates in
local coordinate system
(digitizer/screen)

X,Y coordinates in
world coordinate
system

iirs

Digitising errors

Overshoot

Undershoot

Sliver

Duplicate line

iirs

Snap Tolerance

iirs

Identifying & Interpreting errors


Overshoots

+211
+212

Undershoots
Missing labels
Multiple labels

+213

+216
+215

Pseudo node
Label points

+214

Dangling node
Missing labels

+217

*
iirs

Point and stream mode digitising


Tunnel Tolerance

iirs

Scanning
Scanning Refers to the process of obtaining map
into computer using CCD based device called
Scanner
The Scanned map is in the Form of Image or
Raster
We have to Digitise this image/raster in order to
get correct Vector Map

iirs

Scanners

iirs

The scanning process

Drum scanner

Flat-bed
scanner

iirs

Working principle

A digital scanner illuminates a to-be-scanned document and


measures with a sensor the intensity of the reflected (or
transmitted) light

Light source

Paper
Film

Sensor
Light source

Sensor
Page 129

iirs

30
60
220
40

205
15
30
10

230
15
10
103

42
10
15
230

10
90
40
118

0.05 mm
0.05 mm

Scanning resolution:
- in millimetres (e.g. 0.05mm)
- in microns (e.g. 50um)
- in dots per inch (e.g. 508dpi)

iirs

Scanner resolution (pixel size)


Minimum required resolution depends on the details in
the map and the digitising technique:

Manual on-screen map digitising: around 200-300 dpi

(Semi-)automatic digitising: at least 1/3 of the thinnest line

lines should be at least 3 pixels wide

a resolution of 300-600dpi is mostly sufficient

Photogrammetric applications: 800-2400 dpi

Hardcopy output: two times the resolution of the printer

iirs

Resolution Concept in Scanner


Suppose the Scanning resolution is:
0.05mm or 50 Microns or 508dpi (Dots Per Inch)
508 Dots are scanned in 1inch
508 Dots = 1inch
508 Dots = 2.54 cm
Hence Size of 1 Dot = 2.54 cm / 508 = 0.005 cm
= 0.005 cm = 0.05 mm
= 0.05 mm = 0.05 * 1000 Microns = 50 Microns
1micron = 10-6m = 10-4 cm = 10-3mm
Therefore 1mm = 1000 Microns

iirs

QUESTION TIME
Image

Print on

Paper of
10cm x 10cm

1000 x 1000
Pixels

1. At What DPI the image was PRINTED on the Paper?


2. What is the SIZE OF 1 DOT on the paper TELL IN MICRONs?

YOUR TIME STARTS NOW


Expect your answers within 5 minutes
iirs

ANSWER
Image
Print on
1000 x 1000
Pixels

Paper of
10cm x 10cm

Q1: At WHAT DPI the image was PRINTED on the Paper?


The output paper will contain 1000 pixels in 10cm
1cm = 100 pixels
So 1 cm = 100 DOTS
2.54cm = 2.54 * 100 = 254 DOTS = 254 DPI

Q2: WHAT IS THE SIZE OF 1 DOT in MICRON?


Size of 1 pixel/dot = 0.01cm = 0.1mm = 100 Micron

iirs

1-bit scanning
0

iirs

8-bit grey mode scanning

128 120
136 142

iirs

Scanner output
The scanner output is only a digital copy of
the source document in raster cell values

Data are NOT structured into classified


and coded objects
To obtain this, the data have to be vectorised
and further structured
iirs

Automatic vectorisation process

The conversion from raster to vector


Step 1. Skeletonising
Step 2. Feature forming
iirs

Skeletonising
Process

Removal of all pixels that


make the line wider than one pixel

iirs

Original line work

iirs

Scanned line work

iirs

Skeletonised line work


and line forming

iirs

Comparison of original and


vectorised line work

line work
Vectorised lines

Original

iirs

Vector editing

iirs

Vectorised lines
(after vector editing)

Page 98

iirs

Feature forming
Splitting lines to form line segments

and nodes
Joining line segments to form

polygons and features


Feature coding

iirs

Vectorized lines
(after vector editing and data structuring)
Highway
Main road

Node

Node

iirs

Selecting a digitising technique


Complex document,
requires
interpretation

Simple document,
some interpretation is
required

Simple document,
many lines, requires
little interpretation

Guess which type of digitizing technique


(i.e. automatic/semi-automatic/manual) will be used

iirs

Selecting a digitising technique


Complex document,
requires
interpretation

Simple document,
some interpretation is
required

Simple document,
many lines, requires
little interpretation

iirs

Some clean-up operations for vector data

Source: ITC

iirs

Merging data in a database


Multiple
adjacent data sets

Single
seamless data set

iirs

Overall Steps Involved


1. Scan the Map (take care of DPI)
2. Gereference the Scanned Image
3. Before Digitisation Do the Following
a) Create the Attributes to be associated
b) Define Snap Tolerance
c) Define Tunnel Tolerance (in case of Stream Mode)

4. Digitise only at the Middle (Zoom and Digitize)


5. Data Manipulation ( Merge / Mosaic / Cut / Project )
6. Data Analysis
7. Output Creation

iirs

Some Questions for Thought


1. How many different ways you can get input to GIS?
2. What would you do if you have to prepare a Single GIS
Layer from 2 Toposheets which are of different Scale?
3. What will be the DPI you will select for scanning a AERIAL
PHOTO? Provide your Arguments for selecting such DPI/
4. What will be the DPI you will select for scanning a
TOPOSHEET of 1:50,000 Scale? Provide your Arguments.
5. Somebody has Digitised a map for you. How will you
check that the Map given to you is without Error? OR How
will you verify the Correctness of the Digital Map given to
you?

iirs

Thanks for your attention

iirs