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DEMO OF QGIS SOFTWARE- SESSION 3

Data Creation and Editing


(Digitization, Setting digitizing environment, Adding attributes to
layer, Editing digitized layer, Checking topology errors)
Slides Adapted from Shri Kapil Oberai

www.iirs.gov.in

Prasun Kumar Gupta, IIRS


prasun@iirs.gov.in

Digitizing in QGIS

Digitizing is one of the most common tasks that a GIS


Specialist has to do.
Often a large amount of GIS time is spent in digitizing
raster data to create vector layers that you use in your
analysis.
Vector features are captured from a base map (georeferenced map, satellite or aerial image)
QGIS has powerful capabilities to digitize raster data.
In this session, we will take the geo-referenced topo-sheet
and digitize it to create a vector layers.

Digitizing in QGIS Contd

We are using topomap (part of dehradun) that is


geo-referenced and re-projected (WGS 84/ UTM 44
N Zone)
First Step will be loading georefernced map in QGIS
Raster

layers are loaded either by clicking on the Add


raster Layer icon on Side toolbar
or by selecting the Layer > Add Raster Layer menu
option

Loading Georeferenced map

Loading Georeferenced map

Creating a New Shapefile

Now create a new empty


layer where we can
digitize the features.
Click on Layer New
New Shapefile Layer

Creating a New Shapefile Contd

WGS 84/
UTM 44 N Zone

Creating a New Shapefile Contd


In section named New
attribute
you
can
specify what attribute
information you want to
collect
about
the
features
you
are
digitizing.
These will differ from
project to project, but
here we will add a
name attribute. And
click on OK.

Creating a New Shapefile Contd

Now, the name the shapefile name is to be entered. We will be


digitizing locality/place names so Locality is given

Digitizing Basics

For each feature

To digitize the geometry,

first digitize the geometry, then


enter its attributes.

left-click on the map area to create the first point of your new
feature.
For lines and polygons, keep on left-clicking for each additional
point you wish to capture.
When you have finished adding points, right-click anywhere on
the map area to confirm you have finished entering the geometry
of that feature.

The attribute window will appear, allowing you to enter the


information for the new feature

Vector layer basic editing toolbar

Heads up digitizing- locality layer

Select the Locality layer. Then click Toggle Editing on


Digitizing toolbar
or right click on the layer and choose toggle editing

Heads up digitizing- locality layer

Zoom
to
a
region
where
you can see
Hathibarkala
written in the
image. Click on
the
map
capture
the
point

Locality layer- Adding attributes info

Similarly, draw points for other


locality features in the image.
Once you are done, click on
Toggle Editing button. In the popup dialog, click on Yes to save your
edits.

Deleting/Editing/Undo/Save Features

Current Edit tools, choose roll


back edits to undo changes

To delete an point, first select the


feature using the Select Single
feature tool.
Once you have the selection set,
use the Delete Selected tool to
delete the features.
Move selected feature using

Remember
regularly

to

save

changes

Setting Digitizing Environment

Before we can edit vertices, we must set the

snapping tolerance and


search radius

Snapping tolerance
It is the distance QGIS uses to search for the closest
vertex and/or segment you are trying to connect when
you set a new vertex or move an existing vertex.
If you arent within the snap tolerance, QGIS will leave
the vertex where you release the mouse button, instead
of snapping it to an existing vertex and/or segment.

Setting Digitizing Environment Contd


Search radius
It is the distance QGIS uses to search for the closest vertex you
are trying to move when you click on the map.
If you arent within the search radius, QGIS wont find and select
any vertex for editing and it will pop up an annoying warning.
Snap tolerance and search radius are set in map units or pixels.
The advantage of choosing pixels, is that the snapping
tolerance doesnt have to be changed after zoom operations.
May find you need to experiment to get them set right. If you
specify too big of a tolerance, QGIS may snap to the wrong
vertex, especially if a large number of vertices in close
proximity.

Setting Digitizing Environment Contd

A general, project wide snapping tolerance can be defined


choosing Settings -> Options menu and selecting Digitizing Tab

A layer based snapping tolerance can be defined by choosing


Settings -> Snapping Options

Setting Digitizing Environment Contd


Topological editing

Besides layer based snapping options you can also define some topological
functionalities in the Settings->Snapping Options menu

Here you can define Enable topological editing and/or for polygon layers
you can activate the column Avoid Int. which avoids intersection of new
polygons

Digitizing Line feature


We will create railway
feature to capture railway
line
Layer New New Shapefile
Layer

Digitizing Line feature Contd

Select the Add Feature Tool and trace the railway line.

Digitizing Line feature Contd


Trace the railway line using point and click method to put vertices

Snapping
1

4
3

Snapping contd

Digitization with snapping tolerance set

Digitizing Polygon feature


We will capture Forest
Areas

Digitizing Polygon feature Contd

First Zoom to the bottom of the image to capture Asarori


RF.
Enable Editing by clicking on Toggle Editing button
Using the Add Feature Tool trace the Forest area using
point and click method to put vertices.
When you finish right click and fill the attribute value

Digitizing Polygon feature Contd

Editing- Node Tool

Selecting vertices
Adding/Deleting vertices
Moving vertices

Digitizing of adjacent polygons


Selecting Avoid intersections of new
polygons avoids overlaps in polygon mosaics.
It is for quicker digitizing of adjacent polygons.

Digitizing of adjacent polygons Contd...


1

Topological Editing

If try to move the


common boundary
without
selecting
topological editing
option
sliver polygon will
result

Topological Editing Contd

Topological Editing Contd


1

Advanced digitizing

Advanced digitizing Contd

Undo and Redo

Add Ring
allows
creating
ring
polygons
inside
an
existing area
digitize further polygons
that will occur as a hole,
so only the area between
the boundaries of the
outer and inner polygons
remains as a ring polygon

Advanced digitizing Contd

Delete Ring
Fill Ring- avoids using first add ring and then adding new feature
Add Part- creating multipolygon
Delete part
Split Features
Reshape feature
Merge selected features- merge features with common
boundaries and the same attributes
Split parts

Advanced digitizing Contd


Split Features

Attribute Data Handling

Value Map (Domains)

Attribute Data Handling

Checking Digitization errors

QGIS has the built-in topological editing feature for


creating new features without errors.
But existing data errors and user induced errors are
hard to find out.
Topology Checker Plugin helps find out such errors
through a list of rules.

Checking Digitization errors


Topological Rules that could be applied (Single/Multiple layer)

Polygon Layer

must

contain
must not have duplicates
must not have gaps
must not have invalid geometries
must not have multi-part geometries
must not overlap
must not overlap with

Line layer

end

points must be covered by


must not have dangles
must not have duplicates
must not have invalid geometries
must not have multi-part geometries
must not have pseudos

Point layer

must

be covered by, must be covered by endpoints of, must be inside, must not have
duplicates, must not have multipart-geometries

Create and validate topology rules

Vector Topology Checker


Topology Checker

Create and validate topology rules

Create and validate topology rules

THANK YOU